Abstract In recent years of the 21st Century the author of this book and other scientists as well, have instigated and described many new ideas, researches, theories, macro-projects, USA and other countries patented concepts, speculative macro-engineering ideas, projects and other general innovations in technology and environment change. These all hold the enticing promise for a true revolution in the lives of humans everywhere in the Solar System. Here, the author includes and reviews new methods for converting of any matter into energy, getting of super strong materials, for travel in outer space without space suit, magnetic space launchers, magnetic space towers, motionless satellites and suspended structures, comfortable permanent settlements for cities and Earth"s hazardous polar regions, control of local and global weather conditions, wireless transfer of electricity to long distance, Magnetic guns, magnetic launchers, new (magnetic, electrostatic, electronic gas) space towers, space elevators and space climbers, suppression forest fires without water, aerial gas pipelines, production of fresh water from sea water, thermonuclear reactors, along with many others. Author succinctly summarizes some of these revolutionary macro-projects, concepts, ideas, innovations, and methods for scientists, engineers, technical students, and the world public. Every Chapter has three main sections: At first section the author describes the new idea in an easily comprehensible way acceptable for the general public (no equations), the second section contains the scientific proof of the innovation acceptable for technical students, engineers and scientists, and the third section contains the applications of innovation. Author does seek future attention from the general public, other macro-engineers, inventors, as well as scientists of all persuasions for these presented innovations. And, naturally, he fervently hopes the popular news media, various governments and the large international aerospace and other engineering-focused corporations will, as well, increase their respective observation, R&D activity in the technologies for living and the surrounding human environment.
THE WORLD'S FUTURE
New Technologies and Revolutionary Projects
By Alexander Bolonkin
About the Author
Bolonkin, Alexander Alexandrovich (1933-)
Part A. New Technology
Article Black Hole for Aerospace after Joseph 6 17 09
Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by
AB-Generator* and Photon Rocket
Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass.
The AB-Generator can produce gigantic energy outputs and should be cheaper than a conventional electric station by a factor of hundreds of times. One also may be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for many vehicles.
Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second.
A technology to capture them may follow; than they may be used for the AB-Generator.
Key words: Production of nuclear energy, Micro Black Hole, energy AB-Generator, photon rocket.
* Presented as Paper AIAA-2009-5342 in 45 Joint Propulsion Conferences, 2-5 August, 2009, Denver, CO, USA.
Black hole. In general relativity, a black hole is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, including light, can escape its pull. The black hole has a one-way surface, called the event horizon, into which objects can fall, but out of which nothing can come out. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits it, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect blackbody in thermodynamics.
Despite its invisible interior, a black hole can reveal its presence through interaction with other matter. A black hole can be inferred by tracking the movement of a group of stars that orbit a region in space which looks empty. Alternatively, one can see gas falling into a relatively small black hole, from a companion star. This gas spirals inward, heating up to very high temperature and emitting large amounts of radiation that can be detected from earthbound and earth-orbiting telescopes. Such observations have resulted in the general scientific consensus that, barring a breakdown in our understanding of nature, black holes do exist in our universe.
It is impossible to directly observe a black hole. However, it is possible to infer its presence by its gravitational action on the surrounding environment, particularly with microquasars and active galactic nuclei, where material falling into a nearby black hole is significantly heated and emits a large amount of X-ray radiation. This observation method allows astronomers to detect their existence. The only objects that agree with these observations and are consistent within the framework of general relativity are black holes.
A black hole has only three independent physical properties: mass, charge and angular momentum.
In astronomy black holes are classed as:
Supermassive - contain hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses and are thought to exist in the center of most galaxies, including the Milky Way.
Intermediate - contain thousands of solar masses.
Micro (also mini black holes) - have masses much less than that of a star. At these sizes, quantum mechanics is expected to take effect. There is no known mechanism for them to form via normal processes of stellar evolution, but certain inflationary scenarios predict their production during the early stages of the evolution of the universe.
According to some theories of quantum gravity they may also be produced in the highly energetic reaction produced by cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere or even in particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider. The theory of Hawking radiation predicts that such black holes will evaporate in bright flashes of gamma radiation. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite (formerly GLAST) launched in 2008 is searching for such flashes.
Fig 1. Artist's conception of a stellar mass black hole. Credit NASA.
Fig.2 (left). Artist's impression of a binary system consisting of a black hole and a main sequence star. The black hole is drawing matter from the main sequence star via an accretion disk around it, and some of this matter forms a gas jet.
Fig.3 (right). Ring around a suspected black hole in galaxy NGC 4261. Date: Nov.1992. Courtesy of Space Telescope Science
The defining feature of a black hole is the appearance of an event horizon; a boundary in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
Since the event horizon is not a material surface but rather merely a mathematically defined demarcation boundary, nothing prevents matter or radiation from entering a black hole, only from exiting one.
For a non rotating (static) black hole, the Schwarzschild radius delimits a spherical event horizon. The Schwarzschild radius of an object is proportional to the mass. Rotating black holes have distorted, nonspherical event horizons. The description of black holes given by general relativity is known to be an approximation, and it is expected that quantum gravity effects become significant near the vicinity of the event horizon. This allows observations of matter in the vicinity of a black hole's event horizon to be used to indirectly study general relativity and proposed extensions to it.
Fig.4. Artist's rendering showing the space-time contours around a black hole. Credit NASA.
Though black holes themselves may not radiate energy, electromagnetic radiation and matter particles may be radiated from just outside the event horizon via Hawking radiation.
At the center of a black hole lies the singularity, where matter is crushed to infinite density, the pull of gravity is infinitely strong, and spacetime has infinite curvature. This means that a black hole's mass becomes entirely compressed into a region with zero volume. This zero-volume, infinitely dense region at the center of a black hole is called a gravitational singularity.
The singularity of a non-rotating black hole has zero length, width, and height; a rotating black hole's is smeared out to form a ring shape lying in the plane of rotation. The ring still has no thickness and hence no volume.
The photon sphere is a spherical boundary of zero thickness such that photons moving along tangents to the sphere will be trapped in a circular orbit. For non-rotating black holes, the photon sphere has a radius 1.5 times the Schwarzschild radius. The orbits are dynamically unstable, hence any small perturbation (such as a particle of infalling matter) will grow over time, either setting it on an outward trajectory escaping the black hole or on an inward spiral eventually crossing the event horizon.
Rotating black holes are surrounded by a region of spacetime in which it is impossible to stand still, called the ergosphere. Objects and radiation (including light) can stay in orbit within the ergosphere without falling to the center.
Once a black hole has formed, it can continue to grow by absorbing additional matter. Any black hole will continually absorb interstellar dust from its direct surroundings and omnipresent cosmic background radiation.
Much larger contributions can be obtained when a black hole merges with other stars or compact objects.
Hawking radiation. In 1974, Stephen Hawking showed that black holes are not entirely black but emit small amounts of thermal radiation.He got this result by applying quantum field theory in a static black hole background. The result of his calculations is that a black hole should emit particles in a perfect black body spectrum. This effect has become known as Hawking radiation. Since Hawking's result many others have verified the effect through various methods. If his theory of black hole radiation is correct then black holes are expected to emit a thermal spectrum of radiation, and thereby lose mass, because according to the theory of relativity mass is just highly condensed energy (E = mc2). Black holes will shrink and evaporate over time. The temperature of this spectrum (Hawking temperature) is proportional to the surface gravity of the black hole, which in turn is inversely proportional to the mass. Large black holes, therefore, emit less radiation than small black holes.
On the other hand if a black hole is very small, the radiation effects are expected to become very strong. Even a black hole that is heavy compared to a human would evaporate in an instant. A black hole the weight of a car (~10-24 m) would only take a nanosecond to evaporate, during which time it would briefly have a luminosity more than 200 times that of the sun. Lighter black holes are expected to evaporate even faster, for example a black hole of mass 1 TeV/c2 would take less than 10-88 seconds to evaporate completely. Of course, for such a small black hole quantum gravitation effects are expected to play an important role and could even - although current developments in quantum gravity do not indicate so - hypothetically make such a small black hole stable.
Micro Black Holes. Gravitational collapse is not the only process that could create black holes. In principle, black holes could also be created in high energy collisions that create sufficient density. Since classically black holes can take any mass, one would expect micro black holes to be created in any such process no matter how low the energy. However, to date, no such events have ever been detected either directly or indirectly as a deficiency of the mass balance in particle accelerator experiments. This suggests that there must be a lower limit for the mass of black holes.
Theoretically this boundary is expected to lie around the Planck mass (~1019 GeV/c2, mp = 2.1764.10-8 kg), where quantum effects are expected to make the theory of general relativity break down completely. This would put the creation of black holes firmly out of reach of any high energy process occurring on or near the Earth. Certain developments in quantum gravity however suggest that this bound could be much lower. Some braneworld scenarios for example put the Planck mass much lower, maybe even as low as 1 TeV. This would make it possible for micro black holes to be created in the high energy collisions occurring when cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere, or possibly in the new Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These theories are however very speculative, and the creation of black holes in these processes is deemed unlikely by many specialists.
Smallest possible black hole. To make a black hole one must concentrate mass or energy sufficiently that the escape velocity from the region in which it is concentrated exceeds the speed of light. This condition gives the Schwarzschild radius, ro = 2GM / c2, where G is Newton's constant and c is the speed of light, as the size of a black hole of mass M. On the other hand, the Compton wavelength, ? = h / Mc, where h is Planck's constant, represents a limit on the minimum size of the region in which a mass M at rest can be localized. For sufficiently small M, the Compton wavelength exceeds the Schwarzschild radius, and no black hole description exists. This smallest mass for a black hole is thus approximately the Planck mass, which is about 2 в 10--8 kg or 1.2 в 1019 GeV/c2.
Any primordial black holes of sufficiently low mass will Hawking evaporate to near the Planck mass within the lifetime of the universe. In this process, these small black holes radiate away matter. A rough picture of this is that pairs of virtual particles emerge from the vacuum near the event horizon, with one member of a pair being captured, and the other escaping the vicinity of the black hole. The net result is the black hole loses mass (due to conservation of energy). According to the formulae of black hole thermodynamics, the more the black hole loses mass the hotter it becomes, and the faster it evaporates, until it approaches the Planck mass. At this stage a black hole would have a Hawking temperature of TP / 8? (5.6в1032 K), which means an emitted Hawking particle would have an energy comparable to the mass of the black hole. Thus a thermodynamic description breaks down. Such a mini-black hole would also have an entropy of only 4? nats, approximately the minimum possible value.
At this point then, the object can no longer be described as a classical black hole, and Hawking's calculations also break down. Conjectures for the final fate of the black hole include total evaporation and production of a Planck mass-sized black hole remnant. If intuitions about quantum black holes are correct, then close to the Planck mass the number of possible quantum states of the black hole is expected to become so few and so quantised that its interactions are likely to be quenched out. It is possible that such Planck-mass black holes, no longer able either to absorb energy gravitationally like a classical black hole because of the quantised gaps between their allowed energy levels, nor to emit Hawking particles for the same reason, may in effect be stable objects. They would in effect be WIMPs, weakly interacting massive particles; this could explain dark matter.
Creation of micro black holes.Production of a black hole requires concentration of mass or energy within the corresponding Schwarzschild radius. In familiar three-dimensional gravity, the minimum such energy is 1019 GeV, which would have to be condensed into a region of approximate size 10-33 cm. This is far beyond the limits of any current technology; the Large hadron collider (LHC) has a design energy of 14 TeV. This is also beyond the range of known collisions of cosmic rays with Earth's atmosphere, which reach center of mass energies in the range of hundreds of TeV. It is estimated that to collide two particles to within a distance of a Planck length with currently achievable magnetic field strengths would require a ring accelerator about 1000 light years in diameter to keep the particles on track.
Some extensions of present physics posit the existence of extra dimensions of space. In higher-dimensional spacetime, the strength of gravity increases more rapidly with decreasing distance than in three dimensions. With certain special configurations of the extra dimensions, this effect can lower the Planck scale to the TeV range. Examples of such extensions include large extra dimensions, special cases of the Randall-Sundrum model, and String theory configurations. In such scenarios, black hole production could possibly be an important and observable effect at the LHC.
Virtual particles. In physics, a virtual particle is a particle that exists for a limited time and space, introducing uncertainty in their energy and momentum due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.
Vacuum energy can also be thought of in terms of virtual particles (also known as vacuum fluctuations) which are created and destroyed out of the vacuum. These particles are always created out of the vacuum in particle-antiparticle pairs, which shortly annihilate each other and disappear. However, these particles and antiparticles may interact with others before disappearing.
The net energy of the Universe remains zero so long as the particle pairs annihilate each other within Planck time.
Virtual particles are also excitations of the underlying fields, but are detectable only as forces.
The creation of these virtual particles near the event horizon of a black hole has been hypothesized by physicist Stephen Hawking to be a mechanism for the eventual "evaporation" of black holes.
Since these particles do not have a permanent existence, they are called virtual particles or vacuum fluctuations of vacuum energy.
An important example of the "presence" of virtual particles in a vacuum is the Casimir effect. Here, the explanation of the effect requires that the total energy of all of the virtual particles in a vacuum can be added together. Thus, although the virtual particles themselves are not directly observable in the laboratory, they do leave an observable effect: their zero-point energy results in forces acting on suitably arranged metal plates or dielectrics.
Thus, virtual particles are often popularly described as coming in pairs, a particle and antiparticle, which can be of any kind.
Fig.5. Hawking radiation. a. Virtual particles at even horizon.
b. Virtual particles out even horizon (in conventional space).
The evaporation of a black hole is a process dominated by photons, which are their own antiparticles and are uncharged.
The uncertainty principle in the form
implies that in the vacuum one or more particles with energy ?E above the vacuum may be created for a short time ?t. These virtual particles are included in the definition of the vacuum.
Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space even when devoid of matter (known as free space). The vacuum energy is deduced from the concept of virtual particles, which are themselves derived from the energy-time uncertainty principle. Its effects can be observed in various phenomena (such as spontaneous emission, the Casimir effect, the van der Waals bonds, or the Lamb shift), and it is thought to have consequences for the behavior of the Universe on cosmological scales.
AB-Generator of Nuclear Energy and some Innovations
Simplified explanation of MBH radiation and work of AB-Generator (Fig.5). As known, the vacuum continuously produces, virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, photons and anti-photons. In conventional space they exist only for a very short time, then annihilate and return back to nothingness. The MBH event horizon, having very strong super-gravity, allows separation of the particles and anti particles, in particular, photons and anti-photons. Part of the anti-photons move into the MBH and annihilate with photons decreasing the mass of the MBH and return back a borrow energy to vacuum. The free photons leave from the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. That way the MBH converts any conventional matter to Hawking radiation which may be converted to heat or electric energy by the AB- Generator. This AB- Generator utilizes the produced Hawking radiation and injects the matter into the MBH while maintaining the MBH in stable suspended state.
Note: The photon does NOT have rest mass. Therefore a photon can leave the MBH's neighborhood (if it is located beyond the event horizon). All other particles having a rest mass and speed less than light speed cannot leave the Black Hole. They cannot achieve light speed because their mass at light speed equals infinity and requests infinite energy for its' escape--an impossibility.
Description of AB- Generator. The offered nuclear energy AB- Generator is shown in fig. 6. That includes the Micro Black Hole (MBH) 1 suspended within a spherical radiation reflector and heater 5. The MBH is supported (and controlled) at the center of sphere by a fuel (plasma, proton, electron, matter) gun 7. This AB- Generator also contains the 9 - heat engine (for example, gas, vapor turbine), 10 - electric generator, 11 - coolant (heat transfer agent), an outer electric line 12, internal electric generator (5 as antenna) with customer 14.
Fig.6. Offered nuclear-vacuum energy AB- Generator. Notations: 1- Micro Black Hole (MBH), 2 - event horizon (Schwarzschild radius), 3 - photon sphere, 4 - black hole radiation, 5 - radiation reflector, antenna and heater (cover sphere), 6 - back (reflected) radiation from radiation reflector 5, 7 - fuel (plasma, protons, electrons, ions, matter) gun (focusing accelerator), 8 - matter injected to MBH (fuel for Micro Black hole), 9 - heat engine (for example, gas, vapor turbine), 10 - electric generator connected to heat engine 9, 11 - coolant (heat transfer agent to the heat machine 9), 12 - electric line, 13 - internal vacuum, 14 - customer of electricity from antenna 5, 15 - singularity.
Work. The generator works the following way. MBH, by selective directional input of matter, is levitated in captivity and produces radiation energy 4. That radiation heats the spherical reflector-heater 5. The coolant (heat transfer agent) 11 delivers the heat to a heat machine 9 (for example, gas, vapor turbine). The heat machine rotates an electric generator 10 that produces the electricity to the outer electric line 12. Part of MBH radiation may accept by sphere 5 (as antenna) in form of electricity.
The control fuel guns inject the matter into MBH and do not allow bursting of the MBH. This action also supports the MBH in isolation, suspended from dangerous contact with conventional matter. They also control the MBH size and the energy output.
Any matter may be used as the fuel, for example, accelerated plasma, ions, protons, electrons, micro particles, etc. The MBH may be charged and rotated. In this case the MBH may has an additional suspension by control charges located at the ends of fuel guns or (in case of the rotating charged MBH) may have an additional suspension by the control electric magnets located on the ends of fuel guns or at points along the reflector-heater sphere.
Innovations, features, advantages and same research results
Some problems and solutions offered by the author include the following:
1) A practical (the MBH being obtained and levitated, details of which are beyond the scope of this paper) method and installation for converting any conventional matter to energy in accordance with Einstein's equation E = mc2.
2) MBHs may produce gigantic energy and this energy is in the form of dangerous gamma radiation. The author shows how this dangerous gamma radiation Doppler shifts when it moves
against the MBH gravity and converts to safely tapped short radio waves.
3) The MBH of marginal mass has a tendency to explode (through quantum evaporation, very quickly radiating its mass in energy). The AB- Generator automatically injects metered amounts of matter into the MBH and keeps the MGH in a stable state or grows the MBH to a needed size, or decreases that size, or temporarily turns off the AB- Generator (decreases the MBH to a Planck Black Hole).
4) Author shows the radiation flux exposure of AB- Generator (as result of MBH exposure) is not dangerous because the generator cover sphere has a vacuum, and the MBH gravity gradient decreases the radiation energy.
5) The MBH may be supported in a levitated (non-contact) state by generator fuel injectors.
Theory of AB- Generator
Below there are main equations for computation the conventional black hole (BH) and AB-Generator.
General theory of Black Hole.
1. Power produced by BH is
, W, (1)
is reduced Planck constant,
- light speed, G =
6.6743.10-11 m3/kg.s2 is gravitation constant, M - mass of BH, kg.
2. Temperature of black body corresponding to this radiation is
, K , (2)
where kb = 1.38.10-23 J/k is Boltzmann constant.
3. Energy Ep [J] and frequency ?o of photon at event horizon are
where c = 3.108 m/s is light speed, ?o is wavelength of photon at even radius, m. h is Planck constant.
4. Radius of BH event horizon (Schwarzschild radius) is
, m, (4)
5. Relative density (ratio of mass M to volume V of BH) is
, kg/m3. (5)
6. Maximal charge of BH is
, C, (6)
where e = -1.6.10-19 is charge of electron, C.
Life time of BH is
2.527.10-8 M 3 , s . (7)
8. Gravitation around BH (r is distance from center) and on event horizon
, m s-2 . (8)
Developed Theory of AB-Generator
Below are research and the theory developed by author for estimation and computation of facets of the AB- Generator.
9. Loss of energy of Hawking photon in BH gravitational field. It is known the theory of a redshift allows estimating the frequency of photon in central gravitational field when it moves TO the gravity center. In this case the photon increases its frequency because photon is accelerated the gravitational field (wavelength decreases). But in our case the photon moves FROM the gravitational center, the gravitational field brakes it and the photon loses its energy. That means its frequency decreases and the wavelength increases. Our photon gets double energy because the black hole annihilates two photons (photon and anti-photon). That way the equation for photon frequency at distance r > ro from center we can write in form
Where ?? = ? - ?o is difference of the gravity potential. The gravity potential is
Let us substitute (10) in (9), we get
It is known, the energy and mass of photon is
The energy of photon linear depends from its frequency. Reminder: The photon does not have a rest mass.
The relative loss of the photon radiation energy ? at distance r from BH and the power Pr of Hawking radiation at radius r from the BH center is
The ro is very small and ? is also very small and ? << ?o.
The result of an energy loss by Hawking photon in the BH gravitational field is very important for AB-Generator. The energy of Hawking radiation is very big; we very need to decrease it in many orders. The initial Hawking photon is gamma radiation that is dangerous for people and matter. In r distance the gamma radiation may be converted in the conventional light or radio radiation, which are not dangerous and may be reflected, focused or a straightforward way converted into electricity by antenna.
10. Reflection Hawking radiation back to MBH. For further decreasing the MBH produced energy the part of this energy may be reflected to back in MBH. A conventional mirror may reflect up 0.9 ¤0.99 of radiation (?r = 0.01 ¤ 0.1, ?r is a loss of energy in reflecting), the multi layers mirror can reflect up 0.9999 of the monochromatic light radiation (?r = 10-3¤ 10-5), and AB-mirror from cubic corner cells offered by author in , p. 226, fig.12.1g , p. 376 allows to reflect non-monochromatic light radiation with efficiency up ?r = 10-13 strong back to source. In the last case, the loss of reflected energy is ( p.377)
where l is size of cube corner cell, m; m is number of radiation waves in one sell; ? is wavelength, m; a is characteristic of sell material (see , fig.A3.3). Minimal value a = 10-2 for glass and a = 10-4 for KCl crystal.
The reflection of radiation to back in MBH is may be important for MBH stabilization, MBH storage and MBH `switch off'.
11. Useful energy of AB- Generator. The useful energy Pu [J] is taken from AB- Generator is
12. Fuel consumption is
, kg. (16)
The fuel consumption is very small. AB-Generator is the single known method in the World now which allows full converting reasonably practical conversion of (any!) matter into energy according the Einsteinian equation E = mc2.
13. Specific pressure on AB-Generator cover sphere p [N/m2] and on the surface of MBH po is
where k = 1 if the cover sphere absorbs the radiation and k - 2 if the cover sphere high reflects
the radiation, S is the internal area of cover sphere, m2; S0 is surface of event horizon sphere, m2; po is
specific pressure of Hawking radiation on the event horizon surface. Note, the pressure p on cover
sphere is small (see Project), but pressure po on event horizon surface is very high.
14. Mass particles produced on event surface. On event horizon surface may be also produced the mass particles with speed V < c. Let us take the best case (for leaving the BH) when their speed is radially vertical. They cannot leave the BH because their speed V is less than light speed c. The maximal radius of lifting rm [m] is
where g is gravitational acceleration of BH, m/s2; t is time, sec.; ro is BH radius, m; V0 is particle
speed on event surface, m/s2. If the rm is less than radius of the cover sphere, the mass particles return
to BH and do not influence the heat flow from BH to cover sphere. That is in the majority of cases.
15. Explosion of MBH. The MBH explosion produces the radiation energy
MBH has a small mass. The explosion of MBH having M = 10-5 kg produces 9в1011 J. That is energy of about 10 tons of good conventional explosive (107 J/kg). But there is a vacuum into the cover sphere and this energy is presented in radiation form. But in reality only very small part of explosion energy reaches the cover sphere, because the very strong MBH gravitation field brakes the photons and any mass particles. Find the energy which reaches the cover sphere via:
The specific exposure radiation pressure of MBH pressure pe [N/m2] on the cover sphere of radius r < ro may be computed by the way:
where V=3/4 ?r3 is volume of the cover sphere.
That way the exposure radiation pressure on sphere has very small value and presses very short time. Conventional gas balloon keeps pressure up 107 N/m2 (100 atm). However, the heat impact may be high and AB- Generator design may have the reflectivity cover and automatically open windows for radiation.
Your attