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Angorsky Andrey Andreevich: On the Epistemological Framework temporal Introduction
On the epistemological framework Temporal SUBMISSIONS
Modern concepts developed to explain the concept of time varies depending on the base diversity cultures on the basis of which they formed and evolved. The submission of some people, there is only what we are known as "real" and others - and they treat us - already operate such images, which are encoded in terms of "past, present and future."
If you deliberately narrow boundaries of research to specific areas of knowledge and human activities, it would be by themselves, there are about "mathematical time", "geologic time", "geographic, archaeological, literary time," "Philosophy" "physical, biological, informational, cultural, and so on. Next paints a picture of the level of approximation greater diversity. "Grammatical time" in English, for example, may be represented by "this continuation of", "future in the present or future perfect."
All of this creates a fairly clear picture of how broad and complex issue of time. Epistemological aspects of temporal representations are discussed, many hundreds of years, but modern science has not yet been able to identify its position on this issue in such a way as to meet the full range of experimental and theoretical data accumulated by scientists in this field to help further the study of natural phenomena. What are the main difficulties of the formation of the submissions? Is it in the broad dissemination and diversity of the subject? From the answer to these questions largely depends initial approach to the problem and the method of its solution.
We will assume that the study of representations of the time - it is the private aspect obschegnoseologicheskoy problem, but because it's necessary first to identify the ideas that underlie our cognitive model.
To begin with a brief stop for some of the concepts that will be used in the future. The introduction of these concepts into consideration due to the fact that a person must invent for itself some new insights, which, as a model for the relevant natural phenomena, can correlate, through our consciousness with images of these phenomena, to become the starting point for analysis of other events and to meet the insatiable human quest for knowledge through the organization of mental processes in line with the possibility to describe the manner in general any process, the property or substance.
"The ability to describe," "the opportunity to accept" - is what lies at the basis of "description" and "perception." Conversely, without the possibility of knowledge is not knowledge itself. These simple ideas are the foundations of general ability. The latter, on the assumption that there is a possibility and the possibility of a change in particular, considers the "self and the possibility of changing" - akteposiyu - as a coherent picture, supported by "inside and outside" the following ideas.
First, the "domestic" distinction (the existence of an infinite variety) is offset by the possibility of dynamic "external" unity. It "works" the law of conservation of possibilities: the possibility of concrete is a special set of specific differences is seeking to be united in the possibility of its co-existence. This desire is the beginning of all the changes occurring in the field of possibilities. " Thus, by changing the product is "original predisposition" opportunity to develop their own ( "original predisposition" is the name of the potential). In other words, changes occur due to their ability, but the very nature of these changes, the order and structure is determined by differences in the ability and desire to merge the differences in the way of overcoming the past. Secondly, the distinction, producing changes that have, first of all, the difference in levels. The highest level of distinction for the possible distinction is the possibility of actual and potential (there is some connection between the actual / potential and active / passive, we will not discuss here), "calls" the most general properties of change and development opportunities at all. We are interested in these properties in terms of their relation with the theory of cognitive and epistemological basis of the time. Next, provide only the key points that help to reveal this relationship.
To begin, note that the very notion of change in the theory of possibilities is wider than the mature understanding of the "current time". For example, changes may be fluctuating in nature. This suggests that the notion of time (hereinafter - the "time") represents only one aspect of the private view of the overall development opportunities, and thus in some way restricted in its Diversity. This conclusion, as more fully warranted further allows you to search the relatively simple approaches to the study of temporal representations and its Epistemological foundations using timeless sphere of life. The idea is that there is some common ground for epistemological analysis of virtually any form of interaction between the various parties in the development of a whole. These parties may be, for example, learn the subject and the knowable object. Another option - is "the temporal sphere of existence" and "sphere of being timeless." What is common between such different forms of interaction?
Imagine the following picture. Suppose that someone is exploring the remote object-stone. The image of the stone is formed on the retina of observer in the form of images derived from the reflection from the stone, and passing the light beam path. Along the way, the light beam interacts with the environment that created it, and penetrates the whole system up to the eye retina. Aside consideration of what is happening on, in the retina. We are interested in the principle underlying this kind of interaction between subject and observers observed the object when they are part of a unified system of communication and are regarded as some of its parts. Note that the unity of the system in this example provides a factor of a lack of voids between the object and subject of observation. This factor is called "continuity environment (it is in some way relates to the effect of conservation laws). It can be a more simple form to designate it as a "medium" or "box" (see, for example, "box features"). As to "branch" of the system? This is a factor in the lack of immediacy in their interactions: the stone, and the observer are divided among themselves, they are part of the overall system indirectly, ie through the links through a common environment. In the future, to combine two of these factors under a single name - "oposredovanie.
So, oposredovanie is a common characteristic of the interaction of various parties into a single system. Examples of such systems have already been given - this is the system in the general theory of possibility. These include a system of cognitive processes: we perceive the world indirectly.
Let us now turn to the example of the observer to see some features and properties oposredovaniya.
Is not difficult to note that oposredovanie makes some kind of distortion in the image compared to the original: the image of stone does not have all the properties of its source. At the retina is overturned and inaccurate "copy" of stone. That stone, and something else. "Something else" is well illustrated by an example from photocopies. The difference from the original can be arbitrarily small, but, in fact, a copy of the original - it is different things coexisting at a mutually determined by the world, where "one" is reflected in the "other." In the same way, for example, the stone can be captured luminous image of the observer. Generally, oposredovanie is the "average", which returns to its functions and the properties themselves very involved in the association oposredovanii functionalities, which are still subject to the other.
Property oposredovaniya, which creates prerequisites mnozheniya dynamic existence of reciprocity, is called the property drugosti (drugostyu). This is one of the key definitions for understanding the essence of such concepts as "change", "development", "unity", "difference", "cognition", "levels", etc. The property drugosti defines reciprocity possible relevance and potential in the general theory of possibility, it limits the "time" inherent potential properties and is crucial for a number of "subordinate" properties oposredovaniya: ambiguity (lack of clear boundaries oposredovaniya), mutual permeability (medium may be extended indefinitely in one another because of the lack of clear boundaries) and cumulative (or superposition).
All of the properties and the considerations relating oposredovaniya, you can, to varying degrees, and attributed to the perceptions of the time, but there are some specific features.
On the one hand, "time" is only part of the "pass-through, and spread spectrum oposredovaniya (multitsepta), on the other hand," time "- a product of the merger and the superposition of different sides of the mechanism of generation of oposredovaniya drugosti.
The first part of this assertion can be justified if only because, in addition to "time", there is understanding of the space with similar properties oposredovaniya. General theory of possibility in this case predicts the existence of an infinite number of such "time" and "space" of oposredovaniya in the broadest sense. Thus, the word "time" can be used as analog representations of some "tool of perception and exposure." In the "tool" in the example of the observers, for example, is an eye.
The second part of the approval, in the context of the times mathematical, geological, geographical, "etc., indicates a problem of knowledge as inseparable from the issue of the substance of" time ", his domestic existence. Here, the complexity of thinking about "time" is that his mediation, in varying degrees manifests itself not only in organizing all of the surrounding world, but also the internal world. An even larger obstacle is that it is helping organize our relationship with the world, our way of cognition of the world. It turns out that this path so closely linked to the "temporary" effect, that without it not only exists, but is entirely dependent on him. For once this dependence "weaken" it is necessary, respectively, to strengthen the "dependence on other parameters oposredovaniya. This is possible thanks to the law of conservation action oposredovaniya: if we reduce the degree of "temporary" oposredovaniya, then proceed to the level of greater oposredovaniya, for example, "space". This law can be illustrated by a situation where we have seen a star so young, the farther it is from us.
A conservation law oposredovaniya is an important corollary, which establishes the priority oposredovaniya higher than the priority of relativity. This investigation can be summarized as follows: the relative roles of the system depends on the parameters oposredovaniya it.
Marked laws, despite the complexity of the problem of knowledge "temporary" form, give a clear idea of the direction in which you want to move. The initial phase for such a move should be the fact of knowing that "time" for our physical and biological environment and the brain is his life, and the mediating tool of its operation in the external environment. In addition, "time" is and enviroment, and the mediating tool for the activity of our consciousness. It turns out that we are trying to understand that, along with other factors, gives us the ability to understand at all. Is this possible? General Theory possible answer in the affirmative: it does not consider learning as a process of approximation to absolute truth, but as a process of acculturation to the world possible, to the basics of life.
For many of us - because it is such we have created - "time" remains a fact that is focused on "value-vector" of our knowledge, there followed the law of conservation: if the values are shifting, "the desire of values" to be changed only its shape. "Vector value" - is a kind of focusing on our individuality certain external aspects of life. We are accustomed to one form of perception and awareness of what is called time, but this should not be an obstacle to a wider consideration of the issues as issues gnoseology and general ability in the most general terms, and representations.
Expressed his great appreciation of Alexander Petrovich Levich Institute and all the research nature of time, the Moscow State University for the publication of this article on the site IIPV MSU