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    .., ( ) Bolonkin Alexander, Femtotechnologies and Revolutionary Projects. USA, Lulu, 2011. 538 p. 16 Mb. ISBN: 978-1-105-64111-4. The author includes and reviews new methods for converting of any matter into energy, getting of super strong materials, for travel in outer space without space suit, magnetic space launchers, magnetic space towers, motionless satellites and suspended structures, comfortable permanent settlements for cities and Earth"s hazardous polar regions, control of local and global weather conditions, wireless transfer of electricity to long distance, Magnetic guns, magnetic launchers, new (magnetic, electrostatic, electronic gas) space towers, space elevators and space climbers, suppression forest fires without water, aerial gas pipelines, production of fresh water from sea water, thermonuclear reactors, along with many others. Author succinctly summarizes some of these revolutionary macro-projects, concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, technical students, and the world public. Every Chapter has three main sections: At first section the author describes the new idea in an easily comprehensible way acceptable for the general public (no equations), the second section contains the scientific proof of the innovation acceptable for technical students, engineers and scientists, and the third section contains the applications of innovation. Contents: Part A. New Technology. Part B. Projects solvable by current technology. Part C. Problems of Technical Progress.


  
   Cover

THE WORLD'S FUTURE

Femtotechnologies and Revolutionary Projects

By Alexander Bolonkin

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2011

THE WORLD'S FUTURE

Femtotechnologies and Revolutionary Projects

By Alexander Bolonkin

2011

Contents

   Abstract
Preface
   Chapters:
   Part A. New Technology.
   1. Conversion of any Matter into Energy by AB-Generator and Photon Rocket.
   2. Femtotechnology: superstrong AB-Material with Fantastic Properties and its Applications.
   3. Femtotechnology. AB-needles: Stability, Possible Production and Application.
   4.Space Wing Electro Relativistic AB-Ship.
   5. Wireless Transfer of Electricity to Long Distance.
6. AB-Blanket for Cities
   7. Live Humans in Outer Space without Space Suit.
8. Magnetic Space Launchers
   9. Low currency Railgun.
   10. Superconductivuty Hypersonic Accelerator
11. Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures and Motionless Satellites and Space Stations
   12. Explosion of Sun. AB-Criterion of Solar Detonation.
   13. Review of Space Towers
   14. Review of new ideas, innovations of non-rocket propulsion systems for Space Launch
and Flight (Part 1).
   15. Review of new ideas, innovations of non-rocket propulsion systems for Space Launch
and Flight (Part 2).
   16. Review of new ideas, innovations of non-rocket propulsion systems for Space Launch
and Flight (Part 3).
  
   Part B. Projects solvable by current technology
   1. Aerial Gas Pipelines.
   2. Production Fresh Water from Exhaust Gas.
   3. Sea Solar Distiller.
   4. High Altitude Aerial Antenna
   5. Suppression of Forest Fire without Water.
   6. Wind AB-Wall.
   7. Floating Cities.
   8. Natural Purpose of Mankind is to become a God. http://www.scribd.com/doc/26833526
9. Robot as Person. Personhood. Three Prerequisites or Laws of Robots.
   Part C. Problems of Technical Progress
   1. Science Research and Technical Progress
   Appendixes:
   1. System of Mechanical, Magnetic Electric Units.
2. Data useful for estimation and calculation of new technologies and projects.
3. References
  
  
  
  

About the Author

  

Bolonkin, Alexander Alexandrovich (1933-)

  
   Alexander A. Bolonkin was born in the former USSR. He holds doctoral degree in aviation engineering from Moscow Aviation Institute and a post-doctoral degree in aerospace engineering from Leningrad Polytechnic University. He has held the positions of senior engineer in the Antonov Aircraft Design Company and Chairman of the Reliability Department in the Clushko Rocket Design Company. He has also lectured at the Moscow Aviation Universities. Following his arrival in the United States in 1988, he lectured at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and worked as a Senior Researcher at NASA and the US Air Force Research Laboratories.
   Bolonkin is the author of more than 180 scientific articles and books and has 17 inventions to his credit. His most notable books include The Development of Soviet Rocket Engines (Delphic Ass., Inc., Washington , 1991); Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight (Elsevier, 2006); New Concepts, Ideas, Innovation in Aerospace, Technology and Human Life (NOVA, 2007); Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology (NOVA, 2008); Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization, 3-rd Edition, (Lulu, 2007; Publish America, 2010).
  

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   Abstract
  
   In recent years of the 21st Century the author of this book and other scientists as well, have instigated and described many new ideas, researches, theories, macro-projects, USA and other countries patented concepts, speculative macro-engineering ideas, projects and other general innovations in technology and environment change. These all hold the enticing promise for a true revolution in the lives of humans everywhere in the Solar System.
   Here, the author includes and reviews new methods for converting of any matter into energy, getting of super strong materials, for travel in outer space without space suit, magnetic space launchers, magnetic space towers, motionless satellites and suspended structures, comfortable permanent settlements for cities and Earth's hazardous polar regions, control of local and global weather conditions, wireless transfer of electricity to long distance, Magnetic guns, magnetic launchers, new (magnetic, electrostatic, electronic gas) space towers, space elevators and space climbers, suppression forest fires without water, aerial gas pipelines, production of fresh water from sea water, thermonuclear reactors, along with many others.
   Author succinctly summarizes some of these revolutionary macro-projects, concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, technical students, and the world public. Every Chapter has three main sections: At first section the author describes the new idea in an easily comprehensible way acceptable for the general public (no equations), the second section contains the scientific proof of the innovation acceptable for technical students, engineers and scientists, and the third section contains the applications of innovation.
   Author does seek future attention from the general public, other macro-engineers, inventors, as well as scientists of all persuasions for these presented innovations. And, naturally, he fervently hopes the popular news media, various governments and the large international aerospace and other engineering-focused corporations will, as well, increase their respective observation, R&D activity in the technologies for living and the surrounding human environment.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

Preface

  
  
   New macro-projects, concepts, ideas, methods, and innovations are explored here, but hardly developed. There remain many problems that must be researched, modeled, and tested before these summarized research ideas can be practically designed, built, and utilized--that is, fully developed and utilized.
   Most ideas in our book are described in the following way: 1) Description of current state in a given field of endeavor. A brief explanation of the idea researched, including its advantages and short comings; 2) Then methods, estimation and computations of the main system parameters are listed, and 3) A brief description of possible applications--candidate macro-projects, including estimations of the main physical parameters of such economic developmental undertakings.
   The first and third parts are in a popular form accessible to the wider reading public, the second part of this book will require some mathematical and scientific knowledge, such as may be found amongst technical school graduate students.
The book gives the main physical data and technical equations in attachments which will help researchers, engineers, dedicated students and enthusiastic readers make estimations for their own macro-projects. Also, inventors will find an extensive field of inventions and innovations revealed in our book.
   The author have published many new ideas and articles and proposed macro-projects in recent years (see: General References). This book is useful as an archive of material from the authors' own articles published during the last few years.
Every chapter is independent. Than why some figures are repited.
  
  
   Acknowledgement
  
   1. Some data in this work is garnered from Wikipedia under the Creative Commons License. 2. The author wish to acknowledge Joseph Friedlander for help in editing of this book.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

Part A. New Technology

  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

Chapter 1

Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by

AB-Generator* and Photon Rocket

Abstract

   Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass.
The AB-Generator can produce gigantic energy outputs and should be cheaper than a conventional electric station by a factor of hundreds of times. One also may be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for many vehicles.
Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second.
A technology to capture them may follow; than they may be used for the AB-Generator.
   -------------
   Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket.
* Presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2-5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.
   Introduction
   Black hole. In general relativity, a black hole is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, including light, can escape its pull. The black hole has a one-way surface, called the event horizon, into which objects can fall, but out of which nothing can come out. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits it, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect blackbody in thermodynamics.
Despite its invisible interior, a black hole can reveal its presence through interaction with other matter. A black hole can be inferred by tracking the movement of a group of stars that orbit a region in space which looks empty. Alternatively, one can see gas falling into a relatively small black hole, from a companion star. This gas spirals inward, heating up to very high temperature and emitting large amounts of radiation that can be detected from earthbound and earth-orbiting telescopes. Such observations have resulted in the general scientific consensus that, barring a breakdown in our understanding of nature, black holes do exist in our universe.
It is impossible to directly observe a black hole. However, it is possible to infer its presence by its gravitational action on the surrounding environment, particularly with microquasars and active galactic nuclei, where material falling into a nearby black hole is significantly heated and emits a large amount of X-ray radiation. This observation method allows astronomers to detect their existence. The only objects that agree with these observations and are consistent within the framework of general relativity are black holes.
A black hole has only three independent physical properties: mass, charge and angular momentum.

In astronomy black holes are classed as:
  -- Supermassive - contain hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses and are thought to exist in the center of most galaxies, including the Milky Way.
  -- Intermediate - contain thousands of solar masses.
  -- Micro (also mini black holes) - have masses much less than that of a star. At these sizes, quantum mechanics is expected to take effect. There is no known mechanism for them to form via normal processes of stellar evolution, but certain inflationary scenarios predict their production during the early stages of the evolution of the universe.
According to some theories of quantum gravity they may also be produced in the highly energetic reaction produced by cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere or even in particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider. The theory of Hawking radiation predicts that such black holes will evaporate in bright flashes of gamma radiation. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite (formerly GLAST) launched in 2008 is searching for such flashes.

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Fig 1. Artist's conception of a stellar mass black hole. Credit NASA.

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Fig.2 (left). Artist's impression of a binary system consisting of a black hole and a main sequence star. The black hole is drawing matter from the main sequence star via an accretion disk around it, and some of this matter forms a gas jet.
Fig.3
(right). Ring around a suspected black hole in galaxy NGC 4261. Date: Nov.1992. Courtesy of Space Telescope Science

   The defining feature of a black hole is the appearance of an event horizon; a boundary in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
   Since the event horizon is not a material surface but rather merely a mathematically defined demarcation boundary, nothing prevents matter or radiation from entering a black hole, only from exiting one.
For a non rotating (static) black hole, the Schwarzschild radius delimits a spherical event horizon. The Schwarzschild radius of an object is proportional to the mass. Rotating black holes have distorted, nonspherical event horizons. The description of black holes given by general relativity is known to be an approximation, and it is expected that quantum gravity effects become significant near the vicinity of the event horizon. This allows observations of matter in the vicinity of a black hole's event horizon to be used to indirectly study general relativity and proposed extensions to it.
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Fig.4. Artist's rendering showing the space-time contours around a black hole. Credit NASA.

   Though black holes themselves may not radiate energy, electromagnetic radiation and matter particles may be radiated from just outside the event horizon via Hawking radiation.
At the center of a black hole lies the singularity, where matter is crushed to infinite density, the pull of gravity is infinitely strong, and spacetime has infinite curvature. This means that a black hole's mass becomes entirely compressed into a region with zero volume. This zero-volume, infinitely dense region at the center of a black hole is called a gravitational singularity.
The singularity of a non-rotating black hole has zero length, width, and height; a rotating black hole's is smeared out to form a ring shape lying in the plane of rotation. The ring still has no thickness and hence no volume.
The photon sphere is a spherical boundary of zero thickness such that photons moving along tangents to the sphere will be trapped in a circular orbit. For non-rotating black holes, the photon sphere has a radius 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius. The orbits are dynamically unstable, hence any small perturbation (such as a particle of infalling matter) will grow over time, either setting it on an outward trajectory escaping the black hole or on an inward spiral eventually crossing the event horizon.
Rotating black holes are surrounded by a region of spacetime in which it is impossible to stand still, called the ergosphere. Objects and radiation (including light) can stay in orbit within the ergosphere without falling to the center.
Once a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing additional matter. Any black hole will continually absorb interstellar dust from its direct surroundings and omnipresent cosmic background radiation.
Much larger contributions can be obtained when a black hole merges with other stars or compact objects.
   Hawking radiation. In 1974, Stephen Hawking showed that black holes are not entirely black but emit small amounts of thermal radiation.[1]He got this result by applying quantum field theory in a static black hole background. The result of his calculations is that a black hole should emit particles in a perfect black body spectrum. This effect has become known as Hawking radiation. Since Hawking's result many others have verified the effect through various methods. If his theory of black hole radiation is correct then black holes are expected to emit a thermal spectrum of radiation, and thereby lose mass, because according to the theory of relativity mass is just highly condensed energy (E = mc2). Black holes will shrink and evaporate over time. The temperature of this spectrum (Hawking temperature) is proportional to the surface gravity of the black hole, which in turn is inversely proportional to the mass. Large black holes, therefore, emit less radiation than small black holes.
On the other hand if a black hole is very small, the radiation effects are expected to become very strong. Even a black hole that is heavy compared to a human would evaporate in an instant. A black hole the weight of a car (~10-24 m) would only take a nanosecond to evaporate, during which time it would briefly have a luminosity more than 200 times that of the sun. Lighter black holes are expected to evaporate even faster, for example a black hole of mass 1 TeV/c2 would take less than 10-88 seconds to evaporate completely. Of course, for such a small black hole quantum gravitation effects are expected to play an important role and could even - although current developments in quantum gravity do not indicate so - hypothetically make such a small black hole stable.
   Micro Black Holes. Gravitational collapse is not the only process that could create black holes. In principle, black holes could also be created in high energy collisions that create sufficient density. Since classically black holes can take any mass, one would expect micro black holes to be created in any such process no matter how low the energy. However, to date, no such events have ever been detected either directly or indirectly as a deficiency of the mass balance in particle accelerator experiments. This suggests that there must be a lower limit for the mass of black holes.
Theoretically this boundary is expected to lie around the Planck mass (~1019 GeV/c2, mp = 2.1764.10-8 kg), where quantum effects are expected to make the theory of general relativity break down completely. This would put the creation of black holes firmly out of reach of any high energy process occurring on or near the Earth. Certain developments in quantum gravity however suggest that this bound could be much lower. Some braneworld scenarios for example put the Planck mass much lower, maybe even as low as 1 TeV. This would make it possible for micro black holes to be created in the high energy collisions occurring when cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere, or possibly in the new Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These theories are however very speculative, and the creation of black holes in these processes is deemed unlikely by many specialists.
   Smallest possible black hole. To make a black hole one must concentrate mass or energy sufficiently that the escape velocity from the region in which it is concentrated exceeds the speed of light. This condition gives the Schwarzschild radius, ro = 2GM / c2, where G is Newton's constant and c is the speed of light, as the size of a black hole of mass M. On the other hand, the Compton wavelength, ? = h / Mc, where h is Planck's constant, represents a limit on the minimum size of the region in which a mass M at rest can be localized. For sufficiently small M, the Compton wavelength exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, and no black hole description exists. This smallest mass for a black hole is thus approximately the Planck mass, which is about 2 10--8 kg or 1.2 1019 GeV/c2.
Any primordial black holes of sufficiently low mass will Hawking evaporate to near the Planck mass within the lifetime of the universe. In this process, these small black holes radiate away matter. A rough picture of this is that pairs of virtual particles emerge from the vacuum near the event horizon, with one member of a pair being captured, and the other escaping the vicinity of the black hole. The net result is the black hole loses mass (due to conservation of energy). According to the formulae of black hole thermodynamics, the more the black hole loses mass the hotter it becomes, and the faster it evaporates, until it approaches the Planck mass. At this stage a black hole would have a Hawking temperature of TP / 8? (5.61032 K), which means an emitted Hawking particle would have an energy comparable to the mass of the black hole. Thus a thermodynamic description breaks down. Such a mini-black hole would also have an entropy of only 4? nats, approximately the minimum possible value.
At this point then, the object can no longer be described as a classical black hole, and Hawking's calculations also break down. Conjectures for the final fate of the black hole include total evaporation and production of a Planck mass-sized black hole remnant. If intuitions about quantum black holes are correct, then close to the Planck mass the number of possible quantum states of the black hole is expected to become so few and so quantised that its interactions are likely to be quenched out. It is possible that such Planck-mass black holes, no longer able either to absorb energy gravitationally like a classical black hole because of the quantised gaps between their allowed energy levels, nor to emit Hawking particles for the same reason, may in effect be stable objects. They would in effect be WIMPs, weakly interacting massive particles; this could explain dark matter.
   Creation of micro black holes.Production of a black hole requires concentration of mass or energy within the corresponding Schwarzschild radius. In familiar three-dimensional gravity, the minimum such energy is 1019 GeV, which would have to be condensed into a region of approximate size 10-33 cm. This is far beyond the limits of any current technology; the Large hadron collider (LHC) has a design energy of 14 TeV. This is also beyond the range of known collisions of cosmic rays with Earth's atmosphere, which reach center of mass energies in the range of hundreds of TeV. It is estimated that to collide two particles to within a distance of a Planck length with currently achievable magnetic field strengths would require a ring accelerator about 1000 light years in diameter to keep the particles on track.
Some extensions of present physics posit the existence of extra dimensions of space. In higher-dimensional spacetime, the strength of gravity increases more rapidly with decreasing distance than in three dimensions. With certain special configurations of the extra dimensions, this effect can lower the Planck scale to the TeV range. Examples of such extensions include large extra dimensions, special cases of the Randall-Sundrum model, and String theory configurations. In such scenarios, black hole production could possibly be an important and observable effect at the LHC.
   Virtual particles. In physics, a virtual particle is a particle that exists for a limited time and space, introducing uncertainty in their energy and momentum due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
Vacuum energy can also be thought of in terms of virtual particles (also known as vacuum fluctuations) which are created and destroyed out of the vacuum. These particles are always created out of the vacuum in particle-antiparticle pairs, which shortly annihilate each other and disappear. However, these particles and antiparticles may interact with others before disappearing.
The net energy of the Universe remains zero so long as the particle pairs annihilate each other within Planck time.
Virtual particles are also excitations of the underlying fields, but are detectable only as forces.
The creation of these virtual particles near the event horizon of a black hole has been hypothesized by physicist Stephen Hawking to be a mechanism for the eventual "evaporation" of black holes.
Since these particles do not have a permanent existence, they are called virtual particles or vacuum fluctuations of vacuum energy.
An important example of the "presence" of virtual particles in a vacuum is the Casimir effect. Here, the explanation of the effect requires that the total energy of all of the virtual particles in a vacuum can be added together. Thus, although the virtual particles themselves are not directly observable in the laboratory, they do leave an observable effect: their zero-point energy results in forces acting on suitably arranged metal plates or dielectrics.
Thus, virtual particles are often popularly described as coming in pairs, a particle and antiparticle, which can be of any kind.
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Fig.5. Hawking radiation. a. Virtual particles at even horizon.
b. Virtual particles out even horizon (in conventional space).
   The evaporation of a black hole is a process dominated by photons, which are their own antiparticles and are uncharged.
The uncertainty principle in the form 0x01 graphic
implies that in the vacuum one or more particles with energy ?E above the vacuum may be created for a short time ?t. These virtual particles are included in the definition of the vacuum.
   Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space even when devoid of matter (known as free space). The vacuum energy is deduced from the concept of virtual particles, which are themselves derived from the energy-time uncertainty principle. Its effects can be observed in various phenomena (such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect, the van der Waals bonds, or the Lamb shift), and it is thought to have consequences for the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales.

AB-Generator of Nuclear Energy and some Innovations

  
   Simplified explanation of MBH radiation and work of AB-Generator (Fig.5). As known, the vacuum continuously produces, virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, photons and anti-photons. In conventional space they exist only for a very short time, then annihilate and return back to nothingness. The MBH event horizon, having very strong super-gravity, allows separation of the particles and anti particles, in particular, photons and anti-photons. Part of the anti-photons move into the MBH and annihilate with photons decreasing the mass of the MBH and return back a borrow energy to vacuum. The free photons leave from the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. That way the MBH converts any conventional matter to Hawking radiation which may be converted to heat or electric energy by the AB- Generator. This AB- Generator utilizes the produced Hawking radiation and injects the matter into the MBH while maintaining the MBH in stable suspended state.
Note: The photon does NOT have rest mass. Therefore a photon can leave the MBH's neighborhood (if it is located beyond the event horizon). All other particles having a rest mass and speed less than light speed cannot leave the Black Hole. They cannot achieve light speed because their mass at light speed equals infinity and requests infinite energy for its' escape--an impossibility.

Description of AB- Generator. The offered nuclear energy AB- Generator is shown in fig. 6. That includes the Micro Black Hole (MBH) 1 suspended within a spherical radiation reflector and heater 5. The MBH is supported (and controlled) at the center of sphere by a fuel (plasma, proton, electron, matter) gun 7. This AB- Generator also contains the 9 - heat engine (for example, gas, vapor turbine), 10 - electric generator, 11 - coolant (heat transfer agent), an outer electric line 12, internal electric generator (5 as antenna) with customer 14.
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   Fig.6. Offered nuclear-vacuum energy AB- Generator. Notations: 1- Micro Black Hole (MBH), 2 - event horizon (Schwarzschild radius), 3 - photon sphere, 4 - black hole radiation, 5 - radiation reflector, antenna and heater (cover sphere), 6 - back (reflected) radiation from radiation reflector 5, 7 - fuel (plasma, protons, electrons, ions, matter) gun (focusing accelerator), 8 - matter injected to MBH (fuel for Micro Black hole), 9 - heat engine (for example, gas, vapor turbine), 10 - electric generator connected to heat engine 9, 11 - coolant (heat transfer agent to the heat machine 9), 12 - electric line, 13 - internal vacuum, 14 - customer of electricity from antenna 5, 15 - singularity.
  
   Work. The generator works the following way. MBH, by selective directional input of matter, is levitated in captivity and produces radiation energy 4. That radiation heats the spherical reflector-heater 5. The coolant (heat transfer agent) 11 delivers the heat to a heat machine 9 (for example, gas, vapor turbine). The heat machine rotates an electric generator 10 that produces the electricity to the outer electric line 12. Part of MBH radiation may accept by sphere 5 (as antenna) in form of electricity.
The control fuel guns inject the matter into MBH and do not allow bursting of the MBH. This action also supports the MBH in isolation, suspended from dangerous contact with conventional matter. They also control the MBH size and the energy output.
Any matter may be used as the fuel, for example, accelerated plasma, ions, protons, electrons, micro particles, etc. The MBH may be charged and rotated. In this case the MBH may has an additional suspension by control charges located at the ends of fuel guns or (in case of the rotating charged MBH) may have an additional suspension by the control electric magnets located on the ends of fuel guns or at points along the reflector-heater sphere.
   Innovations, features, advantages and same research results

Some problems and solutions offered by the author include the following:
   1) A practical (the MBH being obtained and levitated, details of which are beyond the scope of this paper) method and installation for converting any conventional matter to energy in accordance with Einstein's equation E = mc2.
2) MBHs may produce gigantic energy and this energy is in the form of dangerous gamma radiation. The author shows how this dangerous gamma radiation Doppler shifts when it moves
against the MBH gravity and converts to safely tapped short radio waves.
3) The MBH of marginal mass has a tendency to explode (through quantum evaporation, very quickly radiating its mass in energy). The AB- Generator automatically injects metered amounts of matter into the MBH and keeps the MGH in a stable state or grows the MBH to a needed size, or decreases that size, or temporarily turns off the AB- Generator (decreases the MBH to a Planck Black Hole).
4) Author shows the radiation flux exposure of AB- Generator (as result of MBH exposure) is not dangerous because the generator cover sphere has a vacuum, and the MBH gravity gradient decreases the radiation energy.
5) The MBH may be supported in a levitated (non-contact) state by generator fuel injectors.

Theory of AB- Generator

  
   Below there are main equations for computation the conventional black hole (BH) and AB-Generator.

General theory of Black Hole.
1. Power produced by BH is
0x01 graphic
, W, (1)
   where 0x01 graphic
is reduced Planck constant, 0x01 graphic
- light speed, G =
6.6743.10-11 m3/kg.s2 is gravitation constant, M - mass of BH, kg.
   2. Temperature of black body corresponding to this radiation is
   0x01 graphic
, K , (2)
where kb = 1.38.10-23 J/k is Boltzmann constant.
   3. Energy Ep [J] and frequency ?o of photon at event horizon are
   0x01 graphic
. (3)
where c = 3.108 m/s is light speed, ?o is wavelength of photon at even radius, m. h is Planck constant.
   4. Radius of BH event horizon (Schwarzschild radius) is
   0x01 graphic
, m, (4)
   5. Relative density (ratio of mass M to volume V of BH) is
   0x01 graphic
, kg/m3. (5)
6. Maximal charge of BH is
   0x01 graphic
, C, (6)
where e = -1.6.10-19 is charge of electron, C.
      -- Life time of BH is
   0x01 graphic
2.527.10-8 M 3 , s . (7)
   8. Gravitation around BH (r is distance from center) and on event horizon
0x01 graphic
, m s-2 . (8)


Developed Theory of AB-Generator

  
Below are research and the theory developed by author for estimation and computation of facets of the AB- Generator.

9. Loss of energy of Hawking photon in BH gravitational field. It is known the theory of a redshift allows estimating the frequency of photon in central gravitational field when it moves TO the gravity center. In this case the photon increases its frequency because photon is accelerated the gravitational field (wavelength decreases). But in our case the photon moves FROM the gravitational center, the gravitational field brakes it and the photon loses its energy. That means its frequency decreases and the wavelength increases. Our photon gets double energy because the black hole annihilates two photons (photon and anti-photon). That way the equation for photon frequency at distance r > ro from center we can write in form
   0x01 graphic
, (9)
   Where ?? = ? - ?o is difference of the gravity potential. The gravity potential is
0x01 graphic
. (10)
   Let us substitute (10) in (9), we get
0x01 graphic
. (11)
It is known, the energy and mass of photon is
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, (12)
The energy of photon linear depends from its frequency. Reminder: The photon does not have a rest mass.
   The relative loss of the photon radiation energy ? at distance r from BH and the power Pr of Hawking radiation at radius r from the BH center is
0x01 graphic
. (13)
The ro is very small and ? is also very small and ? << ?o.
   The result of an energy loss by Hawking photon in the BH gravitational field is very important for AB-Generator. The energy of Hawking radiation is very big; we very need to decrease it in many orders. The initial Hawking photon is gamma radiation that is dangerous for people and matter. In r distance the gamma radiation may be converted in the conventional light or radio radiation, which are not dangerous and may be reflected, focused or a straightforward way converted into electricity by antenna.
10. Reflection Hawking radiation back to MBH. For further decreasing the MBH produced energy the part of this energy may be reflected to back in MBH. A conventional mirror may reflect up 0.9 0.99 of radiation (?r = 0.01 0.1, ?r is a loss of energy in reflecting), the multi layers mirror can reflect up 0.9999 of the monochromatic light radiation (?r = 10-3 10-5), and AB-mirror from cubic corner cells offered by author in [2], p. 226, fig.12.1g , p. 376 allows to reflect non-monochromatic light radiation with efficiency up ?r = 10-13 strong back to source. In the last case, the loss of reflected energy is ([2] p.377)
   0x01 graphic
(14)
where l is size of cube corner cell, m; m is number of radiation waves in one sell; ? is wavelength, m; a is characteristic of sell material (see [2], fig.A3.3). Minimal value a = 10-2 for glass and a = 10-4 for KCl crystal.
The reflection of radiation to back in MBH is may be important for MBH stabilization, MBH storage and MBH `switch off'.
11. Useful energy of AB- Generator. The useful energy Pu [J] is taken from AB- Generator is
   0x01 graphic
. (15)
   12. Fuel consumption is
   0x01 graphic
, kg. (16)
The fuel consumption is very small. AB-Generator is the single known method in the World now which allows full converting reasonably practical conversion of (any!) matter into energy according the Einsteinian equation E = mc2.
13. Specific pressure on AB-Generator cover sphere p [N/m2] and on the surface of MBH po is
   0x01 graphic
, (17)
   where k = 1 if the cover sphere absorbs the radiation and k - 2 if the cover sphere high reflects
the radiation, S is the internal area of cover sphere, m2; S0 is surface of event horizon sphere, m2; po is
specific pressure of Hawking radiation on the event horizon surface. Note, the pressure p on cover
sphere is small (see Project), but pressure po on event horizon surface is very high.
14. Mass particles produced on event surface. On event horizon surface may be also produced the mass particles with speed V < c. Let us take the best case (for leaving the BH) when their speed is radially vertical. They cannot leave the BH because their speed V is less than light speed c. The maximal radius of lifting rm [m] is
   0x01 graphic
, (18)
where g is gravitational acceleration of BH, m/s2; t is time, sec.; ro is BH radius, m; V0 is particle
   speed on event surface, m/s2. If the rm is less than radius of the cover sphere, the mass particles return
   to BH and do not influence the heat flow from BH to cover sphere. That is in the majority of cases.
   15. Explosion of MBH. The MBH explosion produces the radiation energy
   0x01 graphic
. (19)
   MBH has a small mass. The explosion of MBH having M = 10-5 kg produces 91011 J. That is energy of about 10 tons of good conventional explosive (107 J/kg). But there is a vacuum into the cover sphere and this energy is presented in radiation form. But in reality only very small part of explosion energy reaches the cover sphere, because the very strong MBH gravitation field brakes the photons and any mass particles. Find the energy which reaches the cover sphere via:
0x01 graphic
. (20)
   The specific exposure radiation pressure of MBH pressure pe [N/m2] on the cover sphere of radius r < ro may be computed by the way:
   0x01 graphic
, (21)
where V=3/4 ?r3 is volume of the cover sphere.
   That way the exposure radiation pressure on sphere has very small value and presses very short time. Conventional gas balloon keeps pressure up 107 N/m2 (100 atm). However, the heat impact may be high and AB- Generator design may have the reflectivity cover and automatically open windows for radiation.
Your attention is requested toward the next important result following from equations (20)-(21). Many astronomers try to find (detect) the MBH by a MBH exposure radiation. But this radiation is small, may be detected but for a short distance, does not have a specific frequency and has a variably long wavelength. This may be why during more than 30 years nobody has successfully observed MBH events in Earth environment though the theoretical estimation predicts about 100 of MBH events annually. Observers take note!
   16. Supporting the MBH in suspended (levitated) state. The fuel injector can support the MBH in suspended state (no contact the MBH with any material surface).
The maximal suspended force equals
0x01 graphic
, (22)
where q is fuel consumption, kg; Vf is a fuel speed, m/s. The fuel (plasma) speed 0.01c is
   conventionally enough for supporting the MBH in suspended state.
   17. AB-Generator as electric generator. When the Hawking radiation reaches the cover as radio microwaves they may be straightforwardly converted to electricity because they create a different voltage between different isolated parts of the cover sphere as in an antenna. Maximal voltage which can produces the radiation wave is
0x01 graphic
(23)
where w is density of radiation energy, J/m3; E is electric intensity, V/m; H is magnetic intensity, T; ?o = 8.8510-12 F/m is the coefficient of the electric permeability; ?o = 4?10-7 N/A2 is the coefficient of the magnetic permeability; ? = ? =1 for vacuum.
Let us take moment when H = 0, then
0x01 graphic
(24)
where E is electric intensity, V/m; U is voltage of AB-generator, V; b is relative size of antenna, D is diameter of the cover sphere if the cover sphere is used as a full antenna, m; Pe is power of the electric station, W.
As you see about ?/4 of total energy produced by AB-Generator we can receive in the form of electricity and (1-?/4) reflects back to MBH; we may tap heat energy which convert to any form of energy by conventional (heat engine) methods. If we reflect the most part of the heat energy back into the MBH, we can have only electricity and do not have heat flux.
If we will use the super strong and super high temperature material AB-material offered in [3] the conversion coefficient of heat machine may be very high.
   18. Critical mass of MBH located in matter environment. Many people are afraid the MBH experiments because BH can absorb the Earth. Let us find the critical mass of MBH which can begin uncontrollably to grow into the Earth environment. That will happen when BH begins to have more mass than mass of Hawking radiation. Below is the equation for the critical mass of initial BH. The educated reader will understand the equations below without detailed explanations.
   0x01 graphic
(25)
where V is speed of environment matter absorbed by MBH, m/s; g is gravity acceleration of MBH, m/s; r is distance environment matter to MBH center, m; t is time, sec; 0x01 graphic
is mass loss by MBH, kg; 0x01 graphic
is mass taken from Earth environment by MBH, kg; ? is density of Earth environment, kg/m3; Mc is critical mass of MBH when one begin uncontrollable grows, kg; t is time, sec.
   Let us to equate the mass 0x01 graphic
radiated by MBH to mass0x01 graphic
absorbed by MBH from Earth environment, we obtain the critical mass Mc of MBH for any environment:
0x01 graphic
, (26)
   If MBH having mass M = 107 kg (10 thousands tons) is put in water (? = 1000 kg/m3), this MBH can begin uncontrollable runaway growth and in short time (~74 sec) can consume the Earth into a black hole having diameter ~ 9 mm. If this MBH is located in the sea level atmosphere (? = 1.29 kg/m3), the initial MBH must has critical mass M = 108 kg (100 thousand tons). The critical radius of MBH is very small. In the first case (M = 107 kg) ro = 1.48 10-20 m, in the second case (M = 108 kg) ro = 1.48 10-19 m. Our MBH into AB-Generator is not dangerous for Earth because it is located in vacuum and has mass thousands to millions times less than the critical mass.
   However, in a moment of extreme speculation, if far future artificial intelligence (or super-small reasoning) beings will be created from nuclear matter [3] they can convert the Earth into a black hole to attempt to access quick travel to other stars (Solar systems), past and future Universes and even possibly past and future times.
  
19. General note. We got our equations in assumption ?/?o = r/ro. If ?/?o = (r/ro )0.5 or other relation, the all above equations may be easy modified.
  

AB-Generator as Photon Rocket

  
   The offered AB- Generator may be used as the most efficient photon propulsion system (photon rocket). The photon rocket is the dream of all astronauts and space engineers, a unique vehicle) which would make practical interstellar travel. But a functioning photon rocket would require gigantic energy. The AB- Generator can convert any matter in energy (radiation) and gives the maximum theoretical efficiency.
The some possible photon propulsion system used the AB -Generator is shown in Fig.7. In simplest version (a) the cover of AB generator has window 3, the radiation goes out through window and produces the thrust. More complex version (c) has the parabolic reflector, which sends all radiation in one direction and increases the efficiency. If an insert in the AB- Generator covers the lens 6 which will focuses the radiation in a given direction, at the given point the temperature will be a billions degree (see Equation (2)) and AB- Generator may be used as a photon weapon.
The maximal thrust T of the photon engine having AB- Generator may be computed (estimated) by equation:
   0x01 graphic
, N, (26)
For example, the AB-generator, which spends only 1 gram of matter per second, will produce a thrust 3105 N or 30 tons.
0x01 graphic

Fig.7. AB- Generator as Photon Rocket and Radiation (Photon) Weapon. (a) AB- Generator as a Simplest Photon Rocket; (b) AB- Generator as focused Radiation (photon, light or laser) weapon; (c) Photon Rocket with Micro-Black Hole of AB-Generator. Notations: 1 - control MBH; 2 - spherical cover of AB-Generator; 3 - window in spherical cover; 4 - radiation of BH; 5 - thrust; 6 - lens in window of cover; 7 - aim; 8 - focused radiation; 9 - parabolic reflector.

Project of AB-Generator

  
   Let us to estimate the possible energy production of an AB-Generator. That is not optimal, that is example of computation and possible parameters. Let us take the MBH mass M = 10-5 kg and radius of the cover sphere r = 5m. No reflection. Using the equations (1)-(24) we receive:
0x01 graphic
(27)
Remain the main notations in equations (27): Pr = Pu = 1.051010 W is the useful energy (?/4 of this energy may be taken as electric energy by cover antenna, the rest is taken as heat); ? = 80 m is wavelength of radiation at cover sphere (that is not dangerous for people); 0x01 graphic
= 1.1710-7 kg/s is fuel consumption; ro = 1.4810-32 m is radius of MBH; pe = 1.2810-23 N/m2 is explosion pressure of MBH.
Look your attention - the explode pressure is very small. That is less in billions of time then radiation pressure on the cover surface p = 0.111 N/m2. That is no wonder because BH takes back the energy with that spent for acceleration the matter in eating the matter. No dangerous from explosion of MBH.
   Heat transfer and internal electric power are
0x01 graphic
(28)
where q is specific heat transfer through the cover sphere, S is internal surface of the cover sphere, m2; ? is thickness of the cover sphere wall, m; ?h is heat transfer coefficient for steel; ?T is difference temperature between internal and external walls of the cover sphere; E is electric intensity from radiation on cover sphere surface, V/m; U is maximal electric voltage, V; Pe is electric power, W.
We get the power heat and electric output of a AB-Generator as similar to a very large complex of present day Earth's electric power stations (Pr = 1010 W, ten billion of watts). The AB-Generator is cheaper by a hundred times than a conventional electric station, especially since, we may reflect a heat energy back to the MBH and not built a heat engine with all the problems of conventional power conversion equipment (using only electricity from spherical cover as antenna).
We hope the Large Hadron Collider at CERN can get the initial MBH needed for AB-Generator. The other way to obtain one is to find the Planck MBH (remaining from the time of the Big Bang and former MBH) and grow them to target MBH size.
  
   Results
  
   1. Author has offered the method and installation for converting any conventional matter to energy
   according the Einstein's equation E = mc2, where m is mass of matter, kg; c =3.108 is light
   speed, m/s.
2. The Micro Black Hole (MBH) is offered for this conversion.
   3. Also is offered the control fuel guns and radiation reflector for explosion prevention of MBH.
   4. Also is offered the control fuel guns and radiation reflector for the MBH control.
5. Also is offered the control fuel guns and radiation reflector for non-contact suspension (levitation)
of the MBH.
6. For non contact levitation of MBH the author also offers:
a) Controlled charging of MBH and of ends of the fuel guns.
b) Control charging of rotating MBH and control of electric magnets located on the ends of the fuel
guns or out of the reflector-heater sphere.
7. The author researches show the very important fact: A strong gamma radiation produced
by Hawking radiation loses energy after passing through the very strong gravitational MBH
field. The MBH radiation can reach the reflector-heater as the light or short-wave radio radiation.
That is very important for safety of the operating crew of the AB- Generator.
8. The author researches show: The matter particles produced by the MBH cannot escape from MBH
and can not influence the Hawking radiation.
9. The author researches show another very important fact: The MBH explosion (hundreds and
   thousands of TNT tons) in radiation form produces a small pressure on the reflector-heater (cover
   sphere) and does not destroys the AB-generator (in a correct design of AB-generator!). That is
very important for safety of the operating crew of the AB-generator.
10. The author researches show another very important fact: the MBH cannot capture by oneself
the surrounding matter and cannot automatically grow to consume the planet.
11. As the initial MBH can be used the Planck's (quantum) MBH which may be everywhere.
The offered fuel gun may to grow them (or decrease them) to needed size or the initial MBH may
be used the MBH produce Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Some scientists assume LHC
will produce one MBH every second (86,400 MBH in day). The cosmic radiation also produces
about 100 MBH every year.
12. The spherical dome of MBH may convert part of the radiation energy to electricity.
   13. A correct design of MBH generator does not produce the radioactive waste of environment.
   14. The attempts of many astronomers find (detect) the MBH by a MBH exposure radiation will not be successful without knowing the following: The MBH radiation is small, may be detected only over a short distance, does not have specific frequency and has a variable long wavelength.
   Discussing
  
We got our equations in assumption ?/?o = r/ro. If ?/?o = (r/ro )0.5 or other relation, the all above equations may be easy modified.
The Hawking article was published 34 years ago (1974)[1]. After this time the hundreds of scientific works based in Hawking work appears. No facts are known which creates doubts in the possibility of Hawking radiation but it is not proven either. The Hawking radiation may not exist. The Large Hadron Collider has the main purpose to create the MBHs and detect the Hawking radiation.
   Conclusion
   The AB-Generator could create a revolution in many industries (electricity, car, ship, transportation, etc.). That allows designing photon rockets and flight to other star systems. The maximum possible efficiency is obtained and a full solution possible for the energy problem of humanity. These overwhelming prospects urge us to research and develop this achievement of science [1]-[5].
   References:

(The reader may find some of related articles at the author's web page http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm; http://arxiv.org , http://www.scribd.com search "Bolonkin"; http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin"; and in the author's books: "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pages; "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2008, 502 pages and "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA 2009, 536 pages).

   1. Hawking, S.W. (1974), "Black hole explosions?", Nature 248: 30-31, doi:10.1038/248030a0,
   http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v248/n5443/abs/248030a0.html.
2. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
   http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm , http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 .
   3. Bolonkin A.A., Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator. American Journal of Enginering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.683-693. [on line] http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas24683-693.pdf , http://www.scribd.com/doc/24048466 .
   4. Bolonkin A.A., Femtotechnology. Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties, American Journal of Enginering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. [On line]: http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas22501-514.pdf, or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24046679 .
   5. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative
Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
  

Possible form of photon rocket

0x01 graphic

  
  
   0x01 graphic
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Chapter 2

Femtotechnology: the Strongest AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties
and their Applications in Aerospace

Abstract

   At present the term `nanotechnology' is well known - in its' ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter, and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter.
   But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows this new `AB-Matter' has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency, zero friction, etc.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armour, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux, etc.)
   People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought - nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts, metamaterials, etc) and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature!) and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times--surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them.
   Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
   Key words: femtotechnology, nuclear matter, artificial AB-Matter, superstrength matter, superthermal resistance, invisible matter, super-protection from nuclear explosion and radiation.
  

Introduction

  
   Brief information concerning the atomic nucleus.
Atoms are the smallest (size is about some 10-8 m) neutral particles into which matter can be divided by chemical reactions. An atom consists of a small, heavy nucleus surrounded by a relatively large, light cloud of electrons. Each type of atom corresponds to a specific chemical element. To date, 117 elements have been discovered (atomic numbers 1-116 and 118), and the first 111 have received official names. The well-known periodic table provides an overview. Atoms consist of protons and neutrons within the nucleus. Within these particles, there are smaller particles still which are then made up of even smaller particles still.
Molecules are the smallest particles into which a non-elemental substance can be divided while maintaining the physical properties of the substance. Each type of molecule corresponds to a specific chemical compound. Molecules are a composite of two or more atoms.
  

0x01 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig.1. (Left) Hydrogen atom contains one proton and one electron.
(Right) Helium atom contains two protons, two neutrons and two electron.

  
   Atoms contain small (size is about some 10-15 m) nuclei and electrons orbit around these nuclei. The nuclei of most atoms consist of protons and neutrons, which are therefore collectively referred to as nucleons. The number of protons in a nucleus is the atomic number and defines the type of element the atom forms. The number of neutrons determines the isotope of an element. For example, the carbon-12 isotope has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, while the carbon-14 isotope has 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

0x01 graphic

Fig.2. More complex atom which contains many protons, neitrons and electrons.

  
While bound neutrons in stable nuclei are stable, free neutrons are unstable; they undergo beta decay with a lifetime of just under 15 minutes. Free neutrons are produced in nuclear fission and fusion. Dedicated neutron sources like research reactors and spallation sources produce free neutrons for the use in irradiation and in neutron scattering experiments.
Outside the nucleus, free neutrons are unstable and have a mean lifetime of 885.70.8 s, decaying by emission of a negative electron and antineutrino to become a proton:
n0 ? p+ + e-- + ?e .
This decay mode, known as beta decay, can also transform the character of neutrons within unstable nuclei.
Bound inside a nucleus, protons can also transform via inverse beta decay into neutrons. In this case, the transformation occurs by emission of a positron (antielectron) and a neutrino (instead of an antineutrino):
p+ ? n0 + e+ + ?e .
The transformation of a proton to a neutron inside of a nucleus is also possible through electron capture:
p+ + e-- ? n0 + ?e .

0x01 graphic

Fig.3. Molecule contains some atoms connected by its electrons.

   Positron capture by neutrons in nuclei that contain an excess of neutrons is also possible, but is hindered because positrons are repelled by the nucleus, and quickly annihilate when they encounter negative electrons.
When bound inside of a nucleus, the instability of a single neutron to beta decay is balanced against the instability that would be acquired by the nucleus as a whole if an additional proton were to participate in repulsive interactions with the other protons that are already present in the nucleus. As such, although free neutrons are unstable, bound neutrons are not necessarily so. The same reasoning explains why protons, which are stable in empty space, may transform into neutrons when bound inside of a nucleus.
A thermal neutron is a free neutron that is Boltzmann distributed with kT = 0.024 eV (4.010-21 J) at room temperature. This gives characteristic (not average, or median) speed of 2.2 km/s.
Four forces active between particles: strong interaction, weak interacting, charge force (Coulomb force) and gravitation force. The strong interaction is the most strong force in short nuclei distance, the gravitation is very small into atom.
Beta decay and electron capture are types of radioactive decay and are both governed by the weak interaction.
Basic properties of the nuclear force.
The nuclear force is only felt among hadrons. In particle physics, a hadron is a bound state of quarks (particles into nucleous). Hadrons are held together by the strong force, similarly to how atoms are held together by the electromagnetic force. There are two subsets of hadrons: baryons and mesons; the most well known baryons are protons and neutrons.
   At much smaller separations between nucleons the force is very powerfully repulsive, which keeps the nucleons at a certain average separation. Beyond about 1.7 femtometer (fm) separation, the force drops to negligibly small values.
At short distances, the nuclear force is stronger than the Coulomb force; it can overcome the Coulomb repulsion of protons inside the nucleus. However, the Coulomb force between protons has a much larger range and becomes the only significant force between protons when their separation exceeds about 2.5 fm.
The nuclear force is nearly independent of whether the nucleons are neutrons or protons. This property is called charge independence. It depends on whether the spins of the nucleons are parallel or antiparallel, and has a noncentral or tensor component. This part of the force does not conserve orbital angular momentum, which is a constant of motion under central forces.

0x01 graphic

Fig.4. Atom and nucleus structure. Proton and neutron contain quarks.

   The nuclear force (or nucleon-nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between two or more nucleons. It is responsible for binding of protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei. To a large extent, this force can be understood in terms of the exchange of virtual light mesons, such as the pions. Sometimes the nuclear force is called the residual strong force, in contrast to the strong interactions which are now understood to arise from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This phrasing arose during the 1970s when QCD was being established. Before that time, the strong nuclear force referred to the inter-nucleon potential. After the verification of the quark model, strong interaction has come to mean QCD.

0x01 graphic

Fig.5. Interaction between fundamental particles.
   A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter.
Elementary particles are particles with no measurable internal structure; that is, they are not composed of other particles. They are the fundamental objects of quantum field theory. Many families and sub-families of elementary particles exist. Elementary particles are classified according to their spin. Fermions have half-integer spin while bosons have integer spin. All the particles of the Standard Model have been observed, with the exception of the Higgs boson.
Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks. A proton contains two up quarks and one down quark, while a neutron consists of one up quark and two down quarks; the quarks are held together in the nucleus by gluons. There are six different types of quark in all ('up', 'down', 'bottom', 'top', 'strange', and 'charm'), as well as other particles including photons and neutrinos which are produced copiously in the sun. Most of the particles that have been discovered are encountered in cosmic rays interacting with matter and are produced by scattering processes in particle accelerators. There are dozens of known subatomic particles.

0x01 graphic

Fig.6. Size and scale of nucleus particles.
   Degenerate matter.
Degenerate matter is matter which has such very high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure rises from the Pauli exclusion principle. The pressure maintained by a body of degenerate matter is called the degeneracy pressure, and arises because the Pauli principle forbids the constituent particles to occupy identical quantum states. Any attempt to force them close enough together that they are not clearly separated by position must place them in different energy levels. Therefore, reducing the volume requires forcing many of the particles into higher-energy quantum states. This requires additional compression force, and is manifest as a resisting pressure.
   Imagine that there is a plasma, and it is cooled and compressed repeatedly. Eventually, we will not be able to compress the plasma any further, because the Exclusion Principle states that two particles cannot be in the exact same place at the exact same time. When in this state, since there is no extra space for any particles, we can also say that a particle's location is extremely defined. Therefore, since (according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) 0x01 graphic
where ?p is the uncertainty in the particle's momentum and ?x is the uncertainty in position, then we must say that their momentum is extremely uncertain since the molecules are located in a very confined space. Therefore, even though the plasma is cold, the molecules must be moving very fast on average. This leads to the conclusion that if you want to compress an object into a very small space, you must use tremendous force to control its particles' momentum.
Unlike a classical ideal gas, whose pressure is proportional to its temperature (PV = NkT, where P is pressure, V is the volume, N is the number of particles (typically atoms or molecules), k is Boltzmann's constant, and T is temperature), the pressure exerted by degenerate matter depends only weakly on its temperature. In particular, the pressure remains nonzero even at absolute zero temperature. At relatively low densities, the pressure of a fully degenerate gas is given by
P = Kn5/3, where K depends on the properties of the particles making up the gas. At very high densities, where most of the particles are forced into quantum states with relativistic energies, the pressure is given by P = K'n4 / 3, where K' again depends on the properties of the particles making up the gas.
Degenerate matter still has normal thermal pressure, but at high densities the degeneracy pressure dominates. Thus, increasing the temperature of degenerate matter has a minor effect on total pressure until the temperature rises so high that thermal pressure again dominates total pressure.
   Exotic examples of degenerate matter include neutronium, strange matter, metallic hydrogen and white dwarf matter. Degeneracy pressure contributes to the pressure of conventional solids, but these are not usually considered to be degenerate matter as a significant contribution to their pressure is provided by the interplay between the electrical repulsion of atomic nuclei and the screening of nuclei from each other by electrons allocated among the quantum states determined by the nuclear electrical potentials. In metals it is useful to treat the conduction electrons alone as a degenerate, free electron gas while the majority of the electrons are regarded as occupying bound quantum states. This contrasts with the case of the degenerate matter that forms the body of a white dwarf where all the electrons would be treated as occupying free particle momentum states.
   Pauli principle
The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. It states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. A more rigorous statement of this principle is that, for two identical fermions, the total wave function is anti-symmetric. For electrons in a single atom, it states that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers, that is, if n, l, and ml are the same, ms must be different such that the electrons have opposite spins.
In relativistic quantum field theory, the Pauli principle follows from applying a rotation operator in imaginary time to particles of half-integer spin. It does not follow from any spin relation in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most important principles in physics, mainly because the three types of particles from which ordinary matter is made--electrons, protons, and neutrons--are all subject to it; consequently, all material particles exhibit space-occupying behavior. The Pauli exclusion principle underpins many of the characteristic properties of matter from the large-scale stability of matter to the existence of the periodic table of the elements. Particles with antisymmetric wave functions are called fermions--and obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Apart from the familiar electron, proton and neutron, these include neutrinos and quarks (from which protons and neutrons are made), as well as some atoms like helium-3. All fermions possess "half-integer spin", meaning that they possess an intrinsic angular momentum whose value is 0x01 graphic
(Planck's constant divided by 2?) times a half-integer (1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.). In the theory of quantum mechanics, fermions are described by "antisymmetric states", which are explained in greater detail in the theory on identical particles. Particles with integer spin have a symmetric wave function and are called bosons; in contrast to fermions, they may share the same quantum states. Examples of bosons include the photon, the Cooper pairs responsible for superconductivity, and the W and Z bosons.
   A more rigorous proof was provided by Freeman Dyson and Andrew Lenard in 1967, who considered the balance of attractive (electron-nuclear) and repulsive (electron-electron and nuclear-nuclear) forces and showed that ordinary matter would collapse and occupy a much smaller volume without the Pauli principle.
Neutrons are the most "rigid" objects known - their Young modulus (or more accurately, bulk modulus) is 20 orders of magnitude larger than that of diamond.
For white dwarfs the degenerate particles are the electrons while for neutron stars the degenerate particles are neutrons. In degenerate gas, when the mass is increased, the pressure is increased, and the particles become spaced closer together, so the object becomes smaller. Degenerate gas can be compressed to very high densities, typical values being in the range of 107 grams per cubic centimeter.
Preons are subatomic particles proposed to be the constituents of quarks, which become composite particles in preon-based models.
   Neutron stars

A neutron star is a large gravitationally-bound lump of electrically neutral nuclear matter, whose pressure rises from zero (at the surface) to an unknown value in the center.
   A neutron star is a type of remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles with zero electrical charge and roughly the same mass as protons.
A typical neutron star has a mass between 1.35 and about 2.1 solar masses, with a corresponding radius of about 12 km if the Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall (APR) Equation of state (EOS) is used. In contrast, the Sun's radius is about 60,000 times that. Neutron stars have overall densities predicted by the APR EOS of 3.7  1017 (2.6  1014 times Solar density) to 5.9  1017 kg/m (4.1  1014 times Solar density). which compares with the approximate density of an atomic nucleus of 3  1017 kg/m. The neutron star's density varies from below 1  109 kg/m in the crust increasing with depth to above 6 or 8  1017 kg/m deeper inside.

0x01 graphic


Fig.7. Probability structure of neutron star.

   In general, compact stars of less than 1.44 solar masses, the Chandrasekhar limit, are white dwarfs; above 2 to 3 solar masses (the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit), a quark star might be created, however this is uncertain. Gravitational collapse will always occur on any star over 5 solar masses, inevitably producing a black hole.
The gravitational field at the star's surface is about 21011 times stronger than on Earth. The escape velocity is about 100,000 km/s, which is about one third the speed of light. Such a strong gravitational field acts as a gravitational lens and bends the radiation emitted by the star such that parts of the normally invisible spectrum near the surface become visible.
   The gravitational binding energy of a two solar mass neutron star is equivalent to the total conversion of one solar mass to energy (From the law of mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2). That energy was released during the supernova explosion.
A neutron star is so dense that one teaspoon (5 millilitre) of its material would have a mass over 51012 kg. The resulting force of gravity is so strong that if an object were to fall from just one meter high it would hit the surface of the neutron star at 2 thousand kilometers per second, or 4.3 million miles per hour.
The Equation of state (EOS) for a Neutron star is still not known as of 2008[update].
On the basis of current models, the matter at the surface of a neutron star is composed of ordinary atomic nuclei as well as electrons.

Innovations and computations

  
Short information about atom and nuclei. Conventional matter consists of atoms and molecules. Molecules are collection of atoms. The atom contains a nucleus with proton(s) and usually neutrons (Except for Hydrogen-1) and electrons revolve around this nucleus. Every particle may be characterized by parameters as mass, charge, spin, electric dipole, magnetic moment, etc. There are four forces active between particles: strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic charge (Coulomb) force and gravitational force. The nuclear force dominates at distances up to 2 fm (femto, 1 fm = 10-15 m). They are hundreds of times more powerful than the charge (Coulomb force and million-millions of times more than gravitational force. Charge (Coulomb) force is effective at distances over 2 fm. Gravitational force is significant near and into big masses (astronomical objects such as planets, stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes). Strong force is so overwhelmingly powerful that it forces together the positively charged protons, which would repel one from the other and fly apart without it. The strong force is key to the relationship between protons, neutrons and electrons. They can keep electrons into or near nuclei. Scientists conventionally take into attention only of the strong force when they consider the nuclear and near nuclear size range, for the other forces on that scale are negligible by comparison for most purposes.
   Strong nuclear forces are anisotropic (non spherical, force distribution not the same in all directions equally), which means that they depend on the relative orientation of the nucleus.
   Typical nuclear energy (force) is presented in fig.8. When it is positive the nuclear force repels the other atomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons). When nuclear energy is negative, it attracts them up to a distance of about 2 fm. The value r0 usually is taken as radius of nucleus. The computation of strong nuclear force - interaction energy of one nucleus via specific density of one nucleus in given point - is present in Fig.9. The solid line is as computed by Berkner's method [7] with 2 correlations, dotted line is computer generated with 3 correlations, square is experimental. Average interaction energy between to nucleus is about 8 MeV, distance where the attractive strong nuclear force activates is at about 1 - 1.2 fm.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig.8. Typical nuclear force of nucleus. When nucleon is at distance of less than 1.8 fm, it is attracted to nucleus. When nucleon is very close, it is repulsed from nucleus.
(Reference from http://www.physicum.narod.ru , Vol. 5 p. 670).

  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig.9. Connection (interaction) energy of one nucleon via specific density of one nucleon in given point. Firm line is computed by Berkner's method with 2 correlations, dotted line is computer with 3 correlations, square is experiment. (Reference from http://www.physicum.narod.ru , Vol. 5 p. 655).

  
2. AB-Matter. In conventional matter made of atoms and molecules the nucleons (protons, neutrons) are located in the nucleus, but the electrons rotate in orbits around nucleus in distance in millions times more than diameter of nucleus. Therefore, in essence, what we think of as solid matter contains a -- relatively! --`gigantic' vacuum (free space) where the matter (nuclei) occupies but a very small part of the available space. Despite this unearthly emptiness, when you compress this (normal, non-degenerate) matter the electrons located in their orbits repel atom from atom and resist any great increase of the matter's density. Thus it feels solid to the touch.
The form of matter containing and subsuming all the atom's particles into the nucleus is named degenerate matter. Degenerate matter found in white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Conventionally this matter in such large astronomical objects has a high temperature (as independent particles!) and a high gravity adding a forcing, confining pressure in a very massive celestial objects. In nature, degenerate matter exists stably (as a big lump) to our knowledge only in large astronomical masses (include their surface where gravitation pressure is zero) and into big nuclei of conventional matter.
   Our purpose is to design artificial small masses of synthetic degenerate matter in form of an extremely thin strong thread (fiber, filament, string), round bar (rod), tube, net (dense or non dense weave and mesh size) which can exist at Earth-normal temperatures and pressures. Note that such stabilized degenerate matter in small amounts does not exist in Nature as far as we know. Therefore I have named this matter AB-Matter. Just as people now design by the thousands variants of artificial materials (for example, plastics) from usual matter, we soon (historically speaking) shall create many artificial, designer materials by nanotechnology (for example, nanotubes: SWNTs (amchair, zigzag, ahiral, graphen), MWNTs (fullorite, torus, nanobut), nanoribbon (plate), buckyballs (ball), fullerene). Sooner or later we may anticipate development of femtotechnology and create such AB-Matter. Some possible forms of AB-Matter are shown in fig.10. Offered technologies are below. The threads from AB-Matter are stronger by millions of times than normal materials. They can be inserted as reinforcements, into conventional materials, which serve as a matrix, and are thus strengthened by thousands of times (see computation section).
   2. Some offered technologies for producing AB-Matter. One method of producing AB-Matter may use the technology reminiscent of computer chips (fig.11). One side of closed box 1 is evaporation mask 2. In the other size are located the sources of neutrons, charged nuclear particles (protons, charged nuclei and their connections) and electrons. Sources (guns) of charged particles have accelerators of particles and control their energy and direction. They concentrate (focus) particles, send particles (in beam form) to needed points with needed energy for overcoming the Coulomb barrier. The needed neutrons are received also from nuclear reactions and reflected by the containing walls.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.10. Design of AB-Matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.) and electrons (a) linear one string (monofilament) (fiber, whisker, filament, thread); (b) ingot from four nuclear monofilaments; (c) multi-ingot from nuclear monofilament; (d) string made from protons and neutrons with electrons rotated around monofilament; (e) single wall femto tube (SWFT) fiber with rotated electrons; (f) cross-section of multi wall femto tube (MWFT) string; (g) cross-section of rod; (h) - single wall femto tube (SWFT) string with electrons inserted into AB-Matter. Notations: 1 - nuclear string; 2 - nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.). 3 - protons; 4 - orbit of electrons; 5 - electrons; 6 - cloud of electrons around tube.
  
   Various other means are under consideration for generation of AB-Matter, what is certain however that once the first small amounts have been achieved, larger and larger amounts will be produced with ever increasing ease. Consider for example, that once we have achieved the ability to make a solid AB-Matter film (a sliced plane through a solid block of AB-matter), and then developed the ability to place holes with precision through it one nucleon wide, a modified extrusion technique may produce AB-Matter strings (thin fiber), by passage of conventional matter in gas, liquid or solid state through the AB-Matter matrix (mask). This would be a `femto-die' as Joseph Friedlander of Shave Shomron, Israel, has labeled it. Re-assembling these strings with perfect precision and alignment would produce more AB-matter film; leaving deliberate gaps would reproduce the `holes' in the initial `femto-die'.
The developing of femtotechnology is easier, in one sense, than the developing of fully controllable nanotechnology because we have only three main particles (protons, neutrons, their ready combination of nuclei 2D, 3T, 4He, etc., and electrons) as construction material and developed methods of their energy control, focusing and direction.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig.11. Conceptual diagram for installation producing AB-Matter. Notations: 1 - installation; 2 -AB-Matter (an extremely thin thread, round bar, rod, tube, net) and form mask; 3 - neutron source; 4 - source of charged particles (protons, charged nuclei), accelerator of charged particle, throttle control, beam control; 5 - source of electrons, accelerator of electrons, throttle control, beam control; 6 - cloud of particles; 7 - walls reflect the neutrons and utilize the nuclear energy.
  
   3. Using the AB-Matter (fig.12). The simplest use of AB-Matter is strengthening and reinforcing conventional material by AB-Matter fiber. As it is shown in the `Computation' section, AB-Matter fiber is stronger (has a gigantic ultimate tensile stress) than conventional material by a factor of millions of times, can endure millions degrees of temperature, don't accept any attacking chemical reactions. We can insert (for example, by casting around the reinforcement) AB-Matter fiber (or net) into steel, aluminum, plastic and the resultant matrix of conventional material increases in strength by thousands of times--if precautions are taken that the reinforcement stays put! Because of the extreme strength disparity design tricks must be used to assure that the fibers stay `rooted'. The matrix form of conventional artificial fiber reinforcement is used widely in current technology. This increases the tensile stress resistance of the reinforced matrix matter by typically 2 - 4 times. Engineers dream about a nanotube reinforcement of conventional matrix materials which might increase the tensile stress by 10 - 20 times, but nanotubes are very expensive and researchers cannot decrease its cost to acceptable values yet despite years of effort.
Another way is using a construct of AB-Matter as a continuous film or net (fig. 13).
  
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   Fig.12. Thin film from nuclear matter. (a) cross-section of a matter film from single strings (side view); (b) continuous film from nuclear matter; (c) AB film under blow from conventional molecular matter; (d) - net from single strings. Notations: 1 - nucleons; 2 - electrons inserted into AB-Matter; 3 - conventional atom.
  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
  
   Fig.13. Structures from nuclear strings. (a) nuclear net (netting, gauze); (b) primary cube from matter string; (c) primary column from nuclear string; (d) large column where elements made from primary columns; (e) tubes from matter string or matter columns.
   These forms of AB-Matter have such miraculous properties as invisibility, superconductivity, zero friction, etc. The ultimate in camouflage, installations of a veritable Invisible World can be built from certain forms of AB-Matter with the possibility of being also interpenetable, literally allowing ghost-like passage through an apparently solid wall. Or the AB-Matter net (of different construction) can be designed as an impenetrable wall that even hugely destructive weapons cannot penetrate.
The AB-Matter film and net may be used for energy storage which can store up huge energy intensities and used also as rocket engines with gigantic impulse or weapon or absolute armor (see computation and application sections). Note that in the case of absolute armor, safeguards must be in place against buffering sudden accelerations; g-force shocks can kill even though nothing penetrates the armor!
   The AB-Matter net (which can be designed to be gas-impermeable) may be used for inflatable construction of such strength and lightness as to be able to suspend the weight of a city over a vast span the width of a sea. AB-Matter may also be used for cubic or tower solid construction as it is shown in fig.13.
  
Estimation and Computation of Properties of AB-Matter
1.
Strength of AB-Matter.
Strength (tensile stress) of single string (AB-Matter monofilament). The average connection energy of two nucleons is
1 eV = 1.610
-19 J, E = 8 MeV = 12.810-13 J. (1)
The average effective distance of the strong force is about
l = 2 fm =210-15 m (1 fm = 10-15 m). The average connection force F the single thread is about
F1 = E/l = 6.4102 N . (2)
This is worth your attention: a thread having diameter
100 thousand times less than an atom's diameter can suspend a weight nearly of human mass. The man may be suspended this invisible and permeable thread(s) and people will not understand how one fly.
Specific ultimate tensile stress of single string for cross-section area
s = 22 = 4 fm2 =410-30 m2 is
? = F/s = 1.61032 N/m2. (3)
Compressive stress for
E = 30 MeV and l = 0.4 fm (fig.1) is
? = E/sl = 31033 N/m2. (4)
The Young's modulus of tensile stress for elongation of break
? =1 is
I = ?/? = 1.61032 N/m2. (5)
The Young's modulus of compressive stress for
? =0.4 is
I = ?/? = 7.51033 N/m2. (6)
Comparison: Stainless steel has a value of ? = (0.65 - 1)109 N/m2, I = 21011 N/m2. Nanotubes has ? = (1.4 5)1010 N/m2, I = 81011 N/m2 . That means AB-Matter is stronger by a factor of 1023 times than steel (by 100 thousands billion by billions times!) and by 1022 times than nanotubes (by 10 thousand billion by billions times!). Young's modulus, and the elastic modulus also are billions of times more than steel and elongation is tens times better than the elongation of steel.
Strength (average tensile force) of one m thin (one layer, 1 fm) film (1 m compact net) from single strings with step size of grid
l = 2 fm =210-15 m is
F = F1 /l = 3.21017 N/m = 3.21013 tons/m. (7)
Strength (average tensile force) of net from single string with step (mesh) size
l = 10-10 m (less than a molecule size of conventional matter) which does not pass the any usual gas, liquids or solid (an impermeable net, essentially a film to ordinary matter)
F = F1 /l = 6.41012 N/m = 6.4108 tons/m. (8)
That means one meter of very thin (1 fm) net can suspend
100 millions tons of load.
The tensile stress of a permeable net (it will be considered later) having
l = 10-7 m is
F = F1 /l = 6.4109 N/m = 6.4105 tons/m. (9)
   2. Specific density and specific strength of AB-Matter.
The mass of 1 m of single string (AB-Matter. Monofilament) is
M1 = m/l =1.6710-27/(210-15) = 8.3510-13 kg. (10)
where
m = 1.6710-27 kg is mass of one nucleon; l = 210-15 is distance between nucleons, m., the volume of 1 m one string is v = 10-30 m3. That means the specific density of AB-Matter string and compact net is
d = ? = M1/v = 8.351017 kg/m3. (11)
That is very high (nuclear) specific density. But the total mass is nothing to be afraid of since, the dimensions of
AB-Matter string, film and net are very small and mass of them are:
a) mass of string
M1 = 8.3510-13 kg (see (10)), (12)
b) mass of 1 m
2 solid film Mf = M1/l = 4.17102 kg, l = 210-15. (13)
c) mass of 1 m
2 impenetrable net Mi = M1/l = 8.3510-3 kg, l = 10-10 m, (14)
d) mass of 1 m
2 permeable net Mp = M1/l = 8.3510-6 kg, l = 10-7 m . (15)
As you see the fiber, nets from
AB-Matter have very high strength and very small mass. To provide an absolute heat shield for the Space Shuttle Orbiter that could withstand reentries dozens of times worse than today would take only ~100 kilograms of mass for 1105 square meters of surface and the offsetting supports.
The specific strength coefficient of
AB-Matter-- very important in aerospace-- [3]-]5] is
k = ?/d = 1.61032 /8.351017 =1.91014 (m/s)2 < c2 = (3108 )2 = 91016 (m/s)2.(16)
This coefficient from conventional high strong fiber has value about
k = (1 - 6) 109 [3]-[6].
AB-Matter is 10 million times stronger.
The specific mass and volume density of energy with
AB-Matter are
Ev = E/v =1.61032 J/m3 , Em = E/mp =7.661014 J/kg . (17)
Here
E=12.810-13 J is (1), mp = 1.6710-27 kg is nucleon mass, kg, v = 810-45 m3 is volume of one nucleon. The average specific pressure may reach
p=F1/s=12.810-13/410-30 =3.210-27 N/m2.

3. Failure temperature of AB-Matter and suitability for thermonuclear reactors.
The strong nuclear force is very powerful. That means the outer temperature which must to be reached to destroy the AB fiber, film or net is Te = 6 MeV. If we transfer this temperature in Kelvin degrees we get
Tk = 1.16104 Te = 71010K. (18)
That temperature is 10 thousands millions degrees. It is about 50 - 100 times more than temperature in a fusion nuclear reactor. The size and design of the fusion reactor may be small and simple (for example, without big superconductive magnets, cryogenics, etc). We can add the AB matter has zero heat/thermal conductivity (see later) and it cannot cool the nuclear plasma. This temperature is enough for nuclear reaction of the cheap nuclear fuel, for example, D + D. The AB matter may be used in a high efficiency rocket and jet engines, in a hypersonic aircraft and so on.
No even in theory can conventional materials have this fantastic thermal resistance!
4. Energy generated by production of AB-Matter.
Getting of AB-matter produces a large amount of nuclear energy. That energy is more than the best thermonuclear fusion reaction produces. Joining of each nucleon produces 8 MeV energy, when joining the deuterium D and tritium T (2+3=5 nucleolus) produced only 17.5 MeV (3.6 MeV for every nucleon). If we use the ready blocks of nucleons as the D=
2H, T=3H, 4He, etc., the produced energy decreases. Using the ready nucleus blocks may be necessary because these reactions create the neutrons (n). For example:

2H + 2H ? 3He + n + 3.27 MeV, 3H + 2H ?4He + n + 17.59 MeV , (19)

which may be useful for producing the needed
AB-Matter.
Using the ready blo
cks of nucleons decreases the energy getting in AB-Matter production but that decreases also the cost of needed material and enormously simplifies the technology.
A small part (0.7 MeV) of this needed energy will be spent to overcome the Coulomb barrier when the proton joins to proton. Connection of neutrons to neutron or proton does not request this energy (as there is no repulsion of charges). It should be no problem for current technology to accelerate the protons for energy 0.7 MeV.
For example, compute the energy in production of
m = 1 gram = 0.001 kg of AB-Matter.
E1g = E1m/mp = 7.661011 J/g . (20)
Here
E1= 8 MeV= 12.810-13 J - energy produced for joining 1 nucleon, mp =1.6710-27 kg is mass of nucleon.
One kg of gasoline (benzene) produces 44 MJ/kg energy. That means that 1 g of AB-Matter requires the equivalent energy of 17.4 tons of benzene.
5. Super-dielectric strength of AB-Matter film. Dielectric strength equals
Ed = E/l =8 MV/10-15 m= 81015 MV/m . (21)
The best conventional material has dielectric strength of only 680 MV/m [4].
6. AB-Matter with orbiting electrons or immersed in electron cloud. We considered early the AB-Matter which contains the electrons within its' own string, film or net. The strong nuclear force keeps the electron (as any conventional matter particle would) in its sphere of influence. But another method of interaction and compensation of electric charges is possible- rotation of electrons around AB-Matter string (or other linear member) or immersing the AB-Matter string (or other linear member, or AB-Matter net --) in a sea of electrons or negative charged atoms (ions). The first case is shown in fig. 3d,e,g , the second case is shown in fig. 3f.
The first case looks like an atom of conventional matter having the orbiting electron around the nucleus. However our case has a principal difference from conventional matter. In normal matter the electron orbits around the nucleus as a POINT. In our case it orbits around the charged nuclear material (
AB-Matter) LINE (some form of linear member from AB-Matter). That gives a very important difference in electrostatic force acting on the electron. In conventional cases (normal molecular matter) the electrostatic force decreases as 1/r2, in our AB-Matter case the electrostatic force decreases as 1/r. The interesting result (see below) is that the electron orbit in AB-Matter does follow the usual speed relationship to radius. The proof is below:
0x01 graphic
(22)
where
m = me = 9.1110-31 kg; V - electron speed, m/s; r is radius of electron orbit, m; ? is charge density in 1 m of single string, C/m; E is electrostatic intensity, A/m or N/C; k = 9109 Nm2/C2 is electrostatic constant, e = 1.610-19 C is charge of electron, C; Np is number of proton in 1 m of single string, 1/m. As you see from last equation (22) the electron speed is not relative to radius. The real speed will be significantly less than given equation (22) because the other electrons block the charge of the rest of the string.
The total charge of the system is zero. Therefore we can put
Np =1 (every electron in orbit is kept by only one proton in string). From last equation (22) we find V = 22.4 m/s. That means the electron speed carries only a very small energy.
In the second case the
AB-Matter (string girder) can swim in a cloud (sea) of electrons. That case occurs in metals of conventional matter. But a lattice of metallic ions fills the volume of conventional metal giving drag to electron flow (causing electrical resistance).
The stringers and plate nets of
AB-Matter can locate along the direction of electric flow. They constitute only a relatively tiny volume and will produce very small electric resistance. That means the AB-Matter may be quasi-super-conductivity or super-conductivity.
The electrons rotate around an
AB-Matter string repel one from other. The tensile force from them is
0x01 graphic
. (23)
For distance
d = 210-15 m the force equals F = 10.5 N. This force keeps the string and net in unfolded stable form.
   Some Properties of AB-Matter

We spoke about the fantastic tensile and compressive strength, rigidity, hardness, specific strength, thermal (temperature) durability, thermal shock, and big elongation of AB-Matter.
Short note about other miraculous
AB-Matter properties:
1. Zero heat/thermal capacity. That follows because the mass of nucleons (AB-Matter string, film, net) is large in comparison with mass single atom or molecule and nucleons in AB-Matter have a very strong connection one to other. Conventional atoms and molecules cannot pass their paltry energy to AB-Matter! That would be equivalent to moving a huge dry-dock door of steel by impacting it with very light table tennis balls.
2. Zero heat/thermal conductivity. (See above).
3. Absolute chemical stability. No corrosion, material fatigue. Infinity of lifetime. All chemical reactions are acted through ORBITAL electron of atoms. The AB-Matter does not have orbital electrons (special cases will be considered later on). Nucleons cannot combine with usual atoms having electrons. In particular, the AB-Matter has absolute corrosion resistance. No fatigue of material because in conventional material fatigue is result of splits between material crystals. No crystals in AB-Matter. That means AB-Matter has lifetime equal to the lifetime of neutrons themselves. Finally a container for the universal solvent!
4. Super-transparency, invisibility of special AB-Matter-nets. An AB-Matter net having a step distance (mesh size) between strings or monofilaments of more than 100 fm = 10-13 m will pass visible light having the wave length (400 - 800)10-9 m. You can make cars, aircraft, and space ships from such a permeable (for visible light) AB-Matter net and you will see a man (who is made from conventional matter) apparently sitting on nothing, traveling with high speed in atmosphere or space without visible means of support or any visible vehicle!
5. Impenetrability for gas, liquids, and solid bodies. When the AB-Matter net has a step size between strings of less than atomic size of 10-10 m, it became impenetrabile for conventional matter. Simultaneously it may be invisible for people and have gigantic strength. The AB-Matter net may -as armor--protect from gun, cannon shells and missiles.
6. Super-impenetrability for radiation. If the cell size of the AB-Matter net will be less than a wave length of a given radiation, the AB-Matter net does not pass this radiation. Because this cell size may be very small, AB net is perfect protection from any radiation up to soft gamma radiation (include radiation from nuclear bomb).
7. Full reflectivity (super-reflectivity). If the cell size of an AB-Matter net will be less than a wavelength of a given radiation, the AB-Matter net will then fully reflect this radiation. With perfect reflection and perfect impenetrability remarkable optical systems are possible. A Fresnel like lens might also be constructible of AB-Matter.
8. Permeable property (ghost-like intangibility power; super-passing capacity). The AB-Matter net from single strings having mesh size between strings of more than 100 nm = 10-11 m will pass the atoms and molecules through itself because the diameter of the single string (210-15 m) is 100 thousand times less then diameter of atom (310-10 m). That means that specifically engineered constructions from AB-Matter can be built on the Earth, but people will not see and feel them. The power to phase through walls, vaults, and barriers has occasionally been portrayed in science fiction but here is a real life possibility of it happening.
9. Zero friction. If the AB-Matter net has a mesh size distance between strings equals or less to the atom (310-10 m), it has an ideal flat surface. That means the mechanical friction may be zero. It is very important for aircraft, sea ships and vehicles because about 90% of its energy they spend in friction. Such a perfect surface would be of vast value in optics, nanotech molecular assembly and prototyping, physics labs, etc.
10. Super or quasi-super electric conductivity at any temperature. As it is shown in previous section the AB-Matter string can have outer electrons in an arrangement similar to the electronic cloud into metal. But AB-Matter strings (threads) can be located along the direction of the electric intensity and they will not resist the electron flow. That means the electric resistance will be zero or very small.
11. High dielectric strength (see (21)).
AB-Matter may be used for devices to produce high magnetic intensity.

Applications and new systems in Aerospace and aviation
   The applications of the AB-Matter are encyclopedic in scope. This matter will create revolutions in many fields of human activity. We show only non-usual applications in aerospace, aviation that come to mind, and by no means all of these.
1. Storage of gigantic energy.
As it is shown in [3]-[7], the energy saved by flywheel equals the special mass density of material (17). As you see that is a gigantic value of stored energy because of the extreme values afforded by the strong nuclear force. Car having a pair of 1 gram counterspun fly-wheels (2 grams total) (20) charged at the factory can run all its life without benzene. Aircraft or sea ships having 100 gram (two 50 gram counterspun fly-wheels) can fly or swim all its life without additional fuel. The offered flywheel storage can has zero friction and indefinite energy storage time.
2. New propulsion system of space ship.
The most important characteristic of rocket engine is specific impulse (speed of gas or other material flow out from propulsion system). Let us compute the speed of a part of fly-wheel ejected from the offered rocket system
0x01 graphic
(24)
Here
V is speed of nucleon, m/s; E = 12.810-13 J (1) is energy of one nucleon, J; m = 1,6710-27 kg is mass of one nucleon, kg. The value (24) is about 13% of light speed.
The chemical rocket engine has specific impulse about 3700 m/s. That value is 10 thousand times less. The electric rocket system has a high specific impulse but requires a powerful compact and light source of energy. In the offered rocket engine the energy is saved in the flywheel. The current projects of a nuclear rocket are very complex, heavy, and dangerous for men (gamma and neutron radiation) and have specific impulse of thousand of times less (24). The offered
AB-Matter rocket engine may be very small and produced any rocket thrust in any moment in any direction.
The offered flywheel rocket engine used the AB-matter is presented in fig.7a. That is flywheel made from AB-matter. It has a nozzle 3 having control of exit mass. The control allows to exit of work mass in given moment and in given position of flywheel. The flywheel rotates high speed and the exhaust mass leave the rocket engine with same speed when the nozzle is open. In result the engine has thrust 6. As exhaust mass may be used any mass: liquid (for example, water), sand, small stones and other suitable planet or space material (mass). The energy needed for engine and space ship is saved in the revolving flywheel. This energy may be received at started planet or from space ship engine.
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Fig. 14.
Schema of new rocket and propulsion system. (a) Propulsion system from AB matter and storage energy. (b) Rocket with offered propulsion system.
Notations: 1 - cover (flywheel) from AB-matter; 2 - any work mass; 3 - nozzle with control of exit mass; 4 - direction of rotation; 5 - direction of exhaust mass; 6 - thrust; 7 - space ship; 8 - offered propulsion system; 9 - undercarriage; 10 - rotary mechanism; 11 - planet surface.

The rocket used the suggested engine is shown in fig, 7b. That has a cabin 7, the offered propulsion system 8, undercarriage 9 and rotary mechanism 10 for turning the ship in need position.
Let us to estimate the possibility of offered rocket. Notate, the relation of the exhaust mass to AM-matter cover mass of flywheel are taken
a = 10, the safety (strength) factor b = 4. About 20% of space ship is payload and construction and 80% is the exhaust mass. Then exhaust speed of throw away mass and receiving speed by space ship are:
0x01 graphic
(25)
where
V speed of exhausted mass, m/s; k = ?/d = 1.91014 (m/s)2 is strength coefficient (16); ms is final mass of rocket, kg; Vs = 8480 km/s is final speed of rocket, m/s; m is throw off mass, kg.
Let us to remind the escape speed of planets.

Table 1. Some data and escape speed from planets of Solar system.
   Sun and
planets
   Distance
from Sun
10
6 km
   Gravity
m/s
2
   Escape
speed
km/s
   Planets
   Distance
from Sun
10
6 km
   Gravity
m/s
2
   Escape
speed
km/s
   Sun
   -
   274
   617.7
   Jupiter
   777.8
   23.01
   60.2
   Mercury
   57.9
   3.72
   4.15
   Saturn
   1326
   9.14
   36.2
   Venus
   108.1
   8,69
   10.25
   Uranus
   2868
   9.67
   21.4
   Earth
   149.5
   9.78
   11.19
   Neptune
   4494
   15
   23.4
   Mars
   227.8
   3.72
   5.09
   Moon
   0.384*
   1.62
   2.36
   * From Earth.

The Table 1 allows estimating how many times the offered rocket can flight to other planets using one refueling (re-energy). These numbers are (with returning back to Earth): to Moon - 420 times, to Mars - 280 times, to Venus - 200 times, to Jupiter 96 times and out of Solar system 7 times.
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Fig.15. Possible form of space ship from AB matter.
   3. Super-weapon.
Capability of an
AB-Matter flywheel to spin up and ejection matter at huge speed (24)-(25) may be used as a long distance super-weapon.
4. Super-armor from conventional weapons.
The value (24) gives the need speed for break through (perforation) of a shield of
AB-Matter. No weapon which can give this speed exists at the present time. Remain, the AB-Matter may be radiation impermeable. That means AB-Matter can protect from a nuclear bomb and laser weapon.
5. Simple thermonuclear reactor.
The
AB-Matter film may be used as the wall of a simple thermonuclear reactor. The AB-Matter film allows a direct 100% hit by the accelerated nuclei to stationary nuclei located into film. You get a controlled nuclear reaction of cheap fuel. For example:
1H + 1H ? 2H + e+ + ? + 0.42 MeV , 2H + 1H ? 3He + ? + 5.494 MeV , (26)
2H + 2H ? 3H + 1H + 4.033 MeV , 3H + 1H ? 4He + ? + 16.632 MeV . (27)
Here e
+ is electron; ? is neutrino; ? is ?-quantum, photon (?-radiation); 1H = p is proton; 2H = D is deuterium; 3H = T is tritium; He is helium.
In conventional thermonuclear reactor the probability of a hit by the accelerated (or highly heated) nuclei to other nuclei is trifling. The accelerated particles, which run through ghostlike ATOMS and lose the energy, need therefore to be sent through to repeated collisions each of which loses energy until the one that hits and generates energy. The winner must pay for all the losers. That way we need big, very complex, and expensive high temperature conventional thermonuclear reactors. They are so nearly unbuildable because ordinary matter literally cannot take the reactions they are designed to contain, and therefore special tricks must be used to sidestep this, and the reactions are so improbable that again special tricks are required. Here, every shot is a hit and the material can endure every consequence of that hit. A good vacuum system and a means of getting power and isotopes in and out are the main problems, and by no means insuperable ones. Using the
AB-Matter we can design a micro-thermonuclear AB reactor.

6. High efficiency rocket, jet and piston aviation engines.
The efficiency conventional jet and rocket engines are very limited by the temperature and safety limits of conventional matter (2000
oK). If we will design the rotor blades (in jet engine), combustion chamber (in rocket and piston engines) from AB-Matter, we radically improve their capacities and simplify their construction (for example, no necessary cooling system!).

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Fig.16. Possible form of aircraft from AB matter

7. Hypersonic aircraft.
The friction and heat which attacks conventional materials for hypersonic aircraft limits their speed. Using the
AB-Matter deletes this problem. Many designs for aerospace planes could capture oxygen in flight, saving hauling oxidizer and carrying fuel alone--enabling airliner type geometries and payloads since the weight of the oxidizer and the tanks needed to hold it, and the airframe strengths required escalate the design and cascade through it until conventional materials today cannot build a single stage to orbit or antipodes aerospace plane. But that would be quite possible with AB-Matter.
8. Increasing efficiency of a conventional aviation and transport vehicles.
AB-Matter does not experience friction. The air drag in aviation is produced up 90% by air friction on aircraft surface. Using AB-Matter will make jump in flight characteristics of aircraft and other transport vehicles (including sea ships and cars).
9. Improving capabilities of all machines.
Appearance new high strength and high temperature
AB-Matter will produce jump, technology revolution in machine and power industries.
10. Computer and computer memory.
The
AB-Matter film allows to write in 1 cm2 N = 1/(410-26) = 2.51025 1/cm2 bits information. The current 45 nanometer technology allows to write only N = 2.51014 1/cm2 bit. That means the main chip and memory of computer based in AB-Matter film may be a billion times smaller and presumably thousands of times faster (based on the lesser distance signals must travel).
The reader can imagine useful application of AB-Matter in any field he is familiar with.

Discussion
1. Pauli exclusion principle and Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. General Question of Stability.
The reader may have questions about compatibility of the Pauli exclusion principle and Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with AB-Matter. The uncertainty principle is
0x01 graphic
. (27)
where ?p = mV is momentum of particle, kg.m/s; m is mass particles, kg; V is speed particles, m/s; ?x is distance between particles, m; 0x01 graphic
= 6.626210-34/2? is Planck's constant.
Pauli states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. A more rigorous statement of this principle is that, for two identical fermions, the total wave function is anti-symmetric. For electrons in a single atom, it states that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers, that is, if particles caracteristics n, l, and ml are the same, ms must be different such that the electrons have opposite spins.
The uncertainty principle gives a high uncertainty of ?p for nucleons and very high uncertainty for electrons into AB-Matter. But high density matter (of the same order as our suggested AB-Matter) EXISTS in the form of nuclei of conventional matter and on neutron stars. That is an important proof - this matter exists. Some may question its' ability to stay in a superdense state passively. Some may doubt its' stability free of the fierce gravitation of neutron stars (natural degenerate matter) or outside the confines of the nucleus. But there are reasons, not all stated here, to suppose that it might be so stable under normal conditions.
One proof was provided by Freeman Dyson [11] and Andrew Lenard in 1967, who considered the balance of attractive (electron-nuclear) and repulsive (electron-electron and nuclear-nuclear) forces and showed that ordinary matter would collapse and occupy a much smaller volume without the Pauli principle.
Certainly, however this very question of stability will be a key focus of any detailed probe into the possiblities of AB-Matter.
   2. Micro-World from AB-Matter: An Amusing Thought-Experiment. AB-Matter may have 1015 times more particles in a given volume than a single atom.. A human being, man made from conventional matter, contains about 51026 molecules. That means that 200 `femto-beings' of equal complexity from AB-Matter (having same number of components) could be located in the volume of one microbe having size 10 ? = 10-5 m. If this proved possible, we could not see them, they could not see us in terms of direct sensory input. Because of the wavelength of light it is questionable what they could learn of the observable macro-Universe. The implications, for transhuman scenarios, compact interstellar (microbe sized!) payloads, uploading and other such scenarios are profound. It is worth recalling that a single house and garden required to support a single conventional matter human is, for AB-Matter `femto-beings', equivalent in relative vastness as the extended Solar system is for us. If such a future form could be created and minds `uploaded' to it, the future theoretical population, knowledge base, and scholarly and knowledge-industries output of even a single planet so populated could rival that of a theoretical Kardashev Type III galactic civilization!
   Note: The same idea may hypotheticaly be developed for atto (10-18 m), zepto (10-21 m), and yocto (10-24 m) technologies. It is known that nucleons consist of quarks. Unfortunately, we do not know yet about size, forces and interactions between quark and cannot therefore make predictions about atto or zepto-technology. One theory posits that the quark consists of preons. But we do not know anything about preons. The possibility alone must intrigue us for now. Where does it all end?

Conclusion
The author offers a design for a new form of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows that the new AB-Matter has most extraordinary properties (for example, (in varying circumstances) remarkable tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency, ghostlike ability to pass through matter, zero friction, etc.), which are millions of times better than corresponded properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows how to design aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, and constructions, and so on from this new nuclear matter. These vehicles will have correspondingly amazing possibilities (invisibility, passing through any walls and amour, protection from nuclear bombs and any radiation, etc).
People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought - nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts, metamaterials, etc) and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature!) and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times--surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them.
Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
I want to explain the main thrust of this by analogy. Assume we live some thousands of years ago in a great river valley where there are no stones for building and only poor timber. In nature we notice that there are many types of clay (nuclei of atom--types of elemet). One man offers to people to make from clay bricks (AB-Matter) and build from these bricks a fantastic array of desirable structures too complex to make from naturally occuring mounds of mud. The bricks enable by increased precision and strength things impossible before. A new level of human civilization begins.
I call upon scientists and the technical community to to research and develop femtotechnology. I think we can reach in this field progress more quickly than in the further prospects of nanotechnology, because we have fewer (only 3) initial components (proton, neutron, electron) and interaction between them is well-known (3 main forces: strong, weak, electostatic). The different conventional atoms number about 100, most commone moleculs are tens thousands and interactions between them are very complex (e.g. Van der Waals force).
It may be however, that nano and femto technology enable each other as well, as tiny bits of AB-Matter would be marvellous tools for nanomechanical systems to wield to obtain effects unimaginable otherwise.
What time horizon might we face in this quest? The physicist Richard Feynman offeredhis idea to design artificial matter from atoms and molecules at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. But only in the last 15 years we have initial progress in nanotechnology. On the other hand progress is becoming swifter as more and better tools become common and as the technical community grows.
Now are in the position of trying to progress from the ancient `telega' haywagon of rural Russia (in analogy, conventional matter composites) to a `luxury sport coupe' (advanced tailored nanomaterials). The author suggests we have little to lose and literal worlds to gain by simultaneously researching how to leap from `telega' to `hypersonic space plane'. (Femotech materials and technologies, enabling all the wonders outlined here).

REFERENCES

(The reader may find some of related articles at the author's web page http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm; http://arxiv.org , http://www.scribd.com search "Bolonkin"; http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin"; and in the author's books: "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pages; "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2008, 502 pages and "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA 2009, 536 pages).

   1. Bolonkin A.A., (1983a) Method of a Keeping of a Neutral Plasma and Installation for it. Russian Patent Application #3600272/25vv086993, 6 June 1983 (in Russian), Russian PTO.
   2. Bolonkin A.A., (1983b) Method of transformation of Plasma Energy in Electric Current and Installation for it. Russian Patent Application #3647344/136681, 27 July 1983 (in Russian), Russian PTO.
   3. Bolonkin, A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pages,
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182
   4. Bolonkin, A.A., "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071
   5. Bolonkin A.A., and Cathcart R.B., Macro-Projects in Environment and Technology, NOVA, 2008, 536 pgs.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930
6. Bolonkin A.A., Human Immortality and Electronic Civilization, Lulu, 2007, 3-rd Edition: English version 60 pgs,
$9.9; Russian version 101 pgs, $9.9 . http://www.scribd.com/doc/24053302
   7. Encyclopedia of Physics. http://www.physicum.narod.ru (in Russian).
8. Tables of Physical values. Reference book, Editor I.K. Kikoin, Moscow, 1976, 1006 pgs.(in Russian).
   9. AIP Physics Desk Reference, 3rd Edition, Springer, 2003. 888 pgs.
10. Dresselhaus, M.S., Carbon Nanotubes, Springer, 2000.
   11.Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative
Commons license. http://wikipedia.org


Possible forms of future space apparatus used AB-matter

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   Article AB needles 11 14 11

Chapter 3

Femtotechnology. AB-needles: Stability, Possible Production and Application

   Abstract
In article "Femtotechnology: Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties" [1] American Journal of
Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. (http://www.scribd.com/doc/24045154) author offered and consider possible super strong nuclear matter. But many readers asked about stability of the nuclear matter. It is well known, the conventional nuclear matter having more 92 protons or more 238 nucleons became instability. In given work the author shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, researched Earth's interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in Nature now, but nanotubes also is not in Nature. That is artificial matter is made men. The AB-matter also is not now, but research and investigation their possibility, stability and properties are necessary for creating them.
Key words: Femtotechnology, FemtoTech, AB-matter, AB-needle, application AB-matter, stability AB-matter.
   1. Introduction
1. Brief history. On December 29, 1959 the physicist Richard Feynman offered his idea to design artificial matter from atoms and molecules at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech. If he was not widely well-known famous physicist, the audience laughed at him and drove away from the podium. All scientists accepted his proposal as joke. How can you see the molecule? How can you catch the molecule? How can you connect it to other? How many millions of years you will create one milligram of matter? And thousands of same questions don't having answers may be asked. Any schoolboy has seed that Feynman proposal is full fantasy which does not relation to real technology.
About 40 years the scientists had not see a way for implementation of this idea. But only in the last 15 years we have initial progress in nanotechnology. On the other hand progress is becoming swifter as more and better tools become common and as the technical community grows.
On 14 February 2009 the author offered the idea design of new matter from protons, neutrons and electrons, made initial research and published the article about it [1]. These particles in million times are smaller then molecules.
He researched and shown the new AB-matter will have the fantastic properties. That will be in millions times stronger than nanotubes and can keeps the millions degrees of temperature. That may be invisible and permeable to ordinary matter.
The many readers, who did not read carefully the author's article and who remember from school course that the nucleus became unstable if number of protons are more 92 or number of nucleons is more 238,
 raised the cry that the AB-matter is impossible. They did not seen the main DIFFERENCE between conventional matter (conventional nucleus) and AB-matter. The conventional matter has nucleus which has a chaotic spherical LUMP (nucleus) of nucleons, the AB-matter is LINE from nucleons NOT having the nucleus.
The author considers below this AB-line and shows
that line IS STABLE and has surprise property: one is a high rigid rod (needle), which the compressed force DOES NOT depend from rod length! This AB-rods (needles) you can support the Earth's satellite, reach the other planets, penetrate into the Earth interior and into any molecules of man without damage of its body.

2. Short information about offered matter. In [1], figs.5, 6 it is shown the AB-matter may have forms (Fig.1).
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.1. Some form of AB-matter. (a) single string of the AB-matter (AB-needle); (b) continuous film from nuclear matter (nuclear grapheme); (c) cross-section of a matter film (side view). AB film under blow from proton or conventional molecular matter; (d) - net from the single strings (AB-needles). Notations: 1 - nucleons; 2 - electrons near AB-Matter.
   The main forms are: "a"- single AB-string (AB-needle), "b"- AB-film (plate), and "d" is net. From AB-needles may be design the many other forms (fig.2, taken from [1, fig.6]). That is net, cube, columns, tube and so on.

3. AB-Matter. In conventional matter made of atoms and molecules the nucleons (protons, neutrons) are located in the nucleus, but the electrons rotate in orbits around nucleus in distance in millions times more than diameter of nucleus. Therefore, in essence, what we think of as solid matter contains a -- relatively! --`gigantic' vacuum (free space) where the matter (nuclei) occupies but a very small part of the available space. Despite this unearthly emptiness, when you compress this (normal, non-degenerate) matter the electrons located in their orbits repel atom from atom and resist any great increase of the matter's density. Thus it feels solid to the touch.
The form of matter containing and subsuming all the atom's particles into the nucleus is named degenerate matter. Degenerate matter found in white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Conventionally this matter in such large astronomical objects has a high temperature (as independent particles!) and a high gravity adding a forcing, confining pressure in a very massive celestial objects. In nature, degenerate matter exists stably (as a big lump) to our knowledge only in large astronomical masses (include their surface where gravitation pressure is zero) and into big nuclei of conventional matter.
Our purpose is to design artificial small masses of synthetic degenerate matter in form of an extremely thin strong thread (fiber, filament, string, needle), round bar (rod), tube, net (dense or non dense weave and mesh size) which can exist at Earth-normal temperatures and pressures. Note that such stabilized special form matter in small amounts does not exist in Nature as far as we know. Therefore author has named this matter AB-Matter. Just as people now design by the thousands variants of artificial materials (for example, plastics) from usual matter, we soon (historically speaking) shall create many artificial, designer materials by nanotechnology (for example, nanotubes: SWNTs (amchair, zigzag, ahiral), MWNTs (fullorite, torus, nanobut), nanoribbon (plate), grapheme, buckyballs (ball), fullerene). Sooner or later we may anticipate development of femtotechnology and create such AB-Matter. Some possible forms of AB-Matter are shown in fig.3.


0x01 graphic
   Fig.2. Structures from nuclear AB-strings (AB-needles). (a) nuclear net (netting, gauze); (b) primary cube from matter strings; (c) primary column from nuclear strings; (d) large column where elements made from primary columns; (e) tubes from matter strings (AB-needles) or matter columns.

The main difference the AB-matter from conventional matter is a strict order of location the proton and neutrons (for example: proton-neutron-proton-neutron-.... ) in line (string) or in the super thin (in one nucleon) plate (nuclear graphene). That gives the strong tensile stress (electrostatic repulse force) which does not allow the nucleons to mix in messy clump (ball). This force is less than a nuclear force if the AB-matter has a form where the most protons are located far from one other, where the nuclear force from the far protons is absent. That is in line, net and plate (fig.1a,b,d), but that may be absent in the solid beam, rod (fig. 3c,d) if their cross-section area contains a lot of nucleons.
The other problem: compensation the positive charges is solved by rotation electrons around the AB string, rod, tube, net (grid) or an electron cloud near the plate [1] or the electron locates near nucleons,
  
   4. Using the AB-Matter. The simplest use of AB-Matter is strengthening and reinforcing conventional material by AB-Matter fiber. As it is shown in the `Computation' section [1], AB-Matter fiber is stronger (has a gigantic ultimate tensile stress) than conventional material by a factor of millions of times, can endure millions degrees of temperature, don't accept any attacking chemical reactions. We can insert (for example, by casting around the reinforcement) AB-Matter fiber (or net) into steel, aluminum, plastic and the resultant matrix of conventional material increases in strength by thousands of times--if precautions are taken that the reinforcement stays put! Because of the extreme strength disparity design tricks must be used to assure that the fibers stay `rooted'. The matrix form of conventional artificial fiber reinforcement is used widely in current technology. This increases the tensile stress resistance of the reinforced matrix matter by typically 2 - 4 times. Engineers dream about a nanotube reinforcement of conventional matrix materials which might increase the tensile stress by 10 - 20 times, but nanotubes are very expensive and researchers cannot decrease its cost to acceptable values yet despite years of effort.

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   Fig.3.(it is taken from [1]). Design of AB-Matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.) and electrons. (a) linear one string (monofilament) (fiber, whisker, filament, thread, needle); (b) ingot from four nuclear monofilaments; (c) multi-ingot from nuclear monofilament; (d) string made from protons and neutrons with electrons rotated around monofilament; (e) single wall femto tube (SWFT) fiber with rotated electrons; (f) cross-section of multi wall femto tube (MWFT) string; (g) cross-section of tube; (h) - single wall femto tube (SWFT) string with electrons inserted into AB-Matter. Notations: 1 - nuclear string; 2 - nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.). 3 - protons; 4 - orbit of electrons; 5 - nucleons; 6 - cloud of electrons around tube.
  
   Another way is using a construct of AB-Matter as a continuous film or net (fig. 2b,d) or as the AB-needles (fig.2).
   These forms of AB-Matter have such miraculous properties as invisibility, superconductivity, zero friction, etc. The ultimate in camouflage, installations of a veritable Invisible World can be built from certain forms of AB-Matter with the possibility of being also interpenetable, literally allowing ghost-like passage through an apparently solid wall. Or the AB-Matter net (of different construction) can be designed as an impenetrable wall that even hugely destructive weapons cannot penetrate.
The AB-Matter film and net may be used for energy storage which can store up huge energy intensities and used also as rocket engines with gigantic impulse or weapon or absolute armor (see computation and application sections in [1]). Note that in the case of absolute armor, safeguards must be in place against buffering sudden accelerations; g-force shocks can kill even though nothing penetrates the armor!
   The AB-Matter net (which can be designed to be gas-impermeable) may be used for inflatable construction of such strength and lightness as to be able to suspend the weight of a city over a vast span the width of a sea. AB-Matter may also be used for cubic or tower solid construction as it is shown in fig.3. Detail computation of properties the AB matter are in [1]. Our purpose is to show that the curtain forms of AB-matter will be stable.

2. Law of
Stability of the nuclear AB-matter
   1. Short information about atom and nuclei.
Conventional matter consists of atoms and molecules. Molecules are collection of atoms. The atom contains a nucleus with proton(s) and usually neutrons (except for Hydrogen-1) and electrons revolve around this nucleus. Every particle may be characterized by parameters as mass, charge, spin, electric dipole, magnetic moment, etc. There are four forces active between particles: strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic charge (Coulomb) force and gravitational force. The nuclear force dominates at distances up to 2 fm (femto, 1 fm = 10-15 m). They are hundreds of times more powerful than the charge (Coulomb) force and million-millions of times more than gravitational force. Charge (Coulomb) force is effective at distances over 2 fm. Gravitational force is significant near and into big masses (astronomical objects such as planets, stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes). Strong force is so overwhelmingly powerful that it forces together the positively charged protons, which would repel one from the other and fly apart without it. The strong force is key to the relationship between protons, neutrons and electrons. They can keep electrons into or near nuclei. Scientists conventionally take into attention only of the strong force when they consider the nuclear and near nuclear size range, for the other forces on that scale are negligible by comparison for most purposes.
   Strong nuclear forces are anisotropic (non spherical, force distribution not the same in all directions equally), which means that they depend on the relative orientation of the nucleus. The proton has a magnetic moment which produces the magnetic force. This force orients the proton in magnetic field and help to keep the some form of AB-matter.
   Typical nuclear energy (force) is presented in fig.4. The nuclear and electric forces can be attractive and repulsive. When it is positive the nuclear force repels the other atomic particles (protons, neutrons). When nuclear energy is negative, it attracts them up to a distance of about 2 fm. The value r0 usually is taken as radius of nucleus.
   0x01 graphic

Fig.4. Typical nuclear force of nucleus. When nucleon is at distance of less than 1.8 fm, it is attracted to nucleus. When nucleon is very close, it is repulsed from nucleus.
(Reference from http://www.physicum.narod.ru , Vol. 5 p. 670).

   2. Law (necessary conditions) of stability the AB-matter.
The necessary condition (prerequisite LAW) of stability the AB-matter are following:
1) The number of protons must be less approximately 90 into a local sphere of radius 3 fm in any points of AB-matter;
2) The number of nucleons must be less approximately 240 into a local sphere of radius 3 fm in any points of AB-matter.
3) The AB-matter contains minimum two protons.
That law follows from relation between attractive nuclear and repulsive electrostatic forces into nucleus. The nuclear force is short distance force (2 fm), the electrostatic force is long distance. When number of protons is more 92, the repulsive electrostatic force may became the more than nuclear force and electrostatic force may destroy the AB-matter.
Consequent. That law means: the number of nucleons in any cross-section area AB-matter design of fig.3 must be less 37.
   It is not limited the press strong possibilities of the AB-matters because AB-needles has the surprising property discovered by author - keep the huge press force in any length of AB-needle (transfer the pressure to any long distance). That property is described in next paragraph.
  
   3. AB-needles
   The most important design of AB-matter is connection of nucleons in string (fig.5a,b,c). That may be only protons pppp.... (fig.5a), proton-neutron-proton-neutron-.... (pnpn....)(fig.5b), proton-neutron-neutron-proton-neutron-neutron-.... (pnnpnn.... )(fig.5c). The ends of AB-string contains the protons. The electrostatic repulse force of these end protons is not BALANCED and create the strong repulsive force 3 (fig.5c,d,e) which stretches the AB-string. That helps to keep the string form and other form (plate, tube, beam, shaft, rod, etc.) of AB-matter presented in figs. 3, 5.
Than is very important properties. This property does not have the conventional molecular matter, because the conventional matter contains the neutral molecules. The charges of ions in conventional matter locate far one from other and repulsive force is small. That property discovered by author gives the AB-string the amusing feature: an independent of the safety press stress from LENGTH of the nuclear string. Remand: the safety press force of long conventional matter strong depends from length of wire, beam, shaft, etc. According to the Euler's law the safety compressive force in the ordinary matter is inversely proportional to the square of the length of the rod. If the length of rod is more the safety length, the construction loss the stability (one is bending). You cannot push the car a thread or thin wire having one km length. They bend.
The AB thin string can pass the compressive force for any length of string. That why it is named the AB-needle. AB-needle allows penetrating into any conventional matter, into the interior of Earth, planets, Sun. They allow making the interplanetary trips and investigations of planet from Earth.
   0x01 graphic
Fig.5. Connection of nucleons in string (needle) (fig.2a,b,c) and film, plate (fig.5d,e) and Coulomb (electrostatic, repulse) force. Notations: 1- protons, 2 - neutrons, 3 - repulse (Coulomb) force from protons.
  
   Computation (Estimation) of forces in AB-needles.
Let us estimate the forces into AB-needle.
1) Nuclear attractive force. The radius of proton is r = 0.877 fm (10-15 m). The connection energy of proton and neutron pn (2H or 2D) is about E = 1 MeV = 1.610-13 J; the connection energy of pnn (3H or 3He) is 3 MeV; the energy of pnpn (4He) is 4 MeV. Let us take the average connection energy 2 MeV. The distance (where the nuclear force is actives) is about l = 1 fm. Consequently the average attractive nuclear force is
   0x01 graphic
. (1)
   The maximum attractive nuclear force is approximately in two tomes more, about 600 N.
That is huge value because the cross-section area of AB-needle is millions times less than the diameter of the simplest molecules of hydrogen. Note: this force appears only when the outer force went to break the AB-noodle. If no outer tensile force the internal strong nuclear force equals zero.
   2) The repulse electric force between protons. Let us consider the AB-needle contains only protons pppp... (Fig.5, mark 1). The repulse force between two protons equals
   0x01 graphic
, (2)
where k = 9109 . Substitute an electric charge e = 1.6. 10-19 C and 2r = d = 1.754 fm . We receive F1p = 74.8 N.
The electric repulsive force decreases with distance d = 2r between protons. If we summarize the repulsive force from all protons in line pppp.... of AB-needle (fig.5, marked 1), we received
Fp = 1.64 F1p - 123 N. (3)
That means the AB-needle has gigantic internal stress which extend the AB-needle. That extended stress is less than the attractive maximum nuclear force and one does NOT depends from length of AB-needle. This extended stress decreases the maximal outer stretch force but one allows to keep the AB-needle the compress force while they are less then extended force. If the press force is more than extended force the AB-needle not break, that only bends and continue to keep the maximal press force.
   In case the AB-needle has form pnpn... (fig.5 marked 2) the distance between protons decreases in two times. That means the force Fp (3) decreases in four times (22 = 4) and equals Fp - 30 N.
In case pnnpnn... (fig. 5, mark 3) the force Fp (3) decreases in nine times (32 = 9) and equals Fp - 14 N.
This tensile stress is transmitted through the protons to other end of AB-needle. That means the large pressure on the ends of AB-needle is passing along thin AB-needle through electrostatic repel force and one does not depend from length of AB-needle.
That may be illustrated by a children long inflatable air-balloon (fig.7a). This press force also not depends from length of
balloon. The force is transfered by compressed air. This idea was used by author in design the inflatable space tower [Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2005, Ch. 4].
The tension Fp actives along all length of AB-needle and does not allow to curl the AB-string into the lamb - conventional nucleus. This tension works when no other closed protons with a side of the string. When AB-needle is created, the outside protons cannot joint to AB-needle because the protons repel each other.
The proton and neutron have the magnetic dipole moments. Magnetic dipole moment of proton equals +1.4110-26 J/T, of neutron equals -0.966 10-26 J/T. They are small magnets having magnetic force some newtons. That also allows creating the stable AB-needles, to arrange them in a certain position and order.
The AB-needle can also keep the maximal side force F2 - 0.5F1 (fig.7b). That allows to accelerate anybody (for example space ship) in side direction, to produce an elastic design (for example, air bridge, storage of mechanical energy, long arm (hand), etc.). AB-matter designs do not have the drawbacks of the ordinary matter as fatigue, residual strain and the susceptibility to the external environment.
One meter of AB-needle has line having n = 5.7.10-14 nucleons with mass m = 1.67. 10-27 kg. Total mass of one meter AB-needle equals only 10-12 kg/m.
M1 = nm = 5.7.10-14 1.67. 10-27 = 10-12 kg/m.
One millions of kilometers of AB-needle weights only 10-3 kg/Mm. For transfer the large force we can take the thin cable from AB-needles.
Summary: Three above necessary condition, repulsive force of protons and magnetic force of nucleons can make the stability AB-matter.

4.
Application of AB-needles.
   Some properties of AB-matter are considered in [1] and here. That has a gigantic strength. The maximal tensile stress equals ?t - 81031 N/m2 (nanotubes has only ?t - 21011 N/m2 , that is in 100 billion billion times less), high maximal pressure stress of the long stability AB-needle equals about ?t - 7.51030 N/m2, the safety temperature is millions of degrees.
The many applications of super strong AB-matter are shown in [1]-[6]. The discovery by author the unique property of super thin AB-needle to transfer the pressure in any long distance opens the new gigantic application of AB-needles. Some of these applications are shown below.
In our consideration you must remember that nuclear AB-needle in million times is less than the simplest hydrogen molecule. Our AB-needles in this molecule is as conventional rod traveling in Solar system. The probability to meet planet, asteroid or meteor in space is very small. The tens of thousands the artificial wastes are rotate around (near) Earth. The meet with any of them is catastrophe for satellite or space ship or station. But no case when a space garbage damaged the space ship. Into molecular space the AB-needle can meet very rare only nucleus. But they charged positive as AB-needle and they will move away by electric force from AB-needle.

1. Penetration into human body. We can penetrate into the human body by AB-needle (cable from AB-needles) without body damage. We reach in any cells of human body. We can design the artificial arm (hand) (fig.7f) of the long in hundreds of kilometers, connect to end of arm the femto TV, femto devices, observe and manipulate into human body.
We can work from distance in hundreds kilometers. The man will not see our artificial arm and not feel as AB-needle penetrates into his body. We can repair or damage his body. Any conventional wall, armor, underground shelter cannot to protest him, except special AB-matter (AB-armor).
We can build (work) by AB-hand the home when we locate hundreds or thousands of kilometers from objects.
2. Geological exploration. Capability of AB-needle to penetrate into any conventional matter is very useful in geology. The AB-needle having the need femto devices can reach the any depth of the Earth (include kernel) and investigate and research them (fig.6f). Search for minerals is greatly simplified. You can find oil, gas, water, gold under your house. Moreover as it will be shown later you can search of minerals into other planets, asteroids without space flight, sitting at home. You can research the internal kernel of Sun because the AB-needle can keep the millions of degree temperature.
3. Transportation of any body. You can take by artificial AB-hand any things in distance hundreds kilometers and move to you or any other place.
4. Air transportation. You can connect any cities by air line of AB-needles (fig.7f) and delivery loads. This line is not an obstacle for general aviation and matter. They will not see and not feel it. The cars, tracks, individual men can move along them using the special hook and motor. For people on ground they are flying in the sky. The invisible air bridge through the strait, river, gulf, canyon, mountain may be built in some minutes.
5. Suspending houses. The building may be suspended over Earth (include sea, ocean) surface. The invisible, permeable AB-rod will support them (fig. 7e). They do not damage environment and cheaper of conventional building because they do not having the house foundation. People have a beautiful view. The humanity can colonize the sea and ocean.
6. Storage of mechanical energy. The AB-cable wounded on a microscopic coil is capable of accumulating the gigantic energy and return it as mechanical energy with 100% efficiency. That may be rotation (as spring in old mechanical clock) or a push force as it shown in fig.7b.
Estimation of a maximal specific storage energy
Ems [N/kg] approximately is
  
0x01 graphic
, (3)
   where L is length of AB-cable, m; M is mass of AB-cable, kg; Fp is maximal safety repulse force of cable, N. For cable pnpn... this energy may rich about 1013 J/kg. Cable may contain thousands of AB-needls. That is in million time more than energy in explosive TNT. The density of energy may be also very high value up 1021 J/m3. That is thousand billions of time more than energy density of a rocket fuel.
   7. Protection by AB-matter. The AB-net (figs. 1d, 2a) may be used as filter for the radiation and molecules (matter). It is known, if the length of radiation wave is less than filter cell, the given type of radiation cannot penetrate through this grid. If diameter of molecule is more than filter cell, the molecule cannot penetrate through the given net. The AB-net (grid) may be used for the separation of different matters (gas or liquid) , for example: for cheap getting the fresh water from sea water; for separation the carbon dioxide from atmosphere, chimneys, car exhaust tubes, oxygen from atmosphere, radioactive dust from atmosphere and water, etc. The AB-net may be used for protection from dangerous nuclear radiation, poisonous gases, and so on. We can create the invisible light wall which will protect us from terrorists.
Below is table which shows the some properties of some protection of AB-nets.

Table 1. Protection of some AB-nets (pnpn...) and their properties.
   No
   Type of radiation or molecules
   Size of AB-net sell, m
   Mass of AB-net kg/m2
   Max. press stress, N/m
   Max. tensile stress, N/m
   1
   Visible light
   107
   2105
   3108
   3.35109
   2
   Hard X-ray radiation
   1012
   2
   31013
   3.351014
   3
   Gamma (nuclear) radiation
   1013
   20
   31014
   3.351015
   4
   Protection from AB-needles
   21015
   420
   1.51016
   1.61017
   5
   Protection from molecules
   2.7108
   7.4105
   1.11109
   1.21010
  
8. AB-needles and space flight. The AB-needles (cables) open the gigantic possibilities in the space research and flight.
You can use the AB-hand manipulator (arm) from AB-needs having length of hundreds millions kilometers and keeping the femto devices in end (fig.7d). If mass of devices is 1 - 10 kg, the mass of AB-hand must be 1 - 10 grams for 1 million of kilometers. The distance to Moon is 384,400 km, to Mars 78 millions km (when Mars is closest position, every two years). You can study and research these space bodies (include interior) from your home. Moreover, using the power AB-hand, you can build house on the plane before you will travel to it.
We can lift by AB-cable the loads into space in a distance in thousand km (figs. 6b, 7b), keep the motion less satellites, and delivery the satellites to other planets. No problem, to build the Space Elevator include GEO (and over) Space Elevator from Earth surface (fig.7c). No problem with conventional cable for Space Elevator. Any space garbage, meteorite from conventional matter cannot damage the femto cable because the femto cable penetrates the nano matter.
We can free and quick flight to space in the manner space ships (fig.7d). The small spool of AB-cable will accelerate and inhibit the space ships and permanent connection of him to Earth. Below reader finds computation the time, speed and some other parameters of space flights to planets of solar system by offered AB-space ship.

Table2. Computation of space flight to solar planets by manner AB-space ship.
The acceleration and inhibition have g = 10m/s2, mass of space ship is 3 tons.
   No
   Planet
   Distance
   from Sun
   1010 km
   Distance
   from Earth
   1010 km
   Flight*
   time,
103 sec
   Flight
time,
Days
   Max.
speed,
km/s
   Mass of
AB-cable
kg
   1
   Mercury
   5.79
   9.2
   19.2
   2.22
   1382
   184
   2
   Venus
   10.8
   4.2
   13
   1.5
   1140
   84
   3
   Earth
   15
   0
   -
   -
   -
   -
   4
   Mars
   22.8
   7.8
   17.7
   2.04
   883
   154
   5
   Jupiter
   77.8
   62.8
   50.1
   5.8
   2239
   1356
   6
   Suturn
   142.7
   127.7
   71.5
   8.28
   2674
   2550
   7
   Uranus
   286.9
   281.9
   107
   12.4
   3271
   5638
   8
   Neptune
   449.7
   434.7
   132
   15.3
   3633
   8694
   9
   Moon
   -
   0.0384
   1.24
   0.14
   352
   0.77
   10
   Sun
   -
   15
   25.5
   3
   1597
   300
   *include inhibition with g = 10 m/s2.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.6. Some construction from AB-string. Notations: a - vertical string (AB-needle). The big lift (support) force 4 does not depend from length; b - lifting the load to any altitude. 5 - spool of AB-string; c - stability of AB-string; d - ring 6 from AB-string; e - bridge (long arm) from AB-string; f - research of the Earth crust interior: 8 - installation (spool of AB-needle), 9 - AB-needle (string,cable).
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 7 . Applications of AB-needles. Notations: a - conventional children inflatable long tube illustrated the capability to accept the pressure in end of tube (F - force); b - illustration of AB-needle to lift the load, accepts the vertical and horizontal forces (F1, F2 = 0.5F1); c - AB-needles as the over GSO Space Elevator; d - AB-needles as space ship and the investigator of the planet interior (for example Moon); e - the building suspended at high altitude by AB - needles, f - the investigation of interior of building, men, eic. by AB-needles. 1- conventional children inflatable long tube (air balloon); 2 - AB-needles; 3 - reel of AB-needles; 4 - the guides of AB-needles; 5 - Earth; 6 - Geosynchronous orbit; 7 - space ship; 9 - building; 10 - AB-needle; 11 - the guides of AB-needles; 12 - devices (TV-camera, capture grid, weapon, etc.); 13 - elevator.
  
   In any case the safety press force is very high because we can take the thousands AB-needles and push any load (space ship, anybody) or keep them at any altitude.
  
   5. Production of AB-needles
  
   The charged particles interact with electric and magnetic fields. The magnetic moment interacts with magnetic field. That allows designing the technologies for production of artificial AB-matter. Some offered technologies were described in [1]. Here the author offers some new technologies.
The possible particles is shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Charge, impulse and magnetic moments of some nucleus
   Z
   Nucleus
(particles)
   Charge
+e=1.61019 C
   Mass
number
   Impulse
moment, ?
   Magnetic*
moment, N
   0
   n
   0
   1
   1/2
   -1.9125
   1
   p
   1
   1
   1/2
   2.7828
   1
   2H = D
   1
   2
   1
   0.8565
   2
   3He
   2
   3
   1/2
   -2.121
   2
   4He
   2
   4
   0
   0
   3
   6Li
   3
   6
   1
   0.821
   3
   7Li
   3
   7
   3/2
   3.2332
   *Nuclear magnetron N = 5.0511027 J/T. Sign "-" shows: magnetic moment is
opposite the impulse moment.

Notes about possible form AB-needles. The possible form of AB-needles are shown in fig. 8.
The first form marked 1 (pppp...) contains only line of protons. This form is cheapest and has maximum the pressure strength. But it is unknown, this form is possible or no. It is known the single hydrogen and single proton is stable. In other side the fusion of two SINGLE hydrogen nuclei 1H (protons) produces deuterium 2H= D (pn) releasing a positron and a neutrino as one proton changes into a neutron:
   1H + 1H ? 2H + e+ + ?e + 0.42 MeV (4 )
   The fusion reaction released in this step produces energy up to 0.42 MeV. The most of this energy is taken away by neutrino.
The positron immediately annihilates with an electron, and their mass energy is carried off by two gamma ray photos:
   e+ + e-- ? 2? + 1.02 MeV . (5)
  
But the most nucleus has a lot of protons and they not relies the reaction (4). The AB-needle also has a lot of protons. If reaction (4) is released, the form 1 transfers in form 2 (fig. 8) and the process produces a lot of a nuclear energy. The ionized conventional hydrogen 1H may be used for production of AB-matter. I remain: the Universe is composed of about 80% hydrogen. In result we will have the AB-needle in form npnp... .
The second form of AB-needle is pnpn... marked 2 (fig.8). This form may be produced directly from deuterium D oriented by magnetic field along axis of AB-needles.
The third form of the double AB-needles marked 3 (fig. 8) also may be produced directly from deuterium D oriented by magnetic field perpendicular of axis of AB-needles.
The forth form of four-needles marked 4 (fig.8) may be produced directly from helium 4He oriented by magnetic field perpendicular of axis of AB-needles.

0x01 graphic

   Fig. 8. Types of AB-needles. Notations: a - Nucleus: black is p, white is n; b - AB-needles (side view); c - AB-needles in isometrical view; d - increasing the internal tensile stress by the double protons (5) located in the end of single AB-needle from protons (for increasing the tensile stress); 1- protons (p). Single AB-needles from proton; 2 - deuterium 2H = D (pn). Single AB-needles from deuterium; 3 - deuterium 2H (pn). Double AB-needles from deuterium; 4 - helium 4He. 4 - square AB-needles from helium. 5 - double protons in end of single AB-needle.
   Installations for production AB-needles.
1) Toroid method. One of installation for production of AB-needles is shown in fig. 9. The installation has a vacuum topoid 1 and particles gun 4 which injects charged particles into toroid. The perpendicular (to fig.) magnetic lines 2 penetrate the toroid. As result the charged particles 3 move in circles inside the toroid. This electric current of particles produces the magnetic field 5 (pinch-affect). This field pulls the particles in a cord and helps to keep them into the toroid ring.
The producing AB-needles 8 locate inside the topoid ring and are kept by special local magnetic field 9 in position along the circle axis of the toroid ring. That means the moving particles can connect to AB-needles only to end nucleus when they collide the forward end of AB-needle and their
 energy is sufficient to overcome the Coulomb repulsion. The toroid ring has the accelerators 6, 11 and focusers 7, 10 of particles. Their electric fields collect the scattered charged particles back to toroid axis.
Probability of hitting in the front end of the AB-needles is small. But the charged particles rotate into toroid a lot (millions) of times and join to end of AB-needles. Note they can connect only to end of AB-needle. Their perpendicular speed to the toroid circle axis does not enough for overcame the nuclear repulsion force.
Author wrote only the principal scheme (
schematic diagram) of the AB-needle producing. The developing of this method may request a big research and work.

0x01 graphic

  
   Fig.9. Toroid Producer of AB-needles (AB-matter). Notations: 1 - vacuum toroid; 2 - perpendicular (to sketch) magnetic lines; 3 - particles; 4 - particles gun; 5 - round magnetic lines from motion charged particles; 6 - electric accelerator; 7 - electric focuser; 8 - AB - needles; 9 - magnetic field keeping the AB-needles; 10 - electric focuser; 11 - electric accelerator.
   2) The Second method: Method particles traps. That is shown in fig. 10. That is closed to method described in [1]. Feature is the net of traps 8 (fig.10a and 10b). They catch the particles and direct them to end of creating AB-needles. Advantage is high efficiency of production AB-matter (every charged particle will be used, small of energy consumption). Lack is the request of a special form of AB-matter (see 8 in fig. 10b). That method may be useful when we have enough AB-matter.
3) Third method: Method standing waves. The current special mirrors [4, Ch.12] and lasers allow to create the net of electromagnetic traps for AB-matter producer (fig. 11) from the monochromatic polarized electromagnetic standing waves (fig. 11a,b). That net may partially changes the net of AB-matter traps of the fig. 10b and increase the efficiency. This method may be useful for AB-matter producer in [1].
   The threads from AB-Matter are stronger by millions of times than normal materials. They can be inserted as reinforcements, into conventional materials, which serve as a matrix, and are thus strengthened by thousands of times (see computation section in [1]).
  
0x01 graphic

Fig. 10. Method particle traps for production of the AB-needles. Notations: a - device; b - particle traps; 1 - vacuum cell; 2- charged particles; 3 - magnetic lines; 4 - electric issue for the acceleration nets; 5 - plasma from particles; 6 - flow of electrons; 7 - AB-needles; 8 - trap made from AB-matter for the charged particles (p, 2H, 4He, etc.) ; 9 - cell for cover the AB-needles by electrons.
   0x01 graphic

Fig.11. Net of electromagnetic traps for AB-matter producer. Notations: (a) - forward view; (b) - the monochromatic polarized electromagnetic standing waves (electrostatic part, side view); (c) - particles storage and accelerator; 1 - net from the perpendicular monochromatic polarized electromagnetic standing waves; 2 - the electromagnetic  monochromatic polarized standing wave; 3 - electric accelerator of particles; 4 - particles.
  
   The offered AB-producers can be used for production the new NANO-matters. Now the scientist offers to produce nano-matters by nano-robots. I think that is very difficult way. The nano-robot must has the devices for searching, recognizing, catching the flying molecules, delivers them in given place, connection to other selected molecules. That means the nano-robot must have a millions molecules. Difficult to get an elephant to catch the flies and glue them from the device. This productivity will be very low. The production of AB-matter may be easy.
Also we can ionize the molecules (create the charged particles!) and apply the modified offered methods for design and production of the nano-matters.


Discussion
   The Humanity will make a gigantic jump in technology when one will produce AB-matter. We consider unconventional application of AB-matter.
1. Super Micro-World from AB-Matter: An Amusing Thought-Experiment. AB-Matter may have 1015 1043 times more particles in a given volume than a single atom. A human being, man made from conventional matter, contains about 51026 molecules. That means that `femto-beings' of equal complexity from AB-Matter (having same number of components) could be located in the volume of one microbe having size 10 ? = 105 m. It is difficult to make the nano-robot (one is large for Nano World). But the smart small femto-robot is suitable for Nano World. In future the people could make the artificial intelligent super micro F-beings which can withstand a huge temperature, acceleration of electric field, travel to other stars, other galactic, live in stars and travel through black holes to other Universes and times.
2. Stability of AB-matter.
Readers usually ask: the connection (proton to proton) gives a new element when, after 92 protons, this element is unstable?
   Answer: That depends entirely on the type of connection. If we conventionally join the carbon atom to another carbon atom a lot of times, we then get the conventional piece of a coal. If we join the carbon atom to another carbon atom by the indicated special forms, we then get the very strong single-wall nanotubes, graphene nano-ribbon (super-thin film), armchair, zigzag, chiral, fullerite, torus, nanobud and other forms of nano-materials. That outcome becomes possible because the atomic force (van der Waals force, named for the Dutch physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, 1837-1923, etc.) is NON-SPHERICAL and active in the short (one molecule) distance. The nucleon nuclear force also is NON-SPHERICAL and they may also be active about the one nucleon diameter distance (Fig. 1). Moreover the nucleus have a tensile electrostatic force which allows to design the long linear structures. Moreover the proton is a small magnet. As magnet that (and nucleus) connects one to other specific side. That means we may also produce with them the strings, tubes, films, nets and other geometrical constructions.
   The further studies are shown that AB-matter will be stability if:
1) The any sphere having radius R - 610-15m in any point of structure figs. 1 - 4 must contain NOT more 238 nucleons (about 92 of them must be protons). That means any cross-section area of the solid rod, beam and so on of AB-structure (for example figs. 1b,c,g) must contain NOT more about 36 nucleons in any circle with R - 610-15m.
2) AB-matter must contains the proton in a certain order because the electrostatic repel forces of them give the stability of the given structure.
3) The magnetic force of protons allows also gives the different form of AB-matter.
   Conclusion

The author offers a design for a new form of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He also suggested the necessary conditions of stability of AB-matter. He shows that the new AB-Matter has most extraordinary properties (for example, (in varying circumstances) remarkable tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, super-transparency, ghostlike ability to pass through matter, zero friction, etc.), which are millions of times better than corresponded properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows (in [2]) how to design aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, and constructions, and so on from this new nuclear matter. These vehicles will have correspondingly amazing possibilities (invisibility, passing through any walls and amour, protection from nuclear bombs and any radiation, etc).
People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought - nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts, metamaterials, etc) and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature!) and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times--surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them.
Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
I want to explain the main thrust of this by analogy. Assume we live some thousands of years ago in a great river valley where there are no stones for building and only poor timber. In nature we notice that there are many types of clay (nuclei of atom--types of element). One man offers to people to make from clay bricks (AB-Matter) and build from these bricks a fantastic array of desirable structures too complex to make from naturally occuring mounds of mud. The bricks enable by increased precision and strength things impossible before. A new level of human civilization begins.
I call upon scientists and the technical community to research and develop femtotechnology. I think we can reach in this field progress more quickly than in the further prospects of nanotechnology, because we have fewer (only 3) initial components (proton, neutron, electron) and interaction between them is well-known (3 main forces: strong, weak, electrostatic). The different conventional atoms number about 100, most commone moleculs are tens thousands and interactions between them are very complex (e.g. Van der Waals force).
It may be however, that nano and femto technology enable each other as well, as tiny bits of AB-Matter would be marvellous tools for nanomechanical systems to wield to obtain effects unimaginable otherwise.
What time horizon might we face in this quest? The physicist Richard Feynman offered his idea to design artificial matter from atoms and molecules at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959. But only in the last 15 years we have initial progress in nanotechnology. On the other hand progress is becoming swifter as more and better tools become common and as the technical community grows.
Now are in the position of trying to progress from the ancient `telega' haywagon of rural Russia (in analogy, conventional matter composites) to a `luxury sport coupe' (advanced tailored nanomaterials). The author suggests we have little to lose and literal worlds to gain by simultaneously researching how to leap from `telega' to `hypersonic space plane'. (Femotech materials and technologies, enabling all the wonders outlined here).
   REFERENCES

(The reader may find some of these articles at the author's web page http://www.scribd.com , http://arxiv.org , http://www.archive.org , http://aiaa.org , search "Bolonkin" and in the books: "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2005, 488 pages; "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2006, 502 pages and "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA 2007, 536 pages; "New Technologies and Revolutionary Projects", Scribd, 2008, 324 pgs,).

   1. Bolonkin A.A., Femtotechnology. Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties, American Journal of
Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. Presented as paper AIAA-2009-4620 to 7th Annual
International Energy Convention Conference, 2-5 August 2009, Denver, CO, USA. [On line]:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24045154 , http://www.scribd.com/doc/24046679/ .
   2. Bolonkin A.A., Femtotechnology: Design of the Strongest AB-Matter for Aerospace. Presented as paper AIAA-2009-4620 to 45 Joint Propulsion Conference, 2-5 August, 2009, Denver CO, USA. See also closed paper AIAA-2010-1556 in 48 Aerospace Meeting, New Horizons, 4 - 7 January, 2010, Orlando, FL, USA.
http://www.archive.org/details/FemtotechnologyDesignOfTheStrongestAb-matterForAerospace
   3. Bolonkin A.A., Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator. American Journal of Engineering and
Applied Sciences. 2 (4), 2009, p.683-693. [on line] http://www.scribd.com/doc/24048466 .

4.Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, 2005, http://www.archive.org/details/Non-rocketSpaceLaunchAndFlight, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 .
   5. Bolonkin A.A., Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in
Aerospace
", NOVA, 2006 .http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 .
http://www.archive.org/details/NewConceptsIfeasAndInnovationsInAerospaceTechnologyAndHumanSciences .
   6. Bolonkin A.A., "Macro-Engineering: Environment and Technology", pp. 299-334, NOVA, 2007.
http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 .
http://www.archive.org/details/Macro-projectsEnvironmentsAndTechnologies .
   7. Bolonkin A.A., "New Technologies and Revolutionary Projects", Scribd, 2008, 324 pgs,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/32744477 ,
http://www.archive.org/details/NewTechnologiesAndRevolutionaryProjects .
   8. Bolonkin A.A., LIFE. SCIENCE. FUTURE (Biography notes, researches and innovations). Scribd, 2010, 208 pgs.
16 Mb. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48229884,
http://www.archive.org/details/Life.Science.Future.biographyNotesResearchesAndInnovations .
7 April 2011
  
   Future suspended structures supported by AB-needles
   0x01 graphic
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Article Space wing electro ship 5 22 11after Joseph
  

Chapter 4

Space Wing Electro Relativistic AB-Ship


Abstract

  
Author offers and develops the theory of a new class of space wing electro ship. A biplane wing and an electric field between the wings characterize this space ship. The interstellar and interplanetary mediums contain charged protons and other charged particles. The winged space ship can produce the lift, thrust and drag forces. The density of the space medium is small (100 - 105 charged particles/cm3) but the high ship speed allows creating enough force for maneuvers, turning, acceleration and braking of ship especially at near relativistic speeds. Author shows the ratio of lift force/drag of the space wing electro ship may reach 100 and maneuver of wing space is big advantageous compared to maneuver using conventional rocket methods. In addition the biplane wing easily may be converted into a very efficient engine (brake) using external space matter and achieve something close to simple photon propulsion. That means the proposed wing-brake-engine is the most efficient and technologically realistic space drive available at the present time. The offered wing design allows collecting of particles from a very large space area. The method also allows decreasing the drag of a ship body.
   Key words: space wing electro apparatus, AB-space ship, flight into space medium, non-rocket space flight, ramjet space engine, electrocraft

Introduction

A major problem with using rocket propulsion to reach the velocities required for interstellar flight is the enormous amounts of fuel required. Since that fuel must itself be accelerated, this result in an approximately exponential increase in mass as a function of velocity change at non-relativistic speeds, asymptotically tending to infinity as it approaches the speed of light.
In 1960 the physicist Robert W. Bussard proposed an interstellar ramjet engine [1]. Bussard proposed a ramjet variant of a fusion rocket capable of fast interstellar spaceflight, using an enormous magnetic field (ranging from kilometers to many thousands of kilometers in diameter) as a ram scoop to collect and compress hydrogen from the interstellar medium. High speeds force the reactive mass into a progressively constricted magnetic field, compressing it until thermonuclear fusion occurs. The magnetic field then directs the energy as rocket exhaust opposite to the intended direction of travel, thereby accelerating the vessel. In principle, the Bussard ramjet avoids this problem by not carrying fuel with it. An ideal ramjet design could in principle accelerate indefinitely until its mechanism failed. Ignoring drag, a ship driven by such an engine could theoretically accelerate arbitrarily close to the speed of light, and would be a very effective interstellar spacecraft. In practice, since the force of drag produced by collecting the interstellar medium increases approximately as its speed squared at non-relativistic speeds and asymptotically tends to infinity as it approaches the speed of light (taking all measurements from the ship's perspective), any such ramjet would have a limiting speed where the drag equals thrust. To produce positive thrust, the fusion reactor must be capable of producing fusion while still giving the incident ions a net rearward acceleration (relative to the ship).
The collected propellant can be used as reaction mass in a plasma rocket engine, ion rocket engine, or even in an antimatter-matter annihilation powered rocket engine. Interstellar space contains an average of 10--21 kg of mass per cubic meter of space, primarily in the form of non-ionized and ionized hydrogen, with smaller amounts of helium, and no significant amounts of other gasses. This means that the ramjet scoop must sweep 1018 cubic meters of space to collect one gram of hydrogen.
The obvious fuel source, the one proposed by Bussard, is fusion of hydrogen, the most common component of interstellar gas. Unfortunately, the proton-proton fusion rate is close to zero for this purpose: protons in the Sun on average survive for a billion years or more before reacting. Accordingly, an interstellar ramjet would have to be powered by other nuclear reactions, but the required isotopes are rare in the interstellar medium.
Bussard ramjet designs that use the collected hydrogen only as reaction mass are sometimes referred to as ram-augmented interplanetary or interstellar rockets (RAIR) to distinguish them from the designs that use the collected hydrogen as fuel.
Discussions of feasibility. T.A. Heppenheimer [2] analysed Bussard's original suggestion of fusing protons, but found the bremsstrahlung losses from compressing protons to fusion densities was greater than the power that could be produced by a factor of about 1 billion, thus indicating that the proposed version of the Bussard ramjet was infeasible.
There are a lot of principal physical and technology problems which disallow creating the Bussard ramjet. As it is shown in [3] Ch.4, pp.95-104 the ship's magnetic field is spinning up the charged particles which produce their own magnetic field opposed to the ship magnetic field and dramatically decreases it; the outer particles of the ship's ring magnetic field does not not collect charged particles and not produce a drag; the collection region of magnetic ring becames small when ship speed is high (close to a relativistic speed). The braking of particles by a plate (at ashort distance) produces dangerous X and ? radiation. The fusion nuclear reactor is very complex, expensive and absent in present time. This itself produces a dangerous nuclear radiation and so on.
Interstellar medium. Although space is very empty and the stars in the Milky Way are very far apart, the space between the stars contains a very diffuse medium of gas and dust astronomers call the interstellar medium (ISM). This medium consists of neutral hydrogen gas (HI), molecular gas (mostly H2), ionized gas (HII), and dust grains. The Milky Way Galaxy is filled with a very diffuse distribution of neutral hydrogen gas which has a typical density of about 1 atom/cm3 (10-24g/cm3). 
The neutral hydrogen is distributed in clumpy fashion with cool, denser regions that astronomers call "clouds" but which are more like filaments. These regions have a typical temperature of about 100K and a density between 10--100 atoms/cm
3. Surrounding the clouds is a warmer lower density medium with about 0.1 atom/cm3 and T ~ 1000K.
   Molecular Clouds. Comparatively dense (nH2 > 1000 molecules/cm3), cold (T ~ 10K) clouds of molecular hydrogen and dust, known as molecular clouds or dark clouds are the birthplaces of stars. We do not detect molecular hydrogen directly, but infer its characteristics from other molecules, most often CO. Over 50 other molecules have been detected including NH3, CH, OH, CS and molecules as complex as ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH - the stuff in whisky) have been found in Milky Way molecular clouds. The Horsehead Nebula (Messier Nebulae, Web Nebulae) to the right is produced by the incursion of a plume of dust from a molecular cloud, covering the lower half of the image, into a region of ionized hydrogen. A Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) may have a mass of 106M 0x01 graphic
 and a diameter of 150 l.y. Within the GMCs are warm dense corse of order 2-3 l.y. in diameter, with T~100K and densities as high as n~107-109 molecules/cm3. It is in these regions where the star-formation process begins. There are thousands of GMCs in the Milky Way, mostly on the Spiral Arms and concentrated toward the Galactic Center. The total mass of molecular gas is estimated to be about equal to, or perhaps somewhat less (~25%) than, the mass of HI gas.
   About 99% of the interstellar medium is gas with about 90% of it in the form of hydrogen (atomic or molecular form), 10% helium, and traces of other elements. H II regions are regions of hot (several thousand K), thin hydrogen emission nebulae that glow from the fluorescence of hydrogen atoms. The roman numeral "II" of H II means that hydrogen is missing one electron. A He III nebula is made of helium gas with two missing electrons. A H I nebula is made of neutral atomic hydrogen. Ultraviolet light from hot O and B stars ionizes the surrounding hydrogen gas. The famous H II region is the Orion Nebula. Another large H II region is the Lagoon Nebula in the constellation Sagittarius. It is about 5000 light years away and spans 90 by 40 arc minutes in our sky. Converting the angular size to a linear size, the Lagoon Nebula is about 130 by 60 light years in extent (the Orion Nebula is only 29 by 26 light years in size).

Table 1. Density different parts of Interstellar medium [1]

Principal Constituents of the ISM

 

Total Mass 
(M
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)

"Cloud" Mass 
(M
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)

Density 
(cm
-3)

Temperature
(K)

HI gas

~5 x 109

 

0.1-10

100-1000

H2 gas

1-5 x 109

105-106

103-105

~10

Dust

~5 x 107

 

 

~40

HII gas

 

100-1000

103-104

10,000

   Next to the Lagoon Nebula on our sky (but closer to us in space) is the Trifid Nebula, so-called because of the dust lanes that trisect the H II region behind them. The image below is nice one to illustrate the three types of nebulae: the red H II region behind a dark dust nebula (showing the effect of the extinction of light) and next to them a blue reflection nebula (showing the preferential scattering of shorter wavelengths).
H II regions also provide a convenient way to map the structure of a galaxy because they are so large and luminous. In our galaxy the H II regions are distributed in a spiral pattern.

The Solar system has a protonic Solar wind having density 10 - 70 protons and speed 400 - 1000 m/s at Earth orbit [4] Ch.13, p.246. The Earth's top atmosphere has about 105 charged particles/cm3 at altitude 200 - 600 km and above [3] Ch.3 p.48. The UV light of star ionizes the hydrogen at a gigantic distance.

Description of the offered space wing electro-ship.
   The schematic diagram of the offered space wing electro-ship is shown in fig. 1. The ship has body 1, two biplane wings (light grids, nets): top 2 and lower 3 and bracings 4. The grids are charged electricity "+" and "-". They have electric field between them. Number 6 is lines of an electric intensity. The charged space medium 5 (protons, ions, plasma) entrance between wings in flight and wings turn (to deflect) the charged space particles 7 in down and thus produce the lift force. This lift force allows changing the direction of space flight and helping to maneuver the space ship.
The wings may have a perpendicular position to the flight direction. In this case they can work as the efficient propulsion system (engine) or an electric brake of the space ship. When installation is used as wings or engine that consumes electric energy. When they use as the brake, they generate electric energy. The wing grid is made from thin wire and has large cells relative to the wire area. They located along the flight direction and have negligibly small medium drag. They may also be formed as tubes (or balls) from a very thin film covered by electric conductivity layer. In this case the thickness of film is very small and high energy space particles pierce through them.
The charged space medium (and plasma) is a mixture of the negative (electrons) and positive (protons,
ions) particles. The mass of electrons is less than the mass of protons by approximately two thousand times. Their acceleration proportionately more than the acceleration of protons. The electrons quickly leave the space between biplane wings. In addition, when the wing has a positive attack angle, the way of positive particles between biplane wings is more than the way of electrons. That way the offered wing produces the left force and simultaneously the inductive grad 10 shown in fig.2c. The computation of lift force, drag, inductive drag, thrust and brake are discussed in Computation and Estimation section.
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Fig.1. Space wing AB-electroship. a - site view; b - forward view. Notations: 1 - Body of electrocraft; 2 - upper positive charged electric net (upper wing). Nets (grids) 1 and 2 together create the biplane wing in the horizontal position (along the charge flow) and jet-engine in vertical position (perpendicular to charge flow); 3 - lower negative charged electric net (lower wing); 4 - bracing; 5 - space charged particles (in the most cases: proton) or a charged flow; 6 - line of electrical intensity; 7 - deflected flow after wing; ? -attack angle of wing.
   Element of one design of the suggested space wing is shown in fig.2. Fig.2a shows the horizontal position of the wing (vertical position of electric intensity lines relative to the direction of ship flight). In this position the wing deflects down the charged flow and produces the lift force and inductive drag. Fig. 2b shows the vertical position of the wing (horizontal position of electric intensity lines relative to the direction of ship flight). Note, in this position you can transfer the wing into an electric engine without turning of wing by a switching-on the voltage between horizontal elements of wing.  In this position the wind will be working as propulsion system and produces thrust or drag.
   Fig.3 shows the method for decreasing drag of the ship body 1 (fuselage of space ship). Relativistic particles cannot be deflected by sharp edges as the conventional high-speed molecules in aviation. They penetrate into body matter and can produce the radiation and radioactive isotopes. We can only deflect the charged particles by electric fields. There are two grids 2 and 3 having the electric field between them. The positive heavy particle 5 bends its trajectory between grids 2-3 and is deflected (see 7) before contacting the front part of the body in space. The negative particles (electrons) penetrate into the ship body and negatively charge the ship body. This negative charge may be used for charging the negative wing grid, or in the collector of positive particles 4 (fig.6), or for production of electricity [4].
The thin film 6 is used as ionizer of neutral particles. They loss the part of its kinetic energy (energy of ionization about 14 eV for hydrogen) but heavy positive particles avoid collision with ship body.
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Fig.2. Element of space net wing. a - horizontal position of the wing or the vertical electric intensity lines; b - vertical position of the wing or the horizontal position of intensity lines; c - inductive drag of the wing. Notations: 7 - accelerated (braked) space charged particles; 8 - wing force; 9 - lift force; 10 - inductive force; other notations are same with fig.1.

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Fig.3. Body (fuselage) deflector of the charged particles (reducer of space drag). Notations: 1 - ship body (fuselage); 2, 3 - electric grids; 5 - flow of electric charges to a body entrance; 6 - thin film-ionizer. 7 - deflected positive charged particles.

The other design of fuselage deflector is shown in fig.4. Forward of body locates the ionizer from thin film and charged positive ball. The positive ball repels the protons and attractive the electrons. They avoid the collusion with ship body.

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Fig.4. Other design of body (fuselage) deflector of the charged particles (reducer of space drag). Notations: 1 - ship body (fuselage); 2 - thin film ionizer; 3 - charged positive ball; 4 - charged positive particle (proton); 5 - charged negative particle (electron); 6 - trajectory of positive particle; 7 - trajectory of negative particle.

Fig.5 shows the simplest wing space ship. That has eight charged balls 11 - 18 from thin film covered by conductive layer. The balls are connected to space ship by the thin long wires 19 and rotated around ship. Centrifugal force compensates the attractive force of charged ball and lift force, thrust and drag forces. The ball allows gets an acceptable electric intensity on ball surface (< 100 Mv).
This design allows covering a large space area (up to tens of square km). That allows also easy conversion of the space wings into propulsion/drag system (without turning or translating the entire system) by switching of electric voltage into chosen other balls from a variety deployed throughout the craft (analogous to firing only certain rockets of a built in reaction control system (RCS) in traditional spacecraft, but with the reaction-mass free consumption of a reaction wheel--and without the reaction wheel's need for periodical purging of momentum.) 
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Fig.5. The simplest wing space AB-electro-craft. a - site view; b - forward view. Notation: 11 - 18 charged balls; 19 - brackets.
   We can use for collection of the positive charged particles (protons) the negatively charged ball offered by author in [4] Ch.13. The ship is having achievable speed of 400 km/sec and the thin ball is having radius 5 m can collect the protons from area in 10 - 60 km in Solar System. This design of wing space ship is shown in fig.6. Here 4 is ball, 5 - electrostatic deflector of flow, 6 - electrical accelerator (brake).
The wing space ship can have the UV laser 2, which ionizes the neutral atoms ahead of ship. That allows the ship to have the lift force, thrust and brake in most areas of interstellar media. The stars having predominant UV light in their emission spectra ionize the interstellar hydrogen at gigantic distances. The requested energy for ionization of hydrogen H equals 13 eV. The energy of relativistic H particles is Mv. It is more profitable to ionize and deflect H from way than spend engine energy for compensation of ship drag.

Theory, computations and estimation of a flight the wing space ship

1. Common relations. The relativistic theory [5] asserts the measurement of time t, speed v and distance S of moving object made a immobile observer (on Earth) and observer located in object (astronaut of space ship) gives the different result. The theory gives the following relations between them
0x01 graphic

where c = 3?108 m/s is light speed; v is speed of the moving object measured by immobile observer, m/s; ve is speed measured by astronaut by calculation the acceleration and self time, m/s; t is time, sec; s is lenght, m. The subscript `e' means the value is measured by astronaut. The other values are measured by Earth observer. The th, ch, sh are hyperbolic tangent, cosine and sine. Note the speed ve calculated by astronaut may be any, in particular, ve > c. The hyperbolic th x 1.
The hyperbolic th, ch, sh may be computed throw conventional function ex
0x01 graphic

For small ve /c <<1 the v - ve , t - te, s - se . The computations of magnitudes (1) presented in fig.7.
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Fig.6. Space wing ship having the laser beam ionizer 2 and the electrostatic collector 4. Notations: 1 - space ship; 2 UV laser beam ionizer; 3 - trajectories of positive charged particles; 4 - negative charged thin film ball; 5 - electrostatic deflector of flow; 6 - electrical accelerator (brake).
  
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   Fig.7. Ratio speeds, times and lengths measured astronaut and Earth observer.

2. Case of constant acceleration a. In this case the relativistic equations may be integrated and we get the next relations between the time, speed and distance measured by Earth observer and astronaut:
   0x01 graphic

where a = const acceleration of space ship measured by astronaut, m/s2. S is distance, m.
The speed and distance are (in te = t = 0, values v(0) = S(0) = 0):
   0x01 graphic

where 0x01 graphic
is the rest of the relative mass of ship moved by the photon engine.
Let us consider the hypothetic flight to star system Alfa-Centaur (Alpha Centauri) located at a distance 4.3 light years from Earth with constant Earth acceleration a = 10 m/s. The first half of distance the ship accelerates, the second it brakes. Then the maximum speed of ship will be v/c = 0.95, the astronaut time of flight will be 7.3 years, the Earth time will be 12 years. The radioed (beamed) information sent by astronauts about Alfa-Centaur (Alpha Centauri) will reached the Earth after 4.3 years.
3. Relative consumption of mass by rocket engine is
0x01 graphic
   Where 0x01 graphic
is relative ship speed; 0x01 graphic
is relative speed of an exhaust mass (gas, photons, protons) measured by astronaut; 0x01 graphic
; M0 -initial mass of rocket, kg.
The photon engine having 0x01 graphic
= 1 spends about 40% of rocket mass for reaching relative speed 0x01 graphic
= 0.5c = 150 000 km/s.
For v/c << 1 the equation (5) became as the well-known equation 0x01 graphic
. Computations of the equation (5) are presented in fig.8.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.8. Relative mass of rocket via relative speed of rocket and relative speed of exhaust mass.

4. The dynamic pressure (drag) of space ship equals
0x01 graphic

where pe is dynamic pressure, N/m2; ?e is density of space medium, kg/m3 (mass of proton is mp=1,67?10-27 kg). The computation of equation (6) are presented in fig.9.

0x01 graphic

Fig.9. Dynamic pressure (drag) via relative space ship and media density.

   5. The thrust of the ramjet engine. The thrust of unit (m2) of an entrance surface F [m2] in case of photon engine and the most efficiency using is
0x01 graphic
   where Pe is thrust, N. The computations of equation (7) are presented in fig.10.

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   Fig.10. Thrust of photon ramjet engine via relative ship speed ve/c and number protons (H) in 1cm3.
  
6. Lift force and inductive drag. The space wing shown in fig.1 (when one deflects a flow) produces the drag shown in fig.2c. The value of drag depends from angle of deflected flow. This angle ? and inductive drag Di [N/m2], lift force L [N/m2] approximately equals 0x01 graphic

where V is vertical (along electric tensile lines) speed in exit of wing, m/s; q is charge of particles, for proton q = 1.6?10-19 C; m is mass of particles, for proton mp = 1,67?10-27 kg; U is change of electric voltage along particle way, V; s - way of particle along electric lines, m; ap - acceleration of particle, m/s2 ; E- energy of particle along electric lines, eV. Conventionally V/c <<1. Acceleration of particle equals ap - qEp/m, where Ep is electric intensity, V/m; L is lift force, N/m2. Lift force, media density and speed v are related to area F of the entrance into biplane wing.
The ratio k = L/D (where L is lift force, D is a full drag) can reach up k - 2/? - 100 (conventional airplane has k about 1215). That means using wing space ship for maneuver is more profitable then rocket engine. The computations lift force L of equation (8) via relative ship speed and the media density (number of protons H in 1 cm3) are presented in fig.11.

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Fig.11. Relative lift force L [N/m2] of wing ship via relative ship speed v/c and numbers of protons [H/cm3] in space media, ? = 0.1.

   7. Drag of ship body. It is very efficienct using the electrostatic field (fig.3, 4) for decreasing the drag of ship body (fuselage). Proton is heavier by 1836 times then electron. Theoretically we can decrease the drag by the same factor spending but small electric energy.
   8. Collector of particles. Electrostatic collector offered and developed by author in [4] Ch.13. That allows to collect charged particles from a gigantic area and to get matter for the ship.
  
   Conclusion

Author offers and develops a new wing space relativistic apparatus (space ship). And the propulsion system uses the electric energy. That apparatus allows changing the direction of flight and maneuvering (include orientation) of the space ship without using the rocket engine. He also offers the electrostatic method for decreasing the drag of ship fuselage and collects the charged particles from a huge area. That increases the efficiency of the wing ship and the ramjet relativistic propulsion system by thousands of times.
   References
   1. Wikipedia. Bussard Ramjet. http://wikipwdia.org .
2. Heppenheimer, T.A. (1978). "On the Infeasibility of Interstellar Ramjets". Journal of the British
Interplanetary Society
31
   3. Bolonkin A.A., New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human
   Sciences, NOVA, USA 2007.
4. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, London, 2006.
5. ., , , , 1968. Translation from the
German: Sanger E., Zur mechanik der photonen-stranlantriebe, Verlag Munchen, 1966.

Further reading:
6) "Macro-Projects: Environments and Technologies", by A,Bolonkin, R.Cathcart, NOVA, 2007,
536 pgs. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 .
http://www.archive.org/details/Macro-projectsEnvironmentsAndTechnologies
   7) "New Technologies and Revolutionary Projects", by A. Bolonkin, Scribd, 2008, 324 pgs,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/32744477 ,
http://www.archive.org/details/NewTechnologiesAndRevolutionaryProjects,
http://technica-molodezhi.ru/docs/Bolonkin/FIL13053195760N960350001/

8) LIFE. SCIENCE. FUTURE (Biography notes, researches and innovations), by A. Bolonkin, Scribd, 2010,
208 pgs. 16 Mb.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/48229884,
http://www.archive.org/details/Life.Science.Future.biographyNotesResearchesAndInnovations
   9) Universe, Human Immortality and Future Human Evaluation. By A. Bolonkin, Scribd. 2010.,
4.8 Mb.
   http://www.archive.org/details/UniverseHumanImmortalityAndFutureHumanEvaluation,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/52969933/
  
  
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   Chapter 5 Transfer of Electricity 8 28 09

Chapter 5

Wireless Transfer of Electricity from Continent to Continent

   Abstract
Author offers collections from his previous research of the revolutionary new ideas: wireless transferring electric energy in long distance - from one continent to other continent through Earth ionosphere and storage the electric energy into ionosphere. Early he also offered the electronic tubes as the method of transportation of electricity into outer space and the electrostatic space 100 km towers for connection to Earth ionosphere.
Early it is offered connection to Earth ionosphere by 100 km solid or inflatable towers. There are difficult for current technology. In given work the research this connection by thin plastic tubes supported in atmosphere by electron gas and electrostatic force. Building this system is cheap and easy for current technology.
   The computed project allows to estimate the possibility of the suggested method.
  
   Key words: transferring of electricity in space; transfer of electricity to spaceship, Moon, Mars; plasma MagSail; electricity storage; ionosphere transfer of electricity.
  

Introduction

  
   The production, storage, and transference of large amounts of electric energy is an enormous problem for humanity. These spheres of industry are search for, and badly need revolutionary ideas. If in production of energy, space launch and flight we have new ideas (see [1]-[15]), the new revolutionary ideas in transferring and storage energy are only in the works [1-6].
   Important Earth mega-problem is efficient transfer of electric energy long distances (intra-national, international, intercontinental). The consumption of electric energy strongly depends on time (day or night), weather (hot or cold), from season (summer or winter). But electric station can operate most efficiently in a permanent base-load generation regime. We need to transfer the energy a far distance to any region that requires a supply in any given moment or in the special hydro-accumulator stations. Nowadays, a lot of loss occurs from such energy transformation. One solution for this macro-problem is to transfer energy from Europe to the USA during nighttime in Europe and from the USA to Europe when it is night in the USA. Another solution is efficient energy storage, which allows people the option to save electric energy.
   The storage of a big electric energy can help to solve the problem of cheap space launch. The problem of an acceleration of a spaceship can be solved by use of a new linear electrostatic engine suggested in [10] or Magnetic Space Launcher offered in [11]. However, the cheap cable space launch offered by author [12] requires use of gigantic energy in short time period. (It is inevitable for any launch method because we must accelerate big masses to the very high speed - 8 11 km/s). But it is impossible to turn off whole state and connect all electric station to one customer. The offered electric energy storage can help solving this mega-problem for humanity.
The idea of wireless transfer energy through ionosphere was offered and researched by author in [1 - 6]. For connection to Earth ionosphere offered the 100 km solid, inflatable, electrostatic or kinetic towers [7 - 9]. But it is expensive and difficult for current technology.
   Wireless transferring of electric energy in Earth.
It is interesting the idea of energy transfer from one Earth continent to another continent without wires. As it is known the resistance of infinity (very large) conducting medium does not depend from distance. That is widely using in communication. The sender and receiver are connected by only one wire, the other wire is Earth. The author offers to use the Earth's ionosphere as the second plasma cable. It is known the Earth has the first ionosphere layer E at altitude about 100 km (Fig. 1). The concentration of electrons in this layer reaches 5104 1/cm3 in daytime and 3.1103 1/cm3 at night (Fig. 1). This layer can be used as a conducting medium for transfer electric energy and communication in any point of the Earth. We need minimum two space 100 km. towers (Fig. 2). The cheap optimal inflatable, kinetic, and solid space towers are offered and researched by author in [6-9]. Additional innovations are a large inflatable conducting balloon at the end of the tower and big conducting plates in a sea (ocean) that would dramatically decrease the contact resistance of the electric system and conducting medium.
   Theory and computation of these ideas are presented in Macroprojects section.
  
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   Fig.1. Consentration/cm3 of electrons (= ions) in Earth's atmosphere in the day and night time in the D, E, F1, and F2 layers of ionosphere.
  
  
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   Fig.2. Using the ionosphere as conducting medium for transferring a huge electric energy between continents and as a large storage of the electric energy. Notations: 1 - Earth, 2 - space tower (or electron tube) about 100 km of height, 3 - conducting E layer of Earth's ionosphere, 4 - back connection through Earth.
  
   However the solid 100 km space towers are very expensive. Main innovation in this work is connection to ionosphere by cheap film tube filled by electron gas.
  

Electronic tubes

   The author's first innovations in electrostatic applications were developed in 1982-1983 [1]-[3].
   Later the series articles of this topic were published in [4]-[15]. In particular, in the work [4-5] was developed theory of electronic gas and its application to building (without space flight!) inflatable electrostatic space tower up to the stationary orbit of Earth's satellite (GEO).
   In given work this theory applied to special inflatable electronic tubes made from thin insulator film. It is shown the charged tube filled by electron gas is electrically neutral, that can has a high internal pressure of the electron gas.
   The main property of AB electronic tube is a very low electric resistance because electrons have small friction on tube wall. (In conventional solid (metal) conductors, the electrons strike against the immobile ions located in the full volume of the conductor.). The abnormally low electric resistance was found along the lateral axis only in nanotubes (they have a tube structure!). In theory, metallic nanotubes can have an electric current density (along the axis) more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as silver and copper. Nanotubes have excellent heat conductivity along axis up 6000 W/m.K. Copper, by contrast, has only 385 W/m.K. The electronic tubes explain why there is this effect. Nanotubes have the tube structure and electrons can free move along axis (they have only a friction on a tube wall).
   More over, the moving electrons produce the magnetic field. The author shows - this magnetic field presses against the electron gas. When this magnetic pressure equals the electrostatic pressure, the electron gas may not remain in contact with the tube walls and their friction losses. The electron tube effectively becomes a superconductor for any surrounding temperature, even higher than room temperature! Author derives conditions for it and shows how we can significantly decrease the electric resistance.
  

Description, Innovations, and Applications of Electronic tubes.

   An electronic AB-Tube is a tube filled by electron gas (fig.3). Electron gas is the lightest gas known in nature, far lighter than hydrogen. Therefore, tubes filled with this gas have the maximum possible lift force in atmosphere (equal essentially to the lift force of vacuum). The applications of electron gas are based on one little-known fact - the electrons located within a cylindrical tube having a positively charged cover (envelope) are in neutral-charge conditions - the total attractive force of the positive envelope plus negative contents equals zero. That means the electrons do not adhere to positive charged tube cover. They will freely fly into an AB-Tube. It is known, if the Earth (or other planet) would have, despite the massive pressures there, an empty space in Earth's very core, any matter in this (hypothetical!) cavity would be in a state of weightlessness (free fall). All around, attractions balance, leaving no vector `down'.
   Analogously, that means the AB-Tube is a conductor of electricity. Under electric tension (voltage) the electrons will collectively move without internal friction, with no vector `down' to the walls, where friction might lie. In contrast to movement of electrons into metal (where moving electrons impact against a motionless ion grate). In the AB-Tube we have only electron friction about the tube wall. This friction is significantly less than the friction electrons would experience against ionic structures--and therefore so is the electrical resistance.
   When the density of electron gas equals n = 1.651016/r 1/m3 (where r is radius of tube, m), the electron gas has pressure equals atmospheric pressure 1 atm (see research below). In this case the tube cover may be a very thin--though well-sealed-- insulator film. The outer surface of this film is charged positively by static charges equal the electron charges and AB-Tube is thus an electrically neutral body.

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   Fig.3. Electronic vacuum AB-Tube. a) Cross-section of tube. b) Side view. Notation: 1 - Internal part of tube filled by free electrons; 2 - insulator envelope of tube; 3 - positive charges on the outer surface of envelope (over this may be an additional film-insulator); 4 - atmospheric pressure.
  
   Moreover, when electrons move into the AB-Tube, the electric current produces a magnetic field (fig.4). This magnetic field compresses the electron cord and decreases the contact (and friction, electric resistance) electrons to tube walls. In the theoretical section is received a simple relation between the electric current and linear tube charge when the magnetic pressure equals to electron gas pressure i = c? (where i is electric current, A; c = 3108 m/s - is the light speed; ? is tube linear electric charge, C/m). In this case the electron friction equals zero and AB-Tube becomes superconductive at any outer temperature. Unfortunately, this condition requests the electron speed equals the light speed. It is, however, no problem to set the electron speed very close to light speed. That means we can make the electric conductivity of AB-Tubes very close to superconductivity almost regardless of the outer temperature.
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   Fig. 4. Electrostatic and magnetic intensity into AB-Tube. a) Electrostatic intensity (pressure) via tube radius. b) Magnetic intensity (pressure) from electric current versus rube radius.
   Theory of Plasma Transfer for Electric Energy, Estimations and Computations
   Long Distance Wireless Transfer of Electricity on Earth.
   The transferring of electric energy from one continent to other continent through ionosphere and the Earth surface is described again. For this transferring we need two space towers of 100 km height, the towers must have a big conducting ball at their top end and underground (better, underwater) plates for decreasing the contact electric resistance (a good Earth ground). The contacting ball is a large (up to 100 - 200 m diameter) inflatable gas balloon having a conductivity layer (covering, or coating).
   Let us to offer the method which allows computation of the parameters and possibilities of this electric line.
   The electric resistance and other values for a conductive medium can be estimated by the equations:
   0x01 graphic
, (1)
   where R is the electric resistance of a conductive medium, ? (for sea water ? = 0.3 ?.m); a is the radius of the contacting (source and receiving sphere) balloon, m; ? is the electric conductivity, (?.m)-1; Ea is electric intensity on the balloon surface, V/m.
   The conductivity ? of the E-layer of Earth's ionosphere as a rare ionized gas can be estimated by the equations:
   0x01 graphic
, (2)
   where n = 3.1109 51011 1/m3 is density of free electrons in E-layer of Earth's ionosphere, 1/m3; ? is the time of electrons on their track, s; L is the length traversed by electrons on their track, m; v is the average electron velocity, in m/s; rm = 3.710-10 (for hydrogen N2) is diameter of gas molecule, m; p = 3.210-3 N/m2 is gas pressure for altitude 100 km, N/m2; me = 9.1110-31 is mass of electrons, kg.
   The transfer power and efficiency are
   0x01 graphic
, (3)
   where Rc is common electric resistance of conductivity medium, ?; R is total resistance of the electric system, ?.
   See the detailed computations in the Macro-Projects section.
   Earth's ionosphere as the gigantic storage of electric energy. The Earth surface and Earth's ionosphere is gigantic spherical condenser. The electric capacitance and electric energy storied in this condenser can be estimated by equations:
   0x01 graphic
, (4)
   where C is capacity of condenser, C; R0 = 6.369106 m is radius of Earth; H is altitude of E-layer, m; ?o = 8.8510-12 F/m is electrostatic constant; E is electric energy, J.
   The leakage currency is
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
   where i leakage currency, A; ?a is conductivity of Earth atmosphere, (?.m) -1, na is free electron density of atmosphere, 1/m3; ? = 1.310-4 (for N2) is ion mobility, m2/(sV); Ra is Earth's atmosphere resistance, ?; t is time of discharging in e = 2.73 times, s.

Theory and Computation of Electronic Tube

   Below the interested reader may find the evidence of main equations, estimations, and computations.
   1. Relation between the linear electric charge of tube and electron gas pressure on tube surface:
   0x01 graphic
, (6)
   where p is electron pressure, N/m2; ?0 = 8.8510-12 F/m -electrostatic constant; k = 9109 Nm2/C2 is electrostatic constant; E is electric intensity, V/m; ? is linear charges of tube, C/m; r is radius of tube, m.
   Example, for atmospheric pressure p = 105 N/m2 we receive E = 1.5108 V/m, N/C, the linear charge ? = 0.00833r C/m.
   2. Density of electron (ion) in 1 m3 in tube.
  
   0x01 graphic
, (7)
   where n is charge (electron or ion) density, 1/m3; e = 1.610-19 C is charge of electron; me =
   9.1110-31 is mass of electron, kg; mp = 1.6710-27 is mass of proton, kg; Me is mass density of electron, kg/m3; Mi is mass density of ion, kg/m3.
   For electron pressure 1 atm the electron density (number particles in m3) is n =1.651016/r .
   3. Electric resistance of AD-tube. We estimate the friction of electron about the tube wall by gas- kinetic theory
   0x01 graphic
, (8)
   where FB is electron friction , N; ?B is coefficient of friction; S is friction area, m2; V is electron speed, m/s; ? is density of electron gas, kg/m3; 0x01 graphic
is relative electron friction, N/m2 ; j is current density, A/m2.
   4. Electric loss. The electric loss (power) into tube is
   0x01 graphic
, (9)
   where PT is electric loss, W; L is tube length, m; i is electric current, A.
   5. Relative electric loss is
   0x01 graphic
, (10)
   Compare the relative loss the offered electric (tube) line and conventional electric long distance line. Assume the electric line have length L = 2000 km, electric voltage U = 106 V, electric current i = 300 A, atmospheric pressure into tube. For offered line having tube r = 1 m the relative loss equals 0x01 graphic
= 0.005. For conventional electric line having cross section copper wire 1 cm2 the relative loss is 0x01 graphic
= 0.105. That is in 21 times more than the offered electric line. The computation of Equation (10) for atmospheric pressure and for ratio L/U = 1 are presented in fig. 5. As you see for electric line L = 1000 km, voltage U = 1 million V, tube radius r = 2.2 m, the electric current i = 50 A, the relative loss of electric power is one/millionth (10-6), (only 50 W for transmitted power 50 millions watt!). For connection Earth's surface with ionosphere we need only 100 km electronic tube ir 100 km electrostatic tower [6].
   Moreover, the offered electric line is cheaper by many times, may be levitated into the atmosphere at high altitude, does not need a mast and ground, doesn't require expensive copper, does not allow easy surface access to line tapping thieves who wish to steal the electric energy. And this levitating electric line may be suspended with equal ease over sea as over land.
   6. Lift force of tube (LF,1 , kg/m) and mass of 1 m length of tube (W1. kg/m) is
   0x01 graphic
, (11)
   where ? is air density, at sea level ? =1.225 kg/m3; v is volume of 1 m of tube length, m3; ? is density of tube envelope, for most plastic ? = 1500 1800 kg/m3; ? is film thickness, m.
   Example. For r = 10 m and ? = 0.1 mm, the lift force is 384 kg/m and cover mass is 11.3 kg/m.
   7. Artificial fiber and tube (cable) properties [16]-[19]. Cheap artificial fibers are currently being manufactured, which have tensile strengths of 3-5 times more than steel and densities 4-5 times less than steel. There are also experimental fibers (whiskers) that have tensile strengths 30-100 times more than steel and densities 2 to 5 times less than steel. For example, in the book [16] p.158 (1989), there is a fiber (whisker) CD, which has a tensile strength of ? = 8000 kg/mm2 and density (specific gravity) of ? = 3.5 g/cm3. If we use an estimated strength of 3500 kg/mm2 (? =7.1010 N/m2, ? = 3500 kg/m3), than the ratio is ?/? = 0.110-6 or ?/? = 10106.
  

0x01 graphic

Fig. 5. Relative electric loss via radius of tube for electric current i = 50 1000 A, the atmospheric pressure into tube and ratio L/U = 1.

  
   Although the described (1989) graphite fibers are strong (?/? = 10106), they are at least still ten times weaker than theory predicts. A steel fiber has a tensile strength of 5000 MPA (500 kg/sq.mm), the theoretical limit is 22,000 MPA (2200 kg/mm2) (1987); polyethylene fiber has a tensile strength 20,000 MPA with a theoretical limit of 35,000 MPA (1987). The very high tensile strength is due to its nanotube structure [18].
   Apart from unique electronic properties, the mechanical behavior of nanotubes also has provided interest because nanotubes are seen as the ultimate carbon fiber, which can be used as reinforcements in advanced composite technology. Early theoretical work and recent experiments on individual nanotubes (mostly MWNT's, Multi Wall Nano Tubes) have confirmed that nanotubes are one of the stiffest materials ever made. Whereas carbon-carbon covalent bonds are one of the strongest in nature, a structure based on a perfect arrangement of these bonds oriented along the axis of nanotubes would produce an exceedingly strong material. Traditional carbon fibers show high strength and stiffness, but fall far short of the theoretical, in-plane strength of graphite layers by an order of magnitude. Nanotubes come close to being the best fiber that can be made from graphite.
   For example, whiskers of Carbon nanotube (CNT) material have a tensile strength of 200 Giga-Pascals and a Young's modulus over 1 Tera Pascals (1999). The theory predicts 1 Tera Pascals and a Young's modules of 1-5 Tera Pascals. The hollow structure of nanotubes makes them very light (the specific density varies from 0.8 g/cc for SWNT's (Single Wall Nano Tubes) up to 1.8 g/cc for MWNT's, compared to 2.26 g/cc for graphite or 7.8 g/cc for steel). Tensile strength of MWNT's nanotubes reaches 150 GPa.
   In 2000, a multi-walled carbon nanotube was tested to have a tensile strength of 63 GPa. Since carbon nanotubes have a low density for a solid of 1.3-1.4 g/cm, its specific strength of up to 48,000 kNm/kg is the best of known materials, compared to high-carbon steel's 154 kNm/kg.
The theory predicts the tensile stress of different types of nanotubes as: Armchair SWNT - 120 GPa, Zigzag SWNT - 94 GPa.
Specific strength (strength/density) is important in the design of the systems presented in this paper; nanotubes have values at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than steel. Traditional carbon fibers have a specific strength 40 times that of steel. Since nanotubes are made of graphitic carbon, they have good resistance to chemical attack and have high thermal stability. Oxidation studies have shown that the onset of oxidation shifts by about 1000 C or higher in nanotubes compared to high modulus graphite fibers. In a vacuum, or reducing atmosphere, nanotube structures will be stable to any practical service temperature (in vacuum up 2800 oC. in air up 750oC).
   In theory, metallic nanotubes can have an electric current density (along axis) more than 1,000 times greater than metals such as silver and copper. Nanotubes have excellent heat conductivity along axis up 6000 W/m.K. Copper, by contrast, has only 385 W/m.K.
   About 60 tons/year of nanotubes are produced now (2007). Price is about $100 - 50,000/kg. Experts predict production of nanotubes on the order of 6000 tons/year and with a price of $1 - 100/kg to 2012.
   Commercial artificial fibers are cheap and widely used in tires and countless other applications. The authors have found only older information about textile fiber for inflatable structures (Harris J.T., Advanced Material and Assembly Methods for Inflatable Structures, AIAA, Paper No. 73-448, 1973). This refers to DuPont textile Fiber B and Fiber PRD-49 for tire cord. They are 6 times strong as steel (psi is 400,000 or 312 kg/mm2) with a specific gravity of only 1.5. Minimum available yarn size (denier) is 200, tensile module is 8.8106 (B) and 20106 (PRD-49), and ultimate elongation (percent) is 4 (B) and 1.9 (PRD-49). Some data are in Table 1.
  

Table 1. Material properties

   Material
   Tensile
   strength
   Density
   g/cm3
   Fibers
   Tensile
strength
   Density
   g/cm3
   Whiskers
   kg/mm2
  
  
   kg/mm2
  
   AlB12
   2650
   2.6
   QC-8805
   620
   1.95
   B
   2500
   2.3
   TM9
   600
   1.79
   B4C
   2800
   2.5
   Allien 1
   580
   1.56
   TiB2
   3370
   4.5
   Allien 2
   300
   0.97
   SiC
   1380-4140
   3.22
   Kevlar or Twaron
   362
   1.44
   Material
  
  
   Dynecta or Spectra
   230-350
   0.97
   Steel prestressing strands
   186
   7.8
   Vectran
   283-334
   0.97
   Steel Piano wire
   220-248
  
   E-Glass
   347
   2.57
   Steel A514
   76
   7.8
   S-Glass
   471
   2.48
   Aluminum alloy
   45.5
   2.7
   Basalt fiber
   484
   2.7
   Titanium alloy
   90
   4.51
   Carbon fiber
   565
   1,75
   Polypropylene
   2-8
   0.91
   Carbon nanotubes
   6200
   1.34
   Source: [16]-[19] and Howatsom A.N., Engineering Tables and Data, p.41.
  
   Industrial fibers have up to ? = 500 - 600 kg/mm2, ? = 1500 -1800 kg/m3, and ?/? = 2,78x106. But we are projecting use in the present projects the cheapest films and cables applicable (safety ? = 100 - 200 kg/mm2).
   8. Dielectric strength of insulator. As you see above, the tube needs film that separates the positive charges located in conductive layer from the electron gas located in the tube. This film must have a high dielectric strength. The current material can keep a high E (see table 2 is taken from [10]).
  
   Table 2. Properties of various good insulators (recalculated in metric system)
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Insulator Resistivity Dielectric strength Dielectric
   Ohm-m. MV/m. Ei constant, ?
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Lexan 1017-1019 320-640 3
   Kapton H 1019-1020 120-320 3
   Kel-F 1017-1019 80-240 2-3
   Mylar 1015-1016 160-640 3
   Parylene 1017-1020 240-400 2-3
   Polyethylene 1018-51018 40-680* 2
   Poly (tetra- 1015-51019 40-280** 2
   fluoraethylene)
   Air (1 atm, 1 mm gap) 4 1
   Vacuum (1.310-3 Pa, 80-120 1
   1 mm gap)
   -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   *For room temperature 500 - 700 MV/m.
   ** 400-500 MV/m.
   Sources: Encyclopedia of Science & Technology (New York, 2002, Vol. 6, p. 104, p. 229, p. 231) and Kikoin [17] p. 321.
   Note: Dielectric constant ? can reach 4.5 - 7.5 for mica (E is up 200 MV/m), 6 -10 for glasses (E = 40 MV/m), and 900 - 3000 for special ceramics (marks are CM-1, T-900) [17], p. 321, (E =13 -28 MV/m). Ferroelectrics have ? up to 104 - 105. Dielectric strength appreciably depends from surface roughness, thickness, purity, temperature and other conditions of materials. Very clean material without admixture (for example, quartz) can have electric strength up 1000 MV/m. As you see, we have the needed dielectric material, but it is necessary to find good (and strong) isolative materials and to research conditions which increase the dielectric strength.
   9. Tube cover thickness. The thickness of the tube's cover may be found from Equation
   0x01 graphic
, (12)
   where p is electron pressure minus atmospheric pressure, N/m2. If electron pressure is little more then the atmospheric pressure the tube cover thickness may be very thin.
   10. Mass of tube cover. The mass of tube cover is
   0x01 graphic
, (13)
   where M1 is 1 m2 cover mass, kg/m2; M is cover mass, kg.
   11. The volume V and surface of tube s are
   0x01 graphic
, (14)
   where V is tube volume, m3; s is tube surface, m2.
   12. Relation between tube volume charge and tube liner charge for neutral tube is
   0x01 graphic
, (15)
   where ? is tube volume charge, C/m3; ? is tube linear charge, C/m.
   13. General charge of tube. We got equation from
   0x01 graphic
, (16)
   where Q is total tube charge, C; ? is dielectric constant (see Table 2).
   14. Charging energy. The charged energy is computed by equation
  

0x01 graphic
, (17)

   where W is charge energy, J; U is voltage, V.
   15. Mass of electron gas. The mass of electron gas is
   0x01 graphic
, (18)
   where Me is mass of electron gas, kg; me = 9.1110 -31 kg is mass of electron; N is number of electrons, e = 1.610 -19 is the electron charge, C.
   16. Transfer of matter (Matter flow of ion gas). If we change the electron gas by the ion gas,
our tube transfer charged matter with very high speed
   0x01 graphic
, (19)
   where M is the mass flow, kg/s; Mi is the gas ion density, kg/m3; ? = mi/mp; V is ions speed, m/s.
   Example: We want to transfer to a remote location the nuclear breeder fuel - Uranium-238. (? = 238) by line having i = 1000 A, r = 1 m, ion gas pressure 1 atm. One day contains 86400 seconds.
   The equation (19) gives M = 214 kg/day, speed V = 120 km/s. The AB-tubes are suitable for transferring small amounts of a given matter. For transferring a large mass the diameter of tube and electric current must be larger.
   We must also have efficient devices for ionization and utilization of the de-ionization (recombination) energy.
   The offered method allows direct conversion of the ionization energy of the electron gas or ion gas to light (for example, by connection between the electron and ion gases).
   17. Electron gas pressure. The electron gas pressure may be computed by equation (11). This computation is presented in fig. 6.
   As you see the electron pressure reaches 1 atm for an electric intensity 150 MV/m and for
negligibly small mass of the electron gas.
   18. Power for support of charge. Leakage current (power) through the cover may be estimated by equation
   0x01 graphic
, (20)
   where I is electric current, A; U is voltage, V; R is electric resistance, Ohm; ? is specific resistance, Ohm.m; s is tube surface area, m2.
   The estimation gives the support power has small value.
The proposed AB-Tube may become what we may term `quasi-superconductive' when magnetic pressure equals electrostatic pressure. In this case electrons cannot contact with the tube wall, do not experience resistance friction and the AB-Tube thus experiences this `quasi-superconductivity'.
Let us to get this condition:
   0x01 graphic
, (21)
   where Pe is electronic pressure, N/m2; Pm is magnetic pressure, N/m2; B is magnetic intensity, T; E is electric intensity, V/m; c is light speed, c = 3108 m/s; ?0, ?0 = 4?10-7 are electrostatic and magnetic constants. The relation E = cB is important result and condition of tube superconductivity. For electron pressure into tube 1 atm, the E = 1.5108 V/m (see above) and B = 0.5 T.
  
  
  
  

0x01 graphic

Fig. 6. Electron pressure versus electric intensity

  

Quasi-superconductivity of AB-Tube.

  
   From Eq. (21) we receive the relation between the electric current and the tube charge for AB-Tube `quasi-superconductivity' as
   0x01 graphic
, (22)
   where i is electric current, A; ? is liner charge of tube, C/m.
   For electron pressure equals 1 atm and r = 1m the linear tube charge is ? = 0.00833 C/m (see above) and the request electric current is i = 2.5106 A (j = 0.8 A/m2). For r = 0.1 m the current equals i = 2.5105 A. And for r = 0.01 m the current equals i = 2.5104 A.
   Unfortunately, the requested electron speed (for true and full normal temperature `superconductivity') equals light speed c.
   0x01 graphic
, (23)
   That means we cannot exactly reach it, but we can came very close and we can have very low electric resistance of AB-Tube.
   Information about high speed of electron and ion beam. Here 0x01 graphic
is the relativistic scaling factor, ? = v/c, v is relative system speed; quantities in analytic formulas are expressed in SI or cgs units, as indicated; in numerical formulas I is in amperes (A), B is in gauss (G, 1 T = 104 G), electron linear density N is in cm-1, temperature, voltage, and energy are in MeV, ?z = vz/c, and k is Boltzmann's constant.
   If the system is moved only along axis x, the Lorentz transformation are (" ' " is marked mobile system):
   0x01 graphic
(24)
   where t is time, s; w is speed into systems, m/s, v is system speed, m/s, M is relativistic mass, kg; p is momentum, f is force, N.
   For computation electrostatic and magnetic fields about light speed are useful the equations of relativistic theory (Lorenz's Equations, In the immobile system (market "1")) the electric field is directed along axis y, the magnetic field is directed along axis z)):
   0x01 graphic
(25)
   where lower index "1" means the immobile system coordinate, E is electric intensity, V/m; H is magnetic intensity, A/m; v is speed of mobile system coordinate along axis x, m/s; D is electric displacement. C/m2; ? = v/c is relative speed one system about the other.
   Relativistic electron gyroradius [22]:
   0x01 graphic
. (26)
   Relativistic electron energy:
   0x01 graphic
. (27)
   Bennett pinch condition:
   0x01 graphic
A2. (28)
   Alfven-Lawson limit:
   0x01 graphic
A. (29)
   The ratio of net current to IA is
   0x01 graphic
. (30)
   Here ? = Nre is the Budker number, where 0x01 graphic
cm is the classical electron radius. Beam electron number density is
   0x01 graphic
cm-3 , (31)
   where J is the current density in A cm-2. For a uniform beam of radius a (in cm):
   0x01 graphic
cm-3 (32)
   and
   0x01 graphic
, (33)
   Child's law: nonrelativistic space-charge-limited current density between parallel plates with voltage drop V (in MV) and separation d (in cm) is
   0x01 graphic
A cm-2 (34)
   The condition for a longitudinal magnetic field Bz to suppress filamentation in a beam of current density J (in A cm-2) is
   0x01 graphic
G. (35)
   Kinetic energy necessary to accelerate a particle is
   0x01 graphic
. (36)
   The de Broglie wavelength of particle is ? = h/p, where h = 6.626210-34 J.s is Planck constant,
   p is particle momentum. Classical radius of electron is 2.817910-15 m.

Macroprojects

  
   Wireless transferring energy between Earth's continents (Fig. 2). Let us take the following initial data: Gas pressure at altitude 100 km is p = 3.210-3 N/m2, temperature is 209 K, diameter nitrogen N2 molecule is 3.710-10 m, the ion/electron density in ionosphere is n = 1010 1/m3, radius of the conductivity inflatable balloon at top the space tower (mast) is a = 100 m (contact area is S = 1.3105 m2), specific electric resistance of a sea water is 0.3 ?.m, area of the contact sea plate is 1.3103 m2.
   The computation used equation (1)-(2) and (15)-(17) [4] gives: electron track in ionosphere is L = 1.5 m, electron velocity ? = 9104 m/s, track time ? = 1.6710-5 s, specific resistance of ionosphere is ? = 4.6810-3 (?.m)-1, contact resistance of top ball (balloon) is R1 = 0.34 ?, contact resistance of the lower sea plates is R2 = 4.810-3 ?, electric intensity on ball surface is 5104 V/m.
   If the voltage is U = 107 V, total resistance of electric system is R = 100 ?, then electric currency is I = 105 A, transferring power is W= IU = 1012 W, coefficient efficiency is 99.66%. That is power 1000 powerful electric plants, having power one billion watts. In practice we are not limited in transferring any energy in any Earth's point having the 100 km space mast and further transfer by ground-based electric lines in any geographical region of radius 1000 2000 km.
   Earth's ionosphere as the storage electric energy. It is using the equations (18)-(19) [4]we find the Earth's-ionosphere capacity C = 4.510-2 C. If U = 108 V, the storage energy is E = 0.5CU2 = 2.251014 J. That is large energy. About 20 of 100 tons rocket may be launched to space in 100 km orbit. This energy are produced a powerful electric plant in one day.
  
   Let us now estimate the leakage of current. Cosmic rays and Earth's radioactivity create 1.5 10.4 ions every second in 1 cm3. But they quickly recombine in neutral molecule and the ions concentration is small. We take the ion concentration of lower atmosphere n = 106 1/m3. Then the specific conductivity of Earth's atmosphere is 2.110-17 (?.m)-1. The leakage currency is i = 10-7 U. The altitude of E-layer is 100 km. We take a thickness of atmosphere only 10 km. Then the conductivity of Earth's atmosphere is 10-24 (?.m)-1 , resistance is Ra = 1024 ?, the leakage time (decreasing of energy in e = 2.73 times) is 1.5105 years.
   As you can clearly see the Earth's ionosphere may become a gigantic storage site of electricity.
   The electric resistance of electronic tube is small.
   Discussing

The offered ideas and innovations may create a jump in space and energy industries. Author has made initial base researches that conclusively show the big industrial possibilities offered by the methods and installations proposed.
   The offered inflatable electrostatic AB tube has indisputably remarkable operational advantages in comparison with the conventional electric lines. AB-tube may be also used for transfer electricity in long distance without using ionosphere.
   The main innovations and applications of AB-Tubes are:
      -- Transferring electric energy in a long distance (up 10,000 km) with a small electric loss.
      -- `Quasi-superconductivity'. The offered AB-Tube may have a very low electric resistance for any temperature because the electrons in the tube do not have ions and do not lose energy by impacts with ions. The impact the electron to electron does not change the total impulse (momentum) of couple electrons and electron flow. If this idea is proved in experiment, that will be big breakthrough in many fields of technology.
      -- Cheap electric lines suspended in high altitude (because the AB-Tube can have lift force in atmosphere and do not need ground mounted electric masts and other support structures)
      -- The big diameter AB-Tubes (including the electric lines for internal power can be used as tramway for transportation .
      -- AB-Tube s can be used as vacuum tubes for an exit from the Earth's surface to outer space (out from Earth's atmosphere). That may be used by an Earth telescope for observation of sky without atmosphere hindrances, or sending of a plasma beam to space ships without atmosphere hindrances [12-14].
      -- Transfer of electric energy from continent to continent through the Earth's ionosphere [4-5].
      -- Inserting an anti-gravitator cable into a vacuum-enclosing AB-Tube for near-complete elimination of air friction [4-5]. Same application for transmission of mechanical energy for long distances with minimum friction and losses. [4-5].
      -- Increasing in some times the range of a conventional gun. They can shoot through the vacuum tube (up 4-6 km) and projectile will fly in the rare atmosphere where air drag is small.
      -- Transfer of matter a long distance with high speed (including in outer space, see other of author's works).
      -- Interesting uses in nuclear and high energy physics engineering (inventions).
  
   The offered electronic gas may be used as filling gas for air balloons, dirigibles, energy storage, submarines, electricity-charge devices (see also [4]-[15]).
Further research and testing are necessary. As that is in science, the obstacles can slow, even stop, applications of these revolutionary innovations.
  
Summary
   This new revolutionary idea - wireless transferring of electric energy in long distance through the ionosphere or by the electronic tubes is offered and researched. A rare plasma power cord as electric cable (wire) is used for it. It is shown that a certain minimal electric currency creates a compressed force that supports the plasma cable in the compacted form. Large amounts of energy can be transferred many thousands of kilometers by this method. The requisite mass of plasma cable is merely hundreds of grams. It is computed that the macroproject: The transfer of colossal energy from one continent to another continent (for example, Europe to USA and back), using the Earth's ionosphere as a gigantic storage of electric energy.

References

(Reader finds some of author's articles in http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm and http://arxiv.org , search "Bolonkin", in books "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs; "New concepts, Ideas, and Innovation in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs.; Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology, NOVA, 2008, 536 pgs.).

   1. Bolonkin, A.A., (1982), Installation for Open Electrostatic Field, Russian patent application #3467270/21 116676, 9 July, 1982 (in Russian), Russian PTO.
      -- Bolonkin, A.A., (1983), Method of stretching of thin film. Russian patent application #3646689/10 138085, 28 September 1983 (in Russian), Russian PTO.
      -- Bolonkin, A.A., Getting of Electric Energy from Space and Installation for It, Russian patent application #3638699/25 126303, 19 August, 1983 (in Russian), Russian PTO.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., Wireless Transfer of Electricity in Outer Space. Presented to http://Arxiv.org on 4 January, 2007. Presented as paper AIAA-2007-0590 to 45th AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting, 8 - 11 January 2007, Reno, Nevada, USA.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., AB Electronic Tubes and Quasi-Superconductivity at Room Temperature.
    Presented to http://arxiv.org on 8 April, 2008.
   6. Bolonkin A.A., Optimal Electrostatic Space Tower , Presented as paper AIAA-2007-6201 to Space-2007
Conference, 18-20 September 2007, Long Beach, CA, USA. http://arxiv.org , search "Bolonkin"
7. Bolonkin A.A., Optimal Solid Space Tower, AIAA-2006-7717. ATIO Conference, 25-27 Sept.
2006, Wichita, Kansas, USA. http://arxiv.org .
8. Bolonkin A.A., Optimal Inflatable Space Tower with 3-100 km Height, Journal of the British
Interplanetary Society, Vol.56, No. 3/4, 2003, pp.97-107.
   9. Bolonkin A.A., Kinetic Space Towers. Presented as paper IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03 at World Space
Congress-2002 10-19 October, Houston, TX, USA. Detail Manuscript was published as
A.A.Bolonkin. "Kunetif Space Towers and Launchers", Journal of the British Interplanetary
Society, Vol.57, No.1/2, 2004. pp.33-39.
   10. Bolonkin A.A. Linear Electrostatic Engine, The work was presented as paper AIAA-2006-5229
for 42 Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, USA, 9-12 July, 2005. Work is published in
International journal AEAT, Vol.78, #6, 2006, pp.502-508.
   11. Bolonkin A.A., Krinker M., Magnetic Space Launcher, 45 Joint Propulsion Conference,
USA, 2009.
12. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pgs.
   13. Bolonkin A.A., "New concepts, Ideas, and Innovation in Aerospace, Technology and Human
Science
", NOVA, 2008, 502 pgs.
14. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA,
2009, 500 pgs.
      -- Macro-Engineering - A challenge for the future. Collection of articles. Eds. V. Badescu, R. Cathcart and R. Schuiling, Springer, 2006. See article: "Space Towers" by A.Bolonkin.
      -- Galasso F.S., Advanced Fibers and Composite, Gordon and Branch Science Publisher, 1989.
      -- Kikoin, I.K., (ed.), Tables of physical values. Atomuzdat, Moscow, 1976 (in Russian).
      -- Dresselhous M.S., Carbon Nanotubes, Springer, 2000.
      -- AIP. Physics desk reference, 3-rd Edition, Springer, 2003.
   20. Wikopedia.
  
   Special aircraft
   0x01 graphic
  
  
   Chapter4 Blanket for City 4 12 09

Chapter 6

Transparent Inflatable Blanket for Cities

(for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical , biological and radioactive weapons)

Abstract

  
In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. That allows keeping the outside atmospheric conditions (for example weather) away from the interior of the inflatable Dome, protecting a city by its' presence from chemical, bacterial, and radioactive weapons and even partially from aviation and nuclear bombs.
The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. The cover is spread on a flat surface and a ventilator pumps air under the film cover and lifts the new dome into place (inflation takes many hours). However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course (as opposed to an empty, mowed field) we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees without risking damage to it by snagging and other complications. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium - although of these, methane will be the most practical and least leaky). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and radioactive fallout or particulates. After finish of dome building the light gas can be changed by air.
Two projects for Manhattan (NY, USA) and Moscow (Russia) are targets for a sample computation.
   Key words: Dome for city, blanket for city, greenhouse, regional control of weather, protection of cities from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons.
  

Introduction

  
   Idea. The inflatable transparent thin film AB Dome offered and developed by author in [1-15] is a good means for converting a city or region into a subtropical garden with excellent weather, obtainable clean water from condensation (and avoided evaporation), saved energy for heating houses (in cold regions), reflecting energy for cooling houses (in hot regions), protection of city from chemical, bacterial, radioactive weapons in war time, even the provision of electricity etc.
   However, the author did not describe the method - by which we can cover a city, forest or other obstacle-laden region by thin film.
This article suggests a method for covering the city and any surface which is neither flat nor obstruction free by thin film which insulates the city from outer environment, Earth's atmospheric instabilities, cold winter, strong wind, rain, hot weather and so on.
   This new subassembly method of building an inflatable dome is named by the author `AB-Blanket'. This idea is to design from a transparent double film a blanket, with the internal pockets or space filled by light gas (methane, hydrogen, helium). Subassemblies of the AB Blanket are lighter than air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made in a factory, spread on a flat area, filled by gas to float upwards, and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to a sky over the city. Here they are connected to the AB Dome in building and as additional AB Blankets are brought into place, they cover the city and are sealed together. After finish of dome building the light gas can be changed by air. The film will be supported by small additional air pressure into Dome.

0x01 graphic

Current rigid structures

   Information about Earth's megacities. A megacity is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people. Some definitions also set a minimum level for population density (at least 2,000 persons/square km). Megacities can be distinguished from global cities by their rapid growth, new forms of spatial density of population, formal and informal economics. A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge upon one another. The terms megapolis and megalopolis are sometimes used synonymously with megacity.
In 1800 only 3% of the world's population lived in cities. 47% did by the end of the twentieth century. In 1950, there were 83 cities with populations exceeding one million; but by 2007, this had risen to 468 agglomerations of more than one million. If the trend continues, the world's urban population will double every 38 years, say researchers. The UN forecasts that today's urban population of 3.2 billion will rise to nearly 5 billion by 2030, when three out of five people will live in cities.
The increase will be most dramatic in the poorest and least-urbanised continents, Asia and Africa. Surveys and projections indicate that all urban growth over the next 25 years will be in developing countries. One billion people, one-sixth of the world's population, now live in shanty towns,
By 2030, over 2 billion people in the world will be living in slums. Already over 90% of the urban population of Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda, three of the world's most rural countries, live in slums.
In 2000, there were 18 megacities - conurbations such as Tokyo, New York City, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Mumbai (then Bombay), So Paulo, Karachi that have populations in excess of 10 million inhabitants. Greater Tokyo already has 35 million, which is greater than the entire population of Canada.
By 2025, according to the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia alone will have at least 10 megacities, including Jakarta, Indonesia (24.9 million people), Dhaka, Bangladesh (26 million), Karachi, Pakistan (26.5 million), Shanghai (27 million) and Mumbai (33 million). Lagos, Nigeria has grown from 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 15 million today, and the Nigerian government estimates that the city will have expanded to 25 million residents by 2015. Chinese experts forecast that Chinese cities will contain 800 million people by 2020.
In 1950, New York was the only urban area with a population of over 10 million. Geographers have identified 25 such areas as of October 2005, as compared with 19 megacities in 2004 and only nine in 1985. This increase has happened as the world's population moves towards the high (75-85%) urbanization levels of North America and Western Europe. The 1990 census marked the first time the majority of US citizens lived in cities with over 1 million inhabitants.
In the 2000s, the largest megacity is the Greater Tokyo Area. The population of this urban agglomeration includes areas such as Yokohama and Kawasaki, and is estimated to be between 35 and 36 million. This variation in estimates can be accounted for by different definitions of what the area encompasses. While the prefectures of Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Saitama are commonly included in statistical information, the Japan Statistics Bureau only includes the area within 50 kilometers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Offices in Shinjuku, thus arriving at a smaller population estimate. A characteristic issue of megacities is the difficulty in defining their outer limits and accurately estimating the population.

0x01 graphic


Project of rigid dome over central part of city.

Description of Innovations

   Our design of the dome from levitated AB Blanket sections is presented in Fig.1 that includes the thin inflated film plate parts. The innovations are listed here: (1) the construction is gas-inflatable; (2) each part is fabricated with very thin, transparent film (thickness is 0.05 to 0.2 mm) having controlled clarity (option); (3) the enclosing film has two conductivity layers plus a liquid crystal layer between them which changes its clarity, color and reflectivity under an electric voltage (option); (4) The space between double film is filled a light gas (for example: methane, hydrogen or helium). The air pressure inside the dome is more than the external atmosphere also for protection from outer wind, snow and ice.
The film (textile) may be conventional (and very cheap) or advanced with realtime controlled clarity for cold and hot regions.
   The city AB Dome, constructed by means of these AB Blankets, allows getting clean water from rain for drinking, washing and watering which will often be enough for a city population except in case of extreme density (We shall see this for our calculations in the case of Manhattan, below). This water collected at high altitude (Blanket conventionally located at 100 - 500 m) may produce electric energy by hydro-electric generators located at Earth's surface. Wind generators located at high altitude (at Blanket surface) can produce electric energy. Such an AB Dome saves a lot of energy (fuel) for house heating in winter time and cooling in summer time.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
  
   Fig.1. (a). Design of AB Blanket from the transparent film over city and (b) building the AB Dome from parts of Blanket. Notations: 1 - city; 2 - AB-Blanket; 3 - bracing wire (support cable); 4 - tubes for rain water, for lifting gas, signalization and control; 5 - enter. Exit and ventilator; 6 - part of Blanket; 7 - dirigible; 8 - building the Blanket.
  
   Detail design of Blanket section is shown in fig.2. Every section contains cylindrical tubes filled a light gas, has margins (explained later in Discussion), has windows which can be open and closed (a full section may be window), connected to Earth's surface by water tube, tube for pumping gas, bracing gables and signal and control wires.
  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig.2. Design of AB Blanket section. (a) Typical section of Blanket (top view); (b) Cross-section A-A of Blanket; (c) Cross-section B-B of Blanket; (d) Typical section of Blanket (side view). Notations: 1 - part of Blanket; 2 - light lift gas (for example: methane, hydrogen or helium); 3 - bracing wire (support cable); 4 - tubes for rain water, for lifting gas, signalization and control; 5 - cover of windows; 6 - snow, ice; 7 - hydro-electric generator, air pump.
  
   Fig. 3 illustrates the advanced thin transparent control Blanket cover we envision. The inflated textile shell--technical "textiles" can be woven or non-woven (films)--embodies the innovations listed: (1) the film is thin, approximately 0.05 to 0.3 mm. A film this thin has never before been used in a major building; (2) the film has two strong nets, with a mesh of about 0.1 0.1 m and a = 1 1 m, the threads are about 0.3 - 1 mm for a small mesh and about 1 - 2 mm for a big mesh.
  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig.3. Design of advanced covering membrane. Notations: (a) Big fragment of cover with controlled clarity (reflectivity, carrying capacity) and heat conductivity; (b) Small fragment of cover; (c) Cross-section of cover (film) having 5 layers; (d) Longitudinal cross-section of cover; 1 - cover; 2 -mesh; 3 - small mesh; 4 - thin electric net; 5 - cell of cover; 6 - margins and wires; 7 - transparent dielectric layer; 8 - conducting layer (about 1 - 3 ?); 9 - liquid crystal layer (about 10 - 100 ?); 10 - conducting layer; and 11 - transparent dielectric layer. Common thickness is 0.1 - 0.5 mm. Control voltage is 5 - 10 V.
  
   The net prevents the watertight and airtight film covering from being damaged by vibration; (3) the film incorporates a tiny electrically conductive wire net with a mesh about 0.1 0.1 m and a line width of about 100 ? and a thickness near 10 ?. The wire net is electric (voltage) control conductor. It can inform the dome maintenance engineers concerning the place and size of film damage (tears, rips, etc.); (4) the film has twin-layered with the gap -- c = 1-3 m and b = 3-6 m--between film layers for heat insulation. In polar (and hot) regions this multi-layered covering is the main means for heat isolation and puncture of one of the layers won't cause a loss of shape because the second film layer is unaffected by holing; (5) the airspace in the dome's covering can be partitioned, either hermetically or not; and (6) part of the covering can have a very thin shiny aluminum coating that is about 1? (micron) for reflection of unnecessary solar radiation in equatorial or collect additional solar radiation in the polar regions [2].
   The town cover may be used as a screen for projection of pictures, films and advertising on the cover at night time. In the case of Manhattan this alone might pay for it!
   Brif information about advanced cover film. Our advanced Blanket cover (film) has 5 layers (fig. 3c): transparent dielectric layer, conducting layer (about 1 - 3 ?), liquid crystal layer (about 10 - 100 ?), conducting layer (for example, SnO2), and transparent dielectric layer. Common thickness is 0.3 - 1 mm. Control voltage is 5 - 10 V. This film may be produced by industry relatively cheaply.
1. Liquid crystals (LC) are substances that exhibit a phase of matter that has properties between those of a conventional liquid, and those of a solid crystal.
   Liquid crystals find wide use in liquid crystal displays (LCD), which rely on the optical properties of certain liquid crystalline molecules in the presence or absence of an electric field. The electric field can be used to make a pixel switch between clear or dark on command. Color LCD systems use the same technique, with color filters used to generate red, green, and blue pixels. Similar principles can be used to make other liquid crystal based optical devices. Liquid crystal in fluid form is used to detect electrically generated hot spots for failure analysis in the semiconductor industry. Liquid crystal memory units with extensive capacity were used in Space Shuttle navigation equipment. It is also worth noting that many common fluids are in fact liquid crystals. Soap, for instance, is a liquid crystal, and forms a variety of LC phases depending on its concentration in water.
   The conventional controlled clarity (transparancy) film reflects superfluous energy back to space if too much. If film has solar cells it may converts part of the superfluous solar energy into electricity.
   2. Transparency. In optics, transparency is the material property of allowing light to pass through. Though transparency usually refers to visible light in common usage, it may correctly be used to refer to any type of radiation. Examples of transparent materials are air and some other gases, liquids such as water, most glasses, and plastics such as Perspex and Pyrex. Where the degree of transparency varies according to the wavelength of the light. From electrodynamics it results that only a vacuum is really transparent in the strict meaning, any matter has a certain absorption for electromagnetic waves. There are transparent glass walls that can be made opaque by the application of an electric charge, a technology known as electrochromics.Certain crystals are transparent because there are straight lines through the crystal structure. Light passes unobstructed along these lines. There is a complicated theory "predicting" (calculating) absorption and its spectral dependence of different materials. The optic glass has transparance about 95% of light (visible) radiation. The transparancy dipents fron thickness and may be very high for thin film.
3. Electrochromism is the phenomenon displayed by some chemical species of reversibly changing color when a burst of charge is applied.
One good example of an electrochromic material is polyaniline which can be formed either by the electrochemical or chemical oxidation of aniline. If an electrode is immersed in hydrochloric acid which contains a small concentration of aniline, then a film of polyaniline can be grown on the electrode. Depending on the redox state, polyaniline can either be pale yellow or dark green/black. Other electrochromic materials that have found technological application include the viologens and polyoxotungstates. Other electrochromic materials include tungsten oxide (WO3), which is the main chemical used in the production of electrochromic windows or smart windows.
As the color change is persistent and energy need only be applied to effect a change, electrochromic materials are used to control the amount of light and heat allowed to pass through windows ("smart windows"), and has also been applied in the automobile industry to automatically tint rear-view mirrors in various lighting conditions. Viologen is used in conjunction with titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the creation of small digital displays. It is hoped that these will replace LCDs as the viologen (which is typically dark blue) has a high contrast to the bright color of the titanium white, therefore providing a high visibility of the display.
  

3. THEORY AND COMPUTATIONS OF THE AB BLANKET

  
      -- Lift force of Blanket. The specific lift force of Blanket is computed by equation:
    0x01 graphic
    , (1)
    where L is lift force, N; g = 9.81 m/s2 is gravity; qa= 1.225 kg/m3 is an air density for standard condition (T = 15oC); qg < qa is density of lift light gas. For methane qg = 0.72 kg/m3, hydrogen qg = 0.09 kg/m3, helium qg = 0.18 kg/m3; V is volume of Blanket, m3. For example, the section 100100m of the Blanket filled by methane (the cheapest light gas) having the average thickness 3 m has the lift force 15 N/m2 or 150,000N = 15 tons.
   2. The weight (mass) of film may be computed by equation
   0x01 graphic
, (2)
   where W is weight of film, kg; ? is specific density of film (usually about ? = 15001800 kg/m3); ? is thickness, m; S is area, m2. For example, the double film of thickness ? = 0.05 mm has weight W = 0.15 kg/m2. The section 100100m of the Blanket has weight 1500 kg = 1.5 tons.
   3. Weight (mass) of support cable (bracing wire) is computed by equation:
   0x01 graphic
, (3)
   where Wc is weight of support cable, kg; ?c is specific density of film (usually about ?c = 1800 kg/m3); ? is safety density of cable, N/m2. For cable from artificial fiber ? = 100 150 kg/mm2 = (1 1.5)109 N/m2. For example, for ? = 100 kg/mm2, h =500 m, L = 10 N/m2 , Wc = 0.009 kg/m2. However, if additional air pressure into dome is high, for example, lift force L = 1000 N/m2 (air pressure P = 0.01 atm - 0.01 bar) , the cable weight may reach 0.9 kg/m2. That may be requested in a storm weather when outer wind and wind dynamic pressure is high.
   As wind flows over and around a fully exposed, nearly completely sealed inflated dome, the weather affecting the external film on the windward side must endure positive air pressures as the wind stagnates. Simultaneously, low air pressure eddies will be present on the leeward side of the dome. In other words, air pressure gradients caused by air density differences on different parts of the sheltering dome's envelope is characterized as the "buoyancy effect". The buoyancy effect will be greatest during the coldest weather when the dome is heated and the temperature difference between its interior and exterior are greatest. In extremely cold climates, such as the Arctic and Antarctica, the buoyancy effect tends to dominate dome pressurization, causing the Blanket to require reliable anchoring.
   4. The wind dynamic pressure is computed by equation

0x01 graphic
, (4)

   where pd is wind dynamic pressure, N/m2; ? is air density, for altitude H = 0 the ? = 1.225 kg/m3; V is wind speed, m/s. The computation is presented in fig.4.
   The small overpressure of 0.01 atm forced into the AB-Dome to inflate it produces force p = 1000 N/m2. That is greater than the dynamic pressure (740 N/m2) of very strong wind V = 35 m/s (126 km/hour). If it is necessary we can increase the internal pressure by some times if needed for very exceptional storms.
  

0x01 graphic

Fig. 4. Wind dynamic pressure versus wind speed and air density ?. The ro = 0.6 is for H - 6 km.

  
   5. The thickness of the dome envelope, its sheltering shell of film, is computed by formulas (from equation for tensile strength):
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
   where ?1 is the film thickness for a spherical dome, m; ?2 is the film thickness for a cylindrical dome, m; R is radius of dome, m; p is additional pressure into the dome, N/m2; ? is safety tensile stress of film, N/m2.
   For example, compute the film thickness for dome having radius R =50 m, additional internal air pressure p = 0.01 atm (p = 1000 N/m2), safety tensile stress ? = 50 kg/mm2 (? = 5108 N/m2), cylindrical dome.
   0x01 graphic
(5)'
   6. Solar radiation. Our basic computed equations, below, are derived from a Russian-language textbook [19]. Solar radiation impinging the orbiting Earth is approximately 1400 W/m2. The average Earth reflection by clouds and the sub-aerial surfaces (water, ice and land) is about 0.3. The Earth-atmosphere adsorbs about 0.2 of the Sun's radiation. That means about q0 = 700 W/m2s of solar energy (heat) reaches our planet's surface at the Equator. The solar spectrum is graphed in Fig. 5.
  

0x01 graphic

Fig.5. Spectrum of solar irradiance outside atmosphere and at sea level with absorption of electromagnetic waves by atmospheric gases. Visible light is 0.4 - 0.8 ? (400 - 800 nm).

  
   The visible part of the Sun's spectrum is only ? = 0.4 to 0.8 ?.. Any warm body emits radiation. The emission wavelength depends on the body's temperature. The wavelength of the maximum intensity (see Fig. 5) is governed by the black-body law originated by Max Planck (1858-1947):
   0x01 graphic
, (6)
   where T is body temperature, oK. For example, if a body has an ideal temperature 20 oC (T = 293 oK), the wavelength is ?m = 9.9 ?.
   The energy emitted by a body may be computed by employment of the Josef Stefan-Ludwig Boltzmann law.
   0x01 graphic
, [W/m2], (7)
   where ? is coefficient of body blackness (? =0.03 0.99 for real bodies), ?s = 5.6710 -8 [W/m2 .K] Stefan-Boltzmann constant. For example, the absolute black-body (? = 1) emits (at T = 293 0C) the energy E = 418 W/m2.
   Amount of the maximum solar heat flow at 1 m2 per 1 second of Earth surface is
   q = qo cos (? ? ) [W/m2], (8)
   where ? is Earth longevity, ? is angle between projection of Earth polar axis to the plate which is perpendicular to the ecliptic plate and contains the line Sun-Earth and the perpendicular to ecliptic plate. The sign "+" signifies Summer and the "-" signifies Winter, qo - 700 W/m2 is the annual average solar heat flow to Earth at equator corrected for Earth reflectance.
   This angle is changed during a year and may be estimated for the Arctic by the following the first approximation equation:
   0x01 graphic
, (9)
   where ?m is maximum ? , ??m ?= 23.5o =0.41 radian; N is number of day in a year. The computations for Summer and Winter are presented in fig.6.
   0x01 graphic

Fig.6. Maximum Sun radiation flow at Earth surface as function of Earth latitude and season.

  
   The heat flow for a hemisphere having reflector (fig.1) at noon may be computed by equation
   0x01 graphic
, (10)
   where S is fraction (relative) area of reflector to service area of "Evergreen" dome. Usually S = 0.5; c1 is film transparency coefficient (c1- 0.9 - 0.95).
   The daily average solar irradiation (energy) is calculated by equation
   0x01 graphic
, (11)
   where c is daily average heat flow coefficient, c - 0.5; t is relative daylight time, 86400 = 246060 is number of seconds in a day.
   The computation for relative daily light period is presented in Fig. 7.
The heat loss flow per 1 m2 of dome film cover by convection and heat conduction is (see [19]):
   0x01 graphic
, (12)
   where k is heat transfer coefficient, W/m2.K; t1,2 are temperatures of the inter and outer multi-layers of the heat insulators, oC; ?1,2 are convention coefficients of the inter and outer multi-layers of heat insulators (? = 30 100), W/m2K; ?i are thickness of insulator layers; ?i are coefficients of heat transfer of insulator layers (see Table 1), m; t1,2 are temperatures of initial and final layers o C.
   The radiation heat flow per 1 m2s of the service area computed by equations (7):
   0x01 graphic
[W/m2K4], (13)
   where Cr is general radiation coefficient, ? are black body rate (Emittance) of plates (see Table 2); T is temperatures of plates, oK.
The radiation flow across a set of the heat reflector plates is computed by equation
   0x01 graphic
, (14)
   where 0x01 graphic
is computed by equation (8) between plate and reflector.
   The data of some construction materials is found in Table 1, 2.
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.7. Relative daily light time relative to Earth latitude.
  
   Table 1. [19], p.331. Heat Transfer.
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Material Density, Thermal conductivity, Heat capacity,
kg/m3 ?, W/m. oC kJ/kg. oC
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   Concrete 2300 1.279 1.13
   Baked brick 1800 0.758 0.879
   Ice 920 2.25 2.26
   Snow 560 0.465 2.09
   Glass 2500 0.744 0.67
   Steel 7900 45 0.461
   Air 1.225 0.0244 1
   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
   As the reader will see, the air layer is the best heat insulator. We do not limit its thickness ?.
  
   Table 2. Nacshekin (1969), p. 465. Emittance, ? (Emissivity)
   Material
   Temperature, T oC
   Emittance, ?
   Bright Aluminum
   50 500 o C
   0.04 - 0.06
   Bright copper
   20 350 o C
   0.02
   Steel
   50 o C
   0.56
   Asbestos board
   20 o C
   0.96
   Glass
   20 100 o C
   0.91 - 0.94
   Baked brick
   20 o C
   0.88 - 0.93
   Tree
   20 o C
   0.8 - 0.9
   Black vanish
   40 100 o C
   0.96 - 0.98
   Tin
   20 o C
   0.28
  
   As the reader will notice, the shiny aluminum louver coating is an excellent mean jalousie (louvered window, providing a similar service to a Venetian blind) which serves against radiation losses from the dome.
  
   The general radiation heat Q computes by equation [11]. Equations [6] - [14] allow computation of the heat balance and comparison of incoming heat (gain) and outgoing heat (loss).
   The computations of heat balance of a dome of any size in the coldest wintertime of the Polar Regions are presented in Fig. 8.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 8. Daily heat balance through 1 m2 of dome during coldest winter day versus Earth's latitude (North hemisphere example). Data used for computations (see Eq. (6) - (14)): temperature inside of dome is t1= +20 o C, outside are t2 = -10, -30, -50 o C; reflectivity coefficient of mirror is c2= 0.9; coefficient transparency of film is c1 = 0.9; convectively coefficients are ?1= ?2 = 30; thickness of film layers are ?1= ?2 =0.0001 m; thickness of air layer is ? = 1 m; coefficient of film heat transfer is ?1= ?3 = 0.75, for air ?2 = 0.0244; ratio of cover blackness ?1= ?3 = 0.9, for louvers ?2 = 0.05.
  
   The heat from combusted fuel is found by equation
   Q= ctm/? , (15)
   where ct is heat rate of fuel [J/kg]; ct = 40 MJ/kg for liquid oil fuel; m is fuel mass, kg; ? is efficiency of heater, ? = 0.5 - 0.8.
   In Fig. 8 the alert reader has noticed: the daily heat loss is about the solar heat in the very coldest Winter day when a dome located above 600 North or South Latitude and the outside air temperature is -50 0C.
  
   7. Properties and Cost of material. The cost some material are presented in Table 3 (2005-2007). Properties are in Table 4. Some difference in the tensile stress and density are result the difference sources, models and trademarks.

Table 3. Average cost of material (2005-2007)

   Material
   Tensile
   stress, MPa
   Density,
   g/cm3
   Cost
   USD $/kg
   Fibers:
  
  
  
   Glass
   3500
   2.45
   0.7
   Kevlar 49, 29
   2800
   1.47
   4.5
   PBO Zylon AS
   5800
   1.54
   15
   PBO Zylon HM
   5800
   1.56
   15
   Boron
   3500
   2.45
   54
   SIC
   3395
   3.2
   75
   Saffil (5% SiO2+Al2O3)
   1500
   3.3
   2.5
   Matrices:
  
  
  
   Polyester
   35
   1,38
   2
   Polyvinyl
   65
   1.5
   3
   Aluminum
   74-550
   2.71
   2
   Titanum
   238-1500
   4.51
   18
   Borosilicate glass
   90
   2.23
   0.5
   Plastic
   40-200
   1.5-3
   2 - 6
   Materials:
  
  
  
   Steel
   500 - 2500
   7.9
   0.7 - 1
   Concrete
   -
   2.5
   0.05
   Cement (2000)
   -
   2.5
   0.06-0.07
   Melted Basalt
   35
   2.93
   0.005
  

Table 4. Material properties

   Material
   Tensile
   strength
   Density
   g/cm3
  
   Tensile
strength
   Density
   g/cm3
   Whiskers
   kg/mm2
  
   Fibers
   kg/mm2
  
   AlB12
   2650
   2.6
   QC-8805
   620
   1.95
   B
   2500
   2.3
   TM9
   600
   1.79
   B4C
   2800
   2.5
   Allien 1
   580
   1.56
   TiB2
   3370
   4.5
   Allien 2
   300
   0.97
   SiC
   1380-4140
   3.22
   Kevlar or Twaron
   362
   1.44
   Material
  
  
   Dynecta or Spectra
   230-350
   0.97
   Steel prestressing strands
   186
   7.8
   Vectran
   283-334
   0.97
   Steel Piano wire
   220-248
  
   E-Glass
   347
   2.57
   Steel A514
   76
   7.8
   S-Glass
   471
   2.48
   Aluminum alloy
   45.5
   2.7
   Basalt fiber
   484
   2.7
   Titanium alloy
   90
   4.51
   Carbon fiber
   565
   1,75
   Polypropylene
   2-8
   0.91
   Carbon nanotubes
   6200
   1.34
   Source: Howatsom A.N., Engineering Tables and Data, p.41.
  
   8. Closed-loop water cycle. The closed Dome allows creating a closed loop cycle, when vapor water in the day time will returns as condensation or dripping rain in the night time. A reader can derive the equations below from well-known physical laws Nacshekin [19](1969). Therefore, the author does not give detailed explanations of these.
  
   Amount of water in atmosphere. Amount of water in atmosphere depends upon temperature and humidity. For relative humidity 100%, the maximum partial pressure of water vapor for pressure 1 atm is shown in Table 5.
  

Table 5. Maximum partial pressure of water vapor in atmosphere for given air temperature (pressure is 1 atm)

   t, C
   -10
   0
   10
   20
   30
   40
   50
   60
   70
   80
   90
   100
   p,kPa
   0.287
   0.611
   1.22
   2.33
   4.27
   7.33
   12.3
   19.9
   30.9
   49.7
   70.1
   101
  
   The amount of water in 1 m3 of air may be computed by equation
   0x01 graphic
, (16)
   where mW is mass of water, kg in 1 m3 of air; p(t) is vapor (steam) pressure from Table 4, relative h = 0 1 is relative humidity. The computation of equation (16) is presented in fig.9. Typical relative humidity of atmosphere air is 0.5 - 1.
  
   Computation of closed-loop water cycle. Assume the maximum safe temperature is achieved in the daytime. When dome reaches the maximum (or given) temperature, the control system fills with air the space 5 (Fig.3) between double-layers of the film cover. That protects the inside part of the dome from further heating by outer (atmospheric) hot air. The control system decreases also the solar radiation input, increasing reflectivity of the liquid crystal layer of the film cover. That way, we can support a constant temperature inside the dome.
   The heating of the dome in the daytime may be computed by equations:
   0x01 graphic
(17)
   where q is heat flow, J/m2 s; qo is maximal Sun heat flow in daily time, qo - 100 900, J/ m2s; t is time, s; td is daily (Sun) time, s; Q is heat, J; T is temperature in dome (air, soil), oC; Cp1 is heat capacity of soil, Cp1 - 1000 J/kg; Cp2 - 1000 J/kg is heat capacity of air; ?1 - 0.1 m is thickness of heating soil; ?1 - 1000 kg/m3 is density of the soil; ?2 - 1.225 kg/m3 is density of the air; H is thickness of air (height of cover), H - 5 300 m; r = 2,260,000 J/kg is evaporation heat, a is coefficient of evaporation; Mw is mass of evaporation water, kg/m3; Tmin is minimal temperature into dome after night, oC.
   The convective (conductive) cooling of dome at night time may be computed as below
   0x01 graphic
(18)
   where qt is heat flow through the dome cover by convective heat transfer, J/m2s or W/m2; see the other notation in Eq. (12). We take ? = 0 in night time (through active control of the film).
  
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Fig. 9. Amount of water in 1 m3 of air versus air temperature and relative humidity (rh).

t1 = 0 oC.

  
   The radiation heat flow qr (from dome to night sky, radiation cooling) may be estimated by equations (10).
   0x01 graphic
[W/m2K4], (19)
   where qr is heat flow through dome cover by radiation heat transfer, J/m2s or W/m2; see the other notation in Eq. (10). We take ? = 1 in night time (through active control of the film).
   The other equations are same (17)
  
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(20)
  
   Let us take the following parameters: H = 135 m, ? =70, ? = 1 m between cover layers, ? = 0.0244 for air. Result of computation for given parameter are presented in figs. 10 - 11.
   For dome cover height H = 135 m the night precipitation (maximum) is 0.027135 = 3.67 kg (liter) or 3.67 mm/day (Fig.12). The AB Dome's internal annual precipitation under these conditions is is 1336.6 mm (maximum). If it is not enough, we can increase the height of dome cover. The globally-averaged annual precipitation is about 1000 mm on Earth.
   As you see, we can support the same needed temperature in a wide range of latitudes at summer and winter time. That means the covered regions are not hostage to their location upon the Earth's surface (up to latitude 20 o -30o), nor Earth's seasons, nor it is dependant upon outside weather. Our design of Dome is not optimal, but rather selected for realistic parameters.
  

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Fig. 10. Heating of the dome by solar radiation from the night temperature of 15 o C to 35 o C via daily maximal solar radiation (W/m2) for varying daily time. Height of dome film cover equals H = 135 m. The control temperature system limits the maximum internal dome temperature to 35 o C.

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Fig.11. Water vaporization for 100% humidity of the air for different maximal solar radiation (W/m2) levels delivered over varying daily time. Height of dome film cover equals H = 135 m. The temperature control system limits the maximum internal dome temperature to 35 C.

   Projects
   Project 1. Manhattan (district of New-York, USA).
   Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York. With a 2007 population of 1,620,867 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.47  km), New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States at 70,595 residents per square mile (27,267/km). It is also one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a 2005 personal per capita income above $100,000.
Area (land) of Manhattan is 22.96 sq mi (59.5 km2, A - 60 km2), population 1,620,867 inhabitants, density 70,595/sq mi (27,256.9/km2).
Average annual high temperature is 17C (62F), average annual low temperature is 8C (47F). The average high monthly temperature is 30C (July), the average low monthly temperature is -4C (January). Annual rainfall is 1,124 mm.
Computation and estimation of cost:
Film. Requested area of double film is Af = 360 km2 = 180 km2. If thickness of film is ? = 0.1 mm, specific density ? = 1800 kg/m3, the mass of film is M = ??Af = 32,500 tons or m = 0.54 kg/m2. If cost of film is c - $2/kg, the total cost of film is Cf = cM = $65 millions or ca = $1.08/m2.
If average thickness of a gas layer inside the AB-Blanket is ? = 3 m, the total volume of gas is V = ?A =1.8108 m3. One m3 of methane (CH4) has lift force l = 0.525 kg/m3 or Blanket of thickness ? = 3 m has lift force l = 1.575 kg/m2 or the total Blanket lift force is L = 94.5103 tons. Cost of methane is c = $0.4/m3, volume is V = ?A =1.8108 m3. But we did not take in account because after finishing building the AB Dome the methane will be changed for overpressured air. (Thus $72 million in methane would not be kept in inventory, but if the AB-Blankets were each 1% of the final area, neglecting leaks only $720,000 worth of methane would be in play at any one time. With some designs step by step methane replacement with air will be possible (if overpressure support is introduced another way, etc.)
Support cables. Let us take an additional air pressure as p = 0.01 atm = 1000 N/m2, safety tensile stress of artificial fiber ? = 100 kG/mm2, specific density ? = 1800 kg/m3, s = 1 m2, and altitude of the Blanket h = 500 m. Then needed cross-section of cable is 1 mm2 per 1 m2 of Blanket and mass of the support cable is m = ?ph/? = 0.9 kg per 1 m2 of Blanket. If cost of fiber is $1/kg, the cost of support cable is cc = $0.9/m2. Total mass of the support cables is 54,000 tons.
The average cost of air and water tubes and control system we take ct = $0.5/m2.
The total cost of 1 m2 material is C = ca + cc + ct = 1.08 + 0.9 + 0.5 = $2.48/m2 - $2.5/m2 or $150 millions of the USA dollars for Manhattan area. The work will cost about $100 million. The total cost of Blanket construction for Manhattan is about $250 million US dollars.
The clean (rain) water is received from 1 m2 of covered area is 1.1 kL/year. That is enough for the Manhattan population. The possible energy (if we install at extra expense hydro-electric generators and utilize pressure (50 atm) of the rain water) is about 4000 kJ/m2 in year. That covers about 15% of city consumption.
Manhattan receives a permanent warm climate and saves a lot of fuel for home heating (decreased pollution of atmosphere) in winter time and save a lot of electric energy for home cooling in the summer time.
   Project 2. Moscow (Russia)
Area (land) of Moscow is 1,081 km (417.4 sq mi), population (as of the 2002 Census) 10,470,318 inhabitants, density 9,685.8/km (25,086.1/sq mi).
Average annual high temperature is 9.1C, average annual low temperature is 2.6C. The average high monthly temperature is 24C (July)(Record is 36.5C), the average low monthly temperature is -8C (January)(Record low is -42.2C). Annual rainfall is 705 mm.
   Estimation. The full Moscow area is significantly more the Manhattan area (by 18 times) and has less population density (by 3 times). We can cover only the most important central part of Moscow, the place where are located the Government and business offices, tourist hotels, theaters and museums.
   If this area equals 60 km2 the cost of construction will be cheaper than $250 million US because the labor cost less (by 3 -5 times) then the USA. But profit from Moscow Blanket may be more then from the Manhattan cover because the weather is colder in Moscow than in New York.
  

DISCUSSION

  
As with any innovative macro-project proposal, the reader will naturally have many questions. We offer brief answers to the most obvious questions our readers are likely to ponder.
   (1) The methane gas is fuel. How about fire protection?
The AB Blanket is temporarily filled by methane gas for air delivery and period of Dome construction. After finish of dome construction the methane will be changed by air and the Blanket will be supported at altitude by small additional air pressure into AB-Dome.
The second reason: the Blanket contains methane in small separated cylindrical sections (in piece 100100 m has about 30 these sections, see fig.2) and every piece has special anti-fire margins (fig.2). If one cylindrical section will be damaged, the gas flows up (it is lighter then air), burns down only from this section (if film cannot easy burn) and piece get only hole. In any case the special margins do not allow the fire to set fire to next pieces.
(2) Carbonic acid (smoke, CO2) from industry and cars will pollute air into dome.
The smoke from industry can be deleted out from dome by film tubes acting as feedthroughs (chimneys) to the outer air. The cars (exhaust pipes) can be provided by a carbonic acid absorber. The evergreen plants into Dome will intensely absorb CO2 especially if concentration of CO2 will be over the regular values in conventional atmosphere (but safe for people). We can also periodically ventilate the Dome in good weather by open the special windows in Dome (see fig.1) and turn on the ventilators like we ventilate the apartment. We can install heat exchangers and permanently change the air in the dome (periodically wise to do anyway because of trace contaminant buildups).
(3) How can snow be removed from Dome cover?
We can pump a warm air between the Blanket layers and melt show and pass the water by rain tubes. We can drop the snow by opening the Blanket windows (fig.2d).
   (4) How can dust be removed from the Dome cover?
   The Blanket is located at high altitude (about 500 m). Air at this altitude has but little dust. The dust that does infall and stick may be removed by rain, washdown tubes or air flow from blowers or even a helicopter close pass.
   (5) Storm wind overpressures?
   The storm wind can only be on the bounding (outside) sections of dome. Dome has special semi-spherical and semi-cylindrical form factor. We can increase the internal pressure in storm time to add robustness.
   (6) Cover damage.
   The envelope contains a rip-stop cable mesh so that the film cannot be damaged greatly. Electronic signals alert supervising personnel of any rupture problems. The needed part of cover may be reeled down by control cable and repaired. Dome has independent sections.

Conclusion

  
The building of gigantic inflatable AB-Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. The cover spreads on said flat surface and a ventilator pumps air under the cover (the edges being joined and secured gas-tight) and the overpressure, over many hours, lifts the dome. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest we cannot easily spread the thin film over building or trees. In given article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. Idea is in design the double film Blanket filled by light gas (methane, hydrogen, helium). Subassemblies of the AB Dome, known as AB Blankets, are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to the sky over the city. Here they are connected to the AB Dome under construction, cover the city and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and radioactive weapons and particulate falls. After finish of building the light gas can be changed by air.

References


(The reader may find some of these articles at the author's web page: http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://arxiv.org , search term "Bolonkin", in the book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pgs., in book "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs., and in book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008, 500 pgs.)

  
   1. Bolonkin, A.A., (2003), "Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3-100 km Height", Journal of the
   British Interplanetary Society Vol. 56, pp. 87 - 97, 2003.
   2. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., (2006a), Inflatable `Evergreen' Polar Zone Dome (EPZD) Settlements,
   2006, http://arxiv.org search term is "Bolonkin".
   3. Bolonkin, A.A., (2006b), Control of Regional and Global Weather, 2006, http://arxiv.org search for
   "Bolonkin".
   4. Bolonkin A.A., (2006d), Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge
Waves, Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods, 2006. http://arxiv.org.
   5. Cathcart R.B. and Bolonkin, A.A., (2006e),. Ocean Terracing, 2006. http://arxiv.org.
   6. Bolonkin A.A., (2006g), Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 ps.
   7. Bolonkin, A.A. and R.B. Cathcart, (2006i), Inflatable `Evergreen' Dome Settlements for Earth's Polar Regions. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. DOI 10.1007/s10098.006-0073.4.
   8. Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future. Springer, (2006). 318 pages. Collection of articles.
   See articles of A. Bolonkin and R. Cathcart.
   9. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., (2007b), Inflatable 'Evergreen' dome settlements for Earth's Polar Regions. Journal "Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy", Vol 9, No. 2, May 2007, pp.125-132.
   10. Bolonkin, A.A., (2007c), "New Concepts, Ideas, and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Life". NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs.
   11. Bolonkin A.A., (2007e), AB Method of Irrigation without Water (Closed-loop water cycle).
   Presented to http://arxiv.org in 2007 search "Bolonkin".
   12. Bolonkin A.A., (2007f), Inflatable Dome for Moon, Mars, Asteroids and Satellites, Presented as paper AIAA-2007-6262 by AIAA Conference "Space-2007", 18-20 September 2007, Long Beach. CA, USA.
   13. Bolonkin, A.A., (2007h), Cheap artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from
Atmosphere and Change of Country Climate http://arxiv.org, 2007.
   14. Bolonkin, A.A.,(2007i) "Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3-100 km Height", Journal of the British
Interplanetary Society
Vol. 56, pp. 87 - 97, 2003.
   15. Bolonkin, A.A., Cathcart R.B., (2008b), Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology. NOVA, 500 pgs.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., Cheap Method of City Protection from Rockets and Nuclear Warheads. http://arxiv.org search "Bolonkin". 2007.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of Regional Climate. Presented to http://arxiv.org in 2007 search "Bolonkin".
      -- Gleick, Peter; et al. (1996). Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather. Oxford University Press. 
   19. Naschekin, V.V., (1969), Technical thermodynamic and heat transmission. Public House High University, Moscow. 1969 (in Russian).
   17. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative
   Commons license.
  
  
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Current air support structures

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Inside of inflatable structure. New technologies allowed the Generations Sports Complex to cover an area 2 football fields in length by almost a football field wide without support columns to get in the way

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Inside of inflatable structure

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Current big Inflatable structures

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Current middle inflatable dome

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Small inflatable structure

  
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   Left: Possibility of inflatable structure Right: Inside of botanic garden
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Artificial beach
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   Exhibition holl
  
  
   Chapter 6 Without Space Suite 4 12 09

Chapter 7
Live of Humanity in Outer Space without Space Suite


Abstract

  
The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.
   Key words: Space suit, space colonization, space civilization, life on Moon, Mars and other planets, people existing in space.
  
   Introduction

Short history. A fictional treatment of Man in space without spacesuit protection was famously treated by Arthur C. Clarke in at least two of his works, "Earthlight" and the more famous "2001: A Space Odyssey". In the scientific literature, the idea of sojourning in space without complex space suits was considered seriously about 1970 and an initial research was published in [1] p.335 - 336. Here is more detail research this possibility.
Humans and vacuum. Vacuum is primarily an asphyxiant. Humans exposed to vacuum will lose consciousness after a few seconds and die within minutes, but the symptoms are not nearly as graphic as commonly shown in pop culture. Robert Boyle was the first to show that vacuum is lethal to small animals. Blood and other body fluids do boil (the medical term for this condition is ebullism), and the vapour pressure may bloat the body to twice its normal size and slow circulation, but tissues are elastic and porous enough to prevent rupture. Ebullism is slowed by the pressure containment of blood vessels, so some blood remains liquid. Swelling and ebullism can be reduced by containment in a flight suit. Shuttle astronauts wear a fitted elastic garment called the Crew Altitude Protection Suit (CAPS) which prevents ebullism at pressures as low as 15 Torr (2 kPa). However, even if ebullism is prevented, simple evaporation of blood can cause decompression sickness and gas embolisms. Rapid evaporative cooling of the skin will create frost, particularly in the mouth, but this is not a significant hazard.
Animal experiments show that rapid and complete recovery is the norm for exposures of fewer than 90 seconds, while longer full-body exposures are fatal and resuscitation has never been successful.[4] There is only a limited amount of data available from human accidents, but it is consistent with animal data. Limbs may be exposed for much longer if breathing is not impaired. Rapid decompression can be much more dangerous than vacuum exposure itself. If the victim holds his breath during decompression, the delicate internal structures of the lungs can be ruptured, causing death. Eardrums may be ruptured by rapid decompression, soft tissues may bruise and seep blood, and the stress of shock will accelerate oxygen consumption leading to asphyxiation.
In 1942, the Nazi regime tortured Dachau concentration camp prisoners by exposing them to vacuum. This was an experiment for the benefit of the German Air Force (Luftwaffe), to determine the human body's capacity to survive high altitude conditions.
Some extremophile microrganisms, such as Tardigrades, can survive vacuum for a period of years.
   Respiration (physiology). In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the clean air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is in contrast to the biochemical definition of respiration, which refers to cellular respiration: the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and ATP (energy). Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals, the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the animal, while physiologic respiration concerns the bulk flow and transport of metabolites between the organism and external environment.
In unicellular organisms, simple diffusion is sufficient for gas exchange: every cell is constantly bathed in the external environment, with only a short distance for gases to flow across. In contrast, complex multicellular organisms such as humans have a much greater distance between the environment and their innermost cells, thus, a respiratory system is needed for effective gas exchange. The respiratory system works in concert with a circulatory system to carry gases to and from the tissues.
In air-breathing vertebrates such as humans, respiration of oxygen includes four stages:
  -- Ventilation from the ambient air into the alveoli of the lung.
  -- Pulmonary gas exchange from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillaries.
  -- Gas transport from the pulmonary capillaries through the circulation to the peripheral capillaries in the organs.
  -- Peripheral gas exchange from the tissue capillaries into the cells and mitochondria.
   Note that ventilation and gas transport require energy to power mechanical pumps (the diaphragm and heart respectively), in contrast to the passive diffusion taking place in the gas exchange steps.
Respiratory physiology is the branch of human physiology concerned with respiration.
   Respiration system. In humans and other mammals, the respiratory system consists of the airways, the lungs, and the respiratory muscles that mediate the movement of air into and out of the body. Within the alveolar system of the lungs, molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively exchanged, by diffusion, between the gaseous environment and the blood. Thus, the respiratory system facilitates oxygenation of the blood with a concomitant removal of carbon dioxide and other gaseous metabolic wastes from the circulation. The system also helps to maintain the acid-base balance of the body through the efficient removal of carbon dioxide from the blood.
   Circulation. The right side of the heart pumps blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. The trunk branches into right and left pulmonary arteries to the pulmonary blood vessels. The vessels generally accompany the airways and also undergo numerous branchings. Once the gas exchange process is complete in the pulmonary capillaries, blood is returned to the left side of the heart through four pulmonary veins, two from each side. The pulmonary circulation has a very low resistance, due to the short distance within the lungs, compared to the systemic circulation, and for this reason, all the pressures within the pulmonary blood vessels are normally low as compared to the pressure of the systemic circulation loop.
Virtually all the body's blood travels through the lungs every minute. The lungs add and remove many chemical messengers from the blood as it flows through pulmonary capillary bed. The fine capillaries also trap blood clots that have formed in systemic veins.

Gas exchange. The major function of the respiratory system is gas exchange. As gas exchange occurs, the acid-base balance of the body is maintained as part of homeostasis. If proper ventilation is not maintained, two opposing conditions could occur: 1) respiratory acidosis, a life threatening condition, and 2) respiratory alkalosis.
Upon inhalation, gas exchange occurs at the alveoli, the tiny sacs which are the basic functional component of the lungs. The alveolar walls are extremely thin (approx. 0.2 micrometres), and are permeable to gases. The alveoli are lined with pulmonary capillaries, the walls of which are also thin enough to permit gas exchange.
   Membrane oxygenator. A membrane oxygenator is a device used to add oxygen to, and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. It can be used in two principal modes: to imitate the function of the lungs in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and to oxygenate blood in longer term life support, termed Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO. A membrane oxygenator consists of a thin gas permeable membrane separating the blood and gas flows in the CPB circuit; oxygen diffuses from the gas side into the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the gas for disposal.
The introduction of microporous hollow fibres with very low resistance to mass transfer revolutionised design of membrane modules, as the limiting factor to oxygenator performance became the blood resistance [Gaylor, 1988]. Current designs of oxygenator typically use an extraluminal flow regime, where the blood flows outside the gas filled hollow fibres, for short term life support, while only the homogeneous membranes are approved for long term use.
   Heart-lung machine. The heart-lung machine is a mechanical pump that maintains a patient's blood circulation and oxygenation during heart surgery by diverting blood from the venous system, directing it through tubing into an artificial lung (oxygenator), and returning it to the body. The oxygenator removes carbon dioxide and adds oxygen to the blood that is pumped into the arterial system.
   Space suit. A space suit is a complex system of garments, equipment and environmental systems designed to keep a person alive and comfortable in the harsh environment of outer space. This applies to extra-vehicular activity (EVA) outside spacecraft orbiting Earth and has applied to walking, and riding the Lunar Rover, on the Moon.
Some of these requirements also apply to pressure suits worn for other specialized tasks, such as high-altitude reconnaissance flight. Above Armstrong's Line (~63,000 ft/~19,000 m), pressurized suits are needed in the sparse atmosphere. Hazmat suits that superficially resemble space suits are sometimes used when dealing with biological hazards.
A conventional space suit must perform several functions to allow its occupant to work safely and comfortably. It must provide: A stable internal pressure, Mobility, Breathable oxygen, Temperature regulation, Means to recharge and discharge gases and liquids , Means of collecting and containing solid and liquid waste, Means to maneuver, dock, release, and/or tether onto spacecraft.
   Operating pressure. Generally, to supply enough oxygen for respiration, a spacesuit using pure oxygen must have a pressure of about 4.7 psi (32.4 kPa), equal to the 3 psi (20.7 kPa) partial pressure of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere at sea level, plus 40 torr (5.3 kPa) CO2 and 47 torr (6.3 kPa) water vapor pressure, both of which must be subtracted from the alveolar pressure to get alveolar oxygen partial pressure in 100% oxygen atmospheres, by the alveolar gas equation. The latter two figures add to 87 torr (11.6 kPa, 1.7 psi), which is why many modern spacesuits do not use 3 psi, but 4.7 psi (this is a slight overcorrection, as alveolar partial pressures at sea level are not a full 3 psi, but a bit less). In spacesuits that use 3 psi, the astronaut gets only 3 - 1.7 = 1.3 psi (9 kPa) of oxygen, which is about the alveolar oxygen partial pressure attained at an altitude of 6100 ft (1860 m) above sea level. This is about 78% of normal sea level pressure, about the same as pressure in a commercial passenger jet aircraft, and is the realistic lower limit for safe ordinary space suit pressurization which allows reasonable work capacity.
   Movements are seriously restricted in the suits, with a mass of more than 110 kilograms each (Shenzhou 7 space suit). The current space suits are very expensive. Flight-rated NASA spacesuits cost about $22,000,000. While other models may be cheaper, sale is not currently open even to the wealthy public. Even if spaceflight were free (a huge if) a person of average means could not afford to walk in space or upon other planets.
  
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Fig. 1. a. Apollo 11 A7L space suit. b. Diagram showing component parts of A7L space suit.

Brief Description of Innovation

  
   A space suit is a very complex and expensive device (Fig. 1). Its function is to support the person's life, but it makes an astronaut immobile and slow, prevents him or her working, creates discomfort, does not allows eating in space, have a toilet, etc. Astronauts need a space ship or special space habitat located not far from away where they can undress for eating, toilet activities, and rest.
   Why do we need a special space suit in outer space? There is only one reason - we need an oxygen atmosphere for breathing, respiration. Human evolution created lungs that aerates the blood with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. However we can also do that using artificial apparatus. For example, doctors, performing surgery on someone's heart or lungs connect the patient to a heart - lung machine that acts in place of the patent's lungs or heart.
   We can design a small device that will aerate the blood with oxygen and remove the carbon dioxide. If a tube from the main lung arteries could be connected to this device, we could turn on (off) the artificial breathing at any time and enable the person to breathe in a vacuum (on an asteroid or planet without atmosphere) in a degraded or poisonous atmosphere, or under water, for a long time. In space we can use a conventional Earth manufacture oversuit (reminiscent of those used by workers in semiconductor fabs) to protect us against solar ultraviolet light.
   The sketch of device which saturates the blood with oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide is presented in fig.2. The Heart-Lung machines are widely used in current surgery.
  

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Fig.2. Principal sketch of heart-Lung Machine

  
   The main part of this device is oxygenator, which aerates the blood with oxygen and removes the carbon dioxide. The principal sketch of typical oxygenator is presented in fig. 3.
  

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Fig.3. Principal sketch of oxygenator.

   Current oxygenator is shown in Fig. 4.
   The circulatory system is an organ system that moves nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from cells, helps fight diseases and helps stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. This system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system as composed of the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which distributes lymph. While humans, as well as other vertebrates, have a closed cardiovascular system (meaning that the blood never leaves the network of arteries, veins and capillaries), some invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system. The most primitive animal phyla lack circulatory systems. The lymphatic system, on the other hand, is an open system.

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Fig. 4. Oxygenators

  
   The human blood circulatory system is shown in Fig. 5.

Fig.5. The human circulatory system. Red indicates oxygenated blood, blue indicates deoxygenated.
   The main components of the human circulatory system are the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels. The circulatory system includes: the pulmonary circulation, a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood. An average adult contains five to six quarts (roughly 4.7 to 5.7 liters) of blood, which consists of plasma that contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Two types of fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. The blood, heart, and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system collectively make up the circulatory system.
The simplest form of intravenous access is a syringe with an attached hollow needle. The needle is inserted through the skin into a vein, and the contents of the syringe are injected through the needle into the bloodstream. This is most easily done with an arm vein, especially one of the metacarpal veins. Usually it is necessary to use a constricting band first to make the vein bulge; once the needle is in place, it is common to draw back slightly on the syringe to aspirate blood, thus verifying that the needle is really in a vein; then the constricting band is removed before injecting.
When man does not use the outer air pressure in conventional space suite, he not has opposed internal pressure except the heart small pressure in blood. The skin vapor easy stop by film clothes or make small by conventional clothes.
The current lung devices must be re-designed for space application. These must be small, light, cheap, easy in application (using hollow needles, no operation (surgery)!), work a long time in field conditions. Wide-ranging space colonization by biological humanity is impossible without them.
   Artificial Nutrition.
  
Application of offered devices gives humanity a unique possibility to be a long time without conventional nutrition. Many will ask, "who would want to live like that?" But in fact many crew members, military, and other pressured personnel routinely cut short what most would consider normal dining routines. And there are those morbidly obese people for whom dieting is difficult exactly because (in an unfortunate phrase!) many can give up smoking `cold turkey', but few can give up `eating cold turkey'! Properly `fed' intravenously, a person could lose any amount of excess weight he needed to, while not suffering hunger pains or the problems the conventional eating cycle causes. It is known that people in a coma may exist some years in artificial nutrition inserted into blood. Let us consider the current state of the art.
   Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), is the practice of feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulas containing salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN), also referred to as Parenteral nutrition (PN), is provided when the gastrointestinal tract is nonfunctional because of an interruption in its continuity or because its absorptive capacity is impaired. It has been used for comatose patients, although enteral feeding is usually preferable, and less prone to complications. Short-term TPN may be used if a person's digestive system has shut down (for instance by Peritonitis), and they are at a low enough weight to cause concerns about nutrition during an extended hospital stay. Long-term TPN is occasionally used to treat people suffering the extended consequences of an accident or surgery. Most controversially, TPN has extended the life of a small number of children born with nonexistent or severely deformed guts. The oldest were eight years old in 2003.
   The preferred method of delivering TPN is with a medical infusion pump. A sterile bag of nutrient solution, between 500 mL and 4 L is provided. The pump infuses a small amount (0.1 to 10 mL/hr) continuously in order to keep the vein open. Feeding schedules vary, but one common regimen ramps up the nutrition over a few hours, levels off the rate for a few hours, and then ramps it down over a few more hours, in order to simulate a normal set of meal times.
Chronic TPN is performed through a central intravenous catheter, usually in the subclavian or jugular vein. Another common practice is to use a PICC line, which originates in the arm, and extends to one of the central veins, such as the subclavian. In infants, sometimes the umbilical vein is used.
Battery-powered ambulatory infusion pumps can be used with chronic TPN patients. Usually the pump and a small (100 ml) bag of nutrient (to keep the vein open) are carried in a small bag around the waist or on the shoulder. Outpatient TPN practices are still being refined.
Aside from their dependence on a pump, chronic TPN patients live quite normal lives.
Central IV lines flow through a catheter with its tip within a large vein, usually the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava, or within the right atrium of the heart.
There are several types of catheters that take a more direct route into central veins. These are collectively called central venous lines.
In the simplest type of central venous access, a catheter is inserted into a subclavian, internal jugular, or (less commonly) a femoral vein and advanced toward the heart until it reaches the superior vena cava or right atrium. Because all of these veins are larger than peripheral veins, central lines can deliver a higher volume of fluid and can have multiple lumens.
Another type of central line, called a Hickman line or Broviac catheter, is inserted into the target vein and then "tunneled" under the skin to emerge a short distance away. This reduces the risk of infection, since bacteria from the skin surface are not able to travel directly into the vein; these catheters are also made of materials that resist infection and clotting.

Testing

  
   The offered idea may be easily investigated in animals on Earth by using currently available devices. The experiment includes the following stages:
      -- Using a hollow needle, the main blood system of a good healthy animal connects to a current heart-lung machine.
      -- The animal is inserted under a transparent dome and air is gradually changed to a neutral gas (for example, nitrogen). If all signs are OK, we may proceed to the following stage some days later.
      -- The animal is inserted under a transparent dome and air is slowly (tens of minutes) pumped out.
    If all signs are OK we may start the following stage.
      -- Investigate how long time the animal can be in vacuum? How quick we can decompress and compress? How long the animal may live on artificial nutrition? And so on.
      -- Design the lung (oxygenator) devices for people which will be small, light, cheap, reliable, safe, which delete gases from blood (especially those that will cause `bends' in the case of rapid decompression, and work on decreasing the decompressing time).
      -- Testing the new devices on animals then human volunteers.
  
   Advantages of offered system.
  
   The offered method has large advantages in comparison with space suits:
      -- The lung (oxygenator) devices are small, light, cheaper by tens to hundreds times than the current space suit.
      -- It does not limit the activity of a working man.
      -- The working time increases by some times. (less heat buildup, more supplies per a given carry weight, etc)
      -- It may be widely used in the Earth for existing in poison atmospheres (industry, war), fire, rescue operation, under water, etc.
      -- Method allows permanently testing (controlling) the blood and immediately to clean it from any poison and gases, wastes, and so on. That may save human lives in critical medical situations and in fact it may become standard emergency equipment.
      -- For quick save the human life.
      -- Pilots for high altitude flights.
      -- The offered system is a perfect rescue system because you turn off from environment and exist INDEPENDENTLY from the environment. (Obviously excluding outside thermal effects, fires etc--but for example, many fire deaths are really smoke inhalation deaths; the bodies are often not burned to any extent. In any case it is much easier to shield searing air from the lungs if you are not breathing it in!)
  
   Conclusion.
  
   The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration. There also could be numerous productive medical uses.

REFERENCES


(The reader may find some of these articles at the author's web page http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm and in this book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pages and in his book "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2007, 502 pages and in book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008, 536 pgs.)

   1. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
   2. Bolonkin, A.A., Cathcart R.B., Inflatable `Evergreen' Polar Zone Dome (EPZD) Settlements, 2006.
   http://arxiv.org search term "Bolonkin".
   3. Bolonkin, A.A. and R.B. Cathcart, Inflatable `Evergreen' Dome Settlements for Earth's Polar Regions. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. DOI 10.1007/s10098.006-0073.4.
   4. Bolonkin, A.A., Control of Regional and Global Weather. 2006. http://arxiv.org search for "Bolonkin".
   5. Bolonkin, A.A., AB Method of Irrigation without Water (Closed-loop water cycle). 2007. http://arxiv.org search for "Bolonkin".
   6. Bolonkin, A.A., Cheap Textile Dam Protection of Seaport Cities against Hurricane Storm Surge Waves,
   Tsunamis, and Other Weather-Related Floods, 2006. http://arxiv.org.
7. Bolonkin, A.A., Cheap artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of
   Country Climate http://arxiv.org, 2007.
   8. Bolonkin, A.A. and R.B. Cathcart, The Java-Sumatra Aerial Mega-Tramway, 2006. http://arxiv.org.
   9. Bolonkin, A.A., "Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3-100 km Height", Journal of the British Interplanetary
   Society Vol. 56, pp. 87 - 97, 2003.
   10. Bolonkin A.A., Inflatable Dome for Moon, Mars, Asteroids and Satellites, Presented as paper AIAA-2007-6262 by AIAA Conference "Space-2007", 18-20 September 2007, Long Beach. CA, USA
   11. Bolonkin, A.A., Electrostatic Space Towers, 2007, http://arxiv.org , search "Bolonkin".
   12. Bolonkin, A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pages.
   13. Bolonkin, A.A., "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2008, 430 pgs.
   14. Macro-Engineering: A Challenge for the Future. Springer, 2006. 318 pages. Collection articles.
15. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative Commons license.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Chapter 7 Magnetic Space Launcher 8 28 09
  

Chapter 8

Magnetic Space Launcher*


Abstract

  
  A method and facilities for delivering payload and people into outer space are presented.  This method uses, in general, engines located on a planetary surface. The installation consists of a space apparatus, power drive stations, which include a flywheel accumulator (for storage) of energy, a variable reducer, a powerful homopolar electric generator and electric rails. The drive stations accelerate the apparatus up to hypersonic speed.
     The estimations and computations show the possibility of making this project a reality in a short period of time (for payloads which can tolerate high g-forces). The launch will be very cheap at a projected cost of $3 - $5 per pound. The authors developed a theory of this type of the launcher.
   Key words: space launcher, magnetic launcher, railgun, space accelerator, homopolar electric generator, flywheel accumulator.
   *Presented as paper AIAA-2009-5261 to 45th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, 2-5 August 2009, Denver, CO, USA.

1. Introduction

  
At present, rockets are used to carry people and payloads into space, or to deliver bombs over long distances. This method is very expensive, and requires a well-developed industry, high technology, expensive fuel, and complex devices.
   Other than rockets, methods to reach the space velocities are the space elevator, the hypersonic tube air rocket, cable space accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, centrifugal launcher [1-9], electrostatic liner accelerator [10]. Several new non-rockets methods were also proposed by one of author at the World Space Congress-2002, Houston, USA, 10-19 October 2002.
The space elevator requires very strong nanotubes, as well as rockets and high technology for the initial development. The tube air rocket and non-rocket systems require more detailed research. The electromagnetic transport system, suggested by Minovich (US Patent, 4,795,113, 3 January, 1989)[11], is not realistic at the present time. It requires a vacuum underground tunnel 1530 kilometers long located at a depth of 40 kilometers. The project requires a power cooling system (because the temperature is very high at this depth), a complex power electromagnetic system, and a huge impulse of energy that is greater than the energy of all the electric generating stations on Earth.
This article suggests a very simple and inexpensive method and installation for launching into space.
   This is a new space launcher system for delivering hypersonic speeds. This method uses a homopolar electric generator, any conventional power engines (mechanical, electrical, gas turbines), and flywheels (as storage energy) conveniently located on the ground where suspension of weight is not a factor.
General information about previous works regarding to our topic.
Below is common information useful for understanding proposed ideas and research.
A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. Chemical rockets operate due to hot exhaust gas made from "propellant" acting against the inside of an expansion nozzle. This generates forces that both accelerate the gas to extremely high speed, as well as, since every action has an equal and opposite reaction, generating a large thrust on the rocket.
   The history of rockets goes back to at least the 13th century, possibly earlier. By the 20th century it included human spaceflight to the Moon, and in the 21st century rockets have enabled commercial space tourism.
Rockets are used for fireworks and weaponry, as launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight and exploration of other planets. While they are inefficient for low speed use, they are, compared to other propulsion systems, very lightweight, enormously powerful and can achieve extremely high speeds.
Chemical rockets contain a large amount of energy in an easily liberated form, and can be very dangerous, although careful design, testing, construction and use can minimise the risks.
A rocket engine is a jet engine that takes all its reaction mass ("propellant") from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet, thereby obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law. Rocket engines can be used for spacecraft propulsion as well as terrestrial uses, such as missiles. Most rocket engines are internal combustion engines, although non combusting forms also exist.
   Railgun. Scientists use a railgun for high acceleration of a small conducting body. A railgun is a form of gun that converts electrical energy (rather than the more conventional chemical energy from an explosive propellant) into projectile kinetic energy. It is not to be confused with a coilgun (Gauss gun). Rail guns use magnetic force to drive a projectile. Unlike gas pressure guns, rail guns are not limited by the speed of sound in a compressed gas, so they are capable of accelerating projectiles to extremely high speeds (many kilometers per second).
A wire carrying an electrical current, when in a magnetic field, experiences a force perpendicular to the direction of the current and the direction of the magnetic field.
In an electric motor, fixed magnets create a magnetic field, and a coil of wire is carried upon a shaft that is free to rotate. An electrical current flows through the coil causing it to experience a force due to the magnetic field. The wires of the coil are arranged such that all the forces on the wires make the shaft rotate, and so the motor runs.
  
   0x01 graphic
  

Fig.1. Schematic diagrams of a railgun.

  
A railgun consists of two parallel metal rails (hence the name) connected to an electrical power supply. When a conductive projectile is inserted between the rails (from the end connected to the power supply), it completes the circuit. Electrical current runs from the positive terminal of the power supply up the positive rail, across the projectile, and down the negative rail, back to the power supply (Fig.1).
This flow of current makes the railgun act like an electromagnet, creating a powerful magnetic field in the region of the rails up to the position of the projectile. In accordance with the right-hand rule, the created magnetic field circulates around each conductor. Since the current flows in opposite direction along each rail, the net magnetic field between the rails (B) is directed vertically. In combination with the current (I) flowing across the projectile, this produces a Lorentz force which accelerates the projectile along the rails. The projectile slides up the rails away from the end with the power supply.
If a very large power supply providing a million amperes or so of current is used, then the force on the projectile will be tremendous, and by the time it leaves the ends of the rails it can be travelling at many kilometres per second. 20 kilometers per second has been achieved with small projectiles explosively injected into the railgun. Although these speeds are theoretically possible, the heat generated from the propulsion of the object is enough to rapidly erode the rails. Such a railgun would require frequent replacement of the rails, or use a heat resistant material that would be conductive enough to produce the same effect.
The need for strong conductive materials with which to build the rails and projectiles; the rails need to survive the violence of an accelerating projectile, and heating due to the large currents and friction involved act against the longevity of the system. The force exerted on the rails consists of a recoil force - equal and opposite to the force propelling the projectile, but along the length of the rails (which is their strongest axis) - and a sideways force caused by the rails being pushed by the magnetic field, just as the projectile is. The rails need to survive this without bending, and thus must be very securely mounted.
The power supply must be able to deliver large currents, with both capacitors and compulsators being common.
The rails need to withstand enormous repulsive forces during firing, and these forces will tend to push them apart and away from the projectile. As rail/projectile clearances increase, electrical arcing develops, which causes rapid vaporization and extensive damage to the rail surfaces and the insulator surfaces. This limits most research railguns to one shot per service interval.
Some have speculated that there are fundamental limits to the exit velocity due to the inductance of the system, and particularly of the rails; but United States government has made significant progress in railgun design and has recently floated designs of a railgun that would be used on a naval vessel. The designs for the naval vessels, however, are limited by their required power usages for the magnets in the rail guns. This level of power is currently unattainable on a ship and reduces the usefulness of the concept for military purposes.
Massive amounts of heat are created by the electricity flowing through the rails, as well as the friction of the projectile leaving the device. This leads to three main problems: melting of equipment, safety of personnel, and detection by enemy forces. As briefly discussed above, the stresses involved in firing this sort of device require an extremely heat-resistant material. Otherwise the rails, barrel, and all equipment attached would melt or be irreparably damaged. Current railguns are not sufficiently powerful to create enough heat to damage anything; however the military is pushing for more and more powerful prototypes. The immense heat released in firing a railgun could potentially injure or even kill bystanders. The heat released would not only be dangerous, but easily detectable. While not visible to the naked eye, the heat signature would be unmistakable to infrared detectors. All of these problems can be solved by the invention of an effective cooling method.
Railguns are being pursued as weapons with projectiles that do not contain explosives, but are given extremely high velocities: 3500 m/s (11,500 ft/s) or more (for comparison, the M16 rifle has a muzzle speed of 930 m/s, or 3,000 ft/s), which would make their kinetic energy equal or superior to the energy yield of an explosive-filled shell of greater mass. This would allow more ammunition to be carried and eliminate the hazards of carrying explosives in a tank or naval weapons platform. Also, by firing at higher velocities railguns have greater range, less bullet drop and less wind drift, bypassing the inherent cost and physical limitations of conventional firearms - "the limits of gas expansion prohibit launching an unassisted projectile to velocities greater than about 1.5 km/s and ranges of more than 50 miles [80 km] from a practical conventional gun system."
If it is even possible to apply the technology as a rapid-fire automatic weapon, a railgun would have further advantages in increased rate of fire. The feed mechanisms of a conventional firearm must move to accommodate the propellant charge as well as the ammunition round, while a railgun would only need to accommodate the projectile. Furthermore, a railgun would not have to extract a spent cartridge case from the breech, meaning that a fresh round could be cycled almost immediately after the previous round has been shot.
Tests of Railgun. Full-scale models have been built and fired, including a very successful 90 mm bore, 9 MJ (6.6 million foot-pounds) kinetic energy gun developed by DARPA, but they all suffer from extreme rail damage and need to be serviced after every shot. Rail and insulator ablation issues still need to be addressed before railguns can start to replace conventional weapons. Probably the most successful system was built by the UK's Defence Research Agency at Dundrennan Range in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. This system has now been operational for over 10 years at an associated flight range for internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics, and is the holder of several mass and velocity records.
The United States military is funding railgun experiments. At the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Advanced Technology, military railguns capable of delivering tungsten armor piercing bullets with kinetic energies of nine million joules have been developed. Nine mega-joules is enough energy to deliver 2 kg of projectile at 3 km/s - at that velocity a tungsten or other dense metal rod could penetrate a tank.
The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division demonstrated an 8 mega-joule rail gun firing 3.2 kilogram (slightly more than 7 pounds) projectiles in October of 2006 as a prototype of a 64 mega-joule weapon to be deployed aboard Navy warships. Such weapons are expected to be powerful enough to do a little more damage than a BGM-109 Tomahawk missile at a fraction of the projectile cost.
Due to the very high muzzle velocity that can be attained with railguns, there is interest in using them to shoot down high-speed missiles.
A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator that is made when a magnetic electrically conductive rotating disk has a different magnetic field passing through it (it can be thought of as slicing through the magnetic field). This creates a voltage and current difference between 2 contact points, one in the center of the disk the other on the outside of the disk. For simplicity one contact point can be considered positive +, and the other contact point can be considered ground or negative (- or 0). In general the 2 contact points are linked together as the armature. It has the same polarity at every point, so that the armature that passes through the magnetic field lines of force continually move in the same direction. The device is electrically symmetrical (bidirectional), and generates continuous direct current. It is also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, disk dynamo, or Faraday disk (Fig.2). Relatively speaking they can source tremendous electric current (10 to 10000 amperes) but at low potential differences (typically 0.5 to 3 volts). This property is due to the fact that the homopolar generator has very low internal resistance.

The device consists of a conducting flywheel rotating in a magnetic field with one electrical contact near the axis and the other near the periphery. It has been used for generating very high currents at low voltages in applications such as welding, electrolysis and railgun research. In pulsed energy applications, the angular momentum of the rotor is used to store energy over a long period and then release it in a short time.
  

Fig.2. Basic Faraday disc generator

   One of the larger homopolar generators that was produced by Parker Kinetic Designs via the collaboration of Richard Marshall, William Weldon, and Herb Woodson. Parker Kinetic Designs have produced devices which can produce five megaamperes. Another large homopolar generator was built by Sir Mark Oliphant at the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University. It produced 500 megajoules and was used as an extremely high-current source for experimentation from 1962 until it was disassembled in 1986. Oliphant's construction was capable of supplying currents of up to 2 megaamperes.
Magnets.
Neodymium magnets are very strong relative to their mass, but are also mechanically fragile. High-temperature grades will operate at up to 200 and even 230C but their strength is only marginally greater than that of a samarium-cobalt magnet. As of 2008 neodymium magnets cost about $44/kg, $1.40 per BHmax.
Most neodymium magnets are anisotropic, and hence can only be magnetised along one direction although B10N material is isotropic. During manufacture fields of 30-40 kOe are required to saturate the material. Neodymium magnets have a coercivity (required demagnetisation field from saturation) of about 10,000-12,000 Oersted. Neodymium magnets (or "neo" as they are known in the industry) are graded in strength from N24 to the strongest, N55. The theoretical limit for neodymium magnets is grade N64. The number after the N represents the magnetic energy product, in megagauss-oersteds (MGOe) (1 MGOe = 7,95810 TA/m = 7,958 kJ/m). N48 has a remnant static magnetic field of 1.38 teslas and an H (magnetic field intensity) of 13,800 Oersteds (1.098 MA/m). By volume one requires about 18 times as much ceramic magnetic material for the equivalent magnet lifting strength, and about 3 to 5 times as much for the equivalent dipole moment. A neodymium magnet can hold up to 1300 times its own weight.
The neodymium magnet industry is continually working to push the maximum energy product (strength) closer to the theoretical maximum of 64 MGOe. Scientists are also working hard to improve the maximum operating temperature for any given strength.
Physical and mechanical properties: Electrical resistivity 160 -ohm-cm/cm2; Density 7.4-7.5 g/cm3; Bending strength 24 kg/mm2; Compressive strength 80 kg/mm2; Young's modulus 1.7 x 104 kg/mm2; Thermal conductivity 7.7 kcal/m-h-C; Vickers hardness 500 - 600.
Samarium-cobalt magnets are primarily composed of samarium and cobalt. They have been available since the early 1970s. This type of rare-earth magnet is very powerful, however they are brittle and prone to cracking and chipping. Samarium-cobalt magnets have Maximum Energy Products (BHmax) that range from 16 Mega-Gauss Oersteds (MGOe) to 32 MGOe, their theoretical limit is 34 MGOe. Samarium Cobalt magnets are available in two "series", namely Series 1:5 and Series 2:17.
Material properties: Density: 8.4 g/cm ; Electrical Resistivity 0.810--4 ?cm; Coefficient of thermal expansion (perpendicular to axis): 12.5 m/(mK) .
Alnico is an acronym referring to alloys which are composed primarily of aluminium (symbol Al), nickel (symbol Ni) and cobalt (symbol Co), hence al-ni-co, with the addition of iron, copper, and sometimes titanium, typically 8-12% Al, 15-26% Ni, 5-24% Co, up to 6% Cu, up to 1% Ti, and the balance is Fe. The primary use of alnico alloys is magnet applications.
Alnico remanence (Br) may exceed 12,000 G (1.2 T), its coercion force (Hc) can be up to 1000 oersted (80 kA/m), its energy product ((BH)max) can be up to 5.5 MGOe (44 TA/m)--this means alnico can produce high magnetic flux in closed magnetic circuit, but has relatively small resistance against demagnetization.
As of 2008, Alnico magnets cost about $20/pound or $4.30/BHmax.

2. Description of Suggested Launcher

   Brief Description. The installation includes (see notations in Figs. 3, 4): a gun, two electric rails 2, a space apparatus 3, and a drive station 4 (fig.3). The drive station includes: a homopolar electric generator 1 (fig. 4), a variable reducer 3, a fly-wheel energy storage 5, an engine 6, and master drive clutches 2, 4, 6.
  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig.3. Magnetic Launcher. (a) Side view; (b) Trajectory of space apparatus; (c) Hypersonic apparatus. Notations: 1 - hill (side view); 2 - railing; 3 - shell; 4 - drive station; 5 - space trajectory.
  
   The system works in the following way:
   The engine 7 accelerates the flywheel 5 to maximum safe rotation speed. At launch time, the fly wheel connects through the variable reducer 3 to the homopolar electric generator 1 which produces a high-amperage current. The gas gun takes a shot and accelerates the space apparatus "c" (fig.3) up to the speed of 1500 - 2000 m/s. The apparatus leaves the gun and gains further motion on the rails 2 (fig. 3, fig. 4d) where its body turns on the heavy electric current from the electric generator. The magnetic force of the electric rails accelerates the space apparatus up to speeds of 8000 m/s. (or more) The initial acceleration with a gas gun can decrease the size and cost of the installation when the final speed is not high. The gas gun cannot produce a projectile speed of more than about 2000 m/s. The railgun does not have this limit, but produces some engineering problems such as the required short (pulsed) gigantic surge of electric power, sliding contacts for some millions of amperes current, storage of energy, etc.
The current condensers have a small electric capacity 0.002 MJ/kg ([2], p.465). We would need about 1010 J energy and 5000 tons of these expensive condensers. The fly-wheels made of cheap artificial fiber have capacity about 0.5 MJ/kg ([2], p.464). The need mass of fly-wheel is decreased to a relatively small 25 - 30 tons. The unit mass of a fly-wheel is significantly cheaper then unit mass of the electric condenser.
The offered design of the magnetic launcher has many innovations which help to overcome the obstacles afforded by a conventional railgun. Itemizing some of them:

1. Fly-wheels from artificial fiber.
2. Small variable reducer with smooth change of turns and high variable rate.
3. Multi-stage monopolar electric generator having capacity of producing millions of amperes and
a variable high voltage during a short time.
4. Sliding mercury (gallium) contact having high pass capacity.
5. Double switch having high capacity and short time switching.
6. Special design of projectile (conductor ring) having permanent contact with electric rail.
   7. Thin (lead) film on projectile contacts that improve contact of projectile body and the conductor
rail.
8. Homopolar generator has magnets inserted into a disk (wheel) form. That significantly simplifies
the electric generator.
9. The rails and electric generator can have internal water-cooling.
10. The generator can return rotation energy back to a flywheel after shooting, while rails can
return the electromagnetic energy to installation. That way a part of shot energy may be returned.
This increases the coefficient of efficiency of the launch installation.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig.3. Drive station. (a) Main components of drive station; (b) Rotors and connection disks (wheels); (c) Association of rotor and connection disk; (d) Association of shell and electric rails (plough or sled). Notations: 1 - Electric homogenerator; 2, 4, 6 - master drive clutch; 3 - variable reducer; 5 - fly-wheel; 7 - engine; 8 - enter of electric line; 9 - exit of electric line; 10 - disk (wheel) of rotor (rigid attachment to shaft 17); 11 - motionless conductor (rigid attachment to stator); 12 - electric current; 13 - sliding contact; 14, 15 - exit conductor; 16 - double switch from electric line 14 to conductor 11; 18 - sliding contact; 19 - mercury; 20 - electric ring; 21 - thin film; 22 - electric rail.
  
   The fly-wheel has a disadvantage in that it decreases its' turning speed when one spends its energy. The prospective space apparatus and space launcher needs, on the contrary, an increase of voltage for accelerating the payload. The homopolar generator really would like to increase the number of revolutions thus increasing the voltage. The offered variable reducer approaches this ideal, keeping constant or even increasing the speed of rotation of the electric generator. In addition, the multi-stage electric generator can additionally increase its' voltage by chaining (concatenation of turning on in series mode) its stages or sections.
  
   The sketch of the variable reducer is shown in fig.5. The tape (inertial transfer roll) 3 rotates from shaft 1 (electric generator) to shaft 2 (fly-wheel). In starting position the tape (roll). diameter d1 of shaft 1 is big while the tape (roll) diameter d2 of the fly-wheel is small and rotation speed of electric generator is small. During the rotation, the tape (roll) diameter of shaft 1 decreases, while the corresponding diameter around shaft 2 increases and the rotation speed of the electric generator increases (assuming a correct design of the reducer). The total change of the rotation speed is (d1/d2)2. For example, if d1/d2 = 7, the total change of rotary speed is 49. This way the rotation speed of the electric generator either increases or stays constant in spite of the fact that the rotary speed of the flywheel is decreasing. The multi-stage electric generator achieves the additional increasing of voltage. Its' sections turn on in series.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
  
Fig.5.
Variable reducer. (a) Start position; (b) final position. Notations: 1 - shift of electric generator; 2 - shift of fly-wheel; 3 - tape (inertial transfer roll).
  

Theory and computations. Project.

  
Below is advanced theory of the magnetic launcher and a computation of a sample project.
Let us take the mass of a space apparatus payload m = 150 kg, speed after gas gun Vo = 1500 m/s and final speed V = 8000 m/s.
   1. Estimation of gas gun and magnet accelerator. Let us take the length of gun barrel l = 15 m. Then average projectile acceleration is
   0x01 graphic
. (1)
Let us take this acceleration as constant value for main rail magnet acceleration. Then time t, length L of magnetic acceleration, force F, and energy A are
0x01 graphic
. (2)
2. Requested electric current and maximal opposed electric intensity from space ship acceleration.
Let us take the distance between rail d = 0.2m and semi-thickness of rail a1 = 0.05m.
The request electric currency i and maximum opposed electric intension Em are
0x01 graphic
, (3)
where ?o = 4?10-7 - magnet constant.
3. Resistance of electric rails. Let us consider a copper rail with safety limit of temperature increase ?T = 200K. The copper has electric resistance ? =1.710-8 ?.m specific density ? = 8430 kg/m3, heat capacity cp = 90 J/kg.K. From the equation of heat balance we have need of the cross-section area s of rail:
0x01 graphic
. (4)
where r is electric resistance, Ohm; Ur maximal electric intensity from Ohm resistance of rails, V.
   4. Maximal request voltage Um , average electric power N and electric energy A are:
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
   The maximal electric power is two times more than 11 MkW. In our computation we neglect the loss of voltage in the generator.
5. Rotor of the electric generator. Radius of rotor the n (n = 20) studies electric generator R for magnetic intensity B = 1.2 T, and maximal the rotary speed Vr = 600 m/s is
   0x01 graphic
. (6)
If one disk of rotor has mass of 200 kg, the total mass of rotor will be mr = 20020 = 4000 kg.
6. Fly-wheel. Assume the fly-wheel made from artificial fiber having a safe tensile stress
? = 100 kg/mm2 = 109 N/m2, specific density ? = 2000 kg/m3 . Then a safe rotary speed
Vf = (?/?)0.5 = 710 m/s and mass M of fly-wheel is
0x01 graphic
. (7)
   We added 1 ton for friction in fly-wheel, reducer, generator, and loss in connection wire from
electric generator to the rail. The maximal number of angular velocity is ? = Vf/R = 229 radian/s = 36.5 revolution/s.
7. Coefficient efficiency of rails is ?1 =Em/Um = 0.79.
8. Inductance Li and energy W of a rail magnetic field are
0x01 graphic
. (8)
9. Maximal repulsion force of rails is
0x01 graphic
. (9)
This will merit your attention - this force is high and rails need in strong connection.
10. Loss of launched apparatus speed in Earth's atmosphere is about 100 m/s (see [1], pp.48-39,
   135).
11. Additional required fuel mass to achieve delta-v at top of the trajectory (Fig.3) for
   circularization of the Earth orbit. (Typically a few hundred meters a second required velocity
   change.)
If rail angle is ? = 35o degrees, the request orbit altitude is H = 4000 km and a solid rocket
apparatus engine has impulse w = 2000 m/s, then request relative fuel mass is 0.2 (see [1],
pp. 136-137).
If ? = 40 - 45o, H = 400 km, w = 2280 - 3410 m/s the request relative fuel is about 0.1.
This means: from total mass of apparatus m = 150 kg the payload may be 100 -- 115 kg, the
fuel 15 - 30 kg and the projectile body 15 - 35 kg.
12. Cost of launch one kg of payload. Assume the conventional turbo engine is used for moving
the fly-wheel. Let us take the coefficient of efficiency the engine ?1 = 0.3 and the coefficient of
efficiency of our launcher ?2 = 0.6 . Then the requested amount of a fuel (gas, benzene) for one
launch is
0x01 graphic
, (10)
where A = 4.71109 J is energy (see (5)), q = 42106 J/kg is heat capacity of fuel.
If cost of fuel is c = $0.5/kg (end of 2008) and payload is 100 kg, the fuel cost per one kg is
0x01 graphic
. (11)
   If frequency of launches is t = 30 min, the need power of engine is Ne = A/?2t = 4.36103 kW.
That is power of a middle aviation turbo engine.
Let us assume the cost of magnetic launcher is 50 millions of dollars, lifetime of installation is 10 year and mountain is $2 millions of dollars per year. The launcher works the 350 days and launches 100 kg payload every 30 min (This means about 5000kg/day and 1750 tons/year). Then additional cost from installation is Ci = $2.86/kg and total cost is
C = Cf + Ci - $6/kg. (12)
Compare this to the current cost of launching 1 kg of payload from $2500- $50000.


Conclusion

  
   The research shows the magnetic launcher can be built by the current technology. This significantly (by a thousand times) decreases the cost of space launches. Unfortunately, if we want to use the short rail way (412 m), any launcher request a big acceleration about 0x01 graphic
and may be used only for unmanned, hardened payload. If we want design the manned launcher the rail way must be 1100 km for acceleration a = 3g (untrained passengers) and about 500 km (a = 6g) for trained cosmonauts.
Our design is not optimal. For example, the computation shows, if we increase our rail track only by 15 m, we do not need gas gun initial acceleration. That significantly decreases the cost of installation and simplifies its construction.
The reader can recalculate the installation for his own scenarios.

   References

(The reader may find some of these articles, in the WEB of Cornel University http://arxiv.org , search term "Bolonkin" and at the author's web page: http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm)
   1. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
2. Bolonkin A.A., New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human
Sciences, NOVA, 2008, 502 pgs.
3. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology, NOVA, 2008,
537 pgs.
4. A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker., Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field Levitation
http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0807/0807.1948.pdf (12 July, 2008).
   5. A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker. Magnetic Propeller. Article presented as paper AIAA-2008-4610 to
44th Joint Propulsion Conference, 20-24 July, 2008, Hartford, CT,
   6. A. Bolonkin, M. Krinker. , Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field.
(Ch.13 . in the book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2009)
   7. A.A. Bolonkin, Earth Accelerator for Space Ships and Missiles, JBIS, Vol. 56, No. 11/12, 2003,
pp. 394-404.
8. A.A. Bolonkin, "Space Cable Launchers", Paper No. 8057 presented at the Symposium
"The Next 100 years", Dayton, OH, USA, 14-17 July, 2003.
9. A.A. Bolonkin, Centrifugal Space Launcher, Presented as paper AIAA-2005-4035 at the
41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tueson, AZ, USA.
10. A.A. Bolonkin, Electrostatic Linear Engine and Cable Space AB Launcher,
Paper AIAA-2006-5229 for 42 Joint Propulsion Conference, Secramento, USA, 9-12 July,
2006. See also AEAT Vol.78, No.2006, pp. 502-508.
   11. M. Minovich, "Electromagnetic Transportation System for Manned Space Travel", US Patent
#4,795,113, January 3 1989.
   12. D.E. Koell, Handbook of Cost Engineering, TCS, Germany, 2000.
13. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the
Creative Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
  
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   Article Lower Current Mag Launchers for Scribd 5 8 10
  
  

Chapter 9

Lower Current and Plasma Magnetic Railguns

  

Abstract

  
It is well-known that the magnetic railgun theoretically allows a very high `exhaust velocity' of projectile. The USA and England have tried to research and develop working railgun installations. However the researchers had considerable problems in testing. The railgun requests very high (millions of amperes,) electric current (but low voltage). As result the rails and contacts burn and melt. The railgun can make only ONE shot between repairs, cannot shoot a big and high speed projectile, and has low efficiency.
   The heat and inductive losses of railgun depend upon the square of electric current. If we decrease electric current by ten times, we decrease the losses by one hundred times. But the current design of railgun does not allow decreasing the current because that leads to loss --also by the square-- of electromotive force.
   In this article the author describes new ideas, theory and computations for design of new magnetic lower cost accelerators for railgun projectiles and space apparatus. This design decreases the requested electric current (and loss) in hundreds times. This design requires a similar increase in voltage (because the energy for acceleration is the same). But no super heating, burn and melting rails, contacts, or big losses. The power and mass of projectiles and space apparatus can be increased in a lot of times. High voltage current does not require special low voltage equipment and may be used directly from the electric stations, saving huge amounts of money.
   Author also suggests a new plasma magnetic accelerator, which has no traditional sliding mechanical contacts, significantly decreases the mass of electrical contacts and increases the useful mass of projectile in comparison with a conventional railgun.
Important advantages of the offered design are the lower (up to some tens of times) usage of electric current of high voltage and a very high efficiency coefficient closeto 95% (compare with efficiency of the current railgun which equals 20 - 40%). The suggested accelerators may be produced by present technology.
   The projects of railguns are computed herein.
--------
   Key words: railgun, space launcher, low current magnetic space launcher, magnetic accelerator, plasma magnetic launcher, AB-Accelerator.

1. Introduction
  
At present, rockets are used to carry people and payloads into space, or to deliver bombs over long distances. This method is very expensive, and requires a well-developed industry, high technology, expensive fuel, and complex devices.
   Other than rockets, methods to reach altitudes and speeds of interest (even prospectively) are the space elevator, the hypersonic tube air rocket, cable space accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, centrifugal launcher [1-9], electrostatic liner accelerator [10]. Several new non-rockets methods were also proposed by the author at the World Space Congress-2002, Houston, USA, 10 - 19 October 2002. Some new ideas are in the works [11]-[13].
The space elevator requires very strong nanotubes, as well as rockets and high technology for the initial development. The tube air rocket and non-rocket systems require more detailed research. The electromagnetic transport system, suggested by Minovich (US Patent, 4,795,113, 3 January, 1989)[20], is not realistic at the present time. It requires a vacuum underground tunnel 1530 kilometers long located at a depth of 40 kilometers. The project requires an active cooling system (because the temperature is very high at this depth), a complex power electromagnetic system, and a huge impulse of energy that is greater than the energy of all the electric generating stations on Earth.
This article suggests a very simple and inexpensive methods and installations for launching into space.
   Railgun. Scientists use a railgun for high acceleration of a small conducting body. A railgun is a form of gun that converts electrical energy (rather than the more conventional chemical energy from an explosive propellant) into projectile kinetic energy. It is not to be confused with a coilgun (Gauss gun). Rail guns use magnetic force to drive a projectile. Unlike gas pressure guns, rail guns are not limited by the speed of sound in a compressed gas, so they are capable of accelerating projectiles to extremely high speeds (many kilometers per second).
A wire carrying an electrical current, when in a magnetic field, experiences a force perpendicular to the direction of the current and the direction of the magnetic field.
A railgun consists of two parallel metal rails (hence the name) connected to an electrical power supply. When a conductive projectile is inserted between the rails (from the end connected to the power supply), it completes the circuit. Electrical current runs from the positive terminal of the power supply up the positive rail, across the projectile, and down the negative rail, back to the power supply (Fig.1).

0x01 graphic

  

Fig.1. Schematic diagrams of a railgun.

  
   This flow of current makes the railgun act like an electromagnet, creating a powerful magnetic field in the region of the rails up to the position of the projectile. In accordance with the right-hand rule, the created magnetic field circulates around each conductor. Since the current flows in opposite direction along each rail, the net magnetic field between the rails (B) is directed vertically. In combination with the current (I) flowing across the projectile, this produces a Lorentz force which accelerates the projectile along the rails. The projectile slides up the rails away from the end with the power supply.
If a very large power supply providing a million amperes or so of current is used, then the force on the projectile will be tremendous, and by the time it leaves the ends of the rails it can be travelling at many kilometres per second. 20 kilometers per second has been achieved with small projectiles explosively injected into the railgun. Although these speeds are theoretically possible, the heat generated from the propulsion of the object is enough to rapidly erode the rails. Such a railgun would require frequent replacement of the rails, or use a heat resistant material that would be conductive enough to produce the same effect (fig.2, left). Please notice the gigantic cloud of plasma behind the projectile. That is the result of an electric arc between the contacts. About 70 - 80% of electric energy is lost uselessly.
  
   0x01 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig.2. (left) Naval Surface Warfare Center test firing in January 2008, leaving a plume of plasma behind the projectile; (right) the future military ship used the railguns.

   The need for strong conductive materials with which to build the rails and projectiles; the rails need to survive the violence of an accelerating projectile, and heating due to the large currents and friction involved acts against the longevity of the system. The force exerted on the rails consists of a recoil force - equal and opposite to the force propelling the projectile, but along the length of the rails (which is their strongest axis) - and a sideways force caused by the rails being pushed by the magnetic field, just as the projectile is. The rails need to survive this without bending, and thus must be very securely mounted.
The power supply must be able to deliver large currents, with both capacitors and compulsators being common.
The rails need to withstand enormous repulsive forces during firing, and these forces will tend to push them apart and away from the projectile. As rail/projectile clearances increase, electrical arcing develops, which causes rapid vaporization and extensive damage to the rail surfaces and the insulator surfaces. This limits most research railguns to one shot per service interval.
Some have speculated that there are fundamental limits to the exit velocity due to the inductance of the system, and particularly of the rails; but United States government has made significant progress in railgun design and has recently floated designs of a railgun that would be used on a naval vessel. The designs for the naval vessels, however, are limited by their required power usages for the magnets in the rail guns. This level of power is currently unattainable on a ship and reduces the usefulness of the concept for military purposes.
Massive amounts of heat are created by the electricity flowing through the rails, as well as the friction of the projectile leaving the device. This leads to three main problems: melting of equipment, safety of personnel, and detection by enemy forces. As briefly discussed above, the stresses involved in firing this sort of device require an extremely heat-resistant material. Otherwise the rails, barrel, and all equipment attached would melt or be irreparably damaged. Current railguns are not sufficiently powerful to create enough heat to damage anything; however the military is pushing for more and more powerful prototypes. The immense heat released in firing a railgun could potentially injure or even kill bystanders. The heat released would not only be dangerous, but easily detectable. While not visible to the naked eye, the heat signature would be unmistakable to infrared detectors. All of these problems can be solved by the invention of an effective cooling method.
Railguns are being pursued as weapons with projectiles that do not contain explosives, but are given extremely high velocities: 3500 m/s (11,500 ft/s) or more (for comparison, the M16 rifle has a muzzle speed of 930 m/s, or 3,000 ft/s), which would make their kinetic energy equal or superior to the energy yield of an explosive-filled shell of greater mass. This would allow more ammunition to be carried and eliminate the hazards of carrying explosives in a tank or naval weapons platform. Also, by firing at higher velocities railguns have greater range, less bullet drop and less wind drift, bypassing the inherent cost and physical limitations of conventional firearms - "the limits of gas expansion prohibit launching an unassisted projectile to velocities greater than about 1.5 km/s and ranges of more than 50 miles [80 km] from a practical conventional gun system."
If it is ever possible to apply the technology as a rapid-fire automatic weapon, a railgun would have further advantages in increased rate of fire. The feed mechanisms of a conventional firearm must move to accommodate the propellant charge as well as the ammunition round, while a railgun would only need to accommodate the projectile. Furthermore, a railgun would not have to extract a spent cartridge case from the breech, meaning that a fresh round could be cycled almost immediately after the previous round has been shot.
Tests of Railgun. Full-scale models have been built and fired, including a very successful 90 mm bore, 9 MJ (6.6 million foot-pounds) kinetic energy gun developed by DARPA, but they all suffer from extreme rail damage and need to be serviced after every shot. Rail and insulator ablation issues still need to be addressed before railguns can start to replace conventional weapons. Probably the most successful system was built by the UK's Defence Research Agency at Dundrennan Range in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. This system has now been operational for over 10 years at an associated flight range for internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics, and is the holder of several mass and velocity records.
The United States military is funding railgun experiments. At the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Advanced Technology, military railguns capable of delivering tungsten armor piercing bullets with kinetic energies of nine million joules have been developed. Nine mega-joules is enough energy to deliver 2 kg of projectile at 3 km/s - at that velocity of a tungsten or other dense metal rod could penetrate a tank.
The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division demonstrated an 8 mega-joule rail gun firing 3.2 kilogram (slightly more than 7 pounds) projectiles in October of 2006 as a prototype of a 64 mega-joule weapon to be deployed aboard Navy warships. Such weapons are expected to be powerful enough to do a little more damage than a BGM-109 Tomahawk missile at a fraction of the projectile cost.
Due to the very high muzzle velocity that can be attained with railguns, there is interest in using them to shoot down high-speed missiles.
   Description of Innovations and Problems in AB-Launchers

Low current multi-loop railguns

   Description of multi-loop Launchers . The conventional magnetic accelerator (railgun) is shown in fig.1. That contains two the conductive rails connected by a sliding jumper. Electric current produces the magnetic field and magnetic force. The jumper accepts the magnetic force and accelerates the projectile. Main defects of conventional rail gun: The rail gun requires a gigantic current (millions of amperes) of low voltage, rails have large electric resistance, strongly heating up, contacts burn, installation is damaged and requires repair after every shot. The energy charge is high (small coefficient of efficiency). You see the gigantic plasma column behind the small projectile in fig.2 (left)). The repulsive force between rails is gigantic (thousands of tons) and installation is thus heavy and expensive if it is to survive a single shot.
   Description.. The fig.3a shows the principal scheme of the conventional railgun. The installation of fig.3a includes the long vertical wire 2, moved jumper 8, sliding contacts 7 and electric source 6. The electric current produces the magnetic field 3 (magnetic column), the magnetic field creates the vertical 4 and horizontal 5 forces. Vertical force 4 accelerates the useful load at top of the installation.
   This design is used in a rail gun [6] but the author made many innovations that allow applying these ideas to this new application as the efficient magnetic accelerators. Some of them are listed below.
   Innovations. The figs.3b-3f show schemes of the suggested accelerators The author offers the following innovations having the next advantages:
  
   0x01 graphic

Fig. 3. Conventional and low current launchers. (a) Conventional high current and low voltage railgun; (b) Offered low current launcher with the wire horizontal multi-loops (version 1); (c) Offered low current launcher with the wire vertical multi-loops (version 2); (d) Offered low current launcher with the wire horizontal and vertical muiti-loops (version 3); (f) RailGun with condenser. (version 4). Notations: 1 - installation, 2 - vertical wire, 3 - magnetic field from vertical wire; 4 - moved vertical force from jumper; 5 - magnetic force from vertical electric wire, 6 - electric source, 7- sliding contact, 8 - horizontal jumper, 9 - magnetic column, 10 - multi-loop spool, 11, 12 - horizontal force wire connected in one bunch, 13 - force multi-loops spools connected in one spool, 14 - condenser, 15 - electric switch.
  
   1) Version 1 (fig.3b). The horizontal wire (fig.3a, former sliding jumper 8 of fig.3a) is made in a form of closed-loop spool (fig.3b, #10). The lower part of this spool (fig.3b, #11) located in place of former jumper near the magnetic field of vertical wire (fig.3b). The top part of this spool (fig.3b, #10) located at top - out of the magnetic field of vertical wire 2. As the result the magnetic field of the vertical wire 2 activates only on horizontal wires 11. But now we have here not one wire with current i, we have n wires and current ni. The magnetic force 4 and requested 4 voltage increases by n times! The force spool 10 can have some hundreds loops and force will be more in same times thanin case of fig 3a. For same vertical force the electric current in the vertical connection wires 2 may be decreases in n1= n times, where n1 is number of horizontal loops. The electric current may be relatively small (only some tens of thousands of amperes, not millions) and of the high voltage. The request vertical wire may be relatively thin. The heating, contact and inductive losses decrease in n1 times, where n1 is number of horizontal loops. The number of contacts N=2 is same (not increases).
   2) Version 2 (fig.3c). Installation contains the vertical closed loops n2. For same vertical force the electric current decreases in n2 times, the voltage increases by n2 times. The number of contacts N also increases by n2 times. But heating of every contact decreases by n22. Common electric heat, contact and inductive losses decrease by n2 times.
   3) Version 3 (fig.3d). That is composition of versions 1 and 2. For same vertical force the electric current decreases by n1n2 times. The number of contacts N increases in n2 times. But heating of every contact decreases by n1n2. Common electric heat, contact and inductive losses decrease in n1n2 times.
   4) Version 4 (fig.3f). The main electric loss in conventional railgun is an inductive loss, which produces a gigantic inductive current and plasma flash. This loss may be significantly decreases by switching the condenser in the end of the projectile track.
  
   The main innovation is a top loop 10 (right angle spool [1]), which increases the number of horizontal wires 11 (multi-loops), magnetic intensity in area under 11 and lift force 4. We can make a lot of loops up to some hundreds and increase the lift force by hundreds of times. For a given lift force we can decrease the required current in many times and decreases the mass of the source wire 2. That does not necessarily mean that we decrease the required electric energy (power) because the new installation needs a higher voltage.
  

Multi-loop Railguns with permanent magnets

   Main function of the vertical wire 2 (fig.3a) creates the magnetic field between wire 2. This field interacts with the magnetic field from a jumper 8 (fig.3a) or the horizontal wires 11 (fig.3b), 12 (fig.3c) and creates the vertical force 4 (fig.3a). For getting enough force requires a high electric current. However, the needed intensity magnetic field we can produce by means of conventional magnets.
   This idea explored in multi-loop launcher (accelerator) is offered in fig.4. The launcher has two strong magnets 2 and the multi-loop spool 6. The spool connects through the sliding contacts 5 (fig.4a) to the electric source 3. The design of fig. 4c has the spring wires 9 and not has the sliding contacts 5. The suggested launcher has two the motive magnetic jumpers 7, which significantly increase and close the magnetic lines in the lower part 8 of the force spool 6. The top part of the force spool has not the magnetic jumper 7 and does not produce the opposing motive force.
   0x01 graphic
0x01 graphic
  
   Fig.4. Offered launcher with the permanent magnets. (a) Top view; (b) Cross section; (c) Launcher having the spring wires. Notations: 1 - projectile, 2 - magnet, 3 - electric source, 4 - electric current, 5 - sliding contact, 6 - force (jumper) multi-loop spool (top part); 7 - magnetic jumper; 8 - lower part of the multi-loop top (force) electric spool; 9 - the spring electric wire; 10 - magnetic lines; 0.5l is length of a magnetic active zone in one side of wire.
  
   The offered accelerator is closest to the direct current linear electric engine but has four differing important features: It has a spool part of it located out of the strong magnetic lines, the installation has the motive magnetic jumpers, the installation uses constant non-interrupted current, launcher can omit the sliding contacts (fig.4c).
   This magnetic accelerator may be suitable for a space launcher having small accelerations.
  

Plasma magnetic launcher

   The jumper 4 (fig.3a), force spools 10, 12, 13 (figs. 3b,c,d), magnetic jumpers 7 (fig.4) can have a big mass and significantly decrease the useful load (in 2 - 3 and more times). For decreasing of this imperfect the author offers the plasma jumper (fig.5). Plasma in jumper has very small mass because plasma has a small density. The plasma can have a high conductivity closed to a metal conductor. But plasma conductor (jumper) can have a big cross-section area and a low electric resistance. Electric conductivity of plasma does not depend from its density. The plasma may be very rarefied. That means the head transfer to walls of a channel may be very small and so not damage them. For example the plasma of Earth radiation belts has a million degrees but spaceman and space apparatus not damage.
The thin wire may be initial initiator of a of plasma cable. Then a plasma conductor supports the big current.
   The second advantage of plasma launcher is a gas sliding contact. That cannot burn and is more robust against damage.
The offered plasma cable may be used in other technical fields [2] -[4]. This problem needs further research.
   0x01 graphic

Fig.5. Offered plasma launchers. (a) Launcher having conventional vertical wire and plasma jumper; (b) Launcher having vertical and horizontal (jumper) plasma wires. Notations: 1- projectile, 2 - horizontal plasma jumper, 3 - gas sealing, 4 - conducting tube, 5 - electric current into plasma.
  
   Theory of Magnetic AB-Launchers

General Equations

   1. Conventional Railgun (fig. 3a). The force, inductive opposed voltage from moved jumper (projectile) and inductive efficiency ? may be computed by equations:
   0x01 graphic
, (1)
   where F is magnetic force, N; ?0 = 4??10-7 - magnetic constant, H/m; d is distance between centers of vertical wire, m; a is radius of wire or half thickness of a conductive layer (plate conductor), m; b - 2 - 10; i is electric current in the vertical and single horizontal wire, A; V is projectile (jumper) speed, m/s; U is inductive opposed voltage, V (the speed changes from 0 to Vmax and the voltage changes from 0 to Umax); ? is an inductive efficiency.
   2. Multi-loops launcher, version 1 (fig.3b)(having only horizontal loops). Proof of magnetic force equation. We use only well-known physical laws (magnetic force on the electric conductor located into magnetic field):
0x01 graphic
. (2)
The force from two vertical wires is
   0x01 graphic
, (3)
where n1 is number of wire loops at horizontal connection (fig.3b, #11)(in proposed force spool), number of wire loops may be some hundreds; ?0 = 4??10-7 - magnetic constant, H/m; i is electric current in the vertical and single horizontal wire, A; H is magnetic intensity in V/m, B is magnetic intensity in T; l is acceleration distance, m.
The magnetic field acts only on the lower horizontal part 11 of the right-angled force spool because the top horizontal part is far from vertical support wire (at top of installation).
The equation (2) without the spools (n1 = 1) is the well-known equation (1) for the rail gun. The proposed innovation (the force multi-loop spool) increases the force by n1 times (for same current i) but simultaneously increases the required the projectile voltage also by n1 times if the installation changes its size (for example, the projectile moves thus altering the effective length of the connection) .
The spool also creates a strong magnetic field but this field acts only on the spool and produces tensile stress only into the spool. It easily is compensated for by film, fiber or composed material (reinforcement) located in the force spool.
Example: for i = 104 A, n1= 103, b = 10 the force is F = 4105 N = 40 tons. If i = 2104 A, the F = 160 tons. If i = 105 A, the F = 4000 tons. Approximately that is the weight of the structure, which can be accelerated or suspended over Earth's surface [5].
Look your attention the inductive loss decreases in n1 times (last equation in (3)).
  
For given force F the required current is
0x01 graphic
, (4)
Example: For F = 300,000 N, n1 = 103, b = 10 the i = 8.7103 A.
   Repulsive force between the vertical wires. This force F1 for a wire length of 1 m is
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
Example: for i = 104 A, d = 0.1 m, the force is F1 = 200 N/m = 20 kgf/m.
   Mass of an electric coil. The mass of the electric force top spool (loops) is
   0x01 graphic
, (6)
   where q is mass 1 m wire.
Example: for n1 = 100, d = 0.1 m, q - 210-2 kg/m , the mass one spool is 0.6 kg.
   Acceleration time and maximal speed. Trip time t [s] with constant acceleration equals :
0x01 graphic
, (7)
Here Vmax is maximal speed, m/s; S is acceleration distance, m.
   Inductive efficiency of Railgun and AB-Launcher. If we neglect the electric heat and friction loss in wire, rails and contacts, the efficiency coefficient of Railgun and AB-Launcher is
0x01 graphic
. (8)
   As you see the efficiency coefficient of Railgun depends only from n1 - number of coils of the force spool. For conventional railgun n1 = 1 and ? = 0.537. If we account the electric and friction loss in wire, rails and contacts, the efficiency coefficient of Railgun will be about ? = 0.2 - 0.3. The AB-Accelerator has n1 - 100 and does not have the large electric and friction loss in wire, rails and contacts. Its inductive efficiency coefficient is about 0.95. It is ~ 2 - 4 times more than a conventional railgun or rockets. That is the most efficienct among all known space launchers.
   Safe density of the electric current in wire. The electric current into launcher is very high and electric wire is heated and can melt and burn. Let us to find the safety density of electric current in wire not cooled and cooled by a liquid (for example, evaporate water). Let us take 1 m of wire. The heat energy from the electric current is
   0x01 graphic
, (9)
where E is an electric heat energy in 1 m wire, J/m; R is electric resistance, Ohm; i is electric current, A; t is time, sec; ? is the specific electric resistance (for copper ? = 1.75?10-8 ??m); s is cross-section area, m2; m is mass 1m of wire, kg; ? is the specific wire density, kg/m3, ? = 8930 kg/m3 for cooper; j is current density, A/m2.
Let us to find the energy (heat) absorbs the wire and the cooling liquid
0x01 graphic
, (10)
   where Q is absorbed energy, J/m; Cpm is thermal capacity of wire (for copper Cpm = 0.39 kJ/kg?K); Cp is thermal capacity of a liquid (for water Cp = 4.19 kJ/kg?K); r is heat evaporation (for water r = 2260 kJ/kg); ?Tm is a safety decrement of a wire temperature, K; ?T is a safety decrement of a liquid temperature, K; ml is mass of liquid in 1 m of wire, kg/m; ? is specific density of wire (for copper ? = 8930 kg/m3).
Example: For copper wire without a cooling liquid for the shot time t = 0,003 sec, safety temperature ?Tm = 80oK, we has the j = 3.26?103 A/mm2. For copper wire with a water cooling liquid having ml/m = 1 for safety ?Tm = ?T = 80oK, we has the j = 21?103 A/mm2.
   3. Multi-loops launcher, version 2 (fig.3c) (having only vertical loops). The Force and inductive voltage are
0x01 graphic
, (11)
where n = n1 + n2 is number horizontal and vertical loops.
   4. Multi-loops launcher, version 3 (fig.3d) (having horizontal and vertical loops). The force and inductive voltage are
0x01 graphic
, (12)
   where n2 is number of vertical wire.
   5. Method turn-off the energy source during acceleration. It is known that the inductive devices (as railgun) function as storage of electric energy. They accumulate the electric energy when the electric current is increases and return this energy (produce the electric current the same direction when the electric current is decreases). Author offers to turn-off the energy source in during projectile acceleration and uses the accumulated inductive energy in rails for further acceleration of projectile. This method significantly decreases the final current, plasma flash and increases the gun energy efficiency but unfortunately, radically increases the length of gun barrel.
Let us to estimate the length of barrel from the law of energy. Assume that an induce energy is full transferred to projectile energy. Then (for conventional railgun):
   0x01 graphic
(13)
where Ei is the maximal inductive energy, J; E is the kinetic energy, J; V1 is final projectile speed, m/s; V0 is a projectile speed in moment of turn-off of the current, m/s; m is mass of projectile, kg; l is length of barrel in time of a maximal current, m; the other notations are same with previous equations.
   The requested increase of gun barrel length is
   0x01 graphic
, (14)
where E1is additional energy to projectile, J; l1 is additional length of barrel, m; i1 is average electric current after switch of the electric source, A; the other notations are same with previous equations.
   The estimations for typical parameters of Railgun show the increasing of speed is about 30 40%, but the requested lengthening of the barrel is ~ 3 - 5 times.
   6. Radio impulse. The plasma flush produces also the powerful electro-magnetic impulse which decamouflage of the Railgun. The energy of this impulse equals about the energy of inductive energy. Let us to estimate the period (frequency) of electromagnetic impulse. We consider the Railgun as an oscillation circuit from magnetic spool and condenser.
   0x01 graphic
(15)
   Where C is capacity of Railgun as condenser, C; 0x01 graphic
is the light speed in vacuum, m/s .
   The estimation shows that radio impulse of Railgun is located in the metric diapason. (octave)
0x01 graphic
. (16)
   Equations (13), (14) are correct for condition 0x01 graphic
. Where r is an ohm resistance, ?. This condition is correct in our case. That means the radio locator can catch the shot in distance of thousand kilometers.
   8. Voltage in moment projectile disconnection. In moment of disconnection all inductive energy locates in a rail magnetic field. If that is transferred into the condenser energy the condenser voltage will be
   0x01 graphic
, (17)
   where Ec is maximal energy of condenser, J; U is the maximal voltage, V.
The electric current is very high (some million volts). That way the voltage in rails in disconnection of projectile is also very high (tens of millions volts).
  
   Below into Table 1 it is presented the summary comparison of different versions of the offered multi-loop magnetic launchers (low current magnetic accelerators) for same acceleration force.
   Table 1. Comparison of launchers
   Type of
   launchers
   Electric current
   Max. accel.
voltage
   Number of
contacts
   Useful mass
of projectile
   Inductive eff.coefficient
   General eff.
   coefficient
   Conventional
railgun
   io
   Uo
   N = 2
   mo
   ?io - 0.53
   ?o
   Offered railgun
   Version 1
   0x01 graphic
   0x01 graphic
   N = 2
   m< mo
   ?i>?io
   ? >?o
   Offered railgun
   Version 2
   0x01 graphic
   0x01 graphic
   N = 2n2
   m = mo
   ?i=?io
   ? >?o
   Offered railgun
   Version 3
   0x01 graphic
   0x01 graphic
   N = 2n2
   m mo
   ?i>?io
for n1>n2
   ? >?o
  
  
   Computation of the Permanent Magnetic AB-Launcher (fig.4).
In this design the vertical wire changes the permanent magnets. Here we can have also four design (versions) of fig.3a-d. Let us to give the computation equations for these cases.
   1. Conventional railgun (one horizontal jumper, fig.3a).
0x01 graphic
, (18)
where l is length of wire into an intensity magnetic field of permanent magnate, m (see Fig.4b); B is magnetic intensity into area of active wire, T.
   2. Multi-loops launcher (having only horizontal loops, fig.3b).
0x01 graphic
, (19)
   3. Multi-loops launcher (having only vertical loops, fig.3c).
0x01 graphic
, (20)
4. Multi-loops launcher (having horizontal and vertical loops, fig.3d).
0x01 graphic
. (21)
The launcher with the permanent magnet having a lot of coils has a small current. That can have a spring vertical wire and not have a sliding contact (fig.4c).
The properties of launchers with permanent magnets are strong depending from B.
Below is short information about magnets.
   Short information about Magnets [16]-[23].
Neodymium magnets are very strong relative to their mass, but are also mechanically fragile. High-temperature grades will operate at up to 200 and even 230C but their strength is only marginally greater than that of a samarium-cobalt magnet. As of 2008 neodymium magnets cost about $44/kg, $1.40 per BHmax.
Most neodymium magnets are anisotropic, and hence can only be magnetized along one direction although B10N material is isotropic. During manufacture fields of 30-40 kOe are required to saturate the material. Neodymium magnets have a coercivity (required demagnetisation field from saturation) of about 10,000-12,000 Oersted. Neodymium magnets (or "neo" as they are known in the industry) are graded in strength from N24 to the strongest, N55. The theoretical limit for neodymium magnets is grade N64. The number after the N represents the magnetic energy product, in megagauss-oersteds (MGOe) (1 MGOe = 7,95810 TA/m = 7,958 kJ/m). N48 has a remnant static magnetic field of 1.38 teslas and an H (magnetic field intensity) of 13,800 Oersteds (1.098 MA/m). By volume one requires about 18 times as much ceramic magnetic material for the equivalent magnet lifting strength, and about 3 to 5 times as much for the equivalent dipole moment. A neodymium magnet can hold up to 1300 times its own weight.
The neodymium magnet industry is continually working to push the maximum energy product (strength) closer to the theoretical maximum of 64 MGOe. Scientists are also working hard to improve the maximum operating temperature for any given strength.
Physical and mechanical properties: Electrical resistivity 160 -ohm-cm/cm2; Density 7.4-7.5 g/cm3; Bending strength 24 kg/mm2; Compressive strength 80 kg/mm2; Young's modulus 1.7 x 104 kg/mm2; Thermal conductivity 7.7 kcal/m-h-C; Vickers hardness 500 - 600.
Samarium-cobalt magnets are primarily composed of samarium and cobalt. They have been available since the early 1970s. This type of rare-earth magnet is very powerful, however they are brittle and prone to cracking and chipping. Samarium-cobalt magnets have Maximum Energy Products (BHmax) that range from 16 Mega-Gauss Oersteds (MGOe) to 32 MGOe, their theoretical limit is 34 MGOe. Samarium Cobalt magnets are available in two "series", namely Series 1:5 and Series 2:17.
Material properties: Density: 8.4 g/cm ; Electrical Resistivity 0.810--4 ?cm; Coefficient of thermal expansion (perpendicular to axis): 12.5 m/(mK) .
Alnico is an acronym referring to alloys which are composed primarily of aluminium (symbol Al), nickel (symbol Ni) and cobalt (symbol Co), hence al-ni-co, with the addition of iron, copper, and sometimes titanium, typically 8-12% Al, 15-26% Ni, 5-24% Co, up to 6% Cu, up to 1% Ti, and the balance is Fe. The primary use of alnico alloys is magnet applications.
Alnico remanence (Br) may exceed 12,000 G (1.2 T), its coercion force (Hc) can be up to 1000 oersted (80 kA/m), its energy product ((BH)max) can be up to 5.5 MGOe (44 TA/m)--this means alnico can produce high magnetic flux in closed magnetic circuit, but has relatively small resistance against demagnetization.
As of 2008, Alnico magnets cost about $20/pound or $4.30/BHmax.
Electrolytic steel. The good properties have conventional electrolytic steel, which uses in conventional electric engines, electric machines, transformer. That is cheap, has the magnetic intensity up 1.7 T and easy magnetize. After shot the magnate with outer magnetizing returns the induced energy in an electric network. The magnetic field is created only in shot.

Computation of the Plasma Magnetic Launcher
The Plasma Magnetic Launcher is computed as the conventional Railgun. The specific electric resistance is computed by equation
0x01 graphic
, [??m], (22)
where z is ion charge (conventional z = 1); T is plasma temperature in eV; ln? is Coulombs logarithm (ln? - 3 10). The electric resistance of plasma for T = 100 eV is close to metal conductors. However the plasma jumper can have a large contact area, have a small mass and a gas sliding contact.

Projects

  
The most suitable computation for the proposed projects is made in examples in Theoretical section.
That way much data is given without detailed explanation. Our design is not optimal but merely for estimation of the main data.
   Project. AB-Accelerator for warship projectile
The DARPA and NAVY (USA) and UK have a program for the warship railgun capable to accelerate a 2 kg projectile up to speeds of 3 km/s (see end of Introduction). We take the common projectile mass m = 10 kg (projectile + wire system), final speed V = 3 km/s and estimate the parameters of the suggested accelerator.
   Let us take the projectile acceleration a =105g = 106 m/s2. The requested force is F = ma = 107 N, the requested length of barrel is S = V2/2a = 4.5 m, the acceleration time is t = V/a = 0.003 sec. Kinetic energy of projectile is E = mV2/2 = 4.5107 J. The average power is P = E/t =1.51011 W.
   The needed electric current and some other parameters for different versions d = 0.05 m, b = 2 (see Eq. (1) - (4)) is:
   1) Version 1 (conventional, n = 1). Request current is i - 3.54106 A. The maximal acceleration voltage (Eq.(3)) is Um = 8.5103 V. The maximal only projectile power Pm = iUm = 31010 W. The safety density of the electric current without cooling is j = 7.55?103 A/mm2, (Eq. (10), ?Tm = 80oK). Cross section of rail is s = i/j = 4.7?102 mm2.
   Let us take the distance between vertical wire d = 0.05 m. The repulse force between vertical wire is (Eq.(5)) = 5?107 N/m.
   2) Version 2 (n1 = 100). Request current is i - 3.54105 A. The maximal acceleration voltage (Eq.(3)) is Um = 8.5104 V. The maximal only projectile power Pm = iUm = 31010 W. The safety density of the electric current is j = 7.55?103 A/mm2, (Eq. (10), ?Tm = 80oK). Cross section of rail is s = i/j = 4.7?101 mm2. Let us take the distance between vertical wire d = 0.05 m. The repulse force between vertical wire is (Eq.(5)) = 5?105 N/m.
The heat loss and plasma flash decreases approximately in 10 times, but useful mass of projectile decreases about 60% because the wire spool at projectile has a mass.
   3) Version 3 is combination of version 1 and 2.
   4) Version 4 does not have lacks of version 2, but one has more contacts (N = 2n) with weaker electric current (by n times).

Conclusion

  
In this article the author describes the new ideas, theory and computations for design the new low electric current launchers for the railgun projectile and space apparatus.
Important advantage of the offered design is the lower (up some tens times) used electric current of high voltage and the very high inductive efficiency coefficient close to 0.9 (compared with efficiency of the current railgun equal to 20 - 40%). The suggested launchers may be produced by present technology.
   The problems of needed electric energy become far simpler. At first, AB-Launchers have a high efficiency and spend in 2 - 3 times less energy than a conventional railgun; the second, AB-Launcher uses the high voltage energy closed to a voltage of the electric stations. That means the power electric station can be directly connected to AB-Launcher in period of acceleration without expensive transformers and condensers. The power of strong electric plant is enough for launching the space apparatus of some hundreds of kilograms.
   The offered magnetic space launcher is a thousand times cheaper than the well-known cable space elevator. NASA is spending for research of space elevator hundreds of millions of dollars. A small part of this sum is enough for R&D of the magnetic launcher and to make a working model.
   The proposed innovation (milti- electric AB-spool, permanent magnetic rails, plasma magnetic launcher) allows also solving the problem of the conventional railgun (having the projectile speed 3 -5 km/s). The current conventional railgun uses a very high ampere electric current (millions A) and low voltage. As the result the rails corrode, burn, melt The suggested AB-spool allows decreases the required the electric current by tens of times (simultaneously the required voltage is increased by the same factor).
Small cheap magnetic prototypes would be easily tested.
   The computed projects are not optimal. That is only illustration of an estimation method. The reader can recalculate the AB-Launchers for his own scenarios (see also [1]-[23]).
   References
(The reader may find some of these articles, at the author's web page: http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm , in http://www.scribd.org , in the WEB of Cornel University http://arxiv.org , and in http://aiaa.org search term
"Bolonkin")
1. Bolonkin A.A., Magnetic Space AB-Accelerator. http://www.scribd.com/doc/26885058
   2. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 , http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
3. Bolonkin A.A., New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human
Sciences, NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071, http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
4. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology, NOVA, 2008,
537 pgs. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 . http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
5. Bolonkin A., Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures and Immobile Space Stations,
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/25883886
   6. Bolonkin A., Krinker M., Magnetic Space Launcher. Presented as paper AIAA-2009-5261 to 45th AIAA
Joint Propulsion Conference, 2-5 August 2009, Denver, CO, USA. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24051286
   or http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
   7. Bolonkin A.A., Earth Accelerator for Space Ships and Missiles, JBIS, Vol. 56, No. 11/12, 2003,
pp. 394-404. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
8. Bolonkin A.A., "Space Cable Launchers", Paper No. 8057 presented at the Symposium
"The Next 100 years", Dayton, OH, USA, 14-17 July, 2003. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
9. Bolonkin A.A., Centrifugal Space Launcher, Presented as paper AIAA-2005-4035 at the
41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, AZ, USA. http://aiaa.org,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 Ch.10.
10. Bolonkin A.A., Electrostatic Linear Engine and Cable Space AB Launcher,
Paper AIAA-2006-5229 for 42 Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, USA, 9-12 July,
2006. See also AEAT Vol.78, No.2006, pp. 502-508. http://aiaa.org, http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
   11. Bolonkin A., Krinker M., Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field Levitation
http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0807/0807.1948.pdf (12 July, 2008).
   12. Bolonkin A., Krinker M.. Magnetic Propeller. Article presented as paper AIAA-2008-4610 to
44th Joint Propulsion Conference, 20-24 July, 2008, Hartford, CT, http://aiaa.org .
   13. Bolonkin A., Krinker M. , Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field.
(Ch.13 . in the book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008)
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 . http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
   14. AIP. Physics Desk References, 3-rd Edition. Springer. 2003.
   15. Krinker M., Review of New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Space Towers.
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/26270139, http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1002/1002.2405.pdf
   16. Galasso F.S., Advanced Fibers and Composite. Gordon and Branch Science Publisher, 1989.
   17. Kikoin I.K., Editor. Table of Physical Values, Moscow, 1976, 1007 ps. (in Russian).
   18. Koshkin H.I., Shirkevich M.G., Directory of Elementary Physics, Nauka, 1982.
   19. Koell D.E., Handbook of Cost Engineering, TCS, Germany, 2000.
   20. Minovich M., "Electromagnetic Transportation System for Manned Space Travel", US Patent
#4,795,113, January 3, 1989.
   21. Naschekin V.V., Technical Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer, Moscow, 1969 (in Russian).
22. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the
Creative Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
   23. http://NASA-NIAC.narod.ru , http://auditing-science.narod.ru
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Article Magnetic Launcher after Joseph for JAE 2 14 10
  

Chapter 10

Superconductivity Space Accelerator

  
Abstract
  
In this Chapter the author describes a new idea, theory and computations for design of a new magnetic low cost accelerator for railgun projectile and space apparatus. The suggested design does not have the traditional current rails and sliding contacts. This accelerates the projectile and space apparatus by a magnetic column which can have a length of some kilometers, produces a very high acceleration and projectile (apparatus) final speed of up to 8 - 10 km/s.
Important advantages of the offered design is the low (up to some thousands of times) used electric current of high voltage and very high efficiency coefficient close to 1 (compare with efficiency of the current railgun which equals 20 - 40%). The suggested accelerator may be produced by present technology.
   The projects: railgun and space accelerator are computed.
--------
   Key words: railgun, space launcher, magnetic space launcher, magnetic accelerator, AB-Accelerator .
   1. Introduction
   At present, rockets are used to carry people and payloads into space, or to deliver bombs over long distances. This method is very expensive, and requires a well-developed industry, high technology, expensive fuel, and complex devices.
   Other than rockets, methods to reach altitudes and speeds of interest (even prospectively) are the space elevator, the hypersonic tube air rocket, cable space accelerator, circle launcher and space keeper, centrifugal launcher [1-9], electrostatic liner accelerator [10]. Several new non-rockets methods were also proposed by the author at the World Space Congress-2002, Houston, USA, 10 - 19 October 2002.
The space elevator requires very strong nanotubes, as well as rockets and high technology for the initial development. The tube air rocket and non-rocket systems require more detailed research. The electromagnetic transport system, suggested by Minovich (US Patent, 4,795,113, 3 January, 1989)[11], is not realistic at the present time. It requires a vacuum underground tunnel 1530 kilometers long located at a depth of 40 kilometers. The project requires an active cooling system (because the temperature is very high at this depth), a complex power electromagnetic system, and a huge impulse of energy that is greater than the energy of all the electric generating stations on Earth.
This article suggests a very simple and inexpensive method and installation for launching into space.
This is a new space launcher system for delivering hypersonic speeds. This method uses a low electric current (but a high voltage). Installation does not have a electric current rail or sliding electric contact and has a very high efficiency. This method requires superconductivity, but this problem is successfully solved by author's innovations in design of the working superconductivity wire.
   General information about previous works regarding to this topic.
Below is common information useful for understanding proposed ideas and research.
A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving fluid from within a rocket engine. Chemical rockets operate due to hot exhaust gas made from "propellant" acting against the inside of an expansion nozzle. This generates forces that both accelerate the gas to extremely high speed, as well as, since every action has an equal and opposite reaction, generating a large thrust on the rocket.
The history of rockets goes back to at least the 13th century, possibly earlier. By the 20th century it included human spaceflight to the Moon, and in the 21st century rockets have enabled commercial space tourism.
Rockets are used for fireworks and weaponry, as launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight and exploration of other planets. While they are inefficient for low speed use, they are, compared to other propulsion systems, very lightweight, enormously powerful and can achieve extremely high speeds.
Chemical rockets contain a large amount of energy in an easily liberated form, and can be very dangerous, although careful design, testing, construction and use can minimise the risks.
A rocket engine is a jet engine that takes all its reaction mass ("propellant") from within tankage and forms it into a high speed jet, thereby obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law. Rocket engines can be used for spacecraft propulsion as well as terrestrial uses, such as missiles. Most rocket engines are internal combustion engines, although non combusting forms also exist.
   Railgun. Scientists use a railgun for high acceleration of a small conducting body. A railgun is a form of gun that converts electrical energy (rather than the more conventional chemical energy from an explosive propellant) into projectile kinetic energy. It is not to be confused with a coilgun (Gauss gun). Rail guns use magnetic force to drive a projectile. Unlike gas pressure guns, rail guns are not limited by the speed of sound in a compressed gas, so they are capable of accelerating projectiles to extremely high speeds (many kilometers per second).
A wire carrying an electrical current, when in a magnetic field, experiences a force perpendicular to the direction of the current and the direction of the magnetic field.
In an electric motor, fixed magnets create a magnetic field, and a coil of wire is carried upon a shaft that is free to rotate. An electrical current flows through the coil causing it to experience a force due to the magnetic field. The wires of the coil are arranged such that all the forces on the wires make the shaft rotate, and so the motor runs.
   A railgun consists of two parallel metal rails (hence the name) connected to an electrical power supply. When a conductive projectile is inserted between the rails (from the end connected to the power supply), it completes the circuit. Electrical current runs from the positive terminal of the power supply up the positive rail, across the projectile, and down the negative rail, back to the power supply. This flow of current makes the railgun act like an electromagnet, creating a powerful magnetic field in the region of the rails up to the position of the projectile. In accordance with the right-hand rule, the created magnetic field circulates around each conductor. Since the current flows in opposite direction along each rail, the net magnetic field between the rails (B)(see Ch.7, Fig.1) is directed vertically. In combination with the current (I) flowing across the projectile, this produces a Lorentz force which accelerates the projectile along the rails. The projectile slides up the rails away from the end with the power supply.
If a very large power supply providing a million amperes or so of current is used, then the force on the projectile will be tremendous, and by the time it leaves the ends of the rails it can be travelling at many kilometres per second. 20 kilometers per second has been achieved with small projectiles explosively injected into the railgun. Although these speeds are theoretically possible, the heat generated from the propulsion of the object is enough to rapidly erode the rails. Such a railgun would require frequent replacement of the rails, or use a heat resistant material that would be conductive enough to produce the same effect. Please notice the gigantic cloud of plasma behind the projectile. That is the result of a electric arc between the contacts. About 70 - 80% of electric energy is lost uselessly.
   The need for strong conductive materials with which to build the rails and projectiles; the rails need to survive the violence of an accelerating projectile, and heating due to the large currents and friction involved acts against the longevity of the system. The force exerted on the rails consists of a recoil force - equal and opposite to the force propelling the projectile, but along the length of the rails (which is their strongest axis) - and a sideways force caused by the rails being pushed by the magnetic field, just as the projectile is. The rails need to survive this without bending, and thus must be very securely mounted.
The power supply must be able to deliver large currents, with both capacitors and compulsators being common.
The rails need to withstand enormous repulsive forces during firing, and these forces will tend to push them apart and away from the projectile. As rail/projectile clearances increase, electrical arcing develops, which causes rapid vaporization and extensive damage to the rail surfaces and the insulator surfaces. This limits most research railguns to one shot per service interval.
Some have speculated that there are fundamental limits to the exit velocity due to the inductance of the system, and particularly of the rails; but United States government has made significant progress in railgun design and has recently floated designs of a railgun that would be used on a naval vessel. The designs for the naval vessels, however, are limited by their required power usages for the magnets in the rail guns. This level of power is currently unattainable on a ship and reduces the usefulness of the concept for military purposes.
Massive amounts of heat are created by the electricity flowing through the rails, as well as the friction of the projectile leaving the device. This leads to three main problems: melting of equipment, safety of personnel, and detection by enemy forces. As briefly discussed above, the stresses involved in firing this sort of device require an extremely heat-resistant material. Otherwise the rails, barrel, and all equipment attached would melt or be irreparably damaged. Current railguns are not sufficiently powerful to create enough heat to damage anything; however the military is pushing for more and more powerful prototypes. The immense heat released in firing a railgun could potentially injure or even kill bystanders. The heat released would not only be dangerous, but easily detectable. While not visible to the naked eye, the heat signature would be unmistakable to infrared detectors. All of these problems can be solved by the invention of an effective cooling method.
Railguns are being pursued as weapons with projectiles that do not contain explosives, but are given extremely high velocities: 3500 m/s (11,500 ft/s) or more (for comparison, the M16 rifle has a muzzle speed of 930 m/s, or 3,000 ft/s), which would make their kinetic energy equal or superior to the energy yield of an explosive-filled shell of greater mass. This would allow more ammunition to be carried and eliminate the hazards of carrying explosives in a tank or naval weapons platform. Also, by firing at higher velocities railguns have greater range, less bullet drop and less wind drift, bypassing the inherent cost and physical limitations of conventional firearms - "the limits of gas expansion prohibit launching an unassisted projectile to velocities greater than about 1.5 km/s and ranges of more than 50 miles [80 km] from a practical conventional gun system."
If it is ever possible to apply the technology as a rapid-fire automatic weapon, a railgun would have further advantages in increased rate of fire. The feed mechanisms of a conventional firearm must move to accommodate the propellant charge as well as the ammunition round, while a railgun would only need to accommodate the projectile. Furthermore, a railgun would not have to extract a spent cartridge case from the breech, meaning that a fresh round could be cycled almost immediately after the previous round has been shot.
Tests of Railgun. Full-scale models have been built and fired, including a very successful 90 mm bore, 9 MJ (6.6 million foot-pounds) kinetic energy gun developed by DARPA, but they all suffer from extreme rail damage and need to be serviced after every shot. Rail and insulator ablation issues still need to be addressed before railguns can start to replace conventional weapons. Probably the most successful system was built by the UK's Defence Research Agency at Dundrennan Range in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. This system has now been operational for over 10 years at an associated flight range for internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics, and is the holder of several mass and velocity records.
The United States military is funding railgun experiments. At the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Advanced Technology, military railguns capable of delivering tungsten armor piercing bullets with kinetic energies of nine million joules have been developed. Nine mega-joules is enough energy to deliver 2 kg of projectile at 3 km/s - at that velocity a tungsten or other dense metal rod could penetrate a tank.
The United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division demonstrated an 8 mega-joule rail gun firing 3.2 kilogram (slightly more than 7 pounds) projectiles in October of 2006 as a prototype of a 64 mega-joule weapon to be deployed aboard Navy warships. Such weapons are expected to be powerful enough to do a little more damage than a BGM-109 Tomahawk missile at a fraction of the projectile cost.
Due to the very high muzzle velocity that can be attained with railguns, there is interest in using them to shoot down high-speed missiles.
   Description of Innovations and Problems

New type of magnetic acceleration (magnetic AB-column)

  
1. Description of Innovations. The conventional magnetic accelerator (railgun) is shown in fig.1. That contains two the conductive rails connected by a sliding jumper. Electric currents produce the magnetic field and magnetic force. The jumper accepts the magnetic force and accelerates the projectile. Main defects of conventional rail gun: The rail gun requires a gigantic current (millions of amperes) of low voltage, rails have large electric resistance, strongly heating up, contacts burn, installation is damaged and requires repair after every shot. The energy charge is high (small coefficient of efficiency. You see the gigantic plasma column behind the small projectile in fig.2). The repulsive force between rails is gigantic (thousands of tons) and installation is thus heavy and expensive if it is to survive a single shot.
   Description. The fig.3a shows the suggested accelerator without the force and connection spools. Installation includes the long vertical loop from electric wire 1 and electric source 6. The electric current 2 produces the magnetic field 3 (magnetic column), the magnetic field creates the vertical 4 and horizontal 5 forces. These forces balance the film (or filament, fiber) connection 15. Vertical force 4 accelerates the useful load at top of the installation and supports wires and film connection).
   This design is used in a rail gun [5] but the author made many innovations that allow applying this idea to this new application as an efficient magnetic accelerator. Some of them are listed below.
   Innovations. The author offers the following innovations having the next advantages:
   1) The horizontal wire (fig.3a, #2a, former sliding jumper of fig.2) is made in a form of closed-loop spool (fig.3b, #11). The lower part of this spool (fig.3b, #12) located in place of former jumper near the magnetic field of vertical wire (fig.3b). The top part of this spool (fig.3b, #13) located at top - out of the magnetic field of vertical wire 2. As the result the magnetic field of the vertical wire 2 activates only on horizontal wires 12. But now we have here not one wire 2a with current i, we have n wires and current ni. The magnetic force 17 and requested voltage increases by n times! The force spool 11 can have some thousands loops and force 17 will be more in same times then in case 2a of fig 3a. That means the electric current in the connection wires 2 may be relatively small (only some thousands of amperes, not millions) and of high voltage. The request vertical wire may be relatively thin.
   2) Application of special connection spool. The accelerator has the connection spool 7 (fig.3, detail spool in fig.4). That allows increases the acceleration distance up to some kilometers and deletes the sliding electric contacts.
   3) The wire is superconductive and has special design (fig.4). That allows simply cooling the wires in a short time (the superconductivity needs a low temperature). Their cooling time may be short because requested time of acceleration may be short. For example, rail gun shot lasts about 0.1 second, the space apparatus acceleration is about tens seconds.
   4) Absence of long rails. `Confinement recoil' of projectile is accepted by the magnetic columns 3a (fig.3a) from vertical wires [4].
  
   The main innovation is a top loop 11 (right angle spool [4]), which increases the number of horizontal wires 12, magnetic intensity in area 17 and lift force 16. We can make a lot of loops up to some thousands and increase the lift force by thousands of times. For a given lift force we can decrease the required current in many times and decreases the mass of source wire 2. That does not necessarily mean that we decrease the required electric power because the new installation needs a higher voltage. The proposed construction creates the MAGNETIC COLUMN 3a that produces a lift force some thousands of times more than a conventional rail gun.
The second important innovation is the connection spool, which increases the acceleration distance, deletes the sliding contacts and heavy rails.
   Quadratic magnetic column. The quadratic four wire magnetic column ([4], Fig.2) is more efficient, stable, safe, reliable and controlled than two wire magnetic column Fig.1. It can control of space ship direction (by changing current in vertical wires). It is important for high altitude space apparatus.
  
   0x01 graphic
  
Fig.1. Principal sketch of the Magnetic AB-Accelerator. Notations: (a) Principal sketch of conventional (one turn) magnetic accelerator, (b) - Multi-loop force spool at top of accelerator (same force spool located at ground), (c) - rocket (projectile) with detachable magnetic accelerator at bottom. Parts: 1 - magnetic installation with magnetic column, 1a - sliding contct, 2 - vertical wire and direction of electric current i, 2a - horizontal wire (jumper) and direction of electric current i, 3 - magnetic field from vertical electric wire, 3a - magnetic column, 4 - magnetic force from horizontal electric wire (jumper), 5 - magnetic force from vertical electric wire, 6 - electric source, 7 - connection spool, 8 - rocket (projectile), 9 - force spool, 10 - magnetic accelerator, 11 - wire multi-loop superconductive force spool at top (same spool located also on Earth surface), 12 - lower wires of loop (force spool), 13 - top wires of loop (force spool), 14 - magnetic field from vertical wire, 15 - thin film or artificial fiber connected the vertical wires for compensation the magnetic repulse force, 16 - repulsive magnetic force, 17 - acceleration force, 18 - area strong magnetic field, i - electric current in vertical wire, ni - electric current in the force spool.
  
2. Connection spools. The connection spools can be located at accelerator and at the ground. Every design has its advantages and limitations. Three constructions of the connection spools are presented in fig.2. The first design (fig.4a) has immobile vertical spools. That is simple but results in a limited safe high speed of the launched apparatus and requires the connection device 9. The second design (fig.2b) has the horizontal spool rotated by an engine. This connection spool is limited by the safe rotary speed of the spool and also requires the connection device 9. The third design (fig.4c) has engine and also limited by a safety rotary of spool, but it does not request the connection device 9 because the wires are connected by fiber before spooling in the connection spool.
The limitation is about 1 - 3 km/s for the current artificial fiber (whiskers) having a safe tensile stresses about 200 - 1000 kgf/mm2. But if we use nanotubes, the limit is more by 5 -10 times.
   3. Cooling system of superconductive wire. The current superconductive conductors do not spend electric energy and pass very large electric current densities, but they require an cooling system because the current superconductive materials have the critical temperature of about 100 - 180 K (see Table #1 below). The wire located into Earth's atmosphere (up 50 - 80 km) needs cooling.
   However, the present computational methods of heat transfer are well developed and the weight and the induced expenses for cooling are small (for example, cooling by liquid nitrogen) [4] (see also Computation and Projects sections).
  
   0x01 graphic

   Fig. 2. Possible installations of connection spools for AB-Accelerator. Notations: (a) Immobile vertical connection spool, (b) Rotated horizontal connection spool, (c) Type connection spool. Parts: 1 - immobile vertical connection spool, 2 - vertical superconductive wire, 3 - filaments connected the vertical wire and keeping the repulsive magnetic force of vertical wires, 4 - electric current, 5 - motion of connection wire, 6 - vertical wire to the force spool, 7 - connection wire in connection spool, 8 - engine for rotation of the connection spool, 9 - device for connection the vertical wires by filaments.
  
   The suggested design of a cooled superconductive wire is present in fig.5. The wire contains two elastic tubes. The insulated internal tube is coated inside-- the superconductive layer, outside is coated--the highly reflective layer. The outer tube is made from the strong artificial fiber and covered by the highly reflective layers. The space between tubes is vacuumed or filed by air (it is worse but may apply for short cooling time) or heat protection.
   The wire works the following way. The liquid nitrogen (77 K) from special heat protection capsule is injected into the internal tube in many places (needles) and instantly cooling the superconductive layer to lower than the critical temperature.
  
While the nitrogen evaporates the temperature is 77 K and installation can accelerate the projectile or space apparatus. After acceleration the accelerator separates, wires are spooling and installation is ready for next shot.
  
   0x01 graphic
  
   Fig.3. Superconductive wires. (a) Cross-section of superconductive wires, (b) - side view. Notations: 1 - strong elastic tube (internal part is used for cooling of superconductive layer by liquid nitrogen, external part is used for reflective layer), 2 - superconductive layer, 3 - insulator, 4 - high reflective layer, 5 - vacuum or air, or heat-insulated material (fiber), 6 - strong outer tube (internal and external surface is covered by reflective coating), 7 - connection the internal and outer tubes.
  
   4. Superconductive materials.
There are hundreds of new superconductive materials (type 2) having critical temperature 70 ? 120 K and more. Some of the superconductable materials are presented in Table 1 (2001). The widely used YBa2Cu3O7 has mass density 7 g/cm3.
  

Table 1. Transition temperature Tc and upper critical magnetic field B = Hc2(0) of some examined superconductors [14 ], p. 752.

   Crystal
   Tc (K)
   Hc2 (T)
   La 2-xSrxCuO4
   38
   ?80
   YBa2Cu3O7
   92
   ?150
   Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10
   110
   ?250
   TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9
   110
   ?100
   Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10
   125
   ?150
   HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8
   133
   ?150
  
   The last decisions are: Critical temperature is 176 K, up to 183 K. Nanotube has critical temperature of 12 - 15 K,
   Some organic matters have a temperature of up to 15 K. Polypropylene, for example, is normally an insulator. In 1985, however, researchers at the Russian Academy of Sciences discovered that as an oxidized thin-film, polypropylene have a conductivity 105 to 106 that is higher than the best refined metals.
   Boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen is 77.3 K, air 81 K, oxygen 90.2 K, hydrogen 20.4 K, helium 4.2 K [17]. Specific density of liquid air is 920 kg/m3, nitrogen 804 kg/m3; evaporation heat is liquid air is 213 kJ/kg, nitrogen 199 kJ/kg [18].
   Unfortunately, most superconductive material is not strong and needs a strong covering for structural support.
   5. Advantages. The offered magnetic accelerator has big advantages in comparison with railguns and other space launchers. Compare it with the space rocket.
   1. The AB-Accelerator is very cheap. The cost is about one million USD (rail gun) to some millions (space launcher) [19].
   2. The consumables cost is very small and primarily the needed electric energy (about 3 - 5 $/kg)[19].
   3. The productivity is very high (tens launches in day).
   4. The accelerator uses the current well developed technology and may be researched and devloped in a short time.
   5. The accelerator (special platform) may initially to accelerate current rockets up to speed 700 - 1000 m/s and lift them to the altitude 5 - 10 km. That increases the payload the current rockets up 50% .
   6. Accelerator uses the high voltage (up to 1 MV) electric currency. That allows to directly connect accelerator to current power electric stations (in night time during periods of slack power use) and to launch a space apparatus without expensive electric energy storage in the form of capacitors (used in present time).
   7. Accelerator has a coefficient of energy efficiency closed to 1. It is the most efficient among the known space launchers.
   In comparison with current Railgun the suggested accelerator has the following advantages:
      -- No problem with burn of rail and contact.
      -- No damage and repair of installation after every shot.
      -- Limit in speed of projectile is high (7 - 9 km/s).
      -- No limit to mass of projectile.
      -- Installation is cheaper.
      -- Installation requires ~2 - 3 times less of energy than same output conventional railgun.
  
   6. Application and further development. Idea of the magnetic AB-column may be applied to the suspending of houses, buildings, towns, multi-floor cities, to a small flying city-state located over ocean in the international water, (avoiding some of the liabilities of sea-surface communities during storms) to levitating space stations, to communication masts and towers [4]. This idea may be easily tested in small cheap magnetic constructions for simple projects, on a small scale.
   Theory of Magnetic AB-Acceleration
   1. Magnetic force acting on horizontal wire. Proof of magnetic force equation. We use only well-known physical laws (magnetic force on the electric conductor located into magnetic field):
0x01 graphic
. (1)
The force from two vertical wires is
   0x01 graphic
(2)
where F is magnetic force, N; n is number of wire loops at horizontal connection (fig.3, #11)(in proposed force spool), number of wire loops may be some thousands; ?0 = 4??10-7 - magnetic constant, H/m; d is distance between centers of vertical wire, m; a is radius of wire (internal tube) or thickness of a conductive layer (plate conductor), m; b - 5 - 10; i is electric current in the vertical and single horizontal wire, A; H is magnetic intensity in V/m, B is magnetic intensity in T; l is distance, m.
The magnetic field acts only on the lower horizontal part of the right-angled force spool because the top horizontal part is far from vertical support wire (at top of installation).
The equation (2) without the spools (n = 1) is the well-known equation for the rail gun. The proposed innovation (the right-angled force spool) increases the force by n times but simultaneously increases the required voltage also by n times if the installation changes its size (for example, altitude) or the projectile moves.
The spool also creates a strong magnetic field but this field acts only on the spool and produces tensile stress only into the spool. It easy is compensated for by film, fiber or composed material (reinforcement) located in the force spool.
Example: for i = 104 A, n = 103, b = 10 the force is F = 4105 N = 40 tons. If i = 2104 A, the F = 160 tons. If i = 105 A, the F = 4000 tons. Approximately that is the weight of the structure, which can be accelerated or suspended over Earth's surface.
The stationary (immovable) installation using superconductive wires doesn't need maintenance (hovering) energy. If installation is lifting (the projectile is moving), the accelerator requires input energy (electric voltage). This voltage and power are computed as below:
0x01 graphic
, (3)
where V is speed of projectile or a top force spool of installation, m/s.
For given force F the required current is
0x01 graphic
, (4)
Example: For F = 300,000 N, n = 103, b = 10 the i = 8.7103 A.
   2. Repulsive force between the vertical wires. This force F1 for wire length of 1 m is
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
Example: for i = 104 A, d = 2 m, the force is F1 = 10 N/m = 1 kgf/m.
   3. Mass of film (or fiber) for balance of the repulsive force of wire in length 1 m:
   0x01 graphic
, (6)
   Where F2 is film (fiber) balance force for length 1 m, N/m; ? is specific mass of film (fiber), kg/m3; ? is the safety tensile stress of a film (fiber), N/m2; ? is thickness of film, m; mf is mass of film (fiber), kg/m.
Example: for the current cheap artificial fiber ? = 1800 kg/m3, ? = 2109 N/m2 (safety ? = 200 kgf/mm2) (see Table 3), i = 104 A the mass mf = 1.810-5 kg/m. That is only 1.8 kg over100 km of distance.
   4. Mass of superconductive layer. Mass of 1 m vertical electric wire (superconductive layer) is
0x01 graphic
, (7)
where mw is mass of electric wire of 1 m length (only superconductive layer) , kg/m; ?w is specific density of superconductive layer, kg/m3; s is cross-section area of layer, m2; j is density of the electric current, A/m2.
   Example: for superconductive wire j = 1012 A/m2 , ?w - 104 kg/m3 , i = 104 A the liner mass of superconductive layer is mw = 10-4 kg/m or 10 kg on 100 km of a wire length, s = 10-2 mm2.
   5. Mass of vertical tubes may be estimated by equation
0x01 graphic
, (8)
   where mv is mass of 1 m vertical tube (wire without superconductive layer and nitrogen), kg/m;
?v - 1800 kg/m3 is specific density of tube (artificial fiber or nanotubes); Fv is force, N; ? is safe tensile stress, N/m2; q is full mass of 1 m tube included the mass of conductor and nitrogen , kg/m; H is vertical length of wire, m; V is apparatus speed, m/s; g = 9.81m/s2 is gravity acceleration. For railgun values H = 0, q may be constant and easy for estimation (see point 7). For space apparatus with high speed and altitude the optimal q(H) is variable and you must apply the method of successive approximation or others. In other case average q = 0.5q(Vm,Hm), where Vm, Hm are maximal speed and altitude.
Example: For Fv = 1000 N, ? = 1800 kg/m3 and ? = 200 kgf/mm2 = 2?109 N/m2, the mv = 0.9 g/m .
   6. Mass of liquid nitrogen for 1 m wire may be estimated by equation
0x01 graphic
, (9)
where ?n = 804 kg/m3 is specific density of nitrogen; sn is cross-section of internal tube, m2;
Example: For sn =1 mm2, the mn = 0.8 g/m.
   7. Total mass of 1 m of wire. The total mass 1 m of wire is
   q = mw + mv + mn. (10)
   If we summarize the above examples, we get about q - 2 g/m . For high altitude this value is function of H.
   8. Mass of an electric coil. The mass of the superconductive electric force spool (loops) is
   0x01 graphic
. (11)
Example: for n = 1000, d = 1 m, q - 210-3 kg/m , the mass one spool is 6 kg.
   9. Total mass of wire. That is mass of two vertical cable, cooling system, control system, etc.
0x01 graphic
, (12)
where q is linear support mass for height 1 m, kg/m; H is wire length, m. 0x01 graphic
   Example: for q = 0.002 kg/m and H = 105 m = 100 km the supported mass is 406 kg. That includes mass of the cooling system by liquid nitrogen. We need it only in altitude 70 - 100 km. Over this altitude no conventional heat transfer is required and a cooling super reflective layer has q - 0.001 kg/m or 100 kg on 100 km.
   10. Tensile stress in connection wire. Limitations on connection wire from acceleration (safety speed and vertical distance for spool design of fig.4) is.
   0x01 graphic
, (13)
   where V is wire (apparatus) speed, m/s; H is apparatus altitude, m/s; ?v is speed stress, N/m2;
?h is altitude stress, N/m2; ? is general safety stress, N/m2; ? is specific average mass (tube) density,
kg/m3, g = 9.81 m/s2 is gravity. F is force, N; ms is second mass, kg/s; q is linear wire mass, kg/m.
   Example: For cheap artificial fiber having safety stress ? = 200 kgf/mm2 = 2109 N/m2 , ? -
1.8103 kg/m3 the V = 1050 m/s, H = 110 km. For nanotube having ? = 10,000 kgf/mm2 = 1011
N/m2 , ? - 1.8103 kg/m3 the V = 7.4 km/s, H = 5500 km. Nanotubes are expensive but requested
amount is small. The price of nanotubes decreases every year. The limit of H significantly
decreases if accelerate apparatus has an enough horizontal speed because a part of wire losses a
weight. The variable cross-section of wire (conic form) can also significantly increases limit of H.
The mass of wire system usually equals 5 - 15% of a common mass of projectile (accelerated
apparatus). That mass may be significantly decreased (by 2 -3 times), if the cross-section of wire
is made variable.
   11. Weight of parts of the installation at different altitude. The weight (and needed support force) of the installation parts is different on different altitude because the gravity acceleration is different and Earth is rotating. This force Fw [N] is computed by equation:
   0x01 graphic
, (14)
where m is mass of installation part, kg; go = 9.81 m/s2 is Earth's acceleration; R0 = 6378 km = 6.378?106 m is Earth radius, m; R = R0 + H is radius at the located part, m; ? = 72.68510-6 rad/sec is Earth angle speed, 1/s; g is Earth gravity (include Earth rotation) at the given altitude, m/s2. Geosynchronous orbit is Rg = 42200 km. At altitude H = 0 the Fw - mgo , at altitude H = Rg - R0 the Fw - 0.
   12. The force required for supporting and vertical accelerating of space apparatus computes by Eqs. (2), (12) and below:
   0x01 graphic
0x01 graphic
, (15)
where aa is apparatus acceleration, m/s2.
Example: for levitate apparatus having mass m = 10,000 kg and an acceleration aa = go = 10 m/s2 the force (15) is Fc = 2?105 N and required an electric current i = 5103 A (Eq. (4) for n = 1000, b = 10).
   13. Acceleration time and maximal speed. Trip time t [s] with constant acceleration equals :
0x01 graphic
, (16)
Here Vmax is maximal speed, m/s; S is distance, m.
Example: for S = 100 km, aa = 10 m/s2 the acceleration time is t = 141 sec, Vmax = 1410 m/s; for aa = 50 m/s2, S = 100 km the t - 63 sec, Vmax =3.15103 m/s.
   14. Needed voltage and power. Required voltage and power computed by equations
0x01 graphic
, (17)
where U is voltage, V; V is apparatus speed, m/s; P is power, W. The rest nomenclature is same Eq. (2).
Example: For mass of apparatus m = 10 tons, the electric current i = 5103 A, n = 1000, b = 10, maximal velocity Vmax = 103 m/s the maximum voltage is Umax = 2?104 V; maximal electric power is Pmax = = 108 W.
   15. The additional energy is needed for unrolling of the magnetic loop. Inductance Li and energy E of a tower magnetic field are
0x01 graphic
(18)
where S is length of loop, m. The rest nomenclature is same with Eq. (2).
Example: For i = 104 A, b = 10, S = 100 km, the Li = 0.66 H, Ei = 3.3?107 J. This energy losses in moment of disconnection projectile from accelerator.
   16. Efficiency of Railgun and AB-Accelerator. If we neglect the electric and friction loss in wire, rails and contacts, the efficiency coefficient of Railgun and AB-Accelerator is
0x01 graphic
. (19)
   As you see the efficiency coefficient of Railgun depends only from n - number of coil of force spool. For conventional railgun n = 1 and ? = 0.537. If we account the electric and friction loss in wire, rails and contacts, the efficiency coefficient of Railgun will be about ? = 0.2 - 0.3. The AB-Accelerator has n - 1000 and does not have the electric and friction loss in wire, rails and contacts. Its efficiency coefficient is about 0.999. It is in 3 - 5 times more then a conventional railgun or rockets. That is the most efficiency among all known space launchers.
   17. Magnetic intensity in connection wire and spools and magnetic pressure. Magnetic intensity in vertical wire Bw and in spool Bs are computed (estimated) by equations:
0x01 graphic
, (20)
   where rw is radios of wire (or tube is outer/inside covered by superconductive layer).m; rs is average radios of spool, m.
Example: For i = 104 A and internal tube of wire rw = 0.001 m the Bw - 2 T; for spool rs = 1 m, i = 103 A and number of coil revolution n = 1000 the Bs = 2? = 6.28 T. Both values are less 100 - 250 T which is safety for superconductive conductor (see Table 1).
The specific magnetic pressure in the wire and spool are
0x01 graphic
. (21)
   Here p is pressure, N/m2, (outer for wire and inside for spool); B is Bw or Bs respectively.
Example: For i = 104 A, tube rw = 0.01 m and Bw - 0.2 T the p = 1.5?104 N/m2 = 0.15 atm; for spool rs = 1 m, number of coil revolution n = 1000, Bs = 2? = 6.28 T the p = 3.14?105 N/m2 = 3.14 atm.
   18. Computation of the cooling system. The following equations allow direct computation of the proposed project cooling systems.
      -- Equation of heat balance of a body in vacuum (space)
   0x01 graphic
, (22)
   where ? =1 ? ? is absorption coefficient of outer radiation, ? is reflection coefficient; q is heat flow, W/m2 (from Sun at Earth's orbit q = 1400 W/m2, from Earth q ? 440 W/m2); s1 is area under outer radiation, m2; Cs = 5.67 W/m2K is heat coefficient; ?a ? 0.02 ? 0.98 is blackness coefficient; T is body temperature, K; s2 is area of body or screen, m2.
   Example 1: For good conventional reflective mirror having ?= 0.05, ?a ? 1, s2 = 2 s1 the temperature of body under the solar radiation q = 1400 W/m2 is T = 158 K, under Earth radiation q ? 440 W/m2 the T = 118 K. But if we use the special high reflective mirror (cover) proposed by author in [1] Ch. 12 and Ch. 3 in Attn. and having ?= 10-6, ?a ? 1, s2 = 2 s1 , the temperature of body (vertical wire) in space (vacuum) under the solar radiation q = 1400 W/m2 is only T = 10.5 K. That is more than enough for the superconductive wire.
   2) Radiation heat flow q [W/m2] between two parallel screens
   0x01 graphic
, (23)
   where the lower index 1, 2 shows (at T and ?) the number of screens; Ca is coerced coefficient of heat transfer between two screens. For bright aluminum foil ? = 0.04 ? 0.06. For foil covered by thin bright layer of silver ? = 0.02 ? 0.03.
   The total amount of the heat flows Q [J/s] across the cylindrical surface is
0x01 graphic
, (24)
where F2 is area of the outer cylinder, m2; F1 is area of internal cylinder, m2.
When we use a vacuum and row (n) of the thin screens, the heat flow is
   0x01 graphic
, (25)
   where qn is heat flow to protected wire, W/m2; 0x01 graphic
is coerced coefficient of heat transfer between wire and the nearest screen, Ca is coerced coefficient of heat transfer between two near by screens; n is number of additional screen (revolutions of vacuumed thin foil around central superconductive wire).
   Example 1: for 0x01 graphic
, n = 1, ? = 0.05, T1 = 288 K (15 C, average Earth temperature), T2 = 77.3 K (liquid nitrogen) we have the qn = 5.7 W/m2.
Expense of cooling liquid and power for converting back the vapor into cooling liquid are
   0x01 graphic
, (26)
   where mc is vapor mass of cooling liquid, kg/m2.sec; Mc is total mass of cooling liquid in time t [s], J; ? is evaporation heat, J/kg (see Table 2).
The 100 km loop requires approximately 25 kg/day of liquid nitrogen. If we take more additional screens (n > 1), the required cooling is decreased.
      -- When we use the conventional heat protection, the amount of cool energy, heat flow through cylindrical tube and protection time are computed by equations
   0x01 graphic
, (27)
where Q is amount of cooling energy in 1 m of wire, J/m; P is heat flow through cylindrical tube, W/m; t - is cooling time, sec; ? - heat conductivity coefficient, W/m.K. For air ? = 0.0244, for glass-wool ? = 0.037; ? is heat evaporation, kJ/kg (Table #2); ? is density of a cooling liquid, kg/m3 (Table #2); s cross-section of cooling canal, m2; T2 = 288 K is outer (air) temperature, K; T1 = 77 K is temperature of nitrogen, K; d2 is outer diameter of wire tube, m; d1 is internal diameter of wire tube, m;
   Example: For d1 = 1.5 mm, d2 = 3.5 mm the cooling time about 1 minute.
   The vacuum screening is strong efficiency and light (mass) than the conventional cooling protection.
  
   Table 2. Boiling temperature and heat of evaporation of some relevant liquids [18], p.68; [17] p.57.
  
   Liquid
   Boilng temperature, K
   Heat varoparation, ? kJ/kg
   Specific
density,
kg/m3
   Hydrogen
   20.4
   472
   67.2
   Nitrogen
   77.3
   197.5
   804.3
   Air
   81
   217
   980
   Oxygen
   90.2
   213.7
   1140
   Carbonic acid
   194.7
   375
   1190

Table 3. Density, temperature, head conduction, heat capacity, temperature conduction of materials

[20], p.351.

  
  
   Density

? kg/m3
   Tempe-
rature
T oC
   Heat con-
ductivity
? W/m.K
   Heat
capacity
c kJ/kg K
   Temperature
conductivity
a 106 , m2/s
   Air
   1.29
   0
   0.0244
   1.005
   18.8
   Glass wool
   200
   0
   0.037
   0.67
   0.278
   Miner.wool
   200
   50
   0.0465
   0.321
   0.258
   Cork
   200
   27
   0.0419
   1.884
   0.117
  
  
  
  
  
  
   These data are sufficient for a quick computation of the cooling systems characteristics.
   Using the correct design of multi-screens, high-reflectivity mirror or the solar and planetary energy screen, and assuming a hard outer space vacuum between screens, we get a very small heat flow and a very small expenditure for refrigerant (some gram/m2 per day in Earth). In outer space the protected body can have low temperature without special liquid cooling system ([4], Fig.3).
   For example, the space body ([4], Fig. 4a) with innovative prism reflector [1] Ch. 3A (? = 10?6, ?a = 0.9) will have temperature about 12 K in outer space. The protection [1], Fig.3b gives more low temperature. The usual multi-screen protection of Fig. 4c gives the temperature: the first screen - 160 K, the second - 75 K, the third - 35 K, the fourth - 16 K.
  
   19. Cable material. Let us consider the following experimental and industrial fibers, whiskers,
   and nanotubes:
   Experimental nanotubes CNT (carbon nanotubes) have a tensile strength of 200 Giga-Pascals (20,000 kg/mm2). Theoretical limit of nanotubes is 30,000 kg/mm2. Young's modulus exceeds a Tera Pascal, specific density ? = 1800 kg/m3 (1.8 g/cc) (year 2000).
   For safety factor n = 2.4, ? = 8300 kg/mm2 = 8.31010 N/m2, ? =1800 kg/m3, (?/?)=46106. The SWNTs nanotubes have a density of 0.8 g/cm3, and MWNTs have a density of 1.8 g/cm3 (average 1.34 g/cm3). Unfortunately, even in 2010 CE, nanotubes are very expensive to manufacture.
   For whiskers CD ? = 8000 kg/mm2, ? = 3500 kg/m3 (1989) [1], p. 33. Cost about $400/kg (2001).
   For industrial fibers ? = 500 - 600 kg/mm2, ? = 1800 kg/m3, ??? = 2,78106. Cost about 2 - 5 $/kg (2003).
   Relevant statistics for some other experimental whiskers and industrial fibers are given in Table 4 below.
   Table 4. Tensile strength and density of whiskers and fibers
   Material
  
   Whiskers
   Tensile
   strength
   kg/mm2
   Density
  
   g/cm3
  
  
   Fibers
   Tensile
   strength
   kg/mm2
   Density
  
   g/cm3
   AlB12
   2650
   2.6
   QC-8805
   620
   1.95
   B
   2500
   2.3
   TM9
   600
   1.79
   B4C
   2800
   2.5
   Thorael
   565
   1.81
   TiB2
   3370
   4.5
   Alien 1
   580
   1.56
   SiC
   2100-4140
   3.22
   Alien 2
   300
   0.97
   Al oxide
   2800-4200
   3.96
   Kevlar
   362
   1.44
   See Reference [1] p. 33.
  
   20. Balancing of wire by voltage. If space station or apparatus spends energy, the vertical wire has voltage. That means they have the different linear electric charges and attract one to other. Let us find the required voltage between them and consumed power.
0x01 graphic
, (28)
   where R3 is a repelling magnetic force, N/m; F4 is an attractive electrostatic force, N/m; ? is a linear electric charge, C/m; ?o = 8.85?10-12 is electrostatic constant, F/m; i is electric current in vertical wire, A.
For equilibrium the voltage U between the vertical wires and consumed power P must be
0x01 graphic
. (29)
Example: For i = 103 A, b = 3 the U = 1.8105 V and P = 1.8105 kW. That value is big and this method of compensation is less suitable.
   21. Profit from space acceleration. If we increase the initial speed of conventional rocket on ?V the relative payload increases in
   0x01 graphic
, (30)
where w is speed of an exhaust rocket gas, m/s.
Example. If ?V = 1000 m/s, w = 2500 m/s the A = 1.49 - 1.5. That is increasing net payload by 50%.
If ?V = 7000 m/s, w = 2500 m/s the A = 16.4 . That is increasing net payload by 1640%. A modern medium launcher thus becomes the equivalent of a Saturn V.
  

Projects

  
The most suitable computation for the proposed projects is made in Examples in Theoretical section.
That way much data is given without detailed explanation. Our design is not optimal but merely for estimation of the main data.
   Note about using conventional conductors. The magnetic AB-Accelerator requires high density electric current (about 104 - 106 A/mm2) and very low electric resistance. This condition is satisfied only by superconductive wire at the present time. In other cases (with non-superconductive wire) the lift force is less than the wire and AB-spool weight and construction spends very much energy. Unfortunately, the current superconductive material requires a low temperature. Their cooling is made by cheap liquid nitrogen. However the conventional conductor may be used for modeling, research and testing the suspended (levitated) constructions in the development period before a `flight article' is ready.
   Project 1. AB-Accelerator for warship projectile
   The DARPA and NAVY (USA) and UK have a program for the warship railgun capable to accelerate a 2 kg projectile up to speeds of 3 km/s (see end of Introduction). We take the common projectile mass m = 10 kg (9 kg projectile + 1 kg wire system), final speed V = 3 km/s and estimate the parameters of the suggested accelerator.
   Let us take the acceleration a =104g = 105 m/s2. The requested force is F = ma = 106 N, the requested length of wire is S = V2/2a = 45 m, the acceleration time is t = V/a = 0.03 sec. Kinetic energy of projectile is E = mV2/2 = 4.5107 J. The average power is P = E/t =1.5109 W.
   The needed electric current for n =1000, b = 10 (see Eq. (4)) is i - 1.6104 A. The maximal voltage (Eq.(3)) is Um = 2105 V, The maximal power Pm = iUm = 3.2109 W.
   Let us take the distance between vertical wire d = 0.1 m. The repulse force between vertical wire is (Eq.(5)) = 512 N/m.
Let us take the linear wire mass q = 0.002 kg/m. The connection length of wire is 90 m, the force spool wire is 300 m. The total mass complex (together with nitrogen wire is Mw = qL = 0.002.390 = 0.78 kg. Let us take the simplest motionless (not rotated) connection spools, (fig. 4a). The maximal tensile stress will be at maximal projectile speed (Eq.(13)) ? = ?V2 = 18009106 = 16.2109 N/m2 = 1630 kgf/mm2. This stress can be withstood only by nanotubes (or whiskers, see Table 2). That is a disadvantage of the AB-Accelerator. But amount of nanotube is small and so is the price if a projectile is not big. If we use the nanotube for cover of the wire we can increase the maximal speed of projectile up 7 km/s (see Theoretical section).
  

Project 2. AB-Accelerator for space tourism suborbital rocket

  
   At present time a prospective space tourism suborbital rocket may be lifted by aircraft and started at altitude 8 - 10 km with `first stage aircraft' speed of 250 m/s . Consider the acceleration for such a conventional rocket which is acceptable for cosmonauts (5 gs).
   Let us take the final speed of the accelerator V = 1000 m/s, the acceleration a = 5g = 50 m/s2, time of acceleration t = 20 sec. and mass of tourism rocket m = 100,000 kg.
The requested force is F = ma = 5.106 N, the requested length of wire is S = V2/2a = 10 km, the Kinetic energy of projectile is E = mV2/2 = 51010 J. The average power is P = E/t =2.5109 W.
   The needed electric current for n =1000, b = 10 (see Eq. (4)) is i = 3.46104 A. The maximal voltage (Eq.(3)) is Um = 1.4105 V, The maximal power Pm = iUm = 5109 W. The average power is P = 0.5Pm = 2.5109 W.
   Let us take the distance between vertical wires as d = 1 m. The repulse force between vertical wire is (Eq.(5)) = 240 N/m.
Let us take the linear wire mass q = 0.003 kg/m. The connection length of wire is 10,000 m, the force spool wire is 3000 m. The total mass complex (together with nitrogen wire is Mw = qL = 0.003.23,000 = 69 kg. Let us take the simplest motionless (not rotated connection spools, fig. 4a). The maximal tensile stress will be at maximal projectile speed and altitude (Eq.(13)) ? = ?V2 + g?H = 2109 N/m2 = 200 kgf/mm2. This stress can be withstood by conventional artificial fiber (see Table 2).
   Notice what this has achieved--the space tourism rocket can be a good fraction of 100 tons, the size of a small airliner--and can be maneuvered entirely by a low-maintenance cold gas system--for easy reuse. All the expense of the carrier aircraft and the consumable rocket has been offloaded onto a amortizable AB-Accelerator.
  
   If we use the nanotube for cover of wire we can increase the maximal speed of space ship up 7 km/s (see Theoretical section).
For maximal acceleration speed V = 1000 m/s the payload increases in 50% (without addition from high initial altitude). For acceleration speed V = 7000 m/s the payload increases in 1640% (see Eq.(32)). As noted before, with such a multiplier a medium boost vehicle (~10 tons payload, say a Falcon 9) can become thus the equivalent of a Saturn 5. Even a Falcon 1 (<1 ton payload) can become thus the equivalent of a Falcon 9.
  

Conclusion

  
In this article the author describes new idea, theory and computations for design the new magnetic low cost accelerator for railgun projectile and space apparatus. The suggested design does not have the traditional current rails and sliding contacts. That accelerates the projectile and space apparatus by a magnetic column which can have a length of some kilometers, produces the very high acceleration and the projectile (apparatus) speed up 8 km/s.
Important advantage of the offered design is the lower (up some thousands times) used electric current of high voltage and the very high efficiency coefficient close to 1 (compared with efficiency of the current railgun equal to 20 - 40%). The suggested accelerator may be produced by present technology.
The important advantage of the offered method for space apparatus is following: The method does not need designing new rockets. What is needed is to design only a simple accelerator (accelerate platform). Any current rocket may be installed on this platform and accelerated up high speed and lifted on high altitude before started. That radically increases payload and decreases the cost of launching. The platform (force spool) and wires disconnects from the rocket after acceleration. Platform returns by parachute, the wires reel back to start.
   The problems of needed electric energy become far simpler. At first, AB-Accelerator has very high efficiency and spend in 2 - 3 times less energy then a conventional railgun; the second, AB-Accelerator uses the high voltage energy same with voltage the electric stations. That means the power electric station can be directly connected to AB-Accelerator in period of acceleration without expensive transformers and condensers. The power of strong electric plant is enough for launching the rocket (space apparatus) of some hundreds of tons.
   The offered magnetic space accelerator is a thousand times cheaper than the well-known cable space elevator. NASA is spending for research of space elevator hundreds of millions of dollars. A small part of this sum is enough for R&D of the magnetic accelerator and make a working model!
   The proposed innovation (upper electric AB-spool) allows also solving the problem of the conventional railgun (having the projectile speed 3 -5 km/s). The current conventional railgun uses a very high ampere electric current (millions A) and low voltage. As the result the rails burn. The suggested superconductive AB-spool allows decreases the required electric current by thousands of times (simultaneously the required voltage is increased by the same factor). No rails, therefore no damage to the rails.
Small cheap magnetic prototypes would be easily tested.
   The computed projects are not optimal. That is only illustration of an estimation method. The reader can recalculate the AB-Accelerator for his own scenarios (see also [1]-[22]).
   References
   (The reader may find some of these articles, at the author's web page: http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm , in http://www.scribd.org , in the WEB of Cornel University http://arxiv.org , and in http://aiaa.org search term
"Bolonkin")
1. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 , http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
2. Bolonkin A.A., New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human
Sciences, NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071, http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
3. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology, NOVA, 2008,
537 pgs. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 . http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
4. Bolonkin A., Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures and Immobile Space Stations,
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/25883886
   5. Bolonkin A., Krinker M., Magnetic Space Launcher. Presented as paper AIAA-2009-5261 to 45th AIAA
Joint Propulsion Conference, 2-5 August 2009, Denver, CO, USA. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24051286
   or http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
   6. Bolonkin A., Krinker M. , Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field.
(Ch.13 . in the book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008)
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 . http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
   7. Bolonkin A.A., Earth Accelerator for Space Ships and Missiles, JBIS, Vol. 56, No. 11/12, 2003,
pp. 394-404. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
8. Bolonkin A.A., "Space Cable Launchers", Paper No. 8057 presented at the Symposium
"The Next 100 years", Dayton, OH, USA, 14-17 July, 2003. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
9. Bolonkin A.A., Centrifugal Space Launcher, Presented as paper AIAA-2005-4035 at the
41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, AZ, USA. http://aiaa.org,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 Ch.10.
10. Bolonkin A.A., Electrostatic Linear Engine and Cable Space AB Launcher,
Paper AIAA-2006-5229 for 42 Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, USA, 9-12 July,
2006. See also AEAT Vol.78, No.2006, pp. 502-508. http://aiaa.org, http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
   11. Bolonkin A., Krinker M., Magnetic Propeller for Uniform Magnetic Field Levitation
http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0807/0807.1948.pdf (12 July, 2008).
   12. Bolonkin A., Krinker M.. Magnetic Propeller. Article presented as paper AIAA-2008-4610 to
44th Joint Propulsion Conference, 20-24 July, 2008, Hartford, CT, http://aiaa.org .
   13. Minovich M., "Electromagnetic Transportation System for Manned Space Travel", US Patent
#4,795,113, January 3, 1989.
   14. AIP. Physics Desk References, 3-rd Edition. Springer. 2003.
   15. Krinker M., Review of New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Space Towers.
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/26270139, http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1002/1002.2405.pdf
   16. Galasso F.S., Advanced Fibers and Composite. Gordon and Branch Science Publisher, 1989.
   17. Kikoin I.K., Editor. Table of Physical Values, Moscow, 1976, 1007 ps. (in Russian).
   18. Koshkin H.I., Shirkevich M.G., Directory of Elementary Physics, Nauka, 1982.
   19. Koell D.E., Handbook of Cost Engineering, TCS, Germany, 2000.
   20. Naschekin V.V., Technical Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer, Moscow, 1969 (in Russian).
21. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the
Creative Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
   22. http://NASA-NIAC.narod.ru , http://auditing-science.narod.ru
  
  
   0x01 graphic
   MagLev
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Article Magnetic Towers after Joseph 1 25 10
  

Chapter 11

Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures
and Immobile Space Stations
*

  
   Abstract
  
   In this chapter the author provides new ideas, theory and computations for building with the current technology low cost magnetic suspended structures and motionless space stations up to 37,000 (geosynchronous orbit) kilometers of altitude. These structures (towers) can be used for launching of spaceships, radio, television, and communication transmissions, for tourism, scientific observation of the Earth's surface, weather of the top atmosphere and military radiolocation. Main idea and attribute of invention is the following: The suspended structures (space station) is supported by a MAGNETIC column which has a mass (weight) close to zero. Author estimates two projects of motionless magnetic space stations: one of height = to 100 km and the second project up to 37000 km (geosynchronous orbit).
   These projects are not expensive and do not require a high crane or complex technology. They do require superconductive material and a thin strong film composed of artificial fibers. Both materials are fabricated by current industry. The structures (space stations) can easily be built using present technology without rockets. The construction is built by unreeling of a special roll. Structures (towers) can be used (for communication, tourism, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The building does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the Earth's surface.
   The transport system (climber) consists of a very simple magnetic engine provided by electricity from a wire connecting the structure with the Earth.
Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are shortly considered. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop this project.
   Magnetic towers may also become a civic symbol giving any city a distinctive landmark such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris or the Ostankino Tower in Moscow.
--------------
Key words: suspended AB-structure, space tower, magnetic tower, geosynchronous tower, AB towers, motionless satellite, motionless space station.
* It has been published online 15 December 2010, in the ASCE, Journal of Aerospace
   Engineering(Vol.24,No.1,2011,pp.102-111),
  
   Introduction
  
Brief History.
The idea of building a tower high above the Earth into the heavens is very old [1]. The writings of the revered Moses, about 1450 BC, in Genesis, Chapter 11, refer to an early civilization that in about 2100 BC tried to build a tower to heaven out of brick and tar. This construction was called the Tower of Babel, and was reported to be located in Babylon in ancient Mesopotamia. Later in chapter 28, about 1900 BC, Jacob had a dream about a staircase or ladder built to heaven. This construction was called Jacob's Ladder. More contemporary writings on the subject date back to K.E. Tsiolkovski in his manuscript "Speculation about Earth and Sky and on Vesta," published in 1895 [2-3]. Idea of Space Elevator was suggested and developed by Russian scientist Yuri Artsutanov and was published in the Sunday supplement of newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" in 1960 [4]. This idea inspired Sir Arthur Clarke to write his novel, The Fountains of Paradise, about a Space Elevator located on a fictionalized Sri Lanka, which brought the concept to the attention of the entire world [5].
   Today, the world's tallest construction is a television transmitting tower near Fargo, North Dakota, USA. It stands 629 m high and was built in 1963 for KTHI-TV. The CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario, Canada is the world's tallest building. It is 553 m in height, was built from 1973 to 1975, and has the world's highest observation desk at 447 m. The tower structure is concrete up to the observation deck level. Above is a steel structure supporting radio, television, and communication antennas. The total weight of the tower is 130,073 tons.
At present time (2009) the highest structure is Burj Dubai (UAE) having pinnacle height of 822 m, built in 2009 and used for office, hotel, residential.
   The Ostankino Tower in Moscow is 540 m in height and has an observation desk at 370 m. The world's tallest office building is the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, Malasia. The twin towers are 452 m in height. They are 10 m taller than the Sears Tower in Chicago, Illinois, USA.
   Current materials make it possible even today to construct towers many kilometers in height. However, conventional towers are very expensive, costing tens of billions of dollars. When considering how high a tower can be built, it is important to remember that it can be built to many kilometers of height if the base is large enough.
  
   The tower's applications. High towers (3-100 km) have numerous applications for government and commercial purposes:
• Communication boost: A tower tens of kilometers in height near metropolitan areas could provide much higher signal strength than orbital satellites.
• Low Earth orbit (LEO) communication satellite replacement: Approximately six to ten 100-km-tall towers could provide the coverage of a LEO satellite constellation with higher power, permanence, and easy upgrade capabilities.
   • Entertainment and observation desk for tourists. Tourists could see over a huge area, including the darkness of space and the curvature of the Earth's horizon.
   • Drop tower: tourists could experience several minutes of free-fall time. The drop tower could provide a facility for experiments.
   • A permanent observatory on a tall tower would be competitive with airborne and orbital platforms for Earth and space observations.
   • Solar power receivers: Receivers located on tall towers for future space solar power systems would permit use of higher frequency, wireless, power transmission systems (e.g. lasers).
  -- Transfer of electric energy from one continent to other continent.
  
   Short review of main types of the proposed Space towers

1. Solid towers [6]-[8]. The review of conventional solid high altitude and space towers is in [26]. The first solid space tower was proposed in [2-3]. The optimal solid towers are researched in detail in the series of works [6-8]. These works contain computation of the optimal (minimum weight) solid space towers of up to 40,000 km height. Particularly authors considered solid space tower having the rods filled by light gas as hydrogen or helium. It is shown the solid space tower from conventional material (steel, composites) can be built up to 100-200 km. The GEO tower requires structural diamond.
   2. Inflatable tower [9]-[12]. The optimal (minimum weight of cover) inflatable towers were researched and computed in [9-12].
   The proposed inflatable towers are cheaper by factors of hundreds. They can be built on the Earth's surface and their height can be increased as necessary. Their base is not large. The main innovations in this project are the application of helium, hydrogen, or warm air for filling inflatable structures at high altitude and the solution of a safety and stability problem for tall (thin) inflatable columns, and utilization of new artificial materials, as artificial fiber, whisker and nanotubes.
3. Circle (centrifugal) Space Towers Tower (Space Keeper) [16 - 17]. The installation includes: a closed-loop cable made from light, strong material (such as artificial fibers, whiskers, filaments, nanotubes, composite material) and a main engine, which rotates the cable at a fast speed in a vertical plane. The centrifugal force makes the closed-loop cable a circle. The cable circle is supported by two pairs (or more) of guide cables, which connect at one end to the cable circle by a sliding connection and at the other end to the planet's surface. The installation has a transport (delivery) system comprising the closed-loop load cables (chains), two end rollers at the top and bottom that can have medium rollers, a load engine and a load. The top end of the transport system is connected to the cable circle by a sliding connection; the lower end is connected to a load motor. The load is connected to the load cable by a sliding control connection.
The Circle tower has many variants.
   4. Kinetic and Cable Space Tower [13-15]. The installation includes: a strong closed-loop cable, rollers, any conventional engine, a space station (top platform), a load elevator, and support stabilization cables (expansions).
   The installation works in the following way. The engine rotates the bottom roller and permanently moves the closed-loop cable at high speed. The cable reaches a top roller at high altitude, turns back and moves to the bottom roller. When the cable turns back it creates a reflected (centrifugal) force. This force can easily be calculated using centrifugal theory, or as reflected mass using a reflection (momentum) theory. The force keeps the space station suspended at the top roller; and the cable (or special cabin) allows the delivery of a load to the space station. The station has a parachute that saves the people if the cable or engine fails.
   The theory shows, that current widely produced artificial fibers allow the cable to reach altitudes up to 100 km (see Projects 1 and 2 in [14]). If more altitude is required a multi-stage tower must be used (see Project 3 in [14]). If a very high altitude is needed (geosynchronous orbit or more), a very strong cable made from nanotubes must be used (see Project 4 in [14]).
   The safety speed of the cable spool is same as the safety speed of the cable because the spool operates as a free roller. The conventional rollers made from the composite cable material have the same safe speed as the cable. The suggested spool is an innovation because it is made only from cable (no core) and it allows reeling up and unreeling simultaneously with different speeds. That is necessary for changing the tower's altitude.
5. Electrostatic Space Tower [18]-[19]. The proposed electrostatic space tower (or mast, or space elevator) is shown in [18]-[19]. That is an inflatable cylinder (tube) from strong thin dielectric film having variable radius. The film has inside a sectional thin conductive layer 9. Each section is connected with issue of control electric voltages. Interior to the tube there is electron gas from free electrons. The electron gas is separated by sections of a thin partition 11. The layer 9 has a positive charge equals to the sum of negative charges of the inside electrons. The tube (mast) can have length (height) up to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO, about 36,000 km) or up 120,000 km (and more) as in project (see [18]-[19]). The very high tower allows launching (without spending of energy in launch stage) interplanetary space ships. The proposed optimal tower is designed so that the electron gas in any cross-section area compensates the tube weight and tube does not have compressing longitudinal force from weight. More over the tower has tensile longitudinal (lift) force, which allows the tower a vertical tension (it is held rigid and erect). When the tower has a height more than GEO, the additional centrifugal force of the rotating Earth can lift payloads or be otherwise tapped.
      -- 6. Electromagnetic Space Towers (AB-Levitron) [20]. The AB-Levitron uses two large conductive rings with very high electric current. They create intense magnetic fields. Directions of the electric currents are opposed one to the other and the rings are repelled, one from another. For obtaining enough force over a long distance, the electric current must be very strong. The current superconductive technology allows us to get very high-density electric current and enough artificial magnetic field at a great distance in space. The other type of magnetic tower (magnetic AB-column) is proposed in this article.
   The superconductive ring does not spend net electric energy and can work for a long time period, but it requires an integral cooling system because current superconducting materials have a critical temperature of about 150-180 K. This is a cryogenic temperature.
   However, the present computations of methods of heat rejection (for example, by liquid nitrogen) are well developed and the induced expenses for such cooling are small.
   The ring located in space does not need any conventional cooling--there, defense from Solar and Terrestrial heat radiation is provided by high-reflectivity screens. However, a ring in space must have parts open to outer space for radiating of its heat and support the maintaining of low ambient temperature. For variable direction of radiation, the mechanical screen defense system may be complex. However, there are thin layers of liquid crystals that permit the automatic control of their energy reflectivity and transparency and the useful application of such liquid crystals making it easier for appropriate space cooling system. This effect is used by new man-made glasses that can grow dark in bright solar light.
   The most important problem of the AB-Levitron is the stability of the top ring. The top ring is in equilibrium, but it is out of balance when it is not parallel to the ground ring. Author proposes to suspend a load (satellite, space station, equipment, etc) lower than this ring plate. In this case, a center of gravity is lower a net lift force and the system then becomes stable.
   For mobile vehicles the AB-Levitron can have a running-wave of magnetic intensity which can move the vehicle (produce electric current), making it significantly mobile in the traveling medium.
   General conclusion. Current technology can build the high altitude and space towers (masts). We can start an inflatable or steel tower having the height 3 km. This tower is very useful (profitable) for communication, tourism and military. The inflatable tower is significantly cheaper (in ten times) than a steel tower, but it is having a lower life time (up 30-50 years) in comparison to the steel tower having the life times 100 - 200 years. The new advance materials can change this ratio and will make very profitable future high altitude towers.

Description of Innovations and Problems

New type of magnetic tower (magnetic AB-column)

  
1. Description of Innovations. The proposed suspended magnetic structure (tower) is shown in fig. 1. That includes the long vertical loop from electric wire 1 and electric source 6 and connection 15 between the vertical wires. The electric current 2 produces the magnetic field 3 (magnetic column), the magnetic field creates the vertical 4 and horizontal 5 forces. These forces balance the film (or fiber) connection 15. Vertical force 4 supports the useful load at top of the tower and tower construction (wires and film connection).
   This design is used in a rail gun [22] but author made many innovations that allow applying this idea to this new application as the magnetic tower and space climber. Some of them are listed following:
   1) The main innovation is a top loop 11 (right angle spool) which increases the number of horizontal wires 12, magnetic intensity in area 17 and lift force 16. We can make a lot of loops up to some thousands and increase the lift force by thousands of times. For a given lift force we can decrease the required current in many times and decreases the mass of source wire 2. That does not necessarily mean that we decrease the required electric power because the new installation needs a higher voltage. That innovation is very useful also for a space electric climber. The climber engine becomes very simple (horizontal wire or loops). The innovation increases the lift force and decreases sparking (this effect is a very big problem in a rail gun).
The proposed construction creates the MAGNETIC COLUMN 3a that produces a lift force some thousands of times more than a conventional rail gun.
2) The second important innovation is the multi-stage electric loops for the high altitude magnetic tower (for example, a geosynchronous tower)(Fig. 1b).
   3) The magnetic towers require superconductive wire, because they need strong electric current (very high specific electric density and conductivity). When we use the superconductive wire, the tower does not need in permanent energy, except in building time and the climber in lifting mode. The climber and construction produces (returns) the energy in descent mode.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig.1. Principal sketch of the AB-magnetic tower. Notations: (a) One stage magnetic column (tower), (b) - Multi-stage magnetic tower, (c) - building (unreeling) of magnetic tower, (d) - stability of magnetic column, (e) - top part of magnetic tower; 1 - magnetic installation with magnetic column, 2 - vertical wire and direction of electric current i, 2a - horizontal wire (jumper) and direction of electric current i, 3 - magnetic field from vertical electric wire, 3a - magnetic column, 4 - magnetic force from horizontal electric wire (jumper), 5 - magnetic force from vertical electric wire, 6 - electric source, 7 - intermediate stage of magnetic column, 8 - tower in roll, 9 - cooling of wire (heat protection) in Earth's atmosphere, 10 - tower braces of magnetic tower in Earth's atmosphere (for better stability), 11 - wire multi-loop spool at top and middle stage or climber (same spool located also on Earth surface), 12 - lower wire of loop (spool), 13 - top wire of loop (spool), 14 - magnetic field from vertical wire, 15 - thin film (it may be transparent) or artificial fiber connected the vertical wire for compensation the magnetic repulse force, 16 - repulse magnetic force, 17 - area strong magnetic field, i - jumper (horizontal) current, ni - spool current, I - current in vertical wire.
  
Quadratic magnetic column. The quadratic four wire magnetic column (Fig.2) is more efficient, stable, safe, reliable and controlled than two wire magnetic column Fig.1. It can curve by remote control (by changing current in vertical wires). It is important for high altitude and geosynchronous satellites because there is a lot of debris in near Earth outer space. The wire of magnetic column must be protected from damage by space debris.

2. Cooling system of superconductive wire
. The current superconductive conductor does not spend electric energy and can work for a long time period, but it requires an integral cooling system because the current superconductive materials have the critical temperature of about 100 -180 K (see Table #1 below). The wire located into Earth's atmosphere (up 70 - 100 km) needs cooling.
  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig. 2. AB-structure is suspended by the almost invisible magnetic columns.
  
   However, the present computational methods of heat rejection are well developed (for example, by liquid nitrogen) and the weight and the induced expenses for cooling are small (fig.2) (see also Computation and Projects sections).
  

0x01 graphic

  
Fig.3. Cross-section of superconductive tube. Notations: 1 - strong tube (internal part used for cooling of ring, external part is used for superconductive layer; 2 - superconductive layer protected the insulator and heat protection; 3 - vacuum; 4 - heat impact reduction high-reflectivity screens (roll of thin bright aluminum foil); 5 - protection and heat insulation and high reflective layer, 6 - outer electric contact for control system and climber.
   0x01 graphic
  
   Fig.4. Methods of cooling (protection from Sun radiation) the superconductive wire in outer space. (a) Protection the wire by the super-reflectivity mirror [13]. (b) Protection by high-reflectivity screen (mirror) from impinging solar and planetary radiations. (c) Protection by usual multi-screens. Notations: 1 - superconductive wires (tybe); 2 - heat protector (super-reflectivity mirror in Fig.4a and a usual mirror in Fig. 4c); 2, 3 - high-reflectivity mirrors (Fig. 4b); 4 - Sun; 5 -Sun radiation, 6 - Earth (planet); 7 - Earth's radiation; 8 - screen with liquid crystals.
  
The wire located in space does not need any conventional cooling--defense from Sun and Earth radiations are provided by high- reflective layer or high-reflectivity screens (fig.4). However, in last case they must have parts open to outer space for radiating of its heat and support the maintaining of low ambient temperatures. For variable direction of radiation, the mechanical screen defense system may be complex. However, there are thin high reflective layer [13] Ch. 13, 3A or layer from liquid crystals that permits the automatic control of their reflectivity and transparency. The liquid crystals may be used for the space cooling system. This effect is used by new man-made glasses which grow dark in bright solar light.
  
   3. Superconductive materials.
   There are hundreds of new superconductive materials (type 2) having critical temperature 70 120 K and more. Some of the superconductable materials are presented in Table 1 (2001). The widely used YBa2Cu3O7 has mass density 7 g/cm3.
  

Table 1. Transition temperature Tc and upper critical field B = Hc2(0) of some examined superconductors [25 ], p. 752.

   Crystal
   Tc (K)
   Hc2 (T)
   La 2-xSrxCuO4
   38
   80
   YBa2Cu3O7
   92
   150
   Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10
   110
   250
   TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9
   110
   100
   Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10
   125
   150
   HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8
   133
   150
  
   The last decisions are: Critical temperature is 176 K, up to 183 K. Nanotube has critical temperature of 12 - 15 K,
   Some organic matters have a temperature of up to 15 K. Polypropylene, for example, is normally an insulator. In 1985, however, researchers at the Russian Academy of Sciences discovered that as an oxidized thin-film, polypropylene have a conductivity 105 to 106 that is higher than the best refined metals.
   Boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen is 77.3 K, air 81 K, oxygen 90.2 K, hydrogen 20.4 K, helium 4.2 K [25 ]. Specific density of liquid air is 920 kg/m3, nitrogen 804 kg/m3; evaporation heat is liquid air is 213 kJ/kg, nitrogen 199 kJ/kg [28].
   Unfortunately, most superconductive material is not strong and needs a strong covering for structural support.
   4. Building of Magnetic Towers. Building of magnetic tower is simple. Construction of magnetic tower is a thin film which has the superconductive wires in side edges. The wires connect to electric source and the roll is unreeled in the top direction.
   5. Other problems.
Control system. The control resistances 18 (fig.1b) located in a jumper connection can change the current i and control of the magnetic column lift force and bending moment.
Stability. If lower surface of magnetic column is horizontal, the vertical magnetic column has a automatic restored moment for any deflection from vertical. The control also can produce a bending
moment. The construction can have the guy lines (fig.1d).
   Reliability. The superconductive wires don't need an electric source. They need only cooling (liquid nitrogen). The magnetic columns have a lot of separated wires. In a case of damage some of them the control system automatically turns on the other wires or passes the current to nearest wires.
The small high altitude construction (motionless satellites) can have a parachute for landing.
   Invisibility of magnetic columns. The magnetic field invisible, transparent film or fiber, or the vertical thin wires (3 -10 mm) are almost invisible from distance 30 - 100 m and AB-structures will look like bodies suspended in air. This is technically impressive but aircraft warning systems (lights) may be necessary.
  
   6. Advantages. The offer suspended magnetic structures (towers) has big advantages in comparison with other space towers [26 ]. We compare it with the most popular idea of Space Elevator [11] Chapter 1.
1. Space Elevator is not impossible at present time (2010) for the following reasons:
a) No industry production of the very strong and cheap cable material (nanotubes). Nanotubes are
very expensive (about $1000 - $ 10,000/kg) and are produced in experimental quantities. The
space elevator needs thousands of tons of cheap nanotubes.
b) Delivery of nanotubes and hundreds tons of equalizer (counterweight) in geosynchronous orbit
are very expensive (about $10,000 - 100,000/kg).
c) No climber currently exists which can get energy in a long distance (thousands km) and lifts
quickly along the cable.
d) Space Elevator costs tens of billions of the USA dollars.
  
2. The offer magnetic tower has following advantages:
a) That can be built from cheap ($3 - 8/kg) artificial fiber (composite material). Application of
a strong material is useful, but not necessary.
b) No need to fly in space in building period. All works are made on Earth's surface. The building
is very simple (unreeling the roll).
c) The climber gets energy from the superconductive cable, it can lift a big load (climber is
supported by a self-magnetic column) at any distance and can develop a high speed (particularly
once clear of atmosphere)
d) Magnetic tower can have any height and beused in a construction mode for other macro-
projects.
e) Cost of geosynchronous magnetic tower is about only one billion dollars.
f) Magnetic tower may be built with current technology.
   7. Application and further development. Idea of the magnetic AB-column may be applied to a railgun, to a space launch, to the suspending of houses, buildings, towns, multi-floor cities, to a small flying city-state located over ocean in the international water, (avoiding some of the liabilities of sea-surface communities during storms) to levitating space stations, to communication masts and towers. The may be easily tested in small cheap magnetic constructions for simple projects, on a small scale.

Theory of Magnetic Towers

   1. Magnetic force acting on horizontal wire. Proof of magnetic force equation. We use only the well-known physics laws (magnetic force on the electric conductor located into magnetic field):
0x01 graphic
. (1)
The force from two vertical wires is
   0x01 graphic
(2)
where F is magnetic force, N; n is number of wire loops at horizontal connection of one stage or climber (fig.1, #11)(in proposed spool), it may be some thousands; ?0 = 4??10-7 - magnetic constant, H/m; d is distance between centers of vertical wire, m; a is radius of wire or thickness of a conductive layer, m; b - 5 - 10; i is electric current in the vertical and single horizontal wire, A; H is magnetic intensity in V/m, B is in T; l is distance, m.
The magnetic field acts only on the lower horizontal part of the right-angled spool because the top horizontal part is far from vertical support wire (at top of installation). If spool is located between the vertical wire, the horizontal current i =I - (I - i) equals the difference of the top and lower parts of the vertical wire separated by point 18 of the connection horizontal wire (jumper) (see Fig. 1b).
The equation (2) without the spool (n = 1) is the well-known equation for the rail gun. The proposed innovation (the right-angled spool) increases the force by n times but simultaneously increases the required voltage also by n times if the installation changes its size (for example, altitude) or climber moves.
The spool also creates a strong magnetic field but this field acts only on the spool and produces tensile stress into the spool. It easy is compensated for by film, fiber or composed material.
Example: for i = 104 A, n = 103, b = 10 the force is F = 4105 N = 40 tons. If i = 2104 A, the F = 160 tons. If i = 105 A, the F = 4000 tons. Approximately that is the weight of a structure which can be suspended over Earth surface.
The motionless installation using superconductive wires doesn't need maintenance (hovering) energy. If installation is lifting or jumper (climber) is moving, the jumper requires input energy (electric voltage). This voltage and power are computed as below:
0x01 graphic
, (3)
where V is speed of climber or a top jumper of installation, m/s. See the example in point 10 (Climber Power). The spent energy is returned when the installation decreases its altitude or climber descents.
For given force F the required current is
0x01 graphic
, (4)
Example: For F = 3000 N, n = 103, b = 10 the i = 8.7102 A.
   2. Repulse force between the vertical wires. This force F1 for wire length of 1 m is
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
Example: for i = 104 A, d = 2 m, the force is F1 = 103 N/m = 100 kgf/m.
   3. Massa of film (or fiber) for balance the repulse force of wire in length 1 m:
   0x01 graphic
, (6)
   Where F2 is film (fiber) balance force for length 1 m, N/m; ? is specific mass of film (fiber), kg/m3; ? is the safety tensile stress of a film (fiber), N/m2; ? is thickness of film, m; mf is mass of film (fiber), kg/m.
Example: for the current cheap artificial fiber ? = 1800 kg/m3, ? = 2109 N/m2 (? = 200 kgf/mm2) (see Table 3), i = 104 A the mass mf = 1.810-5 kg/m. That is only 2 kg on 100 km of tower height.
   4. Mass of wire. Mass of two 1 m vertical electric wire is
0x01 graphic
, (7)
where mw is mass of two electric wire of 1 m length, kg/m; ?w is specific mass of wire kg/m3; s is cross-section area of wire, m2; j is density of the electric current, A/m2.
   Example: for superconductive wire j = 1012 A/m2 , ?w - 104 kg/m3 , i = 104 A the liner mass of superconductive wire is mw = 2?10-4 kg/m or 20 kg on 100 km of a tower height, s = 10-2 mm2.
   5. Mass of an electric coil. The mass of the electric spool (loops) mc is
   0x01 graphic
. (8)
Example: for n = 1000, d = 1 m, ?w - 104 kg/m3 , s = 10-8 m2 the mass one spool is 0.3 kg.
   6. Linear support mass. That is mass of two vertical cable, cooling system, control system, etc.
0x01 graphic
, (9)
where q is linear support mass for height 1 m, kg/m; H is tower (or tower stage) height, m. 0x01 graphic
   Example: for q = 0.05 kg/m and H = 105 m = 100 km the supported mass is 5 tons. That is mass of cooling system by liquid nitrogen. We need it only in altitude 70 - 100 km. Over this altitude no conventional heat transfer is required and a cooling super reflective layer has q - 0.002 kg/m or 200 kg on 100 km.
   7. Weight of parts of the installation at different altitude. The weight (and needed support force) of the installation parts is different on different altitude because the gravity acceleration is different and Earth is rotating. This force Fw [N] is computed by equation:
   0x01 graphic
, (10)
where m is mass of installation part, kg; go = 9.81 m/s2 is Earth's acceleration; R0 = 6378 km = 6.378?106 m is Earth radius, m; R = R0 + H is radius at the located part, m; ? = 72.68510-6 rad/sec is Earth angle speed, 1/s; g is Earth gravity (include Earth rotation) at the given altitude, m/s2. Geosynchronous orbit is Rg = 42200 km. At altitude H = 0 the Fw - mgo ,
at altitude H = Rg - R0 the Fw - 0.
   8. The force required for supporting and accelerating of climber computes by Eqs. (2),(10) and below:
   0x01 graphic
0x01 graphic
, (11)
where aa is climber acceleration, m/s2. Very important fact: the proposed electric climber supports by SELF-magnetic levitation and does transfer its weight and acceleration force to the magnetic tower. That means the climber can have big mass and big acceleration. Climber gets energy from electric wire and its' power does not depend from altitude. Moreover, the climber produces (returns) the energy when one descends to Earth.
Example: for climber having mass m = 10,000 kg and an acceleration g = go the force (11) is Fc = 2?105 N and required an electric current i = 5103 A (Eq. (4) for n = 1000, b = 10).
   9. Trip time. Trip time t [s] equals (include braking) with constant acceleration and braking:
0x01 graphic
, (12)
Here Vmax is maximal speed, m/s; H is altitude, m.
Example: for H = 100 km, aa = 10 m/s2 the trip time is t = 200 sec, Vmax = 103 m/s; for H = 37,000 km (geosynchronous orbit), the t - 3 hours 20 min, Vmax =6.1104 m/s.
   10. Climber power. Required climber voltage and power computed by equations
0x01 graphic
, (13)
where U is voltage, V; V is climber speed, m/s; P is power, W. The rest nomenclature is same Eq. (2).
Example: For mass of climber m = 10 tons, the electric current i = 5103 A, n = 1000, b = 10, maximal velocity Vmax = 103 m/s the maximum voltage is Umax = 2?104 V; maximal electric power is Pmax = = 108 W. From other side P = FV= 105103=108 W.
   11. The minimal energy is needed for building (unrolling) of the magnetic tower. Inductance Li and energy E of a tower magnetic field are
0x01 graphic
(14)
where H is tower height, m. The rest nomenclature is same with Eq. (2).
Example: For I = 104 A, b = 10, H = 100 km, the Li = 0.66 H, Ei = 3.3?107 J. For H = 37,000 km the Li = 244 H, Ei = 1.22?1010 J. This energy will be returned in re-rolling of magnetic tower (lowering it, for example for maintenance or during bad meteor storms, close asteroid flybys, space junk intersect alerts)
   12. Magnetic intensity in vertical wire and spool and magnetic pressure. Magnetic intensity in vertical wire Bw and in spool Bs are computed (estimated) by equations:
0x01 graphic
, (15)
   where rw is radios of wire (or tube is outer/inside covered by superconductive layer).m; rs is radios of spool, m.
Example: For I = 104 A and tube (wire) rw = 0.001 m the Bw - 2 T; for spool rs = 1 m, I = 103 A and number of coil revolution n = 1000 the Bs = 2? = 6.28 T. Both values are less 100 - 250 T safety for superconductive conductor (see Table 1).
The specific magnetic pressure in the wire and spool are
0x01 graphic
. (16)
   Here p is pressure, N/m2, (outer for wire and inside for spool); B is Bw or Bs respectively.
Example: For I = 104 A, tube rw = 0.01 m and Bw - 0.2 T the p = 1.5?104 N/m2 = 0.15 atm; for spool rs = 1 m, number of coil revolution n = 1000, Bs = 2? = 6.28 T the p = 3.14?105 N/m2 = 3.14 atm.
   13. Computation of the cooling system. The following equations allow direct computation of the proposed macro-project cooling systems.
      -- Equation of heat balance of a body in vacuum (space)
   0x01 graphic
, (17)
   where ? =1 -- ? is absorption coefficient of outer radiation, ? is reflection coefficient; q is heat flow, W/m2 (from Sun at Earth's orbit q = 1400 W/m2, from Earth q - 440 W/m2); s1 is area under outer radiation, m2; Cs = 5.67 W/m2K is heat coefficient; ?a - 0.02 0.98 is blackness coefficient; T is body temperature, K; s2 is area of body or screen, m2.
   Example 1: For good conventional reflective mirror having ?= 0.05, ?a - 1, s2 = 2 s1 the temperature of body under the solar radiation q = 1400 W/m2 is T = 158 K, under Earth radiation q - 440 W/m2 the T = 118 K. But if we use the special high reflective mirror (cover) proposed by author in [23] Ch. 12 and Ch. 3 in Attn. and having ?= 10-6, ?a - 1, s2 = 2 s1 , the temperature of body (vertical wire) in space (vacuum) under the solar radiation q = 1400 W/m2 is only T = 10.5 K. That is more than enough for the superconductive wire.
   2) Radiation heat flow q [W/m2] between two parallel screens
   0x01 graphic
, (18)
   where the lower index 1, 2 shows (at T and ?) the number of screens; Ca is coerced coefficient of heat transfer between two screens. For bright aluminum foil ? = 0.04 0.06. For foil covered by thin bright layer of silver ? = 0.02 0.03.
   The total amount of the heat flows Q [J/s] across the cylindrical surface is
0x01 graphic
, (19)
where F2 is area of the outer cylinder, m2; F1 is area of internal cylinder, m2.
When we use a vacuum and row (n) of the thin screens, the heat flow is
   0x01 graphic
, (20)
   where qn is heat flow to protected wire, W/m2; 0x01 graphic
is coerced coefficient of heat transfer between wire and the nearest screen, Ca is coerced coefficient of heat transfer between two near by screens; n is number of additional screen (revolutions of vacuumed thin foil around central superconductive wire).
   Example 1: for 0x01 graphic
, n = 1, ? = 0.05, T1 = 288 K (15 C, average Earth temperature), T2 = 77.3 K (liquid nitrogen) we have the qn = 5.7 W/m2.
Expense of cooling liquid and power for converting back the vapor into cooling liquid are
   0x01 graphic
, (21)
   where mc is vapor mass of cooling liquid, kg/m2.sec; Mc is total mass of cooling liquid in time t [s], J; ? is evaporation heat, J/kg (see Table 2).
The 100 km atmospheric part of tower (Example above) requires approximately 4 tons of liquid nitrogen in one day. If we take more additional screens (n > 1), the required cooling is decreased.
      -- When we use the conventional heat protection, the heat flow is computed by equations
   0x01 graphic
, (22)
   where k is heat transmission coefficient, W/m2K; ? - heat conductivity coefficient, W/m.K. For air ? = 0.0244, for glass-wool ? = 0.037; ? - thickness of heat protection, m.
   The vacuum screening is strong efficiency and light (mass) than the conventional cooling protection.
  
   Table 2. Boiling temperature and heat of evaporation of some relevant liquids [29], p.68; [28] p.57.
  
   Liquid
   Boilng temperature, K
   Heat varoparation, ? kJ/kg
   Specific
density,
kg/m3
   Hydrogen
   20.4
   472
   67.2
   Nitrogen
   77.3
   197.5
   804.3
   Air
   81
   217
   980
   Oxygen
   90.2
   213.7
   1140
   Carbonic acid
   194.7
   375
   1190
  
   These data are sufficient for a quick computation of the cooling systems characteristics.
   Using the correct design of multi-screens, high-reflectivity mirror or the solar and planetary energy screen, and assuming a hard outer space vacuum between screens, we get a very small heat flow and a very small expenditure for refrigerant (some gram/m2 per day in Earth). In outer space the protected body can have low temperature without special liquid cooling system (Fig.3).
   For example, the space body (Fig. 4a) with innovative prism reflector [23] Ch. 3A (? = 10--6, ?a = 0.9) will have temperature about 12 K in outer space. The protection Fig.3b gives more low temperature. The usual multi-screen protection of Fig. 4c gives the temperature: the first screen - 160 K, the second - 75 K, the third - 35 K, the fourth - 16 K.
   14. Cable material. Let us consider the following experimental and industrial fibers, whiskers,
   and nanotubes:
      -- Experimental nanotubes CNT (carbon nanotubes) have a tensile strength of 200 Giga-Pascals (20,000 kg/mm2). Theoretical limit of nanotubes is 30,000 kg/mm2. Young's modulus exceeds a Tera Pascal, specific density ? = 1800 kg/m3 (1.8 g/cc) (year 2000).
   For safety factor n = 2.4, ? = 8300 kg/mm2 = 8.31010 N/m2, ? =1800 kg/m3, (?/?)=46106. The SWNTs nanotubes have a density of 0.8 g/cm3, and MWNTs have a density of 1.8 g/cm3 (average 1.34 g/cm3). Unfortunately, even in 2010 CE, nanotubes are very expensive to manufacture.
      -- For whiskers CD ? = 8000 kg/mm2, ? = 3500 kg/m3 (1989) [27, p. 33]. Cost about $400/kg (2001).
      -- For industrial fibers ? = 500 - 600 kg/mm2, ? = 1800 kg/m3, ?/? = 2,78106. Cost about 2 - 5 $/kg (2003).
   Relevant statistics for some other experimental whiskers and industrial fibers are given in Table 3 below.
   Table 3. Tensile strength and density of whiskers and fibers
   Material
  
   Whiskers
   Tensile
   strength
   kg/mm2
   Density
  
   g/cm3
  
  
   Fibers
   Tensile
   strength
   kg/mm2
   Density
  
   g/cm3
   AlB12
   2650
   2.6
   QC-8805
   620
   1.95
   B
   2500
   2.3
   TM9
   600
   1.79
   B4C
   2800
   2.5
   Thorael
   565
   1.81
   TiB2
   3370
   4.5
   Alien 1
   580
   1.56
   SiC
   2100-4140
   3.22
   Alien 2
   300
   0.97
   Al oxide
   2800-4200
   3.96
   Kevlar
   362
   1.44
   See Reference [23] p. 33.
  
   15. Balancing of wire by voltage. If top station or climber spends energy, the vertical wire has voltage. That means they have the different linear electric charges and attract one to other. Let us find the required voltage between them and consumed power.
0x01 graphic
, (23)
   where R3 is a repel magnetic force, N/m; F4 is an attractive electrostatic force, N/m; ? is a linear electric charge, C/m; ?o = 8.85?10-12 is electrostatic constant, F/m; I is electric current in vertical wire, A.
For equilibrium the voltage U between the vertical wires and consumed power P must be
0x01 graphic
.
Example: For I = 103 A, b = 3 the U = 1.8105 V and P = 1.8105 kW. That value is big and this method of compensation is less suitable.

Projects

   The most suitable computation for the proposed projects is made in Examples in Theoretical section.
That way muc data it is given without detailed explanation. Our design is not optimal but merely for estimation of the main data.
   Note about using conventional conductors. The magnetic AB-column requires the high density electric current (about 104 - 106 A/mm2) and very low electric resistance. This condition is satisfied only by superconductive wire at the present time. In other cases (with non-superconductive wire) the lift force is less than the wire and AB-spool weight and construction spends very much energy. Unfortunately, the current superconductive material requires a low temperature. Their cooling is made by cheap liquid nitrogen. However the conventional conductor may be used for modeling, research and testing the suspended (levitated) constructions in the development period before a `flight article' is ready.

1. Motionless 100 km Suspended Magnetic AB-satellite (AB-Magnetic Tower)
   (one-stage two wire magnetic tower)
Lift Force and repulsive force. For I = 104 A, n = 103, b = 10 the lift force is F = 4105 N = 40 tons (Eq. (5)). If I = 2?104 A, the lift force will be 160 tons. For d = 2 m, the repulse force between the vertical wire is F3 = 10 N/m = 1 kgf/m (Eq. (5)).
Mass of film. For the current cheap artificial fiber having ? = 1800 kg/m3, safety ? = 2109 N/m2 (? = 200 kgf/mm2) (see Table 3), I = 104 A the film (horizontal fiber) mass mf - 210-5 kg/m (Eq. (6)). That is only 2 kg for 100 km of tower height.
   For superconductive wire having safety electric current density j = 1012 A/m2 , ?w - 104 kg/m3 , I = 104 a the liner mass of superconductive wire is mw = 2?10-4 kg/m or 20 kg for 100 km of a tower height, cross section wire area is s = 10-2 mm2 (Eq.7)) For n = 1000, d = 1 m, ?w - 104 kg/m3 , s = 10-8 m2 the mass one spool is 0.3 kg (Eq.(8)).
For specific linear density of double support and cooling cables q = 0.05 kg/m and H = 105 m = 100 km the support mass is 5 tons. This mass includes the tube cooling system by nitrogen (nitrogen does not need support). We need cooling tubes only until the altitude 70 - 100 km. Over this altitude no conventional (to air) heat transfer practically occurs and the cooling super reflective layer has q - 0.002 kg/m or 200 kg per 100 km.
Climber. For climber having mass m = 10,000 kg and an acceleration g = go (1 G vertical) the force (11) is Fc = 2?105 N and requires an electric current i = 5103 A (Eq. (2) for n = 1000, b = 10). For altitude H = 100 km, acceleration aa = 10 m/s2 the trip time is t = 200 sec, Vmax = 103 m/s. For mass of climber m = 10 tons, the electric current i = 5103 A, n = 1000, b = 10, maximal velocity Vmax = 103 m/s the maximum voltage is Emax = 2?104 V; maximal electric power is Nmax = 108 W. This power drain may be greatly reduced by accepting less rocket like accelerations, at the expense of less throughput and longer transit times. It is noteworthy, however, that by using high G forces at less than geostationary heights, in effect we have a `mass driver' of the G.K. O'Neill sort, that can send (for example) lunar landers to escape velocity, and then slow down the `bucket' (climber) for recovery and relaunch. This is one way to support a massive space program.
   Minimal energy is needed for building (unrolling) of the magnetic tower. For I = 104 A, b = 10, H = 100 km, the inductance is Li = 0.66 H, and the required energy is Ei = 3.3?107 J (Eq. (14)).
Cooling consumption for support of the superconductive wire in lower (up 100 km) atmospheric part of magnetic tower is about 2 - 4 tons of liquid nitrogen in one day.
Summary. As you see the suggested 100 km magnetic tower (suspended or levitated space station) can keep 34 tons (and in beefed up versions up to 155 tons and more) useful load and has mass of 5022 kg. If this 100 km section is located in vacuum space (over altitude 100 km) it does not need active cooling and has mass of only 222 kg.
  
2. Geosynchronous Magnetic AB-Satellite (AB-Tower)
   (multi-stage, two fires tower)
   In my opinion the geosynchronous tower must be multi-staged for current material. When we will get the cheap nanotubes and room temperature superconductor we can build the one-stage high altitude magnetic tower.
   For estimation the data we assume that one stage has length 100 km. That means the geosynchronous 37000 km tower will has 370 stages. The 100 km stage is not optimal but that allows using the previous computation and data. It is very important that every stage is held by its SELF (its, inherent) magnetic column and doesn't press on lower stage. If stage has enough safety coefficient (>2) that can hold the lower stage when it will be out of order or damaged. The stages do not hold the space climber because the space climber is supported by its magnetic column. The top stage located on geosynchronous orbit can hold a big useful mass because this mass has zero weight at GEO (and extending beyond GEO, useful tension may be added to the tower as a whole, lowering the weight of many stages far toward the ground within the limits of current material strengths.) Thus the payloads can be far bigger, over time, than a simple linear calculation might suggest.
In previous computation we compute that the atmospheric stage has mass mo = 5022 kg and space stage has mi = 222 kg. Let us take for reliability mo = 6000 kg and mi = 300 kg then total mass of the geosynchronous magnetic tower will be M = mo + ? mi = 16800 kg.
   The required electric current in every stage is ii = 870 A (see example in Eq. (2)), the maximal electric current is about J = ? ii - 3708.7102 - 3.3104 A.

Conclusion

  
   The research shows that inexpensive levitated magnetic AB-Structures (include LEO motionless and geosynchronous satellites) can be built by the current technology. This significantly (by a thousand times) decreases the cost of space launches. The offered magnetic space tower is a thousand times cheaper than the well-known cable space elevator. NASA is spending for research of space elevator hundreds of millions of dollars. A small part of this sum is enough for R&D of the magnetic tower and make a working model.
   The proposed innovation (upper electric AB-spool) allows also solving the problem of the conventional railgun (having projectile speed is 3 -5 km/s). The current conventional railgun uses a very high ampere electric current (millions A) and low voltage. As the result the rails burn. The temporary cooled superconductive AB-spool allows decreases the required electric current by thousands of times (simultaneously the required voltage is increased by the same factor). The damage of rails is decreased.
The same idea may be used in space railgun [27] and space magnetic AB-Launcher without rails, in the suspended structures for communication and so on. The magnetic column may be applied to the suspending houses, buildings, towns, multi-floor cities, to a small state located over ocean in international waters, to the motionless (geostationary or levitating) space stations, to the communication masts and towers. The may be easily tested in small cheap magnetic prototypes with easily available materials on the ground before building the actual article with superconductors . And the entire assembly can be built on Earth, unlike `conventional' space elevators, for much cheaper deployment.
   The climber's power drain may be greatly reduced by accepting less rocket like accelerations, at the expense of less throughput and longer transit times. It is noteworthy, however, that by using high G forces at less than geostationary heights, that can send (for example) lunar landers or planetary probes to escape velocity, and then slow down the `bucket' (climber) for recovery and relaunch. This is one way to support a massive space program.
   The reader can recalculate the levitated installations for his own scenarios. See also [6]-[22],[23],[27]. .
   References
  
   (Part of these articles the reader can find in author WEB page: http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://arxiv.org , http://www.scribd.org, http://aiaa.org search term "Bolonkin", and in the books: "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pgs., "New Concepts, Ideas, and Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Sciences" , NOVA, 2007, 502 pgs., "Macro-projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008, 536, pgs.)
   1. Smitherman D.V., Jr., "Space Elevators", NASA/CP-2000-210429.
   2. Tsiolkovski K.E.,"Speculations about Earth and Sky on Vesta", Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1959;
Grezi o zemle i nebe (in Russian), Academy of Sciences, USSR., Moscow, p. 35, 1999.
   3. Geoffrey A. Landis, Craig Cafarelli, The Tsiolkovski Tower Re-Examined, JBIS, Vol. 32, p. 176-180, 1999.
   4. Artsutanov Y.. Space Elevator, http://www.liftport.com/files/Artsutanov_Pravda_SE.pdf.
   5. Clarke A.C.: Fountains of Paradise, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1978.
   6. Bolonkin A.A., Optimal Solid Space Tower, Paper AIAA-2006-7717, ATIO Conference, 25-
27 Sept.,2006, Wichita, Kansas, USA, http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701093.pdf .
See also paper AIAA-2006-4235 by A. Bolonkin. http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
   7. Bolonkin A.A., Optimal Rigid Space Tower, Paper AIAA-2007-367, 45th Aerospace Science
   Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 Jan.,2007, USA. http://aiaa.org search term "Bolonkin".
   8. Bolonkin A.A., "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch.9, "Optimal Solid
   Space Tower", pp.161-172. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071
   9. Bolonkin A.A., "Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height", COSPAR-02 C1.
10035-02, 34th Scientific Assembly of the
Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). The Wold Space Congress - 2002, 10 -19 Oct. 2002, Houston, Texas, USA. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm
   10. Bolonkin A.A., Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 -100 km Height", JBIS, Vol.56,No.3/4, pp.87-97,
   2003. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
   11. Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch.4 "Optimal Inflatable Space
Towers
", pp.83-106; http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182
   12. Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., "Macro-Engineering",: Environment and Technology", Ch.1E
"
Artificial Mountains", pp. 299-334, NOVA, 2008. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930
   13. Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch. 9 "Kinetic Anti-Gravotator", pp. 165-186, High reflective layer Ch. 12, pp. 223 -244, Ch. 3A, pp. 371-382 ; http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 . Main idea of this Chapter was presented as papers COSPAR-02, C1.1-0035-02 and IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03, 53rd International Astronautical Congress. The World Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October 2002, Houston, TX, USA, and the full manuscript was accepted as AIAA-2005-4504, 41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, AZ, USA, http://aiaa.org search term "Bolonkin".
   14. Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch.5 "Kinetic Space Towers", pp. 107-124, Springer, 2006. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 .
   15. Bolonkin A.A., "Transport System for Delivery Tourists at Altitude 140 km", manuscript was presented as Bolonkin's paper IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03 at the World Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October, Houston, TX, USA. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm , http://aiaa.org search term "Bolonkin".
   16. Bolonkin A.A., "Centrifugal Keeper for Space Station and Satellites", JBIS, Vol.56, No. 9/10, 2003, pp. 314-327. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm . See also 14 Ch.10, 187 - 208.
   17. Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch.3 "Circle Launcher and Space Keeper", pp.59-82. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 .
   18. Bolonkin A.A., "Optimal Electrostatic Space Tower", Presented as Paper AIAA-2007-6201 to 43rd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, 8-11 July 2007, Cincinnati, OH, USA. http://aiaa.org search term "Bolonkin".
See also "Optimal Electrostatic Space Tower" in:
http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0704/0704.3466.pdf .
   19. Bolonkin A.A., "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch. 11 "Optimal
   Electrostatic Space Tower (Mast, New Space Elevator)", pp.189-204. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm,
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 .
   20. Bolonkin A.A., "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch.12, pp.205-220
   "AB Levitrons and Their Applications to Earth's Motionless Satellites". (About Electromagnetic Tower).
http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
   21. Book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008, Ch.12, pp.251-270,
   "Electronic Tubes and Quasi-Superconductivity at Room Temperature", (about Electronic Towers).
http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930
   22. BolonkinA.A., Krinker M., Rail Space Gun. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24051286
   23. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182
24. Bolonkin A., Krinker M., Magnetic Space Launcher. Presented as paper AIAA-2009-5261 to 45th AIAA
Joint Propulsion Conference, 2-5 August 2009, Denver, CO, USA. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24051286
   or http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
25. AIP. Physics Desk References, 3-rd Edition. Springer. 2003.
   26. Krinker M., Review of New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Space Towers.
   http://www.scribd.com search "Krinker".
   27. Galasso F.S., Advanced Fibers and Composite. Gordon and Branch Science Publisher, 1989.
   28. Kikoin I.K., Editor. Table of Physical Values, Moscow, 1976, 1007 ps. (in Russian).
   29. Koshkin H.I., Shirkevich M.G.,Directory of Elementary Physics, Nauka, 1982.

Future suspended structur

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Magnetic levitation transport

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Current suspended structures

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Possible suspended structure in space

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   Article Criterion for Solar Detonation 1 27 10

Chapter 12

Artificial Explosion of Sun
and AB-
Criterion for Solar Detonation

Abstract

  
   The Sun contains ~74% hydrogen by weight. The isotope hydrogen-1 (99.985% of hydrogen in nature) is a usable fuel for fusion thermonuclear reactions.
This reaction runs slowly within the Sun because its temperature is low (relative to the needs of nuclear reactions). If we create higher temperature and density in a limited region of the solar interior, we may be able to produce self-supporting detonation thermonuclear reactions that spread to the full solar volume. This is analogous to the triggering mechanisms in a thermonuclear bomb. Conditions within the bomb can be optimized in a small area to initiate ignition, then spread to a larger area, allowing producing a hydrogen bomb of any power. In the case of the Sun certain targeting practices may greatly increase the chances of an artificial explosion of the Sun. This explosion would annihilate the Earth and the Solar System, as we know them today.
   The reader naturally asks: Why even contemplate such a horrible scenario? It is necessary because as thermonuclear and space technology spreads to even the least powerful nations in the centuries ahead, a dying dictator having thermonuclear missile weapons can produce (with some considerable mobilization of his military/industrial complex)-- an artificial explosion of the Sun and take into his grave the whole of humanity. It might take tens of thousands of people to make and launch the hardware, but only a very few need know the final targeting data of what might be otherwise a weapon purely thought of (within the dictator's defense industry) as being built for peaceful, deterrent use.
   Those concerned about Man's future must know about this possibility and create some protective system--or ascertain on theoretical grounds that it is entirely impossible.
   Humanity has fears, justified to greater or lesser degrees, about asteroids, warming of Earthly climate, extinctions, etc. which have very small probability. But all these would leave survivors --nobody thinks that the terrible annihilation of the Solar System would leave a single person alive. That explosion appears possible at the present time. In this paper is derived the `AB-Criterion' which shows conditions wherein the artificial explosion of Sun is possible. The author urges detailed investigation and proving or disproving of this rather horrifying possibility, so that it may be dismissed from mind--or defended against.
  
   Key words: Artificial explosion of Sun, annihilation of solar system, criterion of nuclear detonation, nuclear detonation wave, detonate Sun, artificial supernova.
* This work is written together J. Friedlander. He corrected the author's English, wrote together with author Abstract, Sections 8, 10 ("Penetration into Sun" and "Results"), and wrote Section 11 "Discussion" as the solo author.

1. Introduction

   Information about Sun. The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. The Earth and other matter (including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust) orbit the Sun, which by itself accounts for about 99.8% of the solar system's mass. Energy from the Sun--in the form of sunlight--supports almost all life on Earth via photosynthesis, and drives the Earth's climate and weather.
The Sun is composed of hydrogen (about 74% of its mass, or 92% of its volume), helium (about 25% of mass, 7% of volume), and trace quantities of other elements. The Sun has a spectral class of G2V. G2 implies that it has a surface temperature of approximately 5,500 K (or approximately 9,600 degrees Fahrenheit / 5,315 Celsius).

0x01 graphic

Fig.1. Structure of Sun

   Sunlight is the main source of energy to the surface of Earth. The solar constant is the amount of power that the Sun deposits per unit area that is directly exposed to sunlight. The solar constant is equal to approximately 1,370 watts per square meter of area at a distance of one AU from the Sun (that is, on or near Earth). Sunlight on the surface of Earth is attenuated by the Earth's atmosphere so that less power arrives at the surface--closer to 1,000 watts per directly exposed square meter in clear conditions when the Sun is near the zenith.
The Sun is about halfway through its main-sequence evolution, during which nuclear fusion reactions in its core fuse hydrogen into helium. Each second, more than 4 million tonnes of matter are converted into energy within the Sun's core, producing neutrinos and solar radiation; at this rate, the sun will have so far converted around 100 earth-masses of matter into energy. The Sun will spend a total of approximately 10 billion years as a main sequence star.
The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 solar radii. It has a density of up to 150,000 kg/m3 (150 times the density of water on Earth) and a temperature of close to 13,600,000 kelvins (by contrast, the surface of the Sun is close to 5,785 kelvins (1/2350th of the core)). Through most of the Sun's life, energy is produced by nuclear fusion through a series of steps called the p-p (proton-proton) chain; this process converts hydrogen into helium. The core is the only location in the Sun that produces an appreciable amount of heat via fusion: the rest of the star is heated by energy that is transferred outward from the core. All of the energy produced by fusion in the core must travel through many successive layers to the solar photosphere before it escapes into space as sunlight or kinetic energy of particles.
About 3.41038 protons (hydrogen nuclei) are converted into helium nuclei every second (out of about ~8.91056 total amount of free protons in Sun), releasing energy at the matter-energy conversion rate of 4.26 million tonnes per second, 383 yottawatts (3831024 W) or 9.151010 megatons of TNT per second. This corresponds to extremely low rate of energy production in the Sun's core - about 0.3 ?W/cm, or about 6 ?W/kg. For comparison, an ordinary candle produces heat at the rate 1 W/cm, and human body - at the rate of 1.2 W/kg. Use of plasma with similar parameters as solar interior plasma for energy production on Earth is completely impractical - as even a modest 1 GW fusion power plant would require about 170 billion tonnes of plasma occupying almost one cubic mile. Thus all terrestrial fusion reactors require much higher plasma temperatures than those in Sun's interior to be viable.
The rate of nuclear fusion depends strongly on density (and particularly on temperature), so the fusion rate in the core is in a self-correcting equilibrium: a slightly higher rate of fusion would cause the core to heat up more and expand slightly against the weight of the outer layers, reducing the fusion rate and correcting the perturbation; and a slightly lower rate would cause the core to cool and shrink slightly, increasing the fusion rate and again reverting it to its present level.
The high-energy photons (gamma and X-rays) released in fusion reactions are absorbed in only few millimeters of solar plasma and then re-emitted again in random direction (and at slightly lower energy) - so it takes a long time for radiation to reach the Sun's surface. Estimates of the "photon travel time" range from as much as 50 million years to as little as 17,000 years. After a final trip through the convective outer layer to the transparent "surface" of the photosphere, the photons escape as visible light. Each gamma ray in the Sun's core is converted into several million visible light photons before escaping into space. Neutrinos are also released by the fusion reactions in the core, but unlike photons they very rarely interact with matter, so almost all are able to escape the Sun immediately.
This reaction is very slowly because the solar temperatute is very lower of Coulomb barrier.
The Sun's current age, determined using computer models of stellar evolution and nucleocosmochronology, is thought to be about 4.57 billion years.
Astronomers estimate that there are at least 70 sextillion (71022) stars in the observable universe. That is 230 billion times as many as the 300 billion in the Milky Way.
Atmosphere of Sun. The parts of the Sun above the photosphere are referred to collectively as the solar atmosphere. They can be viewed with telescopes operating across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio through visible light to gamma rays, and comprise five principal zones: the temperature minimum, the chromosphere, the transition region, the corona, and the heliosphere.
The chromosphere, transition region, and corona are much hotter than the surface of the Sun; the reason why is not yet known. But their density is low.
The coolest layer of the Sun is a temperature minimum region about 500 km above the photosphere, with a temperature of about 4,000 K.
Above the temperature minimum layer is a thin layer about 2,000 km thick, dominated by a spectrum of emission and absorption lines. It is called the chromosphere from the Greek root chroma, meaning color, because the chromosphere is visible as a colored flash at the beginning and end of total eclipses of the Sun. The temperature in the chromosphere increases gradually with altitude, ranging up to around 100,000 K near the top.
Above the chromosphere is a transition region in which the temperature rises rapidly from around 100,000 K to coronal temperatures closer to one million K. The increase is because of a phase transition as helium within the region becomes fully ionized by the high temperatures. The transition region does not occur at a well-defined altitude. Rather, it forms a kind of nimbus around chromospheric features such as spicules and filaments, and is in constant, chaotic motion. The transition region is not easily visible from Earth's surface, but is readily observable from space by instruments sensitive to the far ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.
The corona is the extended outer atmosphere of the Sun, which is much larger in volume than the Sun itself. The corona merges smoothly with the solar wind that fills the solar system and heliosphere. The low corona, which is very near the surface of the Sun, has a particle density of 1014 m--3-1016 m--3. (Earth's atmosphere near sea level has a particle density of about 21025 m--3.) The temperature of the corona is several million kelvin. While no complete theory yet exists to account for the temperature of the corona, at least some of its heat is known to be from magnetic reconnection.
Physical characteristics of Sun: Mean diameter is 1.392106 km (109 Earths). Volume is 1.411018 km (1,300,000 Earths). Mass is 1.988?4351030 kg (332,946 Earths). Average density is 1,408 kg/m. Surface temperature is 5785 K (0.5 eV). Temperature of corona is 5 MK (0.43 keV). Core temperature is ~13.6 MK (1.18 keV). Sun radius is R = 696103 km, solar gravity gc = 274 m/s2. Photospheric composition of Sun (by mass): Hydrogen 73.46 %; Helium 24.85 %; Oxygen 0.77 %; Carbon 0.29 %; Iron 0.16 %; Sulphur 0.12 %; Neon 0.12 %; Nitrogen 0.09 %; Silicon 0.07 %; Magnesium 0.05 %.
Sun photosphere has thickness about 710-4 R (490 km) of Sun radius R, average temperature 5.4103 K, and average density 210-7 g/cm3 (n = 1.21023 m-3). Sun convection zone has thickness about 0.15 R, average temperature 0.25106 K, and average density 510-7 g/cm3 . Sun intermediate (radiation) zone has thickness about 0.6 R, average temperature 4106 K, and average density 10 g/cm3 . Sun core has thickness about 0.25 R, average temperature 11106 K, and average density 89 g/cm3 .
Detonation is a process of combustion in which a supersonic shock wave is propagated through a fluid due to an energy release in a reaction zone. This self-sustained detonation wave is different from a deflagration, which propagates at a subsonic rate (i.e., slower than the sound speed in the material itself).
Detonations can be produced by explosives, reactive gaseous mixtures, certain dusts and aerosols.
The simplest theory to predict the behavior of detonations in gases is known as Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) theory, developed around the turn of the 20th century. This theory, described by a relatively simple set of algebraic equations, models the detonation as a propagating shock wave accompanied by exothermic heat release. Such a theory confines the chemistry and diffusive transport processes to an infinitely thin zone.
A more complex theory was advanced during World War II independently by Zel'dovich, von Neumann, and Doering. This theory, now known as ZND theory, admits finite-rate chemical reactions and thus describes a detonation as an infinitely thin shock wave followed by a zone of exothermic chemical reaction. In the reference frame in which the shock is stationary, the flow following the shock is subsonic. Because of this, energy release behind the shock is able to be transported acoustically to the shock for its support. For a self-propagating detonation, the shock relaxes to a speed given by the Chapman-Jouguet condition, which induces the material at the end of the reaction zone to have a locally sonic speed in the reference frame in which the shock is stationary. In effect, all of the chemical energy is harnessed to propagate the shock wave forward.
Both CJ and ZND theories are one-dimensional and steady. However, in the 1960s experiments revealed that gas-phase detonations were most often characterized by unsteady, three-dimensional structures, which can only in an averaged sense be predicted by one-dimensional steady theories. Modern computations are presently making progress in predicting these complex flow fields. Many features can be qualitatively predicted, but the multi-scale nature of the problem makes detailed quantitative predictions very difficult.
   2. Statement of Problem, Main Idea and Our Aim
  
The present solar temperature is far lower than needed for propagating a runaway thermonuclear reaction. In Sun core the temperature is only ~13.6 MK (0.0012 MeV). The Coulomb barrier for protons (hydrogen) is more then 0.4 MeV. Only very small proportions of core protons take part in the thermonuclear reaction (they use a tunnelling effect). Their energy is in balance with energy emitted by Sun for the Sun surface temperature 5785 K (0.5 eV).
   We want to clarify: If we create a zone of limited size with a high temperature capable of overcoming the Coulomb barrier (for example by insertion of a thermonuclear warhead) into the solar photosphere (or lower), can this zone ignite the Sun's photosphere (ignite the Sun's full load of thermonuclear fuel)? Can this zone self-support progressive runaway reaction propagation for a significant proportion of the available thermonuclear fuel?
   If it is possible, researchers can investigate the problems: What will be the new solar temperature? Will this be metastable, decay or runaway? How long will the transformed Sun live, if only a minor change? What the conditions will be on the Earth?
   Why is this needed?
   As thermonuclear and space technology spreads to even the least powerful nations in the decades and centuries ahead, a dying dictator having thermonuclear weapons and space launchers can produce (with some considerable mobilization of his military/industrial complex)-- the artificial explosion of the Sun and take into his grave the whole of humanity.
   It might take tens of thousands of people to make and launch the hardware, but only a very few need know the final targeting data of what might be otherwise a weapon purely thought of (within the dictator's defense industry) as being built for peaceful, `business as usual' deterrent use. Given the hideous history of dictators in the twentieth century and their ability to kill technicians who had outlived their use (as well as major sections of entire populations also no longer deemed useful) we may assume that such ruthlessness is possible.
   Given the spread of suicide warfare and self-immolation as a desired value in many states, (in several cultures--think Berlin or Tokyo 1945, New York 2001, Tamil regions of Sri Lanka 2006) what might obtain a century hence? All that is needed is a supportive, obedient defense complex, a `romantic' conception of mass death as an ideal--even a religious ideal--and the realization that his own days at power are at a likely end. It might even be launched as a trump card in some (to us) crazy internal power struggle, and plunged into the Sun and detonated in a mood of spite by the losing side. `Burn baby burn'!
   A small increase of the average Earth's temperature over 0.4 K in the course of a century created a panic in humanity over the future temperature of the Earth, resulting in the Kyoto Protocol. Some stars with active thermonuclear reactions have temperatures of up to 30,000 K. If not an explosion but an enchanced burn results the Sun might radically increase in luminosity for -say--a few hundred years. This would suffice for an average Earth temperature of hundreds of degrees over 0 C. The oceans would evaporate and Earth would bake in a Venus like greenhouse, or even lose its' atmosphere entirely.
   Thus we must study this problem to find methods of defense from human induced Armageddon.
   The interested reader may find needed information in [1]-[4].

3. Theory and estimations

      -- Coulomb barrier (repulsion). Energy is needed for thermonuclear reaction may be computed by equations
   0x01 graphic
, (1)
   where E is energy needed for forcing contact between two nuclei, J or eV; k = 9109 is electrostatic constant, Nm2/C2; Z is charge state; e = 1.610-19 is charge of proton, C; r is distance between nucleus centers, m; ri is radius of nucleus, m; A = Z + N is nuclei number, N is number neutrons into given (i = 1, 2) nucleus.
   The computations of average temperature (energy) for some nucleus are presented in Table #1 below. We assume that the first nucleus is moving; the second (target) nucleus is motionless.
  

Table 1. Columb barrier of some nuclei pairs.

   Reaction
   E, MeV
   Reaction
   E, MeV
   Reaction
   E, MeV
   Reaction
   E, MeV
   p + p
   0.53
   T+p
   0.44
   6L+p
   1.13
   13C+p
   1.9
   D + p
   0.47
   D+d
   0.42
   7Be+p
   1.5
   12C+4He
   3.24
  
   In reality the temperature of plasma may be significantly lower than in table 1 because the nuclei have different velocity. Parts of them have higher velocity (see Maxwell distribution of nuclei speed in plasma), some of the nuclei do not (their energy are summarized), and there are tunnel effects. If the temperature is significantly lower, then only a small part of the nuclei took part in reaction and the fuel burns very slowly. This case we have--happily in the present day Sun where the temperature in core has only 0.0012 MeV and the Sun can burn at this rate for billions of years.
   The ratio between temperatures in eV and in K is

0x01 graphic
. (2)

      -- The energy of a nuclear reaction. The energy and momentum conservation laws define the energetic relationships for a nuclear reaction [1]-[2].
   When a reaction A(a,b)B occurs, the quantity
   0x01 graphic
, (3)
   where Mi are the masses of the particles participating in the reaction and c is the speed of light,
Q is the reaction energy.
   Usually mass defects ?M are used, instead of masses, for computing Q:
   0x01 graphic
. (4)
   The mass defect is the quantity ?M = M - A where M is the actual mass of the particle (atom), A is the so-called mass number, i.e. the total number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the atomic nucleus. If M is expressed in atomic mass units (a.m.u.) and A is assigned the same unit, then ?M is also expressed in a.m.u. One a.m.u. represent 1/12 of the 12C nuclide mass and equals 1.660565510-27 kg. For calculations of reaction energies it is more convenient to express ?M in kilo-electronvolts: a.m.u. = 931501.59 keV.
   Employing the mass defects, one can handle numbers that are many times smaller than the nuclear masses or the binding energies.
Kinetic energy may be released during the course of a reaction (exothermic reaction) or kinetic energy may have to be supplied for the reaction to take place (endothermic reaction). This can be calculated by reference to a table of very accurate particle rest masses (see http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Compositions/index.html). The reaction energy (the "Q-value") is positive for exothermal reactions and negative for endothermal reactions.
   The other method calculate of thermonuclear energy is in [1]. For a nucleus of atomic number Z, mass number A, and Atomic mass M(Z,A), the binding energy is
   0x01 graphic
, (5)
   where M(1H) is mass of a hydrogen atom and mn is mass of neutron. This equation neglects a small correction due to the binding energy of the atomic electrons.
   The binding energy per nucleus Q/A , varies only slightly in the range of 7 - 9 MeV for nuclei with A > 12.
   The binding energy can be approximately calculated from Weizsacker's semiempirical formula:
   0x01 graphic
, (6)
   where ? accounts for pairing of like nucleons and has the value +apA-3/4 for Z and N both even, - apA-3/4 for Z and N both odd, and zero otherwise (A odd). The constants in this formula must be adjusted for the best agreement with data: typical value are av = 15.5 MeV, as = 16.8 MeV, ac = 0.72 MeV, asym = 23 MeV, and ap = 34 MeV.
The binding energy per nucleon of the helium-4 nucleus is unusually high, because the He-4 nucleus is doubly magic. (The He-4 nucleus is unusually stable and tightly-bound for the same reason that the helium atom is inert: each pair of protons and neutrons in He-4 occupies a filled 1s nuclear orbital in the same way that the pair of electrons in the helium atom occupies a filled 1s electron orbital). Consequently, alpha particles appear frequently on the right hand side of nuclear reactions.
The energy released in a nuclear reaction can appear mainly in one of three ways:
  -- kinetic energy of the product particles
  -- emission of very high energy photons, called gamma rays
  -- some energy may remain in the nucleus, as a metastable energy level.
   When the product nucleus is metastable, this is indicated by placing an asterisk ("*") next to its atomic number. This energy is eventually released through nuclear decay.
If the reaction equation is balanced, that does not mean that the reaction really occurs. The rate at which reactions occur depends on the particle energy, the particle flux and the reaction cross section.
In the initial collision which begins the reaction, the particles must approach closely enough so that the short range strong force can affect them. As most common nuclear particles are positively charged, this means they must overcome considerable electrostatic repulsion before the reaction can begin. Even if the target nucleus is part of a neutral atom, the other particle must penetrate well beyond the electron cloud and closely approach the nucleus, which is positively charged. Thus, such particles must be first accelerated to high energy, for example by very high temperatures, on the order of millions of degrees, producing thermonuclear reactions
Also, since the force of repulsion is proportional to the product of the two charges, reactions between heavy nuclei are rarer, and require higher initiating energy, than those between a heavy and light nucleus; while reactions between two light nuclei are commoner still.
Neutrons, on the other hand, have no electric charge to cause repulsion, and are able to effect a nuclear reaction at very low energies. In fact at extremely low particle energies (corresponding, say, to thermal equilibrium at room temperature), the neutron's de Broglie wavelength is greatly increased, possibly greatly increasing its capture cross section, at energies close to resonances of the nuclei involved. Thus low energy neutrons may be even more reactive than high energy neutrons.

Table 2. Exothermic thermonuclear reactions.

   N
   Reaction
   Energy of reaction
   MeV
   ?max barn
   E1 MeV
   E of ?max
   MeV
   N
   Reaction
   MeV
   Energy
   of
   reaction
   MeV
   ?max barn
   E1 MeV
   E of ?max
   MeV
   1
   p+p?d+e++?
   2.2
   1023
   -
   15
   d+6Li?7Li +p
   5.0
   0.01
   1
   2
   p+d?3He+?
   5.5
   106
   -
   16
   d+6Li?24He
   22.4
   0.026
   0.60
   3
   p+t?4He+?
   19.7
   106
   -
   17
   d+7Li?24He+n
   15.0
   103
   0.2
   4
   d+d?t+p
   4.0
   0.16
   2
   18
   p+9Be?24He+d
   0.56
   0.46
   0.33
   5
   d+d?3He+n
   3.3
   0.09
   1
   19
   p+9Be?6Li+4He
   2.1
   0.34
   0.33
   6
   d+d?4He+?
   24
   -
   -
   20
   p+11B?34He
   8.7
   0.6
   0.675
   7
   d+t?4He+n
   17.6
   5
   0.13
   21
   p+15N?12C+4He
   5.0
   0.6
   1.2
   8
   t+d?4He+n
   17.6
   5
   0.195
   22
   d+6Li?7Be+n
   3.4
   0.01
   0.3
   9
   t+t?4He+2n
   11.3
   0.1
   1
   23
   3He+t?4He+d
   14.31
   0.7
   -1
   10
   d+3He?4He+p
   18.4
   0.71
   0.47
   24
   3H+4He?7Li+?
   2.457
   7?105
   -3
   11
   3He+3He?4He+2p
   12.8
   -
   -
   25
   3H+d?4He
   17.59
   5?104
   -2
   12
   n+6Li?4He+t
   4,8
   2.6
   0.26
   26
   12C+p?13N+?
   1.944
   106
   0.46
   13
   p+6Li?4He+3He
   4,0
   104
   0.3
   27
   13C+p?14N+?
   7.55
   104
   0.555
   14
   p+7Li?24He+?
   17.3
   6?103
   0.44
   28
   3He+4He?7Be+?
   1.587
   106
   -8
   Here are: p (or 1H) - proton, d (or D, or 2H ) - deuterium, t (or T, or 3H) - tritium, n - neutron, He - helium, Li - lithium, Be - beryllium, B - barium, C - carbon, N - hydrogen, v - neutrino, ? - gamma radiation.
  
   3. Distribution of thermonuclear energy between particles. In most cases the result of thermonuclear reaction is more than one product. As you see in Table 2 that may be "He" and neutron or proton. The thermonuclear energy distributes between them in the following manner:

0x01 graphic
, (7)

   where m is particle mass, kg; V is particle speed, m/s; E is particle energy, J; ? = mi /mp is relative particle mass. Lower indexes "1, 2" are number of particles.
   After some collisions the energy E = kT (temperature) of different particles may be closed to equal.
   4. The power density produced in thermonuclear reaction may be computed by the equation

0x01 graphic
, (8)

   where E is energy of single reaction, eV or J; n1 is density (number particles in cm3) the first component; n2 is density (number particles in cm3) the second component; <? v> is reaction rate, in cm3/s; ? is cross section of reaction, cm2, 1 barn = 10-24 cm2; v is speed of the first component, cm/s; P is power density, eV/cm3 or J/cm3. Cross section of reaction before ?max very strongly depends from temperature and it is obtainable by experiment. They can have the maximum resonance. For very high temperatures the ? may be close to the nuclear diameter.
  
   Fig.2. Reaction rate 0x01 graphic
via plasma temperature for D-T (top), D-D (middle) and D-3He
   (bottom in left side).

The terminal velocity of the reaction components (electron and ions) are
   0x01 graphic
, (9)
   0x01 graphic
, (10)
   where T is temperature in eV; ?i = mi/mp is ratio of ion mass to proton mass.
The sound velocity of ions is
   0x01 graphic
, (11)
where ? - (1.2 1.4) is adiabatic coefficient; z is number of charge (z = 1 for p), Tk is plasma temperature in K; mi is mass of ion.
The deep of penetration of outer radiation into plasma is
   0x01 graphic
   where ne is number of electrons in unit of volume.
In internal plasma detonation there is no loss in radiation because the plasma reflects the radiation.
  
   4. Possible Thermonuclear Reactions to Power
   a Hypothetical Solar Explosion
  
The Sun mass is ~74% hydrogen and 25% helium.
   Possibilities exist for the following self-supporting nuclear reactions in the hydrogen medium:
proton chain reaction, CNO cycle, Triple-alpha process, Carbon burning process, Neon burning process, Oxygen burning process, Silicon burning process.
For our case of particular interest (a most probable candidate) the proton-proton chain reaction. It is more exactly the reaction
p + p.
   The proton-proton chain reaction is one of several fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the primary alternative being the CNO cycle. The proton-proton chain dominates in stars the size of the Sun or less.
The first step involves the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei 1H (protons) into deuterium 2H, releasing a positron and a neutrino as one proton changes into a neutron.
   1H + 1H ? 2H + e+ + ?e . (12)
   with the neutrinos released in this step carrying energies up to 0.42 MeV.
The positron immediately annihilates with an electron, and their mass energy is carried off by two gamma ray photons.
   e+ + e-- ? 2? + 1.02 MeV . (13)
   After this, the deuterium produced in the first stage can fuse with another hydrogen to produce a light isotope of helium, 3He:
   2H + 1H ? 3He + ? + 5.49 MeV . (14)
   From here there are three possible paths to generate helium isotope 4He. In pp1 helium-4 comes from fusing two of the helium-3 nuclei produced; the pp2 and pp3 branches fuse 3He with a pre-existing 4He to make Beryllium-7. In the Sun, branch pp1 takes place with a frequency of 86%, pp2 with 14% and pp3 with 0.11%. There is also an extremely rare pp4 branch.
   The pp I branch
   3He +3He ? 4He + 1H + 1H + 12.86 MeV
   The complete pp I chain reaction releases a net energy of 26.7 MeV. The pp I branch is dominant at temperatures of 10 to 14 megakelvins (MK). Below 10 MK, the PP chain does not produce much 4He.
   The pp II branch
         
   3He + 4He
   ?
   7Be + ?
         
   7Be + e--
   ?
   7Li + ?e
         
   7Li + 1H
   ?
   4He + 4He
   The pp II branch is dominant at temperatures of 14 to 23 MK. 90% of the neutrinos produced in the reaction 7Be(e--,?e)7Li* carry an energy of 0.861 MeV, while the remaining 10% carry 0.383 MeV (depending on whether lithium-7 is in the ground state or an excited state, respectively).
   The pp III branch
         
   3He + 4He
   ?
   7Be + ?
         
   7Be + 1H
   ?
   8B + ?
         
   8B
   ?
   8Be + e+ + ?e
         
   8Be
   ?
   4He + 4He
   The pp III chain is dominant if the temperature exceeds 23 MK.

The pp III chain is not a major source of energy in the Sun (only 0.11%), but was very important in the solar neutrino problem because it generates very high energy neutrinos (up to 14.06 MeV).
   The pp IV or Hep
   This reaction is predicted but has never been observed due to its great rarity (about 0.3 parts per million in the Sun). In this reaction, Helium-3 reacts directly with a proton to give helium-4, with an even higher possible neutrino energy (up to 18.8 MeV).
   3He + 1H ? 4He + ?e + e+
   Energy release.
Comparing the mass of the final helium-4 atom with the masses of the four protons reveals that 0.007 or 0.7% of the mass of the original protons has been lost. This mass has been converted into energy, in the form of gamma rays and neutrinos released during each of the individual reactions.
The total energy we get in one whole chain is
   41H ? 4He + 26.73 MeV.
   Only energy released as gamma rays will interact with electrons and protons and heat the interior of the Sun. This heating supports the Sun and prevents it from collapsing under its own weight. Neutrinos do not interact significantly with matter and do not help support the Sun against gravitational collapse. The neutrinos in the ppI, ppII and ppIII chains carry away the 2.0%, 4.0% and 28.3% of the energy respectively.
This creates a situation in which stellar nucleosynthesis produces large amounts of carbon and oxygen but only a small fraction of these elements is converted into neon and heavier elements. Both oxygen and carbon make up the ash of helium burning. Those nuclear resonances sensitively are arranged to create large amounts of carbon and oxygen, has been controversially cited as evidence of the anthropic principle.
About 34% of this energy is carried away by neutrinos. That reaction is part of solar reaction, but if initial temperature is high, the reaction becomes an explosion.
The detonation wave works a short time. That supports the reactions (12) - (13). They produce energy up to 1.44 MeV. The reactions (12) - (14) produce energy up to 5.8 MeV. But after detonation wave and the full range of reactions the temperature of plasma is more than the temperature needed to pass the Coulomb barrier and the energy of explosion increases by 20 times.
   5. Detonation theory
   The one dimensional detonation wave may be computed by equations (see Fig.2):
   1) Law of mass
0x01 graphic
, (15)
where D - speed of detonation, m/s; v - speed of ion sound, m/s about the front of detonation wave (eq.(11)); V1, V3 specific density of plasma in points 1, 3 respectively, kg/m3.
   2) Law of momentum
   0x01 graphic
, (16)
where p1, p3 are pressures, N/m2, in point 1, 3 respectively.
3) Law of energy
   0x01 graphic
, (17)
   where E3, E1 - internal energy, J/kg, of mass unit in point 3, 1 respectively, Q is
nuclear energy, J/kg.
4) Speed of detonation is
0x01 graphic
, (18)
? - 1.2 1.4 is adiabatic coefficient.

0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig. 3. Pressure in detonation wave. I - plasma, II - front of detonation wave, III - zone of the initial thermonuclear fusion reaction, IV - products of reaction and next reaction, po - initial pressure, x - distance.
  
   6. Model of artificial Sun explosion and estimation of ignition
  
   Thermonuclear reactions proceeding in the Sun's core are under high temperature and pressure. However the core temperature is substantially lower than that needed to overcome the Columb barrier. That way the thermonuclear reaction is very slow and the Sun's life cycle is about 10 billion years. But that is enough output to keep the Sun a plasma ball, hot enough for life on Earth to exist. Now we are located in the middle of the Sun's life and have about 5 billions years until the Sun becomes a Red Giant.
   However, this presumes that the Sun is stable against deliberate tampering. Supposing our postulations are correct, the danger exists that introducing a strong thermonuclear explosion into the Sun which is a container of fuel for thermonuclear reactions, the situation can be cardinally changed. For correct computations it is necessary to have a comprehensive set of full initial data (for example, all cross-section areas of all nuclear reactions) and supercomputer time. The author does not have access to such resources. That way he can only estimate probability of these reactions, their increasing or decreasing. Supportive investigations are welcome in order to restore confidence in humanity's long term future.
  

7. AB-Criterion for Solar Detonation

  
   A self-supporting detonation wave is possible if the speed of detonation wave is greater or equals the ion sound speed:
   0x01 graphic
. (19)
Here Q is a nuclear specific heat [J/kg], ? = 1.2 1.4 is adiabatic coefficient (they are noted in (17)-(18)); z is number of the charge of particle after fusion reaction (z =1 for 2H) , k = 1.3610-23 is Boltzmann constant, J/K; Tk is temperature of plasma after fusion reaction in Kelvin degrees; mi = ?mp is mass of ion after fusion reaction, kg; mp = 1.6710-27 kg is mass of proton; ? is relative mass, ? =2 for 2H.
When we have sign ">" the power of the detonation wave increases, when we have the sign "<" it decreases.
   Substitute two last equations in the first equation in (19) we get
0x01 graphic
, (20)
   where f is speed of nuclear reaction, s/m3; e = 1.610-19 is coefficient for converting the energy from electron-volts to joules; E is energy of reaction in eV; n is number particles (p - protons) in m3; <?v> is reaction rate, m3/s (fig.1), mi = 2 mp , ? is time, sec.
From (20) we get the AB-Criterion for artificial Sun explosion:
   0x01 graphic
, (21)
   0x01 graphic
where Te is temperature of plasma after reaction in eV.
   The offered AB-Criterion (21) is different from the well-known Lawson criterion
   0x01 graphic
,
where Ech is energy of reaction in keV, kB is Boltzmann constant.
The offered AB-Criterion contains the ? adiabatic coefficient and z - number of electric charge in the electron charges. It is not surprising because Lawson derived his criterion from the condition where the energy of the reaction must be greater than the loss of energy by plasma into the reactor walls, where
Wreaction > Wloss .
In our case no the reactor walls and plasma reflects the any radiation.
   The offered AB-Criterion is received from the condition (19): Speed of self-supporting detonation wave must be greater than the speed of sound where
D > v .
For main reaction p + p the AB-Criterion (21) has a form
0x01 graphic
. (21a)
Estimation. Let us take the first step of the reaction 1H + 1H (12)-(13) having in point 3 (fig.2) Te = 105 eV, E - 1.44106 eV, <?v> - 10-22. Substituting them in equation (21) we receive
   n? > 0.71021 . (22)
The Sun surface (photosphere) has density n = 1023 1/m3, the encounter time of protons in the hypothetical detonation wave III (fig.2) may be over 0.01 sec. The values in left and right sides of (22) have the same order. That means a thermonuclear bomb exploded within the Sun may convceivably be able to serve as a detonator which produces a self-supported nuclear reaction and initiates the artificial explosion of the Sun.
   After the initial reaction the temperature of plasma is very high (>1 MeV) and time of next reaction may be very large (hundreds of seconds), the additional energy might in these conditions increase up to 26 MeV.
A more accurate computation is possible but will require cooperation of an interested supercomputer team with the author, or independent investigations with similar interests.
  
   8. Penetration of Thermonuclear Bomb Into Sun

The Sun is a ball of plasma (ionized gases), not a solid body. A properly shielded thermonuclear bomb can permeate deep into the Sun. The warhead may be protected on its' way down by a special high reflectivity mirror offered, among others, by author A.A. Bolonkin in 1983 [12] and described in [7] Chapters 12, 3A, [8] Ch.5, [9]-[12]. This mirror allows to maintain a low temperature of the warhead up to the very boundary of the solar photosphere. At that point its' velocity is gigantic, about 617.6 km/s, assuring a rapid penetration for as far as it goes.
   The top solar atmosphere is very rarefied; a milliard (US billion) times less than the Earth's atmosphere. The Sun's photosphere has a density approximately 200 times less than the Earth's atmosphere. Some references give a value of only 0.0000002 gm/cm (.1 millibar) at the photosphere surface. Since present day ICBM warheads can penetrate down (by definition) to the 1 bar level (Earth's surface) and that is by no means the boundary of the feasible, the 10 bar level may be speculated to be near-term achievable. The most difficult entry yet was that of the Galileo atmospheric probe on Dec. 7, 1995 [17]. The Galileo Probe was a 45 sphere-cone that entered Jupiter's atmosphere at 47.4 km/s (atmosphere relative speed at 450 km above the 1 bar reference altitude). The peak deceleration experienced was 230 g (2.3 km/s). Peak stagnation point pressure before aeroshell jettison was 9 bars (900 kPa). The peak shock layer temperature was approximately 16000 K (and remember this is into hydrogen (mostly) the solar photosphere is merely 5800 K). Approximately 26% of the Galileo Probe's original entry mass of 338.93 kg was vaporized during the 70 second heat pulse. Total blocked heat flux peaked at approximately 15000 W/cm (hotter than the surface of the Sun).
   If the entry vehicle was not optimized for slowdown as the Galileo Probe but for penetration like a modern ICBM warhead, with extra ablatives and a sharper cone half-angle, achievable penetration would be deeper and faster. If 70 seconds atmospheric penetration time could be achieved, (with minimal slowdown) perhaps up to 6 % of the way to the center might be achieved by near term technology.
   The outer penetration shield of the warhead may be made from carbon (which is an excellent ablative heat protector). The carbon is also an excellent nuclear catalyst of the nuclear reactions in the CNO solar thermonuclear cycle and may significantly increase the power of the initial explosion.
   A century hence, what level of penetration of the solar interior is possible? This depth is unknown to the author, exceeding plausible engineering in the near term. Let us consider a hypothetical point (top of the radiation layer) 30 percent of the way from the surface to the core, at the density of 0.2 g/cm with a temperature of 2,000,000 C. No material substance can withstand such heat--for extended periods.
   We may imagine however hypothetical penetration aids, analogous to ICBM techniques of a half century ago. Shock waves bearing the brunt of the encountered heat and forcing it aside, the opacity shielding the penetrator. A form of multiple disposable shock cones may be employed to give the last in line a chance to survive; indeed the destruction of the next to last may arm the trigger.
  
   If the heat isolation shield and multiple penetration aids can protect the bomb at near entry velocity for a hellish 10 minute interval, (which to many may seem impossible but which cannot be excluded without definitive study--remember we are speaking now of centuries hence, not the near term case above--see reference 14) that means the bomb may reach the depth of 350 thousands kilometers or 0.5R, where R = 696103 km is Sun's radius.
   The Sun density via relative Sun depth may be estimated by the equation
   0x01 graphic
, (23)
where ns - 1023 1/m3 is the plasma density on the photosphere surface; h is deep, km; R = 696103 is solar radius, km. At a solar interior depth of h = 0,5R the relative density is greater by 27 thousand times than on the Sun's surface.
   Here the density and temperature are significantly more than on the photosphere's surface. And conditions for the detonation wave and thermonuclear reaction are `better'--from the point of view of the attacker.
  
   9. Estimation of nuclear bomb needed for Sun explosion
  
   Sound speed into plasma headed up T = 100 K million degrees is about
v - 102T0.5 m/s = 106 m/s . (24)
   Time of nuclear explosion (a full nuclear reaction of bomb) is less t = 10-4 sec. Therefore the radius of heated Sun photosphere is about R = vt = 100 m, volume V is about
0x01 graphic
. (25)
   Density of Sun photosphere is p = 210-4 kg/m3. Consequently the mass of the heated photosphere is about m = pV = 1000 kg.
The requested power of the nuclear bomb for heating this mass for temperature T = 104 eV (100 K million degrees) is approximately
E = 103104/1.6710-27 eV - 0.61034 eV - 21015 J - 0.5 Mt . (26)
The requested power of nuclear bomb is about 0.5 Megatons. The average power of the current thermonuclear bomb is 5 - 10 Mt. That means the current thermonuclear bomb may be used as a fuse of Sun explosion. That estimation needs in a more complex computation by a power computer.
  
10. Results of research
  
   The Sun contains 73.46 % hydrogen by weight. The isotope hydrogen-1 (99.985% of hydrogen in nature) is usable fuel for a fusion thermonuclear reaction.
The p-p reaction runs slowly within the Sun because its temperature is low (relative to the temperatures of nuclear reactions). If we create higher temperature and density in a limited region of the solar interior, we may be able to produce self-supporting, more rapid detonation thermonuclear reactions that may spread to the full solar volume. This is analogous to the triggering mechanisms in a thermonuclear bomb. Conditions within the bomb can be optimized in a small area to initiate ignition, build a spreading reaction and then feed it into a larger area, allowing producing a `solar hydrogen bomb' of any power--but not necessarily one whose power can be limited. In the case of the Sun certain targeting practices may greatly increase the chances of an artificial explosion of the entire Sun. This explosion would annihilate the Earth and the Solar System, as we know them today.
   Author A.A. Bolonkin has researched this problem and shown that an artificial explosion of Sun cannot be precluded. In the Sun's case this lacks only an initial fuse, which induces the self-supporting detonation wave. This research has shown that a thermonuclear bomb exploded within the solar photosphere surface may be the fuse for an accelerated series of hydrogen fusion reactions.
The temperature and pressure in this solar plasma may achieve a temperature that rises to billions of degrees in which all thermonuclear reactions are accelerated by many thousands of times. This power output would further heat the solar plasma. Further increasing of the plasma temperature would, in the worst case, climax in a solar explosion.
The possibility of initial ignition of the Sun significantly increases if the thermonuclear bomb is exploded under the solar photosphere surface. The incoming bomb has a diving speed near the Sun of about 617 km/sec. Warhead protection to various depths may be feasible -ablative cooling which evaporates and protects the warhead some minutes from the solar temperatures. The deeper the penetration before detonation the temperature and density achieved greatly increase the probability of beginning thermonuclear reactions which can achieve explosive breakout from the current stable solar condition.
   Compared to actually penetrating the solar interior, the flight of the bomb to the Sun, (with current technology requiring a gravity assist flyby of Jupiter to cancel the solar orbit velocity) will be easy to shield from both radiation and heating and melting. Numerous authors, including A.A. Bolonkin in works [7]-[12] offered and showed the high reflectivity mirrors which can protect the flight article within the orbit of Mercury down to the solar surface.
The author A.A. Bolonkin originated the AB Criterion, which allows estimating the condition required for the artificial explosion of the Sun.
   11. Discussion
  
   If we (humanity--unfortunately in this context, an insane dictator representing humanity for us) create a zone of limited size with a high temperature capable of overcoming the Coulomb barrier (for example by insertion of a specialized thermonuclear warhead) into the solar photosphere (or lower), can this zone ignite the Sun's photosphere (ignite the Sun's full load of thermonuclear fuel)? Can this zone self-support progressive runaway reaction propagation for a significant proportion of the available thermonuclear fuel?
   If it is possible, researchers can investigate the problems: What will be the new solar temperature? Will this be metastable, decay or runaway? How long will the transformed Sun live, if only a minor change? What the conditions will be on the Earth during the interval, if only temporary? If not an explosion but an enhanced burn results the Sun might radically increase in luminosity for -say--a few hundred years. This would suffice for an average Earth temperature of hundreds of degrees over 0 oC. The oceans would evaporate and Earth would bake in a Venus like greenhouse, or even lose its' atmosphere entirely.
   It would not take a full scale solar explosion, to annihilate the Earth as a planet for Man. (For a classic report on what makes a planet habitable, co-authored by Issac Asimov, see http://www.rand.org/pubs/commercial_books/2007/RAND_CB179-1.pdf .
   Converting the sun even temporarily into a `superflare' star, (which may hugely vary its output by many percent, even many times) over very short intervals, not merely in heat but in powerful bursts of shorter wavelengths) could kill by many ways, notably ozone depletion--thermal stress and atmospheric changes and hundreds of others of possible scenarios--in many of them, human civilization would be annihilated. And in many more, humanity as a species would come to an end.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
   Fig. 4. Sun explosion
  
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic
0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig. 5. Sun explosion. Result on the Earth.

  
   The reader naturally asks: Why even contemplate such a horrible scenario? It is necessary because as thermonuclear and space technology spreads to even the least powerful nations in the centuries ahead, a dying dictator having thermonuclear missile weapons can produce (with some considerable mobilization of his military/industrial complex)-- the artificial explosion of the Sun and take into his grave the whole of humanity. It might take tens of thousands of people to make and launch the hardware, but only a very few need know the final targeting data of what might be otherwise a weapon purely thought of (within the dictator's defense industry) as being built for peaceful, deterrent use.
   Those concerned about Man's future must know about this possibility and create some protective system--or ascertain on theoretical grounds that it is entirely impossible, which would be comforting.
   Suppose, however that some variation of the following is possible, as determined by other researchers with access to good supercomputer simulation teams. What, then is to be done?
   The action proposed depends on what is shown to be possible.
   Suppose that no such reaction is possible--it dampens out unnoticeably in the solar background, just as no fission bomb triggered fusion of the deuterium in the oceans proved to be possible in the Bikini test of 1946. This would be the happiest outcome.
   Suppose that an irruption of the Sun's upper layers enough to cause something operationally similar to a targeted `coronal mass ejection' - CME-- of huge size targeted at Earth or another planet? Such a CME like weapon could have the effect of a huge electromagnetic pulse. Those interested should look up data on the 1859 solar superstorm, the Carrington event, and the Stewart Super Flare. Such a CME/EMP weapon might target one hemisphere while leaving the other intact as the world turns. Such a disaster could be surpassed by another step up the escalation ladder-- by a huge hemisphere killing thermal event of ~12 hours duration such as postulated by science fiction writer Larry Niven in his 1971 story "Inconstant Moon"--apparently based on the Thomas Gold theory (ca. 1969-70) of rare solar superflares of 100 times normal luminosity. Subsequent research18 (Wdowczyk and Wolfendale, 1977) postulated horrific levels of solar activity, ozone depletion and other such consequences might cause mass extinctions. Such an improbable event might not occur naturally, but could it be triggered by an interested party? A triplet of satellites monitoring at all times both the sun from Earth orbit and the `far side' of the Sun from Earth would be a good investment both scientifically and for purposes of making sure no `creative' souls were conducting trial CME eruption tests!
  
   Might there be peaceful uses for such a capability? In the extremely hypothetical case that a yet greater super-scale CME could be triggered towards a given target in space, such a pulse of denser than naturally possible gas might be captured by a giant braking array designed for such a purpose to provide huge stocks of hydrogen and helium at an asteroid or moon lacking these materials for purposes of future colonization.
   A worse weapon on the scale we postulate might be an asymmetric eruption (a form of directed thermonuclear blast using solar hydrogen as thermonuclear fuel), which shoots out a coherent (in the sense of remaining together) burst of plasma at a given target without going runaway and consuming the outer layers of the Sun. If this quite unlikely capability were possible at all (dispersion issues argue against it--but before CMEs were discovered, they too would have seemed unlikely), such an apocalyptic `demo' would certainly be sufficient emphasis on a threat, or a means of warfare against a colonized solar system. With a sufficient thermonuclear burn -and if the condition of nondispersion is fulfilled--might it be possible to literally strip a planet--Venus, say--of its' atmosphere? (It might require a mass of fusion fuel-- and a hugely greater non-fused expelled mass comparable in total to the mass to be stripped away on the target planet.)
  
   It is not beyond the limit of extreme speculation to imagine an expulsion of this order sufficient to strip Jupiter's gas layers off the `Super-Earth' within. --To strip away 90% or more of Jupiter's mass (which otherwise would take perhaps ~400 Earth years of total solar output to disassemble with perfect efficiency and neglecting waste heat issues). It would probably waste a couple Jupiter masses of material (dispersed hydrogen and helium). It would be an amazing engineering capability for long term space colonization, enabling substantial uses of materials otherwise unobtainable in nearly all scenarios of long term space civilization.
  
   Moving up on the energy scale-- "boosting" or "damping" a star, pushing it into a new metastable state of greater or lesser energy output for times not short compared with the history of civilization, might be a very welcome capability to colonize another star system--and a terrifying reason to have to make the trip.
   And of course, in the uncontrollable case of an induced star explosion, in a barren star system it could provide a nebula for massive mining of materials to some future super-civilization. It is worth noting in this connection that the Sun constitutes 99.86 percent of the material in the Solar System, and Jupiter another .1 percent. Literally a thousand Earth masses of solid (iron, carbon) building materials might be possible, as well as thousands of oceans of water to put inside space colonies in some as yet barren star system.
   But here in the short-term future, in our home solar system, such a capability would present a terrible threat to the survival of humanity, which could make our own solar system completely barren.
   The list of possible countermeasures does not inspire confidence. A way to interfere with the reaction (dampen it once it starts)? It depends on the spread time, but seems most improbable. We cannot even stop nuclear reactions once they take hold on Earth--the time scales are too short.
   Is defense of the Sun possible? Unlikely--such a task makes missile defense of the Earth look easy. Once a gravity assist Jupiter flyby nearly stills the velocity with which a flight article orbits the Sun, it will hang relatively motionless in space and then begin the long fall to fiery doom. A rough estimate yields only one or two weeks to intercept it within the orbit of Mercury, and the farther it falls the faster it goes, to science fiction-like velocities sufficient to reach Pluto in under six weeks before it hits.
   A perimeter defense around the Sun? The idea seems impractical with near term technology.
   The Sun is a hundred times bigger sphere than Earth in every dimension. If we have 10,000 ready to go interceptor satellites with extreme sunshields that function a few solar radii out each one must be able to intercept with 99% probability the brightening light heading toward its' sector of the Sun over a circle the size of Earth, an incoming warhead at around 600 km/sec.
   If practical radar range from a small set is considered (4th power decline of echo and return) as 40,000 km then only 66 seconds would be available to plot a firing solution and arm for a destruct attempt. More time would be available by a telescope looking up for brightening, infalling objects--but there are many natural incoming objects such as meteors, comets, etc. A radar might be needed just to confirm the artificial nature of the in-falling object (given the short actuation time and the limitations of rapid storable rocket delta-v some form of directed nuclear charge might be the only feasible countermeasure) and any leader would be reluctant to authorize dozens of nuclear explosions per year automatically (there would be no time to consult with Earth, eight light-minutes away--and eight more back, plus decision time). But the cost of such a system, the reliability required to function endlessly in an area in which there can presumably be no human visits and the price of its' failure, staggers the mind. And such a 'thin' system would be not difficult to defeat by a competent aggressor...
A satellite system near Earth for destroying the rockets moving to the Sun may be a better solution, but with more complications, especially since it would by definition also constitute an effective missile defense and space blockade. Its' very presence may help spark a war. Or if only partially complete but under construction, it may invite preemption, perhaps on the insane scale that we here discuss...
  
   Astronomers see the explosion of stars. They name these stars novae and supernovae--"New Stars" and try to explain (correctly, we are sure, in nearly all cases) their explosion by natural causes. But some few of them, from unlikely spectral classifications, may be result of war between civilizations or fanatic dictators inflicting their final indignity upon those living on planets of the given star. We have enough disturbed people, some in positions of influence in their respective nations and organizations and suicide oriented violent people on Earth. But a nuclear bomb can destroy only one city. A dictator having possibility to destroy the Solar System as well as Earth can blackmail all countries--even those of a future Kardashev scale 2 star-system wide civilization-- and dictate his will/demands on any civilized country and government. It would be the reign of the crazy over the sane.
  
   Author A.A. Bolonkin already warned about this possibility in 2007 (see his interview http://www.pravda.ru/science/planet/space/05-01-2007/208894-sun_detonation-0 [15] (in Russian) (A translation of this is appended at the end of this article) and called upon scientists and governments to research and develop defenses against this possibility. But some people think the artificial explosion of Sun impossible. This led to this current research to give the conditions where such detonations are indeed possible. That shows that is conceivably possible even at the present time using current rockets and nuclear bombs--and only more so as the centuries pass. Let us take heed, and know the risks we face--or disprove them.
The first information about this work was published in [15]. This work produced the active Internet discussion in [19]. Among the raised questions were the following:
   1) It is very difficult to deliver a warhead to the Sun. The Earth moves relative to the Sun with a orbital velocity of 30 km/s, and this speed should be cancelled to fall to the Sun. Current rockets do not suffice, and it is necessary to use gravitational maneuvers around planets. For this reason (high delta-V (velocity changes required) for close solar encounters, the planet Mercury is so badly investigated (probes there are expensive to send).
   Answer: The Earth has a speed of 29 km/s around the Sun and an escape velocity of only 11 km/s. But Jupiter has an orbital velocity of only 13 km/sec and an escape velocity of 59.2 km/s. Thus, the gravity assist Jupiter can provide is more than the Earth can provide, and the required delta-v at that distance from the Sun far less--enough to entirely cancel the sun-orbiting velocity around the Sun, and let it begin the long plunge to the Solar orb at terminal velocity achieving Sun escape speed 617.6 km/s. Notice that for many space exploration maneuvers, we require a flyby of Jupiter, exactly to achieve such a gravity assist, so simply guarding against direct launches to the Sun from Earth would be futile!
  
   2) Solar radiation will destroy any a probe on approach to the Sun or in the upper layers of its photosphere.
   Answer: It is easily shown, the high efficiency AB-reflector can full protection the apparatus. See [7] Chapters 12, 3A, [8] Ch.5, [9]-[12].
   3) The hydrogen density in the upper layers of the photosphere of the Sun is insignificant, and it would be much easier to ignite hydrogen at Earth oceans if it in general is possible.
   Answer: The hydrogen density is enough known. The Sun has gigantic advantage - that is PLASMA. Plasma of sufficient density reflects or blocks radiation--it has opacity. That means: no radiation losses in detonation. It is very important for heating. The AB Criterion in this paper is received for PLASMA. Other planets of Solar system have MOLECULAR atmospheres which passes radiation. No sufficient heating - no detonation! The water has higher density, but water passes the high radiation (for example ?-radiation) and contains a lot of oxygen (89%), which may be bad for the thermonuclear reaction. This problem needs more research.
  
12. Summary
  
   This is only an initial investigation. Detailed supercomputer modeling which allows more accuracy would greatly aid prediction of the end results of a thermonuclear explosion on the solar photosphere.
   Author invites the attention of scientific society to detailed research of this problem and devising of protection systems if it proves a feasible danger that must be taken seriously. The other related ideas author Bolonkin offers in [5]-[15].
   References

(The reader find some author's works in http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com search "Bolonkin; http://Arxiv.org Search: "Bolonkin", in http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin" and books: Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and flight", Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.; Bolonkin A.A., "New Concepts, ideas, and Innovations in Technology and Human life", NOVA, 2008, 502 pg.; Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2009, 536 pgs).

      -- AIP Physics desk reference, 3rd Ed., Spring, 888 pgs.
      -- Handbook of Physical Quantities, Ed. Igor Grigoriev, CRC Press, 1997, USA.
      -- I.K. Kikoin (Ed.), Tables of physical values, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1975, 1006 pgs, (in Russian).
      -- Nishikawa K., Wakatani M., Plasma Physics, Spring, 2000.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., New AB-Thermonuclear Reactor for Aerospace, Presented as AIAA-2006-7225 to Space-2006 Conference, 19-21 September, 2006, San Jose, CA, USA (see also http://arxiv.org search "Bolonkin"). http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0706/0706.2182.pdf ,
   http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0803/0803.3776.pdf .
      -- Bolonkin A.A., Simplest AB-Thermonuclear Space Propulsion and Electric Generator,
   http://arxiv.org search "Bolonkin". http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701226.pdf .
      -- Bolonkin A.A., "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm , or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 . The book contains theories of the more then 20 new revolutionary author ideas in space and technology.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., New concepts, ideas and innovations in aerospace and technology, Nova, 2007.
    The book contains theories of the more then 20 new revolutionary author ideas in space and technology. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm , or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 .
      -- Bolonkin A.A., Cathcart R.B., "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2009, 536 pgs. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm . http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 . Book contains many new revolutionary ideas and projects.
      -- Bolonkin A.A., High Speed AB Solar Sail. This work is presented as paper AIAA-2006-4806 for 42 Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, USA, 9-12 July, 2006, USA (see also http://arxiv.org search "Bolonkin").http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701073.pdf .
      -- Bolonkin A.A., Light Multi-reflex Engine, Journal of British Interplanetary Society, Vol 57, No.9/10, 2004, pp. 353-359.
   12. Bolonkin, A.A., Light Pressure Engine, Patent (Author Certificate) # 1183421, 1985, USSR
   (priority on 5 January 1983).
   13. Bolonkin A.A., Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator. American Journal of Enginering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.683-693. [on line] http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas24683-693.pdf or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24048466/
   14. Bolonkin A.A., Femtotechnology. Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties, American Journal of Enginering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. [On line]: http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas22501-514.pdf or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24046679/
   15. Bolonkin A.A., Artificial Explosion of Sun. Interview for newspaper www.PravdaRu.ru of 5
   January 2007. http://www.pravda.ru/science/planet/space/05-01-2007/208894-sun_detonation-0
(in Russian).
      -- Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
      -- Solar Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center website for solar facts http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/
      -- Wdowczyk J and Wolfendale A W, Cosmic rays and ancient catastrophes, Nature, 268 (1977) 510. Abstract available at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v268/n5620/abs/268510a0.html
   19. Turchin A.V., The possibility of artificial fusion explosion of giant planets and other objects
   of Solar system, 2009. http://www.scribd.com/doc/8299748/Giant-planets-ignition
  

Possible form of the sun explosion apparatus (credit NASA)

0x01 graphic

  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

Chapter 13

Review of New Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in
Space Towers*

  
   Abstract
   Under Space Tower the author understands structures having height from 100 km to the geosynchronous orbit and supported by Earth's surface. The classical Space Elevator is not included in space towers. That has three main identifiers which distingue from Space Tower: Space Elevator has part over Geosynchronous Orbit (GSO) and all installation supported only the Earth's centrifugal force, immobile cable connected to Earth's surface, no pressure on Earth's surface.
A lot of new concepts, ideas and innovation in space towers were offered, developed and researched in last years especially after 2000. For example: optimal solid space towers, inflatable space towers (include optimal space tower), circle and centrifugal space towers, kinetic space towers, electrostatic space towers, electromagnetic space towers, and so on.
Given review shortly summarizes there researches and gives a brief description them, note some their main advantages, shortcomings, defects and limitations.
   ---------------
Key words: Space tower, optimal space mast, inflatable space tower, kinetic space tower, electrostatic space tower,
magnetic space tower.
   * This Chapter are written together with Mark Krinker.
   Introduction
   Brief History [6]. The idea of building a tower high above the Earth into the heavens is very old [1],[6]. The Greed Pyramid of Gaza in Egypt constructed c.2570 BCE has a height 146 m. The writings of Moses, about 1450 BC, in Genesis, Chapter 11, refer to an early civilization that in about 2100 BC tried to build a tower to heaven out of brick and tar. This construction was called the Tower of Babel, and was reported to be located in Babylon in ancient Mesopotamia. Later in chapter 28, about 1900 BC, Jacob had a dream about a staircase or ladder built to heaven. This construction was called Jacob's Ladder. More contemporary writings on the subject date back to K.E. Tsiolkovski in his manuscript "Speculation about Earth and Sky and on Vesta," published in 1895 [2-3]. Idea of Space Elevator was suggested and developed Russian scientist Yuri Artsutanov and was published in the Sunday supplement of newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" in 1960 [4]. This idea inspired Sir Arthur Clarke to write his novel, The Fountains of Paradise, about a Space Elevator located on a fictionalized Sri Lanka, which brought the concept to the attention of the entire world [5].
   Tallest structures. This category does not require the structure be "officially" opened. The tallest man-made structure is Burj Khalifa, a skyscraper in Dubai that reached 828 m (2,717 ft) in height on 17 January 2009. By 7 April 2008 it had been built higher than the KVLY-TV mast in North Dakota, USA. That September it officially surpassed Poland's 646.38 m (2,120.7 ft) Warsaw radio mast, which stood from 1974 to 1991, to become the tallest structure ever built. Guyed lattice towers such as these masts had held the world height record since 1954.
The CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, standing at 553.3 m (1,815 ft), was formerly the world's tallest completed freestanding structure on land. Opened in 1976, it was surpassed in height by the rising Burj Khalifa on 12 September 2007. It has the world's second highest public observation deck at 446.5 m (1,465 ft).
   Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, was the world's tallest inhabited building in only one of the four main categories that are commonly measured: at 509.2 m (1,671 ft) as measured to its architectural height (spire). The height of its roof, 449.2 m (1,474 ft), and highest occupied floor, 439.2 m (1,441 ft), had been overtaken by the Shanghai World Financial Center with corresponding heights of 487 m (1,598 ft) and 474 m (1,555 ft) respectively. Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) was highest in the final category: the greatest height to top of antenna of any building in the world at 527.3 m (1,730 ft).
Burj Khalifa broke the height record in all four categories for completed buildings by a wide margin. The Shanghai World Financial Center had the world's highest roof, highest occupied floor, and the world's highest public observation deck at 474.2 m (1,556 ft). It retains the latter record, as Burj Khalifa's official observation deck will be at 442 m (1,450 ft).
Current materials make it possible even today to construct towers many kilometers in height. However, conventional towers are very expensive, costing tens of billions of dollars. When considering how high a tower can be built, it is important to remember that it can be built to many kilometers of height if the base is large enough.
   The tower applications. The high towers (3-100 km) have numerous applications for government and commercial purposes:
   • Entertainment and observation desk for tourists. Tourists could see over a huge area, including the darkness of space and the curvature of the Earth's horizon.
   • Communication boost: A tower tens of kilometers in height near metropolitan areas could provide much higher signal strength than orbital satellites.
• Low Earth orbit (LEO) communication satellite replacement: Approximately six to ten 100-km-tall towers could provide the coverage of a LEO satellite constellation with higher power, permanence, and easy upgrade capabilities.
   • Drop tower: tourists could experience several minutes of free-fall time. The drop tower could provide a facility for experiments.
   • A permanent observatory on a tall tower would be competitive with airborne and orbital platforms for Earth and space observations.
   • Solar power receivers: Receivers located on tall towers for future space solar power systems would permit use of higher frequency, wireless, power transmission systems (e.g. lasers).
  
   Main types of space towers
   1. Solid towers [6]-[8].
   The review of conventional solid high altitude and space towers is in [1]. The first solid space tower was offered in [2-3].The optimal solid towers are detail researched in series works presented in [6-8]. Works contain computation the optimal (minimum weight) sold space towers up 40,000 km. Particularly, authors considered solid space tower having the rods filled by light gas as hydrogen or helium. It is shown the solid space tower from conventional material (steel, plastic) can be built up 100-200 km. The GEO tower requests the diamond.
The computation of the optimal solid space towers presented in [6-8] give the following results:
Project 1. Steel tower 100 km height. The optimal steel tower (mast) having the height 100 km, safety pressure stress K = 0.02 (158 kg/mm2)(K is ratio pressure stress to density of material divided by 107) must have the bottom cross-section area approximately in 100 times more then top cross-section area and weight is 135 times more then top load. For example, if full top load equals 100 tons (30 tons support extension cable + 70 tons useful load), the total weight of main columns 100 km tower-mast (without extension cable) will be 13,500 tons. It is less that a weight of current sky-scrapers (compare with 3,000,000 tons of Toronto tower having the 553 m height). In reality if the safety stress coefficient K = 0.015, the relative cross-section area and weight will sometimes be more but it is a possibility of current building technology.
   Project 2. GEO 37,000 km Space Tower (Mast). The research shows the building of the geosynchronous tower-mast (include the optimal tower-mast) is very difficult. For K = 0.3 (it is over the top limit margin of safety for quartz, corundum) the tower mass is ten millions of times more than load, the extensions must be made from nanotubes and they weakly help. The problems of stability and flexibility then appear. The situation is strongly improved if tower-mast built from diamonds (relative tower mass decreases up 100). But it is not known when we will receive the cheap artificial diamond in unlimited amount and can create from it building units.
   Note: Using the compressive rods [8]. The rod compressed by gas can keep more compressive force because internal gas makes a tensile stress in a rod material. That longitudinal stress cannot be more then a half safety tensile stress of road material because the compressed gas creates also a tensile radial rod force (stress) which is two times more than longitudinal tensile stress. As the result the rod material has a complex stress (compression in a longitudinal direction and a tensile in the radial direction). Assume these stress is independent. The gas has a weight which must be added to total steel weight. Safety pressure for steel and duralumin from the internal gas increases K in 35 - 45%.
   Unfortunately, the gas support depends on temperature. That means the mast can loss this support at night. Moreover, the construction will contain the thousands of rods and some of them may be not enough leakproof or lose the gas during of a design lifetime. I think it is a danger to use the gas pressure rods in space tower.
  
   2. Inflatable tower [9]-[12].
   The optimal (minimum weight of cover) inflatable towers were researched and computed in [9-12].
   The proposed inflatable towers are cheaper by factors of hundreds. They can be built on the Earth's surface and their height can be increased as necessary. Their base is not large. The main innovations in this project are the application of helium, hydrogen, or warm air for filling inflatable structures at high altitude and the solution of a safety and stability problem for tall (thin) inflatable columns, and utilization of new artificial materials, as artificial fiber, whisker and nanotubes.
   The results of computation for optimal inflatable space towers taken from [11] are below.
   Project 1. Inflatable 3 km tower-mast. (Base radius 5 m, 15 ft, K = 0.1). This inexpensive project provides experience in design and construction of a tall inflatable tower, and of its stability. The project also provides funds from tourism, radio and television. The inflatable tower has a height of 3 km (10,000 ft). Tourists will not need a special suit or breathing device at this altitude. They can enjoy an Earth panorama of a radius of up 200 km. The bravest of them could experience 20 seconds of free-fall time followed by 2g overload.
   Results of computations. Assume the additional air pressure is 0.1 atm, air temperature is 288 oK (15 oC, 60 oF), base radius of tower is 5 m, K = 0.1. If the tower cone is optimal, the tower top radius must be 4.55 m. The maximum useful tower top lift is 46 tons. The cover thickness is 0.087 mm at the base and 0.057 mm at the top. The outer cover mass is only 11.5 tons.
If we add light internal partitions, the total cover weight will be about 16 - 18 tons (compared to 3 million tons for the 553 m tower in Toronto). Maximum safe bending moment versus altitude ranges from 390 tonmeter (at the base) to 210 tonmeter at the tower top.
0x01 graphic

Fig. 1. Inflatable tower.

Notations: 1 - Inflatable column, 2 - observation desk, 3 - load cable elevator, 4 - passenger cabin, 5 - expansion, 6 - engine, 7 - radio and TV antenna, 8 - rollers of cable transport system, 9 - control.

   0x01 graphic

Fig.2. Section of inflatable tower. Notations: 10 - horizontal film partitions; 11 - light second film (internal cover); 12 - air balls-- special devices like floating balloons to track leaks (will migrate to leak site and will temporarily seal a hole); 13 - entrance line of compression air and pressure control; 14 - exit line of air and control; 15 - control laser beam; 16 - sensors of laser beam location; 17 - control cables and devices; 18 - section volume.

  
   Project 2. Helium tower 30 km (Base radius is 5 m, 15 ft, K = 0.1)
   Results of computation. Let us take the additional pressure over atmospheric pressure as 0.1 atm. For K = 0.1 the radius is 2 m at an altitude of 30 km. For K = 0.1 useful lift force is about 75 tons at an altitude of 30 km, thus it is a factor of two times greater than the 3 km air tower. It is not surprising, because the helium is lighter than air and it provides a lift force. The cover thickness changes from 0.08 mm (at the base) to 0.42 mm at an altitude of 9 km and decreases to 0.2 mm at 30 km. The outer cover mass is about 370 tons. Required helium mass is 190 tons.
   Project 3. Air-hydrogen tower 100 km. (Base radius of air part is 25 m, the hydrogen part has base radius 5 m). This tower is in two parts. The lower part (0-15 km) is filled with air. The top part (15-100 km) is filled with hydrogen. It makes this tower safer, because the low atmospheric pressure at high altitude decreases the probability of fire. Both parts may be used for tourists.
   Air part, 0-15 km. The base radius is 25 m, the additional pressure is 0.1 atm, average temperature is 240 oK, and the stress coefficient K = 0.1. Change of radius is 25 16 m, the useful tower lift force is 90 tons, and the tower outer tower cover thickness is 0.43 0.03 mm; maximum safe bending moment is (0.5 0.03)104 tonmeter; the cover mass is 570 tons. This tower can be used for tourism and as an astronomy observatory. For K = 0.1, the lower (015 km) part of the project requires 570 tons of outer cover and provides 90 tons of useful top lift force.
   Hydrogen part, 15-100 km. This part has base radius 5 m, additional gas pressure 0.1 atm, and requires a stronger cover, with K = 0.2.
   The results of computation are presented in the following figures: the tower radius versus altitude is 5 1.4 m; the tower thickness is 0.06 0.013 mm; the cover mass is 112 tons; the lift force is 5 ton; hydrogen mass is 40 tons.
   The useful top tower load can be about 5 tons, maximum, for K = 0.2. The cover mass is 112 tons, the hydrogen lift force is 37 tons. The top tower will press on the lower part with a force of only 112 - 37 + 5 = 80 tons. The lower part can support 90 tons.
   The proposed projects use the optimal change of radius, but designers must find the optimal combination of the air and gas parts and gas pressure.
  
   3. Circle (centrifugal) Space Towers [16 - 17]
  
   Description of Circle (centrifugal) Tower (Space Keeper).
   The installation includes (Fig.3): a closed-loop cable made from light, strong material (such as artificial fibers, whiskers, filaments, nanotubes, composite material) and a main engine, which rotates the cable at a fast speed in a vertical plane. The centrifugal force makes the closed-loop cable a circle. The cable circle is supported by two pairs (or more) of guide cables, which connect at one end to the cable circle by a sliding connection and at the other end to the planet's surface. The installation has a transport (delivery) system comprising the closed-loop load cables (chains), two end rollers at the top and bottom that can have medium rollers, a load engine and a load. The top end of the transport system is connected to the cable circle by a sliding connection; the lower end is connected to a load motor. The load is connected to the load cable by a sliding control connection.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.3. Circle launcher (space station keeper) and space transport system. Notations: 1 - cable circle, 2 - main engine, 3 - transport system, 4 - top roller, 5 - additional cable, 6 - the load (space station), 7 - mobile cabin, 8 - lower roller, 9 - engine of the transport system.
  
   The installation can have the additional cables to increase the stability of the main circle, and the transport system can have an additional cable in case the load cable is damaged.
   The installation works in the following way. The main engine rotates the cable circle in the vertical plane at a sufficiently high speed so the centrifugal force becomes large enough to it lifts the cable and transport system. After this, the transport system lifts the space station into space.
   The first modification of the installation is shown in Fig. 4. There are two main rollers 20, 21. These rollers change the direction of the cable by 90 degrees so that the cable travels along the diameter of the circle, thus creating the form of a semi-circle. It can also have two engines. The other parts are same.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 4. Semi-circle launcher (space station keeper) and transport system. Notation is the same with Fig. 3.1 with the additional 20 and 21 - rollers. The semi-circles are same.


Project 1.
Space Station for Tourists or a Scientific Laboratory at an Altitude of 140 km (Figs.4).The closed-loop cable is a semi-circle. The radius of the circle is 150 km. The space station is a cabin with a weight of 4 tons (9000 lb) at an altitude of 150 km (94 miles). This altitude is 140 km under load.

   The results of computations for three versions (different cable strengths) of this project are in Table 1.
   Table 1. Results of computation of Project 1.
   Variant s, kg/mm2 g, kg/m3 K = sg /107 Vmax , km/s Hmax , km S, mm2
   1 2 3 4 5 6 7
   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   1 8300 1800 4.6 6.8 2945 1
   2 7000 3500 2.0 4.47 1300 1
   3 500 1800 0.28 1.67 180 100
  
   Pmax[tons] G, kg Lift force, kg/m Loc. Load, kg L, km a0 DH, km
   8 9 10 11 12 13 14
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   30 1696 0.0634 4000 63 13.9 5.0
   12.5 3282 0.0265 4000 151 16.6 7.2
   30.4 170x103 0.0645 4000 62 4.6 0.83
  
   Cable Thrust Cable drag Cable drag Power MW PowerMW Max.Tourists
   Tmax, kg, H = 0 km, kg H = 4 km, kg H = 0 km H = 4 km men/day
   15 16 17 18 19 20
   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   8300 2150 1500 146 102 800
   7000 1700 1100 76 49 400
   50000 7000 5000 117 83.5 800
  
   The column numbers are: 1) the number of the variant; 2) the permitted maximum tensile strength [kg/mm2]; 3) the cable density [kg/m3]; 4) the ratio K = s/g 10-7; 5) the maximum cable speed [km/s] for a given tensile strength; 6) the maximum altitude [km] for a given tensile strength; 7) the cross-sectional area of the cable [mm2]; 8) the maximum lift force of one semi-circle [ton]; 9) the weight of the two semi-circle cable [kg]; 10) the lift force of one meter of cable [kg/m]; 11) the local load (4 tons or 8889 lb); 12) the length of the cable required to support the given (4 tons) load [km]; 13) the cable angle to the horizon near the local load [degrees]; 14) the change of altitude near the local load; 15) the maximum cable thrust [kg]; 16) the air drag on one semi-circle cable if the driving (motor) station is located on the ground (at altitude H = 0) for a half turbulent boundary layer; 17) the air drag of the cable if the drive station is located on a mountain at H = 4 km; 18) the power of the drive stations [MW] (two semi-circles) if located at H = 0; 19) the power of the drive stations [MW] if located at H = 4 km; 20) the number of tourists (tourist capacity) per day (0.35 hour in station) for double semi-circles.
   Discussion of Project 1.
      -- The first variant has a cable diameter of 1.13 mm (0.045 inches) and a general cable weight of 1696 kg (3658 lb). It needs a power (engine) station to provide from 102 to a maximum of 146 MW (the maximum amount is needed for additional research).
      -- The second variant needs the engine power from 49 to 76 MW.
      -- The third variant uses a cable with tensile strength near that of current fibers. The cable has a diameter of 11.3 mm (0.45 inches) and a weight of 170 tons. It needs an engine to provide from 83.5 to 117 MW.
   The systems may be used for launching (up to 1 ton daily) satellites and interplanetary probes. The installation may be used as a relay station for TV, radio, and telephones.
  
   4. Kinetic and Cable Space Tower [13-15].
  
The installation includes (see notations in Fig.5): a strong closed-loop cable, rollers, any conventional engine, a space station (top platform), a load elevator, and support stabilization cables (expansions).
   The installation works in the following way. The engine rotates the bottom roller and permanently moves the closed-loop cable at high speed. The cable reaches a top roller at high altitude, turns back and moves to the bottom roller. When the cable turns back it creates a reflected (centrifugal) force. This force can easily be calculated using centrifugal theory, or as reflected mass using a reflection (momentum) theory. The force keeps the space station suspended at the top roller; and the cable (or special cabin) allows the delivery of a load to the space station. The station has a parachute that saves people if the cable or engine fails.
   0x08 graphic
0x01 graphic

Fig.5. a. Offered kinetic tower: 1 - mobile closed loop cable, 2 - top roller of the tower, 3 - bottom roller of the tower, 4 - engine, 5 - space station, 6 - elevator, 7 - load cabin, 8 - tensile element (stabilizing rope).
b. Design of top roller.

   The theory shows, that current widely produced artificial fibers allow the cable to reach altitudes up to 100 km (see Projects 1 and 2 in [14]). If more altitude is required a multi-stage tower must be used (see Project 3 in [14]). If a very high altitude is needed (geosynchronous orbit or more), a very strong cable made from nanotubes must be used (see Project 4 in [14]).
   The tower may be used for a horizon launch of the space apparatus. The vertical kinetic towers support horizontal closed-loop cables rotated by the vertical cables. The space apparatus is lifted by the vertical cable, connected to horizontal cable and accelerated to the required velocity.
   The closed-loop cable can have variable length. This allows the system to start from zero altitude, and gives its workers/users the ability to increase the station altitude to a required value, and to spool the cable for repair. The innovation device for this action is shown in Fig. 8-6 [14]. The spool can reel up and unreel in the left and right branches of the cable at different speeds and can alter the length of the cable.
The safety speed of the cable spool is same with the safety speed of cable because the spool operates as a free roller. The conventional rollers made from the composite cable material have same safety speed with cable. The suggested spool is an innovation because it is made only from cable (no core) and it allows reeling up and unreeling simultaneously with different speed. That is necessary for change the tower altitude.
   The small drive rollers press the cable to main (large) drive roller, provide a high friction force between the cable and the drive rollers and pull (rotate) the cable loop.
  
   Project 1. Kinetic Tower of Height 4 km. For this project is taken a conventional artificial fiber widely produced by industry with the following cable performances: safety stress is ? = 180 kg/mm2 (maximum ? = 600 kg/mm2, safety coefficient n = 600/180 = 3.33), density is ? = 1800 kg/m3, cable diameter d = 10 mm.
The special stress is k = ??? = 106 m2/s2 (K = k/107 = 0.1), safe cable speed is V = k0.5 = 1000 m/s, the cable cross-section area is S = ?d2/4 = 78.5 mm2, useful lift force is F = 2S?(k-gH) = 27.13 tons. Requested engine power is P = 16 MW (Eq. (10), [15]), cable mass is M = 2S?H = 2.78.5.10-6 .1800.4000 = 1130 kg.
  
   5. Electrostatic Space Tower [18]-[19].
   1. Description of Electrostatic Tower. The offered electrostatic space tower (or mast, or space elevator) is shown in fig.6. That is inflatable cylinder (tube) from strong thin dielectric film having variable radius. The film has inside the sectional thin conductive layer 9. Each section is connected with issue of control electric voltage. In inside the tube there is the electron gas from free electrons. The electron gas is separated by in sections by a thin partition 11. The layer 9 has a positive charge equals a summary negative charge of the inside electrons. The tube (mast) can have the length (height) up Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO, about 36,000 km) or up 120,000 km (and more) as in project (see below). The very high tower allows to launch free (without spend energy in launch stage) the interplanetary space ships. The offered optimal tower is design so that the electron gas in any cross-section area compensates the tube weight and tube does not have compressing longitudinal force from weight. More over the tower has tensile longitudinal (lift) force which allows the tower has a vertical position. When the tower has height more GEO the additional centrifugal force of the rotate Earth provided the vertical position and natural stability of tower.
   The bottom part of tower located in troposphere has the bracing wires 4 which help the tower to resist the troposphere wind.
   The control sectional conductivity layer allows to create the high voltage running wave which accelerates (and brakes) the cabins (as rotor of linear electrostatic engine) to any high speed. Electrostatic forces also do not allow the cabin to leave the tube.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig.6. Electrostatic AB tower (mast, Space Elevator). (a) Side view, (b) Cross-section along axis, (c) Cross-section wall perpendicular axis. Notations: 1 - electrostatic AB tower (mast, Space Elevator); 2 - Top space station; 3 - passenger, load cabin with electrostatic linear engine; 4 - bracing (in troposphere); 5 - geosynchronous orbit; 6 - tensile force from electron gas; 7 - Earth; 8 - external layer of isolator; 9 - conducting control layer having sections; 10 - internal layer of isolator; 11 - internal dielectric partition; 12 - electron gas, 13 - laser control beam.
  
   2. Electron gas and AB tube. The electron gas consists of conventional electrons. In contract to molecular gas the electron gas has many surprising properties. For example, electron gas (having same mass density) can have the different pressure in the given volume. Its pressure depends from electric intensity, but electric intensity is different in different part of given volume. For example, in our tube the electron intensity is zero in center of cylindrical tube and maximum at near tube surface.
   The offered AB-tube is main innovation in the suggested tower. One has a positive control charges isolated thin film cover and electron gas inside. The positive cylinder create the zero electric field inside the tube and electron conduct oneself as conventional molecules that is equal mass density in any points. When kinetic energy of electron is less then energy of negative ionization of the dielectric cover or the material of the electric cover does not accept the negative ionization, the electrons are reflected from cover. In other case the internal cover layer is saturated by negative ions and begin also to reflect electrons. Impotent also that the offered AB electrostatic tube has neutral summary charge in outer space.
   Advantages of electrostatic tower. The offered electrostatic tower has very important advantages in comparison with space elevator:
      -- Electrostatic AB tower (mast) may be built from Earth's surface without rockets. That decreases the cost of electrostatic mast in thousands times.
      -- One can have any height and has a big control load capacity.
      -- In particle, electrostatic tower can have the height of a geosynchronous orbit (37,000 km) WITHOUT the additional continue the space elevator (up 120,000 ? 160,000 km) and counterweight (equalizer) of hundreds tons.
      -- The offered mast has less the total mass in tens of times then conventional space elevator.
      -- The offered mast can be built from lesser strong material then space elevator cable (comprise the computation here and in [13] Ch.1).
      -- The offered tower can have the high speed electrostatic climbers moved by high voltage electricity from Earth's surface.
      -- The offered tower is more safety against meteorite then cable space elevator, because the small meteorite damaged the cable is crash for space elevator, but it is only create small hole in electrostatic tower. The electron escape may be compensated by electron injection.
      -- The electrostatic mast can bend in need direction when we give the electric voltage in need parts of the mast.
   The electrostatic tower of height 100 ? 500 km may be built from current artificial fiber material in present time. The geosynchronous electrostatic tower needs in more strong material having a strong coefficient K 2 (whiskers or nanotubes, see below).
   3. Other applications of offered AB tube idea.
   The offered AB-tube with the positive charged cover and the electron gas inside may find the many applications in other technical fields. For example:
      -- Air dirigible. (1) The airship from the thin film filled by an electron gas has 30% more lift force then conventional dirigible filled by helium. (2) Electron dirigible is significantly cheaper then same helium dirigible because the helium is very expensive gas. (3) One does not have problem with changing the lift force because no problem to add or to delete the electrons.
      -- Long arm. The offered electron control tube can be used as long control work arm for taking the model of planet ground, rescue operation, repairing of other space ships and so on [13] Ch.9.
      -- Superconductive or closed to superconductive tubes. The offered AB-tube must have a very low electric resistance for any temperature because the electrons into tube to not have ions and do not loss energy for impacts with ions. The impact the electron to electron does not change the total impulse (momentum) of couple electrons and electron flow. If this idea is proved in experiment, that will be big breakthrough in many fields of technology.
      -- Superreflectivity. If free electrons located between two thin transparency plates, that may be superreflectivity mirror for widely specter of radiation. That is necessary in many important technical field as light engine, multy-reflect propulsion [13] Ch.12 and thermonuclear power [21] Ch.11.
   The other application of electrostatic ideas is Electrostatic solar wind propulsion [13] Ch.13, Electrostatic utilization of asteroids for space flight [13] Ch.14, Electrostatic levitation on the Earth and artificial gravity for space ships and asteroids [13, Ch.15], Electrostatic solar sail [13] Ch.18, Electrostatic space radiator [13] Ch.19, Electrostatic AB ramjet space propulsion [20], etc.[21].
   Project. As the example (not optimal design!) author of [19] takes three electrostatic towers having: the base (top) radius r0 = 10 m; K = 2; heights H = 100 km, 36,000 km (GEO); and H = 120,000 km (that may be one tower having named values at given altitudes); electric intensity E = 100 MV/m and 150 MV/m. The results of estimation are presented in Table 2.
  

Table 2. The results of estimation main parameters of three AB towers (masts)

having the base (top) radius r0 = 10 m and strength coefficient K = 2 for two E =100, 150 MV/m.

   Value
   E MV/m
   H=100 km
   H=36,000km
   H=120,000km
   Lower Radius , m
   -
   10
   100
   25
   Useful lift force, ton
   100
   700
   5
   100
   Useful lift force, ton
   150
   1560
   11
   180
   Cover thickness, mm
   100
   1?10 -2
   1?10 -3
   0.7?10 -2
   Cover thickness, mm
   150
   1.1?10 -2
   1.2?10 -3
   1?10 -2
   Mass of cover, ton
   100
   140
   3?103
   1?104
   Mass of cover, ton
   150
   315
   1?104
   2?104
   Electric charge, C
   100
   1.1?104
   3?105
   12?105
   Electric charge, C
   150
   1.65?104
   4.5?105
   1.7?106
  
   Conclusion. The offered inflatable electrostatic AB mast has gigantic advantages in comparison with conventional space elevator. Main of them is follows: electrostatic mast can be built any height without rockets, one needs material in tens times less them space elevator. That means the electrostatic mast will be in hundreds times cheaper then conventional space elevator. One can be built on the Earth's surface and their height can be increased as necessary. Their base is very small.
   The main innovations in this project are the application of electron gas for filling tube at high altitude and a solution of a stability problem for tall (thin) inflatable mast by control structure.
  
   6. Electromagnetic Space Towers (AB-Levitron) [20].
  
   The AB-Levitron uses two large conductive rings with very high electric current (fig.7). They create intense magnetic fields. Directions of the electric currents are opposed one to the other and the rings are repelling, one from another. For obtaining enough force over a long distance, the electric current must be very strong. The current superconductive technology allows us to get very high-density electric current and enough artificial magnetic field at a great distance in space.
   The superconductive ring does not spend net electric energy and can work for a long time period, but it requires an integral cooling system because current superconducting materials have a critical temperature of about 150-180 K. This is a cryogenic temperature.
   However, the present computations of methods of heat defense (for example, by liquid nitrogen) are well developed and the induced expenses for such cooling are small.
   The ring located in space does not need any conventional cooling--there, defense from Sun and Earth radiations is provided by high-reflectivity screens. However, a ring in space must have parts open to outer space for radiating of its heat and support the maintaining of low ambient temperature. For variable direction of radiation, the mechanical screen defense system may be complex. However, there are thin layers of liquid crystals that permit the automatic control of their energy reflectivity and transparency and the useful application of such liquid crystals making it easier for appropriate space cooling system. This effect is used by new man-made glasses that can grow dark in bright solar light.
   0x01 graphic
   Figure 7. Explanation of AB-Levitron Tower. (a) Artificial magnetic field; (b) AB-Levitron from two same closed superconductivity rings; (c) AB-Levitron - motionless satellite, space station or communication mast. Notation: 1- ground superconductivity ring; 2 - levitating ring; 3 - suspended stationary satellite (space station, communication equipment, etc.); 4 - suspension cable; 5 - elevator (climber) and electric cable; 6 - elevator cabin; 7 - magnetic lines of ground ring; R - radius of lover (ground) superconductivity ring; r - radius of top ring; h - altitude of top ring; H - magnetic intensity; S - ring area.
  
   The most important problem of the AB-Levitron is the stability of the top ring. The top ring is in equilibrium, but it is out of balance when it is not parallel to the ground ring. Author offers to suspend a load (satellite, space station, equipment, etc) lower than this ring plate. In this case, a center of gravity is lower a net lift force and the system then become stable.
   For mobile vehicles the AB-Levitron can have a running-wave of magnetic intensity which can move the vehicle (produce electric current), making it significantly mobile in the traveling medium.
  
   Project #1. Stationary space station at altitude 100 km. The author of [20] estimates the stationary space station located at altitude h = 100 km. He takes the initial data: Electric current in the top superconductivity ring is i = 106 A; radius of the top ring is r = 10 km; electric current in the superconductivity ground ring is J = 108 A; density of electric current is j = 106 A/mm2; specific mass of wire is ? = 7000 kg/m3; specific mass of suspending cable and lift (elevator) cable is ? = 1800 kg/m3; safety tensile stress suspending and lift cable is ? = 1.5?109 N/m2 = 150 kg /mm2; ? = 45o , safety superconductivity magnetic intensity is B = 100 T. Mass of lift (elevator) cabin is 1000 kg.
   Then the optimal radius of the ground ring is R = 81.6 km (Eq, (3)[20], we can take R = 65 km); the mass of space station is MS = F = 40 tons (Eq.(2)). The top ring wire mass is 440 kg or together with control screen film is Mr = 600 kg. Mass of two-cable elevator is 3600 kg; mass of suspending cable is less 9600 kg, mass of parachute is 2200 kg. As the result the useful mass of space station is Mu = 40 - (0.6+1+3.6+9.6+2.2) = 23 tons.
   Minimal wire radius of top ring is RT = 2 mm (Eq. (10)[20]). If we take it RT = 4 mm the magnetic pressure will be PT =100 kg/mm2. Minimal wire radius of the ground ring is RT = 0.2 m. If we take it RT = 0.4 m the magnetic pressure will me PT =100 kg/mm2. Minimal rotation speed (take into consideration the suspending cable) is V = 645 m/s, time of one revolution is t = 50 sec. Electric energy in the top ring is small, but in the ground ring is very high E = 1014 J. That is energy of 2500 tons of liquid fuel (such as natural gas, methane).
   The requisite power of the cooling system for ground ring is about P = 30 kW.
  
   0x01 graphic

Fig.8. Suspended Magnetic AB-Structure

   2. Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures [22]. These structures use the special magnetic AB-columns [Fig. 8]. Author of [22] computed two projects: suspended moveless space station at altitude 100 km and the geosynchronous space station at altitude 37,000 km. He shows that space stations may be cheap launched by current technology (magnetic force without rockets) and climber can have a high speed.
   As the reader observes, all parameters are accessible using existing and available technology. They are not optimal.
   General conclusion
Current technology can build the high height and space towers (mast). We can start an inflatable or steel tower having the height 3 km. This tower is very useful (profitable) for communication, tourism and military. The inflatable tower is significantly cheaper (in ten tines) then a steel tower, but it is having a lower life times (up 30-50 years) in comparison the steel tower having the life times 100 - 200 years. The new advance materials can change this ratio and will make very profitable the high height towers. The circle, kinetic, electrostatic and magnetic space towers promise a jump in building of space towers but they are needed in R&D. The information about the current tallest structures the reader find in [23].

References
Many works noted below the reader can find on site Cornel University <http://arxiv.org/> and <http://www.scribd.com> search "Bolonkin", site <http://bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm> and in Conferences 2002-2006 (see, for example, Conferences AIAA, http://aiaa.org <http://aiaa.org/> , search "Bolonkin")

   1. D.V. Smitherman, Jr., "Space Elevators", NASA/CP-2000-210429.
   2. K.E. Tsiolkovski:"Speculations Abot Earth and Sky on Vesta", Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1959;
Grezi o zemle i nebe (in Russian), Academy of Sciences, USSR., Moscow, p. 35, 1999.
   3. Geoffrey A. Landis, Craig Cafarelli, The Tsiolkovski Tower Re-Examined, JBIS, Vol. 32, p. 176-180, 1999.
   4. Y. Artsutanov. Space Elevator, http://www.liftport.com/files/Artsutanov_Pravda_SE.pdf.
   5. A.C. Clarke: Fountains of Paradise, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1978.
   6. Bolonkin A.A., (2006). Optimal Solid Space Tower, Paper AIAA-2006-7717, ATIO Conference, 25-
27 Sept.,2006, Wichita, Kansas, USA, http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701093.pdf .
See also paper AIAA-2006-4235 by A. Bolonkin.
   7. Bolonkin A.A. (2007), Optimal Rigid Space Tower, Paper AIAA-2007-367, 45th Aerospace Science Meeting, Reno, Nevada, 8-11 Jan.,2007, USA. http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
   8. Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch.9, "Optimal Solid
   Space Tower", pp.161-172. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 .
   9. Bolonkin A.A.,(2002), "Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height", COSPAR-02 C1.
10035-02, 34th Scientific Assembly of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). The Wold Space Congress - 2002, 10 -19 Oct. 2002, Houston, Texas, USA.
   10. Bolonkin A.A. (2003),Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 -100 km Height", JBIS, Vol.56,No.3/4, pp.87-97, 2003. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
   11. Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", by A.Bolonkin, Elsevier. 2006, Ch.4 "Optimal Inflatable Space Towers", pp.83-106; http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 , http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
   12. Book "Macro-Engineering: Environment and Technology", Ch.1E "Artificial Mountains",
pp. 299-334, NOVA, 2008. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm,
http://www.scribd.org , search term "Bolonkkin".
   13. Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch. 9 "Kinetic Anti-Gravotator",
pp. 165-186; http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 ; Main idea of this Chapter was presented as papers COSPAR-02, C1.1-0035-02 and IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03, 53rd International Astronautical Congress. The World Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October 2002, Houston, TX, USA, and the full manuscript was accepted as AIAA-2005-4504, 41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, AZ, USA.http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
   14. Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch.5 "Kinetic Space Towers", pp. 107-124, Springer, 2006. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 .
   15. "Transport System for Delivery Tourists at Altitude 140 km", manuscript was presented as Bolonkin's paper IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03 at the World Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October, Houston, TX, USA. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm ,
   16. Bolonkin A.A. (2003), "Centrifugal Keeper for Space Station and Satellites", JBIS, Vol.56, No. 9/10, 2003, pp. 314-327. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
   17. Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", by A.Bolonkin, Elsevier. 2006, Ch.3 "Circle Launcher and Space Keeper", pp.59-82. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 ,
   18. Bolonkin A.A. (2007), "Optimal Electrostatic Space Tower", Presented as Paper AIAA-2007-6201 to 43rd AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, 8-11 July 2007, Cincinnati, OH, USA. http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin". See also "Optimal Electrostatic Space Tower" in: http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0704/0704.3466.pdf ,
   19. Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch. 11 "Optimal
   Electrostatic Space Tower (Mast, New Space Elevator)", pp.189-204.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071.
   20. Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch.12, pp.205-220
   "AB Levitrons and Their Applications to Earth's Motionless Satellites". (About Electromagnetic Tower). http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 .
   21. Book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008, Ch.12, pp.251-270,
   "Electronic Tubes and Quasi-Superconductivity at Room Temperature", (about Electronic Towers).
http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 , http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
22. Bolonkin A.A., Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures and Moveless Space Satellites.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/25883886
   23. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative
Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
  
   0x01 graphic
   Solid high altitude tower and project
  
   0x01 graphic
   Tower fantasy
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Review Part 1d of non-Rocket PS for 3 23 11
  
   Chapter 14
   Review of new ideas, innovation of non-rocket
propulsion systems for Space Launch and Flight
(Part 1)
   Abstract
   In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the cable propulsion system, circle propulsion system and space keeper, kinetic propulsion system, gas-tube propulsion system, sliding rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, Sun and magnetic sail, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam propulsion system, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsator), Earth-Moon non-rocket and Earth-Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, etc.
   Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel.
   The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Key words: Review, Non-rocket propulsion, non-rocket space launching, non-rocket space flight, cable launch system, circle launch system, space keeper, kinetic propulsion system, gas-tube launch system, sliding rotary method, asteroid employment, electromagnetic accelerator, Sun and magnetic sail, solar wind sail, radioisotope sail, electrostatic space sail, laser beam propulsion system, kinetic anti-gravitator (repulsator), Earth-Moon non-rocket and Earth-Mars non-rocket transport system, multi-reflective beam propulsion system, electrostatic levitation, recombination engine, electronic sail, solar sail.

Introduction

  
   Brief History. People have long dreamed to reach the sky. The idea of building a tower high above the Earth into the heavens is very old [1],[6]. The Greed Pyramid of Gaza in Egypt constructed c.2570 BCE has a height 146 m. The writings of Moses, about 1450 BC, in Genesis, Chapter 11, refer to an early civilization that in about 2100 BC tried to build a tower to heaven out of brick and tar. This construction was called the Tower of Babel, and was reported to be located in Babylon in ancient Mesopotamia. Later in chapter 28, about 1900 BC, Jacob had a dream about a staircase or ladder built to heaven. This construction was called Jacob's Ladder. More contemporary writings on the subject date back to K.E. Tsiolkovski in his manuscript "Speculation about Earth and Sky and on Vesta," published in 1895 [2-3]. Idea of Space Elevator was suggested and developed Russian scientist Yuri Artsutanov and was published in the Sunday supplement of newspaper "Komsomolskaya Pravda" in 1960 [4]. This idea inspired Sir Arthur Clarke to write his novel, The Fountains of Paradise, about a Space Elevator located on a fictionalized Sri Lanka, which brought the concept to the attention of the entire world [5].
   Rockets for military and recreational uses date back to at least 13th century China.
Wernher von Braun, at the time a young aspiring rocket scientist, joined the military (followed by two former VfR members) and developed long-range weapons for use in World War II by Nazi Germany. In 1943, production of the V-2 rocket began in Germany. It had an operational range of 300 km (190 mi) and carried a 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) warhead, with an amatol explosive charge. It normally achieved an operational maximum altitude of around 90 km (56 mi), but could achieve 206 km (128 mi) if launched vertically.
After World War 2 the missile systems have received the great progress and achieved a great success. But rocket system is very expensive. In end of 1990 the researchers begin to study the non-rocket systems which promise to decrease the space launch and flight cost in hundreds times. The pioneer of these researches professor Alexander Bolonkin published the first serious book [1] in this field.
Current status of non-rocket space launch and flight systems. Over recent years interference-fit joining technology including the application of space methods has become important in the achievement of space propulsion system. Part results in the area of non-rocket space launch and flight methods have been patented recently or are patenting now.
Professor Bolonkin made ??a significant contribution to the study of the different types of non-rocket space launch and flight in recent years [1],[6]-[22] (1982-2011). Some of them are presented in given review.
Cable Space Launcher is researched in [1, pp.39-58]; Circle Launcher and Space Keeper were developed in [1, pp.59-82]; Kinetic Launcher and Kinetic Keeper were researched in [1, Ch.5, 9], [9], [10]; Gas tube hypersonic launcher presented in [1, pp.125-146]; Earth-Moon cable transport system was offered in [1, pp.147-156]; Earth-Mars cable transport system [1, pp.157-164]; Centrifugal space launchers were suggested in [1, pp.187-208, pp.223-244]; Asteroids as propulsion system of space ships were published in [1, pp.209-222]; Multi-reflex propulsion systems were researched in [1, pp.223-244]; Electrostatic Solar wind propulsion was developed in [1, pp.245-270]; Electrostatic utilization of asteroids as space propulsion in [1, pp.271-280]; Electrostatic levitation is presented in [1. pp.281-302]; Guided solar sail and energy generator is described in [1, pp.303-308]; Radioisotope space sail and electro-generator is presented in [1, pp.309-316]; Electrostatic solar sail is researched in [1, pp. 317-326]; Recombination space jet propulsion engine is described in [1, pp.327-340]; and Electronic sail is described in [1, pp.327-340]. Some of these systems were developed in [2]-[23].
Significant scientific, interplanetary and industrial use did not occur until the 20th century, when rocketry was the enabling technology of the Space Age, including setting foot on the moon.
But rockets are very expensive and have limited possibilities. In the beginning 21th century the researches of non-rocket launch and flight started [1], [5]-[8].Some of them are described in this review.
   Main types of Non-Rocket Space Propulsion System

Contents:
1. Cable Space Launcher
2. Circle Launcher and Space Keeper
3. Kinetic Launcher and Kinetic keeper
4. Gas tube hypersonic launcher
5. Earth-Moon cable transport system
6. Earth-Mars cable transport system
7. Centrifugal space launchers
8. Asteroids as propulsion system of space ships
   9. Multi-reflex propulsion systems
   10. Electrostatic Solar wind propulsion
   11. Electrostatic utilization of asteroids as space propulsion
   12. Electrostatic levitation
   13. Guided solar sail and energy generator
   14. Radioisotope space sail and electro-generator
   15. Electrostatic solar sail
   16. Recombination space jet propulsion engine
   17. Electronic sail

1. Cable Space Launcher*
   A method and facilities for delivering payload and people into outer space are presented. This method uses, in general, engines and a cable located on a planetary surface. The installation consists of a space apparatus, power drive stations located along the trajectory of the apparatus, the cable connected to the apparatus and to the power stations, and a system for suspending the cable. The drive stations accelerate the apparatus up to hypersonic speed.
   The estimations and computations show the possibility of making these projects a reality in a short period of time (two project examples are given: a launcher for tourists and a launcher for payloads). The launch will be very cheap at a projected cost of $1-$5 per pound. The cable is made from cheap artificial fiber widely produced by modern industry.
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   *This chapter was presented as Bolonkin's papers IAC-02-V.P.06, IAC-02-S.P.14 at World Space Congress-2002, Oct. 10-19, Houston, TX, USA, and as variant No. 8057 at symposium "The Next 100 years", 14-17 July 2003, Dayton, Ohio, USA; or see [1, pp.39-58].
  
Brief Description. The installation includes (see notations in Fig. 1.1): a cable; power drive stations; winged space apparatus (space ship, missile, probe, projectile and so on); conventional engines and flywheels; and a launching area (airdrome). Between drive stations the cable is supported by columns. The columns can also hold additional cables for future launches and a delivery system for used cable.
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   Fig. 1.1. a. Launcher for a crewed space ship with single cable. Notations: 1 - cable contains 3 parts: main part, outlet part, and directive part; 2 - power drive station; 3 - cable support columns; 4 - winged space apparatus (space ship, missile, probe, projectile and so on); 5 - trajectory of space apparatus; 6 - engine. b. A fixed slope small launcher for projectiles.
  
   The installation works in the following way. All drive station start to run. The first power station pulls the cable, 1, connected to the winged space apparatus. The apparatus takes off from the start area and flies with acceleration along trajectory 5. When the apparatus reaches the first drive station, this drive station disconnects from the cable and the next drive station continues the apparatus acceleration, and so on. At the end of the distance, the winged apparatus has reached hypersonic speed, disconnects from the cable, changes the horizontal acceleration into vertical acceleration (while it is flying in the atmosphere) and leaves the Earth's atmosphere.
   . The power stations contain the engines. The engine can be any type, for example, gas turbines, or electrical or mechanical motors. The power drive station has also an energy storage system (flywheel accumulator of energy), a type transmission and a clutch. The installation can also have a slope and launch a projectile at an angle to horizon (Fig. 1.1b).

2. Circle Launcher and Space Keeper*
   The author proposes a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means to launch a load into outer space and to keep the stations fixed in space at altitudes at up to 200 km. The proposed installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body for acceleration and changes to the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may also be used as a high capacity energy accumulator.
   The article contains the theory of estimation and computation of suggested installations and four projects. Calculations include: a maximum speed given the tensile strength and specific density of a material, the maximum lift force of an installation, the specific lift force in planet's gravitation field, the admissible (safe) local load, the angle and local deformation of material in different cases, the accessible maximum altitudes of space cabins, the speed than a space ship can obtain from the installation, power of the installation, passenger elevator, etc. The projects utilize fibers, whiskers, and nanotubes produced by industry or in scientific laboratories.
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   * Detail manuscript was presented as Bolonkin's paper IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03 at the Would Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October, Houston, TX, USA. The material is published in JBIS, vol. 56, No 9/10, 2003, pp. 314-327. See in [1, pp.59-82].
   Short description of Circle Launcher.
The installation includes (Fig. 2.1): a closed-loop cable made from light, strong material (such as artificial fibers, whiskers, filaments, nanotubes, composite material) and a main engine, which rotates the cable at a fast speed in a vertical plane. The centrifugal force makes the closed-loop cable a circle. The cable circle is supported by two pairs (or more) of guide cables, which connect at one end to the cable circle by a sliding connection and at the other end to the planet's surface. The installation has a transport (delivery) system comprising the closed-loop load cables (chains), two end rollers at the top and bottom that can have medium rollers, a load engine and a load. The top end of the transport system is connected to the cable circle by a sliding connection; the lower end is connected to a load motor. The load is connected to the load cable by a sliding control connection.
   The installation can have the additional cables to increase the stability of the main circle, and the transport system can have an additional cable in case the load cable is damaged.
   The installation works in the following way. The main engine rotates the cable circle in the vertical plane at a sufficiently high speed so the centrifugal force becomes large enough to it lifts the cable and transport system. After this, the transport system lifts the space station into space.
   The first modification of the installation is shown in Fig. 2.2. There are two main rollers 20, 21. These rollers change the direction of the cable by 90 degrees so that the cable travels along the diameter of the circle, thus creating the form of a semi-circle. It can also have two engines. The other parts are same.
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   Fig. 2.1. Circle launcher (space station keeper) and space transport system. Notations are: 1 - cable circle, 2 - main engine, 3 - transport system, 4 - top roller, 5 - additional cable, 6 - the load (space station), 7 - mobile cabin, 8 - lower roller, 9 - engine of the transport system.
  
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   Fig. 2.2. Semi-circle launcher (space station keeper) and transport system. Notation is the same with Fig. 3.1 with the additional 20 and 21 - rollers. The semi-circle is the same (see right side of Fig. 3.4).
  
   The installation can be used for the launch of a payload to outer space (Fig. 2.3). The load is connected to the cable circle by a sliding bearing through a brake. The load is accelerated by the cable circle, lifted to a high altitude, and disconnected at the top of the circle (semi-circle).
   The installation may also be used as transport system for delivery of people and payloads from one place to another through space (Fig. 3.4 in [1]).
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   Fig. 2.3. Launching the space ship (probe) into space using cable semi-circle. 27 - load, 28 - vacuum tube (option).
  
   This system works in the following way. The installation has two cable circles, which move in the opposite directions at the same speed. The space stations are connected to the cable circle through the sliding connection. They can move along the circle in any direction when they are connected to one of the cable circles through a friction clutch, transmission, gearbox, brake, and engine, and can use the transport system in Figs. 2.1 and 2.2 for climbing to or descending from the station. Because energy can be lost through friction in the connections, the energy transport system and drive rollers transfer energy to the cable circle from the planet surface. The cable circles are supported at a given position by the guide cables (see Project 2 in [1, Ch.3)]. No towers for supporting the circle cable are needed.
   The system can have only one cable (Figs. 2.1, 2.3).
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   Fig. 2.4. Cable circle around the Earth for 8-10 space objects. Notations are: 50 - double circle, 51 - drive stations, 52 - guide cable, 53 - energy transport system, 54 - space station.
   The installation can have a system for changing the radius of the cable circle ([1], Fig. 3.9). When an operator moves the tackle block, the length of the cable circle is changed and the radius of the circle is also changed.

3. Kinetic launcher on kinetic towers*
   The author discusses a revolutionary new method to access outer space. A cable stands up vertically and pulls up its payload into space with a maximum force determined by its strength. From the ground the cable is allowed to rise up to the required altitude. After this, one can climb to an altitude using this cable or deliver a payload at altitude. The author shows how this is possible without infringing the law of gravity.
   The original article contains the theory of the method and the computations for four projects for towers that are 4, 75, 225 and 160,000 km in height. The first three projects use the conventional artificial fiber widely produced by current industry, while the fourth project use nanotubes made in scientific laboratories. The chapter also shows in a fifth project how this idea can be used to launch a load at high altitude.
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   *Presented as paper IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03 at Would Space Congress 2002, 10-19 October, Houston, TX, USA. Detail manuscript was published as Bolonkin, A.A. "Kinetic Space Towers and Launchers", JBIS, Vol. 57, No.1/2, 2004, pp.33-39. Or see in [1, Ch.5, pp.107-124].
  
Brief description of innovation.
The installation (kinetic tower) includes (see notations in Fig. 3-1a,b and others): a strong closed-loop cable, two rollers, any conventional engine, a space station, a load elevator, and support stabilization ropes.
   The installation works in the following way. The engine rotates the bottom roller and permanently sends up the closed-loop cable at high speed. The cable reaches a top roller at high altitude, turns back and moves to the bottom roller. When cable turns back it creates a reflected (centrifugal) force. This force can easily be calculated using centrifugal theory, or as reflected mass using a reflection theory. The force keeps the space station suspended at the top roller; and the cable (or special elevator) allows the delivery of a load to the space station. The station has a parachute that saves people if the cable or engine fails.
The theory shows, that current widely produced artificial fibers (see References1 for cable properties) allow the cable to reach altitudes up to 100 km (see Projects 1 and 2 in [1] Ch.5). If more altitude is required a multi-stage tower must be used ([1], Fig. 5.2, see also Project 3 in [1] Ch.5). If a very high altitude is needed (geosynchronous orbit or more), a very strong cable made from nanotubes must be used (see Project 4).
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   Fig. 3.1. a. Offered kinetic tower: 1 - mobile closed loop cable, 2 - top roller of the tower, 3 - bottom roller of the tower, 4 - engine, 5 - space station, 6 - elevator, 7 - load cabin, 8 - tensile element (stabilizing rope). b. Design of top roller.
   The offered tower may be used for a horizon launch of the space apparatus (Fig. 3.2). The vertical kinetic towers support horizontal closed-loop cables rotated by the vertical cables. The space apparatus is lifted by the vertical cable, connected to horizontal cable and accelerated to the required velocity.
   The closed-loop cable can have variable length. This allows the system to start from zero altitude, and gives the ability to increase the station altitude to a required value, and to spool the cable for repair. The device for this action is shown in [1], p.110, Fig. 5.4. The offered spool can reel in the left and right branches of the cable at different speeds and can change the length of the cable.
  
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   Fig. 3.2. a. Kinetic space installation with horizontally accelerated parts. b. 10 - accelerated missile.

4. Gas Tube Hypersonic Launcher*

   The present review describes a hypersonic gas rocket, which uses tube walls as a moving compressed air container. Suggested burn programs (fuel injection) enable use of the internal tube components as a rocket. A long tube (up to 0.4-0.8 km) provides mobility and can be aimed in water. Relatively inexpensive oxidizer and fuel are used (compressed air or gaseous oxygen and kerosene). When a projectile crosses the Earth's atmosphere at an angle more than 15o, loss of speed and the weight of the required thermal protection system are small. The research shows that the launcher can give a projectile a speed of up to 5-8 km/s. The proposed launcher can deliver up to 85,000 tons of payloads to space annually at a cost of one to two dollars per pound of payload. The launcher can also deliver about 500 tons of mail or express parcels per day over continental distances and may be used as an energy station and accumulator. During war, this launch system could deliver military munitions to targets thousands to tens of thousands of kilometers away from the launch site.
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* This review is based on a paper presented at the 38th AIAA Propulsion Conference, 7-10 July 2002, Indianapolis, USA (AIAA-2002-3927) and the World Space Congress, 10-19 Oct. 2002, Houston, USA (IAC-02-S.P.15). Detailed material is published as A.A.Bolonkin, "Hypersonic Gas-Rocket Launcher of High Capacity", JBIS, vol. 57, No. 5/6, 2004, pp. 162-172; Journal Actual Problems of Aviation and Aerospace Systems, Kazan, 1 (15), pp. 45-69, 2003.
See also in [1, Ch.6, pp.125-146].
   Description
  
   Fig. 4.1a shows a design of the tube of the suggested hypersonic gas-rocket system. The system is made up of a tube, a piston with a fuel tank and payload, and nozzle connected to the piston, and valves.
The tube rocket engine can be made without a special nozzle (Fig. 4.1b). In this case, the fuel efficiency of the gas-rocket engine will decrease but its construction becomes simpler.
   The tube may be placed into a frame (Fig. 4.1c). The frame is placed into water and connected to a ship for mobility and aiming.
   The launch sequence is as follows. First the movable piston with the fuel tank (containing liquid fuel), and payload are loaded into the tube. The piston is held in place by the fasteners or closed valve 17 (Fig. 4.1). The direction and angle of the launch tube are set.
  
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   Fig. 4.1. a - Space launcher with the gas rocket and rocket nozzle in the tube. The system comprises the following: 1 - tube, 2 - payload (projectile), 3 - fuel tank, 4 - piston , 5 - fuel pipeline, 6 - nozzle connected to piston, 7 - rocket air column, 8 - combustion chamber, 9 - injectors of the combustion chamber, 12 - tube frame, 14 - additional injectors, 15 - lower tube injectors, 16 - air pipeline, 17 - lower valve, 18 - upper valve, 19 - top valve, 20 - air lock, 21- gas pipe, 22 - electric engines.
   b - Space launcher with the gas rocket and no the rocket nozzle. c - Launcher in frame.
   Valve 19 (Fig. 4.1) is closed and a vacuum (about 0.005 atm) is created in the launch tube space above the payload/piston to reduce the drag imparted to the payload/piston as it moves along the launch tube. The tube, of a length of 630 m and a diameter of 10 m, contains 61 tons of air at atmospheric pressure. If this air is not removed, the payload must be decreased by the same value. If air pressure is decreased down to 0.005 atm, the parasitic air mass is decreased to 300 kg. This is an acceptable parasitic load.
   Valve 17 is closed and an oxidizer (air, oxygen, or a mixture) is pumped into the space below the payload/piston.
Liquid fuel (benzene, kerosene) is injected into the space below nozzle 6 through the launch tube injectors (item 15, Fig. 4-1) and ignited. Valve 17 (Fig. 4-1) is opened. The hot combustion gas expands and pushes the payload/piston system along the launch tube together with the air column (item 7) between the piston and nozzle.
When the piston reaches the maximum gun speed (about 1 km/s), the compressed air column begins to work as a rocket engine using one of the special injection fuel programs (see Reference in [1, Ch.612]).
As the payload/piston approaches the end of the launch tube, valve 19 is opened and the airlock (item 20) begins to operate. After the payload/piston has left the launch tube, valve 18 closes the end of the launch tube and re-directs the hot combustion gases down the bypass tube (item 21) to various turbo-machines preparing compressed air for the next shot and electricity for customers.
   If a high launch frequency is required, then internal tube water injectors are used to quickly cool the launch tube.
After the payload/piston system leaves the launch tube, the payload (projectile) separates from the piston and the empty fuel tank. The payload continues to fly along a ballistic trajectory. At apogee, the payload may use a small rocket engine to reach orbit or to fly to any point on Earth.
   The method by which the fuel is injected and ignited within the launch tube is critical to high-speed (hypersonic) acceleration of the payload. The author has developed the five fuel injection programs for the launch system12.
   In these programs the thrust (force) is constant at all times, which means that pressure and all parameters in the rocket engine are constant. Parts of the programs have two steps. In the first step the fuel is injected into compressed air at the lower part of the tube to support a constant pressure and provide the initial acceleration of the rocket (together with air column Lr) to the velocity Vo. In the second step the rocket engine begins to thrust and support the constant pressure and temperature in the rocket combustion chamber. The result is that the thrust force of the gas-rocket engine remains constant. In the reference article the author considered only a simplified model ([1, Fig. 6.1b]) when a rocket nozzle is absent.

5. Earth-Moon Cable Transport System*

   The author proposes a new transportation system for travel between Earth and the Moon. This transportation system uses mechanical energy transfer and requires only minimal energy, using an engine located on Earth. A cable directly connects a pole of the Earth through a drive station to the lunar surface. The equation for an optimal equal stress cable for the complex gravitational field of the Earth-Moon has been derived that allows significantly lower cable masses. The required strength could be provided by cables constructed of carbon nanotubes or carbon whiskers. Some of the constraints on such a system are discussed.
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   * This review is based on paper B0.3-F3.3-0032-02 that was presented to 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, The World Space Congress 2002, 10-19 Oct 2002, Houston, Texas, USA. This is only part of the original manuscript (one version of the system) presented to the WSC. This part of WSC manuscript was published in as "Non-Rocket Earth-Moon Transport System", in Advanced Space Research, Vol. 31, No. 11, pp. 2485-2490, 2003. See also [1, Ch.7, pp.147-155].

Brief Description.

   The objectives of the proposed system are to provide an inexpensive means of travel between the Earth and the Moon, to simplify space transportation technology, and to eliminate complex hardware. The proposed Earth-Moon cable transport system is shown in Fig. 5.1. The system consists of three cables: a main (central) cable, which supports the weight of the entire system, and two closed-loop transport cables, which include a set (5-10) of cable chain links connected sequentially to one other by rollers [1, Ch.73, 4 (see Fig.7.3a)]. The system is connected at the Earth's pole and to any position on the Moon's surface that continually faces Earth. An engine located on a planet (e.g. the Earth, but it could be the Moon) drives the cable transport system. On the Earth, the cable is supported in the atmosphere by a winged device, which also counteracts the rotation of the Earth. The transfer cable system transfers energy between load cabins moved up and down, which requires the engine moving the cable system to overcome only frictional forces.
An optimal (minimum mass, equal stress) variable diameter cable is defined for the main tether. The main cable has a relatively large but variable cross-section area (diameter) because it has to support the total system weight, which is several hundred times the load weight. In an optimal main cable the cross-section area increases (for
K = 2, about 20 times) in the altitude range 0 - 150,000 km, is approximately constant in the range 150,000-380,000 km, and decreases near the Moon's surface, from 20,000 km to the surface.
   The mass of the main cable is minimized because its diameter is variable along the distance (see the next section for calculation of the main cable cross-section areas and mass). The transport cables pull (move) the load cabins (one up, the other down) along the main cable. As these are moveable parts, they must have constant diameter. If they had to carry a load the full distance to the Moon, their mass would be very large. My concept separates the full distance into sub-distances (5-10), with closed-loop links for every sub-distance connected by rollers. These rollers transfer the transport cable movement from one link to another. In this case, the mass of the transport cables is minimized because at every local length (sub-distance) the cable diameter is determined by the local force. Total mass of the transport cable should be close to double the mass of the main cable.

The load containers are connected to the transport cable. When containers come up to the rollers, they pass the rollers, connect to the next link and continue their motion along the main cable. The load (cabin) has special clamps to allow this transfer between the different diameter cables in each link
1. Most space payloads, like tourists, must be returned to Earth. When one container is moved up, another container is moved down. The work of lifting equals the work of descent, except for a small friction loss in the rollers. The transport system may be driven by a conventional motor located at the Earth drive station, on a space station, or on the Moon. When payloads are not being delivered into space, the system may be used to transfer mechanical energy to the Moon. For example, the Earth drive station can rotate an electric generator on the Moon.
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Fig. 5.1. A conceptual Earth-Moon transportation system. One end is connected to the Earth's pole. the second end is connected to the Moon. Notation: 1 - the Earth; 2 - Earth's atmosphere; 3 - axis of Earth rotation; 4 - Earth Pole; 5 - Earth-Moon cable transport system in right position (one extreme of the Moon's position); 6 - Earth-Moon system in left position; 7 - air balloons; 8 - support wings; 9 - drive station; 10 - Moon.
   The cable is supported in the Earth's atmosphere by air balloons (around the pole) and winged devices (far from the pole). The maximum speed of the system in the atmosphere is about 190 m/sec at the maximum distance of 2700 km in the right-hand position of Fig. 5-1. When the cable is located in the left-hand position, some wings may be out of the atmosphere and not so effective.
   The Moon's orbit has eccentricity. Every 29 days the Moon's distance from Earth changes by about 50,000 km. Devices shown in Fig. 7.4 (in [1, Chapter 7]) must be used to change the length (or link length) of the transport cables as the Earth-Moon distance changes. They may be located at the Earth drive station, on a space station, in space, and/or on the Moon. The average speed of a cable length change is about 40 m/s. As the Moon pulls the transport system, it may be used to produce mechanical energy. If the cables can support 9 tons, the power can reach 1.8 million Watts. The cables rotate the electric generator and negligibly brake the Moon's movement.
      -- Earth-Mars Cable Transport System*
  
The author offers and computes a new permanent cable transport system that links a pole of the Earth with Mars orbit. This system connects Earth and Mars for 1-1.5 months every 1.7-2 years when they are located at the nearest distance and allows the transfer of people and loads to Mars and back. The system has many advantages because it uses a transport engine located on Earth, but it also requires the high strength cable made from nanotubes. This work contains theory of an optimal equal stress cable, that connects the Earth and Mars orbit, as well as computed parameters of the suggested system.
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   *Presented as paper BO.4-C3.4-0036-02 to The World Space Congress-2002 10-19 Oct. 2002, Houston, Texas, USA. Detailed material was published in Actual Problems of Aviation and Aerospace Systems. No. 2 (16), vol. 8, 2003. See also [1, Ch.8, pp.157-164].
   Brief Description

The review contains the theory and results of computation for a special project. This project uses three cables (one main cable and two for driving loads) mass from artificial material: whiskers, nanotubes, with the specific tensile strength (ratio of tensile stress to density) k = ?/? = 20.107 (K = 20) or more. Nanotubes with the same or better parameters are available in scientific laboratories. The theoretical limit of nanotubes of SWNT type is about k = 100.107 (K = 100).
   A proposed centrifugal Mars cable transport system is shown in Figs. 6.1 and 6.2. The system includes the optimal equal stress cable which has a length approximately equal to the minimum distance of the Earth to Mars orbit. The installation has a transport system with chains connected by rollers and two transport cables.
   The upper ends of the cables are located near Mars orbit and the lower ends of the cables are connected to the Earth's pole. They are supported in the Earth's atmosphere by air balloons (near the Pole) and winged devices at a maximum distance of up to 2800 km. The rotary speed of the cables changes from zero (at the pole) to 190 m/s (at the end of the maximum distance in the atmosphere). These winged devices can support cables when they are located within the lower atmosphere.
   The installation would have a device that allows the length of the cables to be changed. The device would consist of a spool, motor, brake, transmission, and controller. The facility could have mechanisms for delivering people and payloads to Mars and back using the suggested transport system.
  
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Fig. 6.1. The offered Earth-Mars orbit Transport System. a. Sun-Earth-Mars; b. Earth-Mars; c. Connection to Earth pole. Notations: 1- Earth, 2 - Mars, 3 - Sun, 4 - Earth pole, 5 - Earth-Mars cable transport system in right position, 6 - Earth-Mars cable transport system in left position, 7 - air balloon, 8 - support wing, 9 - drive station, 10 - Earth orbit, 11 - Mars orbit, 12 - Earth atmosphere, 13 - axis of Earth rotation.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Fig. 6.2. Cables of transport system. Notations: 144 - space ship, 15 - rollers, 17 - transport cable, 18 - main cable.
  
   The delivery devices include: containers (passenger cabins, space ships, etc.), cables, motors, brakes, and controllers.
   The space cabin can temporarily land on the surface of the Mars for loading and performing research. The space cabin has a small rocket engine for maneuvering and landing on the surface of Mars.
   Every two years Mars comes within a minimum distance from Earth. For about 1-1.5 months the cable transport system (CTS) can be used to deliver people and loads to Mars. The space ship moves in advance to the upper end of the CTS, then when Mars arrives, the vehicles land on its surface and the people work on for Mars 1-1.5 months; afterwards the space ships return to Earth. While living on Mars, the people can fly from one place to another with speeds of about 230 m/s (including Mars round trip at low altitude) in their space cabin (ship). Exploring using the CTS would not require rocket fuel.
  

7. Centrifugal Space Launcher*

   This manuscript describes a method and devices that provides a repulsive (repel, push, opposed to gravitation) force between given bodies. The basic concept is that a strong, heavy cable is projected upwards using a motorized wheel on the ground. The upward momentum of the cable is transferred to the apparatus by means of a pulley/roller mechanism, which sends the cable back down to the motor. The momentum transferred from the cable to the apparatus produces a push force which can suspend the apparatus in the air or lift it. There is an equal and opposite force on the motorized wheel on the ground. The push force can be great (up to tens of tons) and operate over long distances (up to hundreds of kilometers). This force produces great accelerations and velocities of given bodies (vehicles).
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   *The main idea of this Chapter was presented as IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03, 53rd International Astronautical Congress. The World Space Congress - 2002, 10-19 Oct. 2002, Houston, Texas, USA, and the full manuscript accepted as AIAA-2005-4504, 41 Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July, 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA. See also [1, Ch.10, pp.187-206].

Description of Innovative Launcher

   Ground sling launcher. The installation includes (see notations in Fig. 7.1): a tower, a lever (or disk), a sling (cable), conventional engines and flywheels (drive station). Optimally, the installation is located on a mountain (high altitude) to reduce air drag on the sling and apparatus and for a lower slope of initial trajectory angle. A winged space apparatus (space ship, missile, probe, projectile, etc.) is connected to the end of the sling.
The installation works in the following way (Fig. 7.1). The engine rotates the flywheels. When the flywheels accumulate sufficient energy, they rotate as a lever. The lever accelerates the space apparatus ("s.a."). The apparatus may be located on the lever and the sling is increased after the start. The apparatus speed increases. It is greater than the lever speed in the ratio R/R0, where R is the radius of the apparatus trajectory circle, R0 is the radius of the lever (or disk). When the apparatus reaches its chosen speed, the winged apparatus is disconnected from the sling at the desired point of the circle. While the winged apparatus is flying in the atmosphere, it can increase its slope and correct its trajectory. If the apparatus has a hypersonic (supersonic) form, the speed loss is small13.
   The offered launcher is different from conventional centrifugal catapults, which have a projectile in a lever. This launcher has a long sling and the projectile is in the sling. The sling increases the lever speed many times and decreases the mass of the lever. Conventional catapults made from nanotubes have a huge mass and requires gigantic energy to work. This sling is also made from nanotubes (for space speed), but its mass is small.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 7.1. Sling rotary launcher. a) launcher located on mountain, b) top view of installation, c) acting forces, d) side view. Notations: 1 - tower, 2 - lever or disk, 3 - engine, 4 - sling, 5 - space apparatus (s.a.), 6 - circular launch trajectory, 7 - point of disconnection, 8 - direction of launch, 11 - centrifugal force of space apparatus, 12 - drag of s.a., 13 - speed of s.a., 14 - centrifugal force of sling, 15 - drag of sling, 16 - lever force.
  
   If the circle is parallel to the Earth's surface, the winged apparatus disconnects from the cable, converts the linear and centrifugal acceleration into vertical acceleration (while it is flying in the atmosphere) and leaves the Earth's atmosphere.
   The power station houses the engine. It can be any engine, for example, a gas turbine, or an electrical or mechanical motor. The power drive station also has an energy storage system (flywheel accumulator of energy), a transmission drive train and a clutch mechanism.
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 7.2. Launching a space ship using aircraft. a) slinging slope start, b) upper start, c) installation forces.
  
   The installation can be set on a slope, and launch a projectile at an angle to the horizon (Fig. 7.1).
   The attained speed may be up to eight or more km/s (see project 2 below). If the planet does not have an atmosphere, a small installation (with a small lever) can give the projectile a very high speed, limited only by the power of the engine and the strength of the sling.
   On the Earth's surface the launcher can be located under a special cover (or in a tube) in a vacuum.
   Aircraft sling launcher. Another design of this sling launcher is presented in Figs. 7.2. A small spacecraft (1 - 2 tons) is connected to a large, high-speed aircraft. The aircraft flies in a circle, increasing the sling length and accelerating the ship to high speed. The attained speed depends largely on the specific strength of the sling, the maximum aircraft speed and the thrust of the aircraft. For large existing aircraft operating in the atmosphere, the launch speed may reach up 2 km/s. This is enough for the X-prize flight, reaching an altitude of up to 100 km and sufficient for a spaceship for tourists (see projects 3-4 below).
   Advantages. The suggested launch cable system has advantages compared to the current rocket systems, as follows:
      -- The sling launcher is many times less expensive than modern rocket launch systems. No expensive rockets are needed. Only motor and cable are required.
      -- The sling launcher reduces the delivery cost by several thousand times (to as low as $5 to $10 per pound). (No rocket, cheaper fuel.)
      -- The sling launcher could be constructed within one to two years. The aircraft sling launcher requires only a cable and a spaceship. Modern rocket launch systems require many years for R&D and construction.
      -- The sling launcher does not require high technology and can be made by any non-industrial country.
      -- Rocket fuel is expensive. The ground sling launcher can use the cheapest sources of energy, such as wind, water, or nuclear power, or the cheapest fuels such as gas, coal, peat, etc., because the engine is located on the Earth's surface. Flywheels may be used as an accumulator of energy.
      -- It is not necessary to have highly qualified personnel, such as rocket specialists with high salaries.
      -- The fare for space tourists would be small.
      -- There is no pollution of the atmosphere from toxic rocket gas.
      -- Thousands of tons of useful payloads can be launched annually.
   Shortcomings of sling space launchers:
   1. The need for a very strong sling (cable), made from carbon whiskers or still-to-be manufactured long nanotubes.
   2. The Earth ground sling launcher may be used only for robust loads because high centrifugal acceleration is imposed on the payload. Such payloads normally account for 70-80% of space payloads.
   Cable (sling) discussion. The experimental and industrial fibers, whiskers, and nanotubes are considered in [1], Chapters 1-2.
   The reader can find a more complete cable discussion of cable and cable characteristics in [1], Ch.10, the References3-13, 17-20.

8. Asteroids as Propulsion System of Space Ships*
   The purpose of this section is to draw attention to the idea of sling rotary launchers. This idea allows the building of inexpensive new space launcher systems, to launch missiles, projectiles, and space apparatus, and to use many types of energy. This chapter describes the possibilities of this method and the conditions which influence its efficiency. Included are four projects: a non-rocket sling projectile launcher, a space sling launcher, a spaceship for launching using conventional supersonic, and a space ship using subsonic aircraft. The last two only require low-cost cable made from artificial fiber, using whiskers that are produced in industry now or increasingly perfected nanotubes that are being created in a scientific laboratories.
   ---------------------
   *The detailed work was presented as AIAA-2005-4035 at the 41 Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July, 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA. See also [1, Ch.11, pp. 209-222].
   Introduction.
   There are many small solid objects in the Solar System called asteroids. The vast majority are found in a swarm called the asteroid belt, located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter at an average distance of 2.1 to 3.3 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun. Scientists know of approximately 6,000 large asteroids of a diameter of 1 kilometer or more, and of millions of small asteroids with a diameter of 3 meters or more. Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta are the three largest asteroids, with diameters of 785, 110 and 450 km (621, 378, and 336 miles), respectively. Others range all the way down to meteorite size. In 1991 the Galileo probe provided the first close-up view of the asteroid Caspra; although the Martian moons (already seen close up) may also be asteroids, captured by Mars. There are many small asteroids, meteorites, and comets outside the asteroid belt. For example, scientists know of 1,000 asteroids of diameter larger than one kilometer located near the Earth. Every day 1 ton meteorites with mass of over 8 kg fall on the Earth. The orbits of big asteroids are well known. The small asteroids (from 1 kg) may be also located and their trajectory can be determined by radio and optical devices at a distance of hundreds of kilometers.
   Radar observations enable to discern of asteroids by measuring the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency. They allow a determination of the asteroid trajectory and spin and the creation of an asteroid image.
   Most planets, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have many small moons that can be used for the proposed space transportation method.
   There are also the asteroids located at the stable Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system. These bodies orbit with the same speed as Jupiter, and might be very useful for propelling spacecraft further out into the solar system. Comets may also be useful for propulsion once a substantial spacecraft speed is obtained. It seems likely that the kinetic and rotational energy of both comets and asteroids will eventually find application in space flight.
   Most asteroids consist of carbon-rich minerals, while most meteorites are composed of stony-iron.
   The present idea [1]6-8 is to utilize the kinetic energy of asteroids, comets, meteorites, and space debris to change the trajectory and speed of space ships (probes). Any space bodies more than 10% of a ship's mass may be used, but here mainly bodies with a diameter of 2 meters (6 feet) or larger are considered. In this case the mass (20-100 tons) of the space body (asteroid) is some 10 times more than the mass of probe (1 ton, 2000 lb) and the probe mass can be disregarded.
  
Connection Method
   The method includes the following main steps:
   (a) Finding an asteroid using a locator or telescope (or looking in catalog) and determining its main parameters (location, mass, speed, direction, rotation); selecting the appropriate asteroid; computing the required position of the ship with respect to the asteroid.
   (b) Correcting the ship's trajectory to obtain the required position; convergence of the ship with the asteroid.
   (c) Connecting the space apparatus (ship, station, and probe) to the space body (planet, asteroid, moon, satellite, meteorite, etc.) by a net, anchor, and a light strong rope (cable), when the ship is at the minimum distance from the asteroid.
   (d) Obtaining the necessary position for the apparatus by moving around the space body and changing the length of the connection rope.
   (e) Disconnecting the space apparatus from the space body; spooling the cable.
   The equipment required to change a probe (spacecraft) trajectory includes:
   (a) A light strong cable (rope).
   (b) A device to measure the trajectory of the spacecraft with relative to the space body.
   (c) A device for spacecraft guidance and control.
   (d) A device for the connection, delivery, control, and disconnection and spooling of the rope.
  

Description of Utilization

   The following describes the general facilities and process for a natural space body (asteroid, comet, meteorite, or small planet) with a small gravitational force to change the trajectory and speed of a space apparatus.
Figs. 8.1a,b,c show the preparations for using a natural body to change the trajectory of the space apparatus; for example, the natural space body 2, which is moving in the same direction as the apparatus (perpendicular to the sketch, Fig. 8.1a). The ship wants to make a maneuver (change direction or speed) in plane 3 (perpendicular to the sketch), and the position of the apparatus is corrected and moved into plane 3. It is assumed that the space body has more mass than the apparatus.
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 8.1. Preparing for employment of the asteroid. Notations: 1 - space ship, 2 - asteroid, 3 - plane of maneuver. 4 - old ship direction, 5 - corrected ship direction. a) Reaching the plane of maneuver; b) Correcting the flight direction and reaching the requested radius; c) Connection to the asteroid.
  
   When the apparatus is at the shortest distance R from the space body, it connects to the space body means of the net (Fig. 8.2a) or by the anchor (Fig. 8.2b) and rope. The apparatus rotates around the common center of gravity at the angle j with angular speed w and linear speed DV . The cardioids of additional speed and direction of the apparatus are shown in [1] Fig. 11.4 (right side). The maximum additional velocity is DV = 2Va, where Va is the relative asteroid velocity when the coordinate center is located in the apparatus.
   Fig. 8.2a shows how a net can be used to catch a small asteroid or meteorite. The net is positioned in the trajectory of the meteorite or small asteroid, supported in an open position by the inflatable ring and connected to the space apparatus by the rope. The net catches the asteroid and transfers its kinetic energy to the space apparatus. The space apparatus changes its trajectory and speed and then disconnects from the asteroid and spools the cable. If the asteroid is large, the astronaut team can use the asteroid anchor (Figs. 8.2b).
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 8.2. a) Catching a small asteroid using net; b) Connection to a big asteroid using an anchor and cable. Notation: 1 - space ship, 2, 8 - asteroid, 3 - net with inflatable ring, 4 - cable (rope), 5 - load cabin, 6 - valve, 9 - anchor.
  
   The astronauts use the launcher (a gun or a rocket engine) to fire the anchor (harpoon fork) into the asteroid. The anchor is connected to the rope and spool. The anchor is implanted into the asteroid and connects the space apparatus to the asteroid. The anchor contains the rope spool and a disconnect mechanism. The space apparatus contains a spool for the rope, motor, gear transmission, brake, and controller. The apparatus may also have a container for delivering a load to the asteroid and back (Fig. 8.2b). One possible design of the space anchor is shown in [1, Fig. 11.3]. The anchor has a body, a rope, a cumulative charge (shared charge), the rocket impulse (explosive) engine, the rope spool and the rope keeper. When the anchor strikes the asteroid surface the cumulative charge burns a deep hole in the asteroid and the rocket-impulse engine hammers the anchor body into the asteroid. The anchor body pegs the catchers into the walls of the hole and the anchor's strength keeps it attached to the asteroid. When the apparatus is to be disconnected from the asteroid, a signal is given to the disconnect mechanism.
   If the asteroid is rotated with angular speed w, its rotational energy can be used for increasing the velocity and changing the trajectory of the space apparatus. The rotary asteroid spools the rope on its body. The length of the rope is decreased, but the apparatus speed is increased (see a momentum theory in physics).
   The ship can change the length of the cable. When the radius decreases, the linear speed of the apparatus increases; conversely, when the radius increases the apparatus speed decreases. The apparatus can obtain energy from the asteroid by increasing the length of the rope.
   The computations and estimations show the possibility of making this method a reality in a short period of time.
   An abandoned space vehicle or large piece of space debris in Earth orbit can also be used to increase the speed of the new vehicle and to remove the abandoned vehicle or debris from orbit.


9. Multi-reflex Propulsion Systems for Space and Air Vehicles and Energy Transfer for Long Distance*

   The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the revolutionary idea of light multi-reflection. This idea allows the design of new engines, space and air propulsion systems, storage systems (for a beam or solar energy), transmission of energy (over millions of kilometers), creation of new weapons, etc. This method and the main innovations were offered by the author in 1983 in the former USSR. Now the author shows the immense possibilities of this idea in many fields of engineering - astronautics, aviation, energy, optics, direct conversion of light (laser beam) energy to mechanical energy (light engine), to name a few. This chapter considers the multi-reflex propulsion systems for space and air vehicles and energy transmission over long distances in space.
   --------------------------
   * A detailed manuscript was published by A.A. Bolonkin, JBIS, Vol. 57, No. 11/12. 2004, pp. 379-390, 2004. See also [1, Ch.12, pp.223-244].
  
   Introduction

The reflection of light is the most efficient method to use for a propulsion system. It gives the maximum possible specific impulse (light speed is 3.108 m/s). The system does not expend mass. However, the light intensity in full reflection is very small, about 0.6?10-6 kg/ kW. In 1983 the author suggested the idea of increasing the light intensity by a multi-reflex method (multiple reflection of the light beam) and he offered some innovations to dramatically decrease the losses in mirror reflection (including a cell mirror and reflection by a super-conducting material). This allows the system to make some millions of reflections and to gain some Newtons of thrust per kW of beam power. This allows for the design of many important devices (in particular, beam engines [1, Ch.127]) which convert light directly into mechanical energy and solve many problems in aviation, space, energy and energy transmission.
  

Description of innovation

  
Multi-reflex launch installation of a space vehicle. In a multiple reflection propulsion system a set of tasks appear: how to increase a mirror's reflectivity, how to decrease the light dispersion (from mirror imperfections and non-parallel surfaces), how to decrease the beam divergence, how to inject the beam between the mirrors (while keeping the light between the mirrors for as long as possible), how to decrease the attenuation (a mirror, prism material, etc), how to increase the beam range, and how much force the system has.
   To solve of these problems, the author proposes [1] Ch.125, a special "cell mirror" which is very reflective and reflects light in the same direction from which it came, a "laser ring" which decreases the beam divergence, "light locks" which allows the light beam to enter but keep it from exiting, a "beam transfer", a "focusing prismatic thin lens", prisms, a set of lenses, mirrors located in space, on asteroids, moons, satellites, and so on.
   Cell mirrors. To achieve the maximum reflectance, reduce light absorption, and preserve beam direction the author uses special cell mirrors which have millions of small 45o degree prisms (1 in Fig. 9.1a,g). Cell mirror are retroreflector cells or cube corner cells. A light ray incident on a cell is returned parallel to itself after three reflections (Fig. 9.1g). In the mirror, provided the refractive index of the prism is greater than 0x01 graphic
(?1.414), the light will be reflected by total internal reflection. The small losses may be only from prism (medium) attenuation, scattering, or due to small surface imperfections and Fresnel reflections at the entrance and exit faces. Fresnel reflections do not result losses when the beam is perpendicular to the entry surface. No entry losses occur where the beam is polarized in parallel of the entry surface or the entry surface has an anti-reflection coating with reflective index0x01 graphic
Here n0, n2 are reflective indexes of the vacuum and prism respectively. These cell mirrors turn a beam (light) exactly back at 180o if the beam deviation is less 5-10o from a perpendicular to the mirror surface. For incident angles greater than sin-1(n1/n2), no light is transmitted, an effect called total internal reflection. Here n is the refractive index of the medium and the lens (n - 1-4). Total internal reflection is used for our reflector, which contains two plates (mirrors) with a set of small corner cube prisms reflecting the beam from one side (mirror) to the other side (mirror) (Fig. 9.1b,c, f). Each plate can contain millions of small (30-100 ?m) prisms from highly efficient optic material used in optical cables [1] Ch.129. For this purpose a superconductivity mirror [1] Ch.125 may also be used,
   Laser ring. The small lasers are located in a round ring (Fig. 9.1c). A round set of lasers allows us to increase the aperture, resulting in a smaller divergence angle ?. The entering round beam (9 in Fig. 9.1a) has slip ? (or ?/2) to the vertical. The beam is reflected millions of times as is shown in Fig. 9.1b,c and creates a repulsive force F. This force may be very high, tens of N/kW (see the computation below) for motionless plates. In a vacuum it is limited only by the absorption (dB) of the prism material (see below) and beam divergence. For the mobile mirror (as for a launch vehicle) the wavelength increases and beam energy decreases as the mirrors move apart.
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 9.1. Space launcher. Notations are: 1 - prism, 2 - mirror base, 3 - laser beam, 4 - mirror after chink (optional), 5 - space vehicle, 6 - lasers (ring set of lasers), 7 - vehicle (ship) mirror, 8 - planet mirror, 9 -laser beam, 10 - multi-layer dielectric mirror, 11 - laser beam after multi-reflection (wavelength ?11 > ?9 ), 12 - additional prism, 13 - entry beam, 14 - return beam, 15 - variable chink between main and additional prisms. (a) Prism (cell, corner cube) reflector. (b) Beam multi-reflection, (c) Launching by multi-reflection, (d) The first design of the light lock, (e) The second design of the light lock, (f) Reflection in the same direction when the beam is not perpendicular to mirror surface, (g) Mirror cell (retroreflector cell or cube corner cell). A light ray incident on it is returned parallel to itself after three reflections.
  
   This system [1] Ch.125 can be applied to a space vehicle launch on a planet that has no atmosphere and small gravity (for example, the Moon; high gravity requires high beam power).
The offered multi-reflex light launcher, space and air focused energy transfer system is very simple (needing only special mirrors, lenses and prisms), and it has a high efficiency. One can directly transfer the light beam into space acceleration and mechanical energy. A distant propulsion system can obtain its energy from the Earth. However, we need very powerful lasers. Sooner or later the industry will create these powerful lasers (and cell mirrors) and the ideas presented here will become possible. The research on these problems should be started now.
   Multi-reflex engines7 may be used in aviation as the energy can be transferred from the power stations on the ground to the aircraft using laser beams. The aircraft would no longer carry fuel and the engine would be lighter in weight so its load capability would double. The industry produces a one Megawatt (1000 kW) laser now. This is the right size for mid-weight aircraft (10-12 tons).
  
   The linear light engine does not have a limit to its speed and may be used to launch space equipment and space ships in non-rockets method described in [1] Ch.1210-29. This method is certain also to have many military applications.
  
  
  
   10. Electrostatic Solar wind propulsion*
   A revolutionary method for space flights in outer space is suggested by the author. Research is present to shows that an open high charged (100 MV/m) ball of small diameter (4-10 m) made from thin film collects solar wind (protons) from a large area (hundreds of square kilometers). The proposed propulsion system creates many Newtons of thrust, and accelerates a 100 kg space probe up to 60-100 km/s for 100-800 days. The 100 kg space apparatus offers flights into Mars orbit of about 70 days, to Jupiter about 150 days, to Saturn about 250 days, to Uranus about 450 days, to Neptune about 650 days, and to Pluto about 850 days.
   The author has computed the amount thrust (drag), to mass of the charged ball, and the energy needed for initial charging of the ball and discusses the ball discharging in the space environment. He also reviews apparent errors found in other articles on these topics. Computations are made for space probes with a useful mass of 100 kg.
   -----------------
   *The work was presented as AIAA-2005-3857 at the 41st Propulsion Conference, 10-13 July 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA. See also [1, Ch.13, pp.245-270].
  
   Introduction.
   Brief information about solar Wind. The Sun emits plasma which is a continuous outward flow (solar Wind) of ionized solar gas throughout our solar system. The solar wind contains about 90% protons and electrons and some quantities of ionized ?-particles and gases. It attains speeds in the range of 300-750 km/s and has a flow density of 5107 - 5108 protons/ electrons/cm2s. The observed speed rises systematically from low values a 300-400 km/s to high values of 650-700 km/s in 1 or 2 days and then returns to low values during the next 3 to 5 days ([1], Fig. 13.1). Each of these high-speed streams tends to appeal at approximately 27-day intervals or to recur with the rotation period of the Sun. On days of high Sun activity the solar wind speed reaches 1000 (and more) km/s and its flow density 109 - 1010 protons/electrons/ cm2s, 8-70 particles in cm3. The Sun has high activity periods some days each year.
   The pressure of the solar wind is very small. For full braking it is in the interval 2.510-10 6.310-9 N/m2. This value is double when the particles have full reflection. The interstellar medium also has high energy particles. Their density is about 1 particle/cm3.
   Brief description of the propulsion system.
   Space propulsion system. The suggested propulsion system is very simple. It includes a hollow ball made up of a thin, strong, film - covered conductive layer or a ball of thin net. The ball is charged by high voltage static electricity which creates a powerful electrostatic field around it. Charged particles of solar wind of like charges repel and particles with the unlike charges attract. A small proportion of them run through the ball, a larger proportion flow round the ball in hyperbolic trajectory into the opposive direction, and another proportion are deviates from their initial direction in hyperbolic curves. As a result the charged ball has drag when the ball speed is different from solar speed (Fig.10.1). The drag also occurs when the particles and the ball have the same electrical charge. In this case the particles are repelled from the charged ball (Fig. 10.1) and brake it. This solar wind drag provides thrust in our proposed propulsion system. The pressure of solar wind is very small, but the offered system (a charged ball of radius 6-10 m) collects particles (protons or electrons) from a large area (an area of tens of kilometers radius for protons and hundreds of kilometers for electrons), creates a thrust of some Newtons and a 100-kg space ship reaches speeds of tens of km/s in 50-300 days (see theory and computation below and References [1] Ch.1329, 42-47).
   0x01 graphic
0x01 graphic
  
Fig. 10.1 (Left) Hyperbolic trajectory of protons around static negative charge (or electrons around positive charge) (unlike charges). Notations are: 1 - solar wind (charged particles); 2 - hollow negatively charged ball of thin film; 3 - hyperbolic trajectory of charged particles; 4 - positively charged particles (protons).
   (Right). Trajectory of particles having the same charge as the ball. Notations are: 5 - negatively charged particles.
  
   The proposed new propulsion mechanism differs from previous concepts in very important respects; including the coupling to the protons of the solar wind using an open single-charge ball. The opposite charge is expelled into infinite space. This innovation increases the area of influence by up to hundreds of kilometers for protons and allows the acquisition of significant vehicle thrust. This thrust is enough to accelerate a heavy space craft to very high speed and permits very short flight times to far planets.
   The offered revolutionary propulsion system has a simple design, which can give useful acceleration to various types of spacecraft. The offered propulsion system creates many Newtons of thrust, and can accelerate a 100 kg space probe up to 60-100 km/sec in 100-800 days.
   In the offered wind propulsion system the particles run away from the ball, brake and return in infinity for initial speed. These premises must be examined using more complex theories to account for the full intersection between the suggested installation and solar wind (including thermonuclear reactions). This would be a revolutionary breakthrough in interplanetary space exploration.
   The author has developed the initial theory and the initial computations to show the possibility of the offered concept. He calls on scientists, engineers, space organizations, and companies to research and develop the offered perspective concepts.

11.
Electrostatic Utilization of Asteroids for Space Flight*
  
The author offers an electrostatic method for changing the trajectory of space probes. The method uses electrostatic force and the kinetic or rotary energy of asteroids, comet nuclei, meteorites or other space bodies (small planets, natural planet satellites such a moons, space debris, etc.) to increase or decrease ship/ probe speed by 1000 m/s or more and to achieve any new direction in outer space. The flight possibilities of spaceships and probes are thereby increased by a factor of millions.
   --------------------
   *The full text was presented by the author as Paper AIAA-2005-4032 at the 41 Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA; or [1, Ch.14, pp.271-280].
  

Description

  
. The method includes the following main steps (Fig. 11.1):
   (a) Finding an asteroids using a locator or telescope (or looking in a catalog) an asteroid and determining its main parameters (location, mass, speed, direction, rotation); selecting the appropriate asteroid; computing the required position of the ship with respect to the asteroid.
   (b) Correcting the ship's trajectory to obtain the required position; convergence of the ship with the asteroid.
   (c) Charging the asteroid and space apparatus ball using a charge gun.
   (d) Obtaining the necessary apparatus position and speed for the apparatus by flying it around the space body and changing the charge of the apparatus and space body (asteroids).
   (e) Discharging the space apparatus and the space body.
   The equipment requires for changing a probe (spacecraft) trajectory includes:
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 11.1. Method of electrostatic maneuvers of the space apparatus. Notations: 1 - space apparatus, 2 - charged ball, 3 - asteroid, 4 - charged gun, 5 - new apparatus trajectory, 6 - discharging the apparatus and asteroid.
  
  
   (a) A charging gun.
   (b) Devices for finding and measuring the asteroids (space bodies), and computing the trajectory of the spacecraft relative of the space body.
   (c) Devices for spacecraft guidance and control.
   (d) A device for discharging of the apparatus and asteroids (space body) (see [1] Fig. 14.1).
  

12. Electrostatic Levitation on the Earth and Artificial Gravity for Space Ships and Asteroids*

  
The author offers and researches the conditions which allow people and vehicles to levitate on the Earth using the electrostatic repulsive force. He shows that by using small electrically charged balls, people and cars can take flight in the atmosphere. Also, a levitated train can attain high speeds. He has computed some projects and discusses the problems which can appear in the practical development of this method. It is also shown how this method may be used for creating artificial gravity (attraction force) into and out of space ships, space hotels, asteroids, and small planets which have little gravity.
   -------------------
   *Presented as paper AIAA-2005-4465 at 41 Propulsion Conference, 10-13 July 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA; or [1, Ch. 15, pp. 281-302].

Brief description of innovation

  
It is known that like electric charges repel, and unlike electric charges attract (Fig. 12.1a,b,c). A large electric charge (for example, positive) located at altitude induces the opposite (negative) electric charge at the Earth's surface (Figs. 12.1d,e,f,g) because the Earth is an electrical conductor. Between the upper and lower charges there is an electric field. If a small negative electric charge is placed in this electric field, this charge will be repelled from the like charges (on the Earth's surface) and attracted to the upper charge (Fig. 12.1d). That is the electrostatic lift force. The majority of the lift force is determined by the Earth's charges because the small charges are conventionally located near the Earth's surface. As shown below, these small charges can be connected to a man or a car and have enough force to lift and supports them in the air.
   The upper charge may be located on a column as shown in Fig. 12.1d,e,f,g or a tethered air balloon (if we want to create levitation in a small town) (Fig. 12.1e), or air tube (if we want to build a big highway), or a tube suspended on columns (Fig. 12.1f,g). In particular, the charges may be at two identically charged plates, used for a non-contact train.
   A lifting charge may use charged balls. If a thin film ball with maximum electrical intensity of below 3106 V/m is used, the ball will have a radius of about 1 m (the man mass is 100 kg). For a 1 ton car, the ball will have a radius of about 3 m (see the computation in [1] and Fig. 15.2g,h,i). If a higher electric intensity is used, the balls can be small and located underneath clothes.
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 12.1. Explanation of electrostatic levitation: a) Attraction of unlike charges; b,c) repulsion of like charges; d) Creation of the homogeneous electric field (highway); e) Electrical field from a large spherical charge ; f,g) Electrical field from a tube (highway) (side and front views). Notations are: 1, 9 - column, 2 - Earth (or other) surface charged by induction, 3 - net, 4 - upper charges, 5 - lower charges, 6 - levitation apparatus, 8 - charged air balloon, 9 - column, 10 - charged tube.
  
13. Guided Solar Sail and Energy Generator*
  
A solar sail is a large thin film mirror that uses solar energy for propulsion. The author proposed innovations and a new design of Solar sail in 1985 [1] Ch.161. This innovation allows (main advantages only):
   1) An easily controlled amount and direction of thrust without turning a gigantic sail;
2) Utilization of the solar sail as a power generator (for example, electricity generator);
3) Use of the solar sail for long-distance communication systems.
   -----------------------------
   * The detail manuscript was presented as AIAA-2005-3857 on the 41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA; or see [1, Ch.16, pp. 303-308].

Description of innovation and their advantages

The proposed innovation of a solar sail1 is presented in Fig. 13.1. Theory developed in author publication [1, Ch.162] may be useful for flight analysis. The solar sail contains: a space ship, 1, a spherical reflector, 2, a mirror, 5, and additional devices to support spherical reflector, control the thrust direction, and convert the light energy into electricity and additional thrust.
   energy in the proposed sail and can increase the thrust over time.
0x01 graphic
   Fig. 13.1. Proposed guided solar sail and electricity generator. Notations are: 1 - space ship; 2 - thin film reflector; 3 - inflatable (or electrically charged) toroid which support the reflector in an open (unfolded) position; 4 - transparent thin film or light charged net which support the spherical form of the reflector; 5 - control mirror, which guides thrust direction; 6 - lens or trap for communication; 7 - reflected beam (located at the center of the ship's mass). 8 - direction of thrust.
   The suggested propulsion system works in the following way. The reflector, 2, focuses the sunlight into the control ship mirror, 5, located at the spaceship's center of mass. We are able to change the position of this mirror, send the focused beam in the right direction and achieve the necessary thrust direction without turning the space sail because the space sail is large, turning it is very complex problem, but this problem is avoided in the suggested design.
If we direct the solar beam into the ship, we can convert the huge solar energy into any other sort of energy, for example, into electricity using a conventional method (solar cell or heat machine). A reflector of 100100 m2 produces 14,000 kW energy at 1 AU. The developed ion thrusters are very efficient and have a high specific impulse, but they need a great amount of energy. We have this
   The offered system can be also used for long distance communication by sending a focused beam is to the Earth and transmitting the necessary information.
The author has also proposed a method using surface tension of a solar sail and a solar mirror [1, Ch.1610].
The suggested revolutionary propulsion system uses current technology and may be produced in the near future but needs detailed research and computation.

14. Radioisotope Space Sail and Electro-Generator*

  
Radioisotope sail is a thin film of an alpha particle emitting radioisotope deposited on the back of a plastic sail that can provide useful quantities of both propulsion and electrical power to a deep space vehicle. The momentum kick of the emitted alpha particles provides radioisotope sail thrust levels per square meter comparable to that of a solar sail at one astronautical unity (1 AU). The electrical power generated per 1 square m is comparable to that obtained from solar cells at 1 AU. Radioisotope sail systems will maintain these propulsion and power levels at distances from the Sun where solar powered systems are ineffective.
   The propulsion and power levels available from this simple and reliable high-energy-density system would be useful for supplying propulsion and electrical power to a robotic deep space mission to the Oort Cloud or beyond, or to a robotic interstellar flyby or rendezvous probe after its arrival at the target star.
   ------------------------
   * Detailed work was presented by the author as AIAA-2005-4225 at the 41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July, 2005, Tucson, Arizona, USA; or see [1, Ch.17, pp.309-316].

Description of method and innovations

Brief history of innovation

  
   The idea of using a radioisotope recoil propulsion as it is shown in Fig.14.1a is very old [1, Ch.1715].
   The author has proposed many innovations in method is using radioisotope space sail and electric generators in patent applications [1, Ch.171-13 ] in 1983 and in paper IAF 92-0573 presented to the World Space Congress in 1992 ]1, Ch.1714]. The work [1, Ch.1716 ] written in 1995 summarized the knowledge for the conventional case in Fig. 14.1a. Bolonkin innovations decrease the weight of traditional radioisotope sail (RadSail, RS, IsoSail) by 2-4 times; increase the thrust by 2-3 times, and the electric power by 2 times and allows control of thrust and thrust direction without needing to turn the large RadSail.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 14.1. a) Conventional radioisotope sail; b) suggested (innovated) radioisotope sail. Notations are: 1 - substrate (base of sail), 2 - isotope layer, 3 - isotope atom, 4 - alpha particles, 5 - direction of 1/6 particle flow, 6 - thrust, 8 - electric loading, 9 - initial charging, 10, 11, 12 - condenser nets, 13 - particle trajectory.
  
   Offered innovation allows us to reach a probe speed of more than 2000 km/s, so the design may be used for interstellar probes.
   This method allows nuclear waste and unnecessary nuclear bombs to be used for producing the radioisotope material.
   The offered method is realistic at the present time, has a high possibility to being successful, and is much cheaper for deep missions than other currently proposed method.


15. Electrostatic Solar Sail*

  
The solar sail has become well-known after much discussion in the scientific literature as a thin continuous plastic film, covered by sunlight-reflecting appliqud aluminum. Earlier, there were attempts to launch and operate solar sails in near-Earth space and there are experimental projects planned for long powered space voyages. However, as currently envisioned, the solar sail has essential disadvantages. Solar light pressure in space is very low and consequently the solar sail has to be very large in area. Also it is difficult to unfold and unfurl the solar sail in space. In addition it is necessary to have a rigid framework to support the thin material. Such frameworks usually have great mass and, therefore, the spacecraft's acceleration is small.
   Here, the author proposes to discard standard solar sail technology (continuous plastic aluminum-coated film) with the intention instead of using millions of small, very thin aluminum charged plates and to release these plates from a spacecraft, instigated by an electrostatic field. Using this new technology, the solar sail composed of millions of plates can be made gigantic area but have very low mass. The acceleration of this new kind of solar sail may be as much as 300 times that achieves by an ordinary solar sail. The electrostatic solar sail can even reach a speed of about 300 km/s (in a special maneuver up to 600-800 km/sec). The electrostatic solar sail may be used to move a large spaceship or to act as an artificial Moon illuminating a huge region of the Earth's surface.
----------------------
*See [1, Ch.18, pp. 317-326].
  
   Brief description of the innovations

A conventional solar sail is a dielectric thin film (thickness 5 mkm = 5000 nm) with an aluminum layer 100 nm thick, and it has 90% reflectivity. The weight of one square meter is 5-7 g/m2. If it accelerates by itself the maximum acceleration is about 1 mm/s2. However, the gigantic thin film needs a rigid structure to support the very thin film in an unfolded position and to unable it to be controlled. This rigid structure has a large weight, so it is very difficult to launch and to unfurl the structure in space. All attempts to do this (for example, to unfurl the inflatable radio-antennas in space) have failed.
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 15.1. The proposed electrostatic solar sail. a. Side view; b. Front view; c. Side and front views of square petal; d. Side and front views of round petal. Notation: 1 - spaceship, 2 - charged ball, 3 - charged plate-petals, 4 - cable connecting the ship and the ball, 5 - solar rays, 6 - reflected rays, 7 - charged petals, 8 - thrust (drag).
   The author proposes to use small thin charged aluminums plates (petals) supported by a central electrostatic ball and rotated around the ball (Fig. 15.1). They rotate also around their own axis and main thin a direction perpendicular to the solar rays. The diameter of the plate-petals is small, about 1 mm or less, and, it is not a necessity to use the dielectric film. The aluminum film may be very thin because the individual petal size is small.

16. Recombination Space Jet Propulsion Engine*

  
There are four known ionized layers in the Earth's atmosphere, located at an altitude of 85-400 km. Here the concentration of ions reaches millions of particles in 1 cubic centimeter. In the inter-planetary medium the concentration of ion reaches 10-103 particles in 1 cm3 and in interstellar space it is about 1-10 in 1 cm3. As a result there is interaction between solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere, solar wind, and galactic radiation.
   About 90% these particles are protons and electrons. The particle density is low and they can exist for a long time before they come into collision with each other. However, if we increase the density of the particles in an engine, they collide with one another, recombine, warm up, leave the propulsion system with high speed, and create thrust.
   The energy of recombination is significantly more than the heat capability of conventional fuel and the specific impulse of the propulsion system is high.
   The author proposes collecting and concentrating charged particles from a large area using a magnetic field. Space ships, space apparatus, and satellites would then not need fuel and could be accelerated or fly to infinity. This may be a revolution in aerospace.
=======
*See [1, Ch. 19, pp. 327-338].
  
Description of innovation
In the recombination propulsion engine contains a tube with an intake and a nozzle, and a solenoid (Fig. 16.1).
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 16.1. Recombination space jet propulsion engine (actuator of magnetic field). Notations are: 1
   engine, 2 - solenoid, 3 - magnetic lines, 4 - charged particles, 5 - recombination zone, 6 - exit.
  
   The solenoid may be conventional or superconductive. It produces a powerful magnetic field, which collects charged particles. If the density of the charged particles is sufficient (the distance the particles travel is less than the tube length) the particles came into contact with each other and recombine.
  
   This minimum energy is more than the energy of the most efficient chemical reaction, H2 + O = H2O, by hundreds of times. This means the specific impulse of the recombination engine will be very high. The heating of engine walls will be small, however, because the density of the particle gas is low. Using this proposed method, we do not need to expend fuel and can achieve a large acceleration of a space vehicle, or support the satellite at altitude for an infinite amount of time.
   Idea's are needed in research and development of this method.
  

17. Electronic Sail*

  
A solar sail reflects solar light and can be a used as propulsion system, as described in [1, Ch. 16]. It needs thin film of a very large area. This manuscript proposes a new way of creating a reflecting surface of large area using an electronic method. This method needs research and development but it may be easier and more efficient than the film method.
-------------
*See [1, Ch.19, pp.334-335].

Brief description of innovation

   The proposed electronic sail has a positive charge, 1 (see Fig. 17.1). The free electrons, 2, are injected into space around the positive charge so they rotate around the center of the charge and form a thin disk in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the Sun light. If the concentration of electrons is sufficient, they will reflect the solar light like a mirror and produce thrust.
  
   0x01 graphic
   Fig. 17.1. Electronic solar sail. a - side view, b - front view. Notations are: 1 - positive charge, 2 - electronic disk, 3 - solar light.
  
   This electronic sail may be an electrostatic solar wind sail, as described in [1] Chapter 13, if the central charge is positive. The solar wind electrons became concentrated around it and the mass of electrons reflects the solar light. Thrust from the solar wind is small because the electron mass is about 2000 times less than the proton mass, but the solar light pressure is thousands of times greater than solar wind (protons) pressure. The offered installation may also be used as a space mirror to illuminate the Earth's surface. This idea needs further research.
  

References
Many works noted below the reader can find on site Cornel University <http://arxiv.org/>, sites <http://www.scribd.com> , http://www.archive.org, <http://bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm> and in Conferences 2002-2006 (see, for example, Conferences AIAA, <http://aiaa.org/> , search "Bolonkin" )

   1. Bolonkin A.A., (2005) "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2005,
http://www.archive.org/details/Non-rocketSpaceLaunchAndFlight, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182
   2. K.E. Tsiolkovski:"Speculations Abot Earth and Sky on Vesta", Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1959;
Grezi o zemle i nebe (in Russian), Academy of Sciences, USSR., Moscow, p. 35, 1999.
   3. Geoffrey A. Landis, Craig Cafarelli, The Tsiolkovski Tower Re-Examined, JBIS, Vol. 32, p. 176-180, 1999.
   4. Y. Artsutanov. Space Elevator, http://www.liftport.com/files/Artsutanov_Pravda_SE.pdf.
   5. A.C. Clarke: Fountains of Paradise, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1978.
   6. Bolonkin A.A. (2006), Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008.
   http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 .
   http://www.archive.org/details/NewConceptsIfeasAndInnovationsInAerospaceTechnologyAndHumanSciences
   7. Bolonkin A.A. (2007), "Macro-Engineering: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 .
http://www.archive.org/details/Macro-projectsEnvironmentsAndTechnologies
   8. Bolonkin A.A. (2008), "New Technologies and Revolutionary Projects", Scribd, 2008, 324 pgs,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/32744477 ,
http://www.archive.org/details/NewTechnologiesAndRevolutionaryProjects
   9. Bolonkin A.A., Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch. 9 "Kinetic Anti-Gravotator", pp. 165-186; http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm, http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 ; Main idea of this Chapter was presented as papers COSPAR-02, C1.1-0035-02 and IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03, 53rd International Astronautical Congress. The World Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October 2002, Houston, TX, USA, and the full manuscript was accepted as AIAA-2005-4504, 41st Propulsion Conference, 10-12 July 2005, Tucson, AZ, USA.http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin".
   10. Bolonkin A.A., Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier. 2006, Ch.5 "Kinetic Space Towers", pp. 107-124, Springer, 2006. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 . http://www.archive.org/details/Non-rocketSpaceLaunchAndFlight
   11. Bolonkin A.A., "Transport System for Delivery Tourists at Altitude 140 km", manuscript was presented as paper IAC-02-IAA.1.3.03 at the World Space Congress-2002, 10-19 October, Houston, TX, USA. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm ,
   12. Bolonkin A.A. (2003), "Centrifugal Keeper for Space Station and Satellites", JBIS, Vol.56, No. 9/10, 2003, pp. 314-327. http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm . See also [11] Ch.3.
   13. Bolonkin A.A., Book "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", by A.Bolonkin, Elsevier. 2006, Ch.3 "Circle Launcher and Space Keeper", pp.59-82. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24056182 , http://www.archive.org/details/Non-rocketSpaceLaunchAndFlight
   14. Bolonkin A.A., Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch. 3 " Electrostatic AB-Ramjet Space Propulsion)", pp.33-66. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071. http://www.archive.org/details/NewConceptsIfeasAndInnovationsInAerospaceTechnologyAndHumanSciences
   15 Bolonkin A.A., Book "New Concepts, Ideas and Innovation in Aerospace", NOVA, 2008, Ch.12, pp.205-220, "AB Levitrons and Their Applications to Earth's Motionless Satellites". http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057071 , http://www.archive.org/details/NewConceptsIfeasAndInnovationsInAerospaceTechnologyAndHumanSciences
   16. Bolonkin A.A., Book "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA, 2008, Ch.10,
pp.199-226, " AB-Space Propulsion", http://www.scribd.com/doc/24057930 ,
http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm .
http://www.archive.org/details/Macro-projectsEnvironmentsAndTechnologies
   17. Bolonkin A.A., Magnetic Suspended AB-Structures and Moveless Space Satellites.
http://www.scribd.com/doc/25883886 .
   18. Bolonkin A.A., Femtotechnology: Design of the Strongest AB-Matter for Aerospace.
http://www.archive.org/details/FemtotechnologyDesignOfTheStrongestAb-matterForAerospace.
   19. Bolonkin A.A., Converting of any Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator and Aerospace .
   http://www.archive.org/details/ConvertingOfAnyMatterToNuclearEnergyByAb-generatorAndAerospace.
   20. Bolonkin A.A., LIFE. SCIENCE. FUTURE (Biography notes, researches and innovations). Scribd, 2010,
208 pgs. 16 Mb. http://www.scribd.com/doc/48229884,
http://www.archive.org/details/Life.Science.Future.biographyNotesResearchesAndInnovations
   21. Krinker M., Magnetic-Space-Launcher. http://www.scribd.com/doc/24051286/
   22. Krinker M., Review of Space Towers. http://www.scribd.com/doc/26270139,
   http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1002/1002.2405.pdf
   23. Pensky O.G., Monograph "Mathematical Models of Emotional Robots", Perm, 2010, 193 ps
   (in English and Russian) (http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1011/1011.1841.pdf ).
   24. Pensky O.G., K. V. Chernikov"Fundamentals of Mathematical Theory of Emotional Robots "
(http://www.scribd.com/doc/40640088/).

25. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under
the Creative Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .

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One design of aircraft Xb-70

  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Review Part 2c non rocket SP 3 23 11
  
   Chapter 15
   Review of new ideas, innovations of non-rocket
propulsion systems for Space Launch and Flight
(Part 2)

Abstract

   In the past years the author and other scientists have published a series of new methods which promise to revolutionize the space propulsion systems, space launching and flight. These include the electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion, beam space propulsion, MagSail, high speed AB-solar sail, transfer electricity in outer space, simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion, electrostatic linear engine and cable space launcher, AB-levitrons, electrostatic climber, AB-space propulsion, convertor any matter in nuclear energy, femtotechnology, wireless transfer of energy, magnetic space launcher, railgun, superconductivity rail gun, etc.
   Some of them have the potential to decrease launch costs thousands of time, other allow to change the speed and direction of space apparatus without the spending of fuel.
   The author reviews and summarizes some revolutionary propulsion systems for scientists, engineers, inventors, students and the public.
Key words: Non-rocket propulsion, non-rocket space launching, non-rocket space flight, electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion, beam space propulsion, MagSail, high speed AB-solar sail, transfer electricity in outer space, simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion, electrostatic linear engine and launcher, AB-levitrons, electrostatic climber, AB-space propulsion, convertor any matter in nuclear energy, femtotechnology, wireless transfer of energy, magnetic space launcher, railgun, superconductivity railgun.
  

Introduction

   Brief history. Rockets for military and recreational uses date back to at least 13th century China. Modern rockets were born when Goddard attached a supersonic (de Laval) nozzle to a liquid-fueled rocket engine's combustion chamber. These nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic, highly directed jet of gas, more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%. In 1926, Robert Goddard launched the world's first liquid-fueled rocket in Auburn, Massachusetts.
After World War 2 the missile systems have received the great progress and achieved a great success. But rockets are very expensive and have limited possibilities. In the beginning 21th century the researches of non-rocket launch and flight started [1],[5]-[22]. The non-rocket systems which promise to decrease the space launch and flight cost in hundreds times. Some of them are described in this review.
   Current status of non-rocket space launch and flight systems. Over recent years interference-fit joining technology including the application of space methods has become important in the achievement of space propulsion system. Part results in the area of non-rocket space launch and flight methods have been patented recently or are patenting now.
Professor Bolonkin made ??a significant contribution to the study of the different types of non-rocket space launch and flight in recent years [1]-[22] (1982-2011). Some of them are presented in given review.
   Electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion is researched in [2, Ch.2]; Beam space propulsion is described in [2, Ch. 3]; Magnetic Space Sail is presented in [2, Ch. 4]; High speed AB-solar sail
is developed in [2, Ch.5]; Transfer electricity in outer space is offered in [2, Ch. 6]; Simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion is suggested in [2] Ch.7; Electrostatic linear engine and cable space launcher is presented in [2, Ch.10]; AB-levitrons are in [2, Ch. 12]; Electrostatic climber is researched in [3, Ch. 4]; AB-space propulsion is presented in [16] and [3, Ch.10]; Wireless transfer of energy is described in [4, Part A, Ch.3]; Magnetic space launcher is offered in [4, Part A, Ch.6]; Railgun Launch System is suggested in [4, Part A, Ch.7]; Superconductivity rail gun is presented in [6] and in [4, Part A, Ch.3]; Convertor any matter in nuclear energy and photon rocket is offered and researched in [4, Part A, Ch.1], [7], [19]; Femtotechnology and its application into aerospace technology is suggested and researched in [4, Part A, Ch.2], [8],[18]. Some of these system were developed in [9]-[23].
   Significant scientific, interplanetary and industrial use did not occur until the 20th century, when rocketry was the enabling technology of the Space Age, including setting foot on the Moon.
But rockets are very expensive and have limited possibilities. In the beginning 21th century the researches of non-rocket launch and flight started [1], [5]-[8].Some of them are described in this review.
   Main types of Non-Rocket Space Propulsion System
Contents:
1. Electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion,
2. Beam space propulsion,
   3. MagSail,
   4. High speed AB-solar sail,
   5. Transfer electricity in outer space,
   6. Simplest AB-thermonuclear space propulsion,
   7. Electrostatic linear engine and cable space launcher,
   8. AB-levitrons,
   9. Electrostatic climber,
   10. AB-space propulsion,
   11. Wireless transfer of energy,
   12. Magnetic space launcher,
   13. Railgun,
   14. Superconductivity rail gun.
   15. Convertor any matter in nuclear energy and photon rocket,
   16. Femtotechnology and its application into aerospace technology.
  
1. Electrostatic AB-ramjet space propulsion*
  
A new electrostatic ramjet space engine is proposed and analyzed. The upper atmosphere (85 -1000 km) is extremely dense in ions (millions per cubic cm). The interplanetary medium contains positive protons from the solar wind. A charged ball collects the ions (protons) from the surrounding area and a special electric engine accelerates the ions to achieve thrust or decelerates the ions to achieve drag. The thrust may have a magnitude of several Newtons. If the ions are decelerated, the engine produces a drag and generates electrical energy. The theory of the new engine is developed. It is shown that the proposed engine driven by a solar battery (or other energy source) can not only support satellites in their orbit for a very long time but can also work as a launcher of space apparatus. The latter capability includes launch to high orbit, to the Moon, to far space, or to the Earth atmosphere (as a return thruster for space apparatus or as a killer of space debris). The proposed ramjet is very useful in interplanetary trips to far planets because it can simultaneously produce thrust or drag and large electric energy using the solar wind. Two scenarios, launch into the upper Earth atmosphere and an interplanetary trip, are simulated and the results illustrate the excellent possibilities of the new concept.
---------------------
   ? Presented as paper AIAA-2006-6173 to AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, 21-24 August 2006, USA. See also http://arxiv.org/ftp/physics/papers/0701/0701073.pdf

Introduction
  
   Brief information about space particles and space environment. In Earth's atmosphere at altitudes between 200 - 400 km, the concentration of ions reaches several million per cubic cm. In the interplanetary medium at Earth orbit, the concentration of protons from the Solar Wind reaches 3 - 70 particles per cubic cm. In an interstellar medium the average concentration of protons is about one particle in 1 cm3, but in the space zones HII (planetary nebulas), which occupy about 5% of interstellar space, the average particle density may be 10-20 g/cm3 (106 particles in 1 3). If we can collect these space particles from a large area, accelerate and brake them, we can get the high speed and braking of space apparatus and to generate energy. The author is suggesting the method of collection and implementations of it for propulsion and braking systems and electric generators. He developed the initial theory of these systems.
  
   Short Description of the Implmentation
  
   A Primary Ramjet propulsion engine is shown in Figure 1-1. Such an engine can work in one charge environment. For example, the surrounding region of space medium contains the positive charge particles (protons, ions). The engine has two plates 1, 2, and a source of electric voltage and energy (storage) 3. The plates are made from a thin dielectric film covered by a conducting layer. As the plates may be a net. The source can create an electric voltage U and electric field (electric intensity E) between the plates. One also can collect the electric energy from plate as an accumulator.
   The engine works in the following way. Apparatus are moving (in left direction) with velocity V (or particles 4 are moving in right direction). If voltage U is applied to the plates, it is well-known that main electric field is only between plates. If the particles are charged positive (protons, positive ions) and the first and second plate are charged positive and negative, respectively, then the particles are accelerated between the plates and achieve the additional velocity v > 0. The total velocity will be V+v behind the engine (Figure 1a). This means that the apparatus will have thrust T > 0 and spend electric energy W < 0 (bias, displacement current). If the voltage U = 0, then v = 0, T = 0, and W = 0 (Figure 1-1b).
   If the first and second plates are charged negative and positive, respectively, the voltage changes sign Assume the velocity v is satisfying -V < v < 0. Thus the particles will be broken and the engine (apparatus) will have drag and will also be broken. The engine transfers broke vehicle energy into electric (bias, displacement) current. That energy can be collected and used. Note that velocity v cannot equal -V. If v were equal to -V, that would mean that the apparatus collected positive particles, accumulated a big positive charge and then repelled the positive charged particles.
   If the voltage is enough high, the brake is the highest (Figure 1-1d). Maximum braking is achieved when v = -2V (T < 0, W = 0). Note, the v cannot be more then -2V, because it is full reflected speed.

0x01 graphic

   Figure 1-1. Explanation of primary Space Ramjet propulsion (engine) and electric generator (in braking),a) Work in regime thrust; b) Idle; c) Work in regime brake. d) Work in regime strong brake (full reflection). Notation: 1, 2 - plate (film, thin net) of engine; 3 - source of electric energy (voltage U); 4 - charged particles (protons, ions); V - speed of apparatus or particles before engine (solar wind); v - additional speed of particles into engine plates; T - thrust of engine; W - energy (if W < 0 we spend energy).
   AB-Ramjet engine. The suggested Ramjet is different from the primary ramjet. The suggested ramjet has specific electrostatic collector 5 (Figure 1-2a,c,d,e,f,g). Other authors said the idea of space matter collection. But they did not give the principal design of collector. Their electrostatic collector cannot work. Really, for charging of collector we must move away from apparatus the charges. The charged collector attracts the same amount of the charged particles (charged protons, ions, electrons) from space medium. They discharged collector. All your work will be idle. That cannot work.
   The electrostatic collector cannot absorb a matter (as offered some inventors) because it can absorb ONLY opposed charges particles, which will be discharged the initial charge of collector. Physic law of conservation of charges does not allow changing the charges of particles.
   The suggested collector and ramjet engine have a special design (thin film, net, special form of charge collector, particle accelerator). The collector/engine passes the charged particles ACROSS (through) the installation and changes their energy (speed), deflecting and focusing them. That is why we refer to this engine as the AB-Ramjet engine. It can create thrust or drag, extract energy from the kinetic energy of particles or convert the apparatus' kinetic energy into electric energy, and deflect and focus the particle beam. The collector creates a local environment in space because it deletes (repeals) the same charged particles (electrons) from apparatus and allows the Ramjet to work when the apparatus speed is close to zero. The author developed the theory of the electrostatic collector. The conventional electric engine cannot work in usual plasma without the main part of the AB-engine - the special pervious electrostatic collector.
   The plates of the suggested engine are different from the primary engine. They have a concentrically septa (partitions) which create additional radial electric fields (electric intensity) (Figure 1-2b). They straighten, deflect and focus the particle beams and improve the efficiency coefficient of the engine.
  
   The central charge can have a different form (core) and design (Figure2 c,d,e,f,g,h). It may be:
  
      -- a sphere (Figure 1-2c) having a thin cover of plastic film and a very thin (some nanometers) conducting layer (aluminum), with the concentrically spheres inserted one into the other (Figure 1-2d),
      -- a net formed from thin wires (Figure 1-2e);
      -- a cylinder (without butt-end)(Figure 1-2f); or
      -- a plate (Figure 1-2g).
  

0x01 graphic

   Figure 1-2. Space AB-Ramjet engine with electrostatic collector (core). a) Side view; b) Front view; c) Spherical electrostatic collector (ball); d) Concentric collector; e) cellular (net) collector; f) cylindrical collector without cover butt-ends; g) plate collector (film or net).
   The design is chosen to produce minimum energy loss (maximum particle transparency). The safety (from discharging, emission of electrons) electric intensity in a vacuum is 108 V/m for an outer conducting layer and negative charge. The electric intensity is more for an inside conducting layer and thousands of times more for positive charge.
   The engine plates are attracted one to the other. They can have different designs (Figure 1-3a - 3d). In the rotating film or net design (Figure 1-3a), the centrifugal force prevents contact between the plates. In the inflatable design (Figure 1-3b), the low pressure gas prevents plate contact. A third design has (inflatable) rods supporting the film or net (Figure 1-3c). The fourth design is an inflatable toroid which supports the distance between plates or nets (Figure 1-3d).
   Electric gun. The simplest electric gun (linear particle accelerator) for charging an apparatus ball is presented in Figure 1-4. The design is a long tube (up 10 m) which creates a strong electric field along the tube axis (100 MV/m and more). The gun consists of the tube with electrical isolated cylindrical electrodes, ion source, microwave frequency energy source, and voltage multiplier. This electric gun can accelerate charged particles up 1000 MeV. Electrostatic lens and special conditions allow the creation of a focusing and self-focusing beam which can transfer the charge and energy long distances into space. The engine can be charged from a satellite, a space ship, the Moon, or a top atmosphere station. The beam may also be used as a particle beam weapon.
0x01 graphic
   Figure 1-3. Possible design of the main part of ramjet engine. a) Rotating engine; b) Inflatable engine (filled by gas); c) Rod engine; d) Toroidal shell engine, e) AB-Ramjet engine in brake regime, f) AB-Ramjet engine in thrust regime. Notation: 10 - film shells (fibers) for support thin film and creating a radial electric field; 11 - Rods for a support the film or net; 12 - inflatable toroid for support engine plates; 13 - space apparatus; 14 - particles; 15 - AB-Ramjet.
   Approximately tens years ago, the conventional linear pipe accelerated protons up to 40 MeV with a beam divergence of 10 -3 radian. However, acceleration of the multi-charged heavy ions may result in significantly more energy.
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Figure 1-4. Electric gun for charging AB-Ramjet engine and transfer charges (energy) in long distance. a) Side view, b) Front view. Notations: 1 - gun tube, 2 - opposed charged electrodes, 3 - source of charged particles (ions, electrons), 4 - particles beam.
   At present, the energy gradients as steep as 200 GeV/m have been achieved over millimeter-scale distances using laser pulsars. Gradients approaching 1 GeV/m are being produced on the multi-centimeter-scale with electron-beam systems, in contrast to a limit of about 0.1 GeV/m for radio-frequency acceleration alone. Existing electron accelerators such as SLAC <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLAC> could use electron-beam afterburners to increase the intensity of their particle beams. Electron systems in general can provide tightly collimated, reliable beams while laser systems may offer more power and compactness.
   Conclusion
   The primary research and computations of the suggested AB-engine show the numerous possibilities and perspectives of the space AB-ramjet engines. The density of the charged space particles is very small. But the proposed electrostatic collector can effectively gather the particles from a huge surrounding area and accelerate or brake them, generating thrust or braking on the order of several Newtons. The high speed solar wind allows simultaneously obtainment of useful drag (thrust) and great electrical energy. The simplest electrostatic gatherer accelerates a 100 kg probe up to a velocity of 100 km/s. The probe offers flights into Mars orbit of about 70 days, to Jupiter orbit in about 150 days, to Saturn orbit in about 250 days, to Uranus orbit in about 450 days, to Neptune orbit in about 650 days, and to Pluto orbit in about 850 days.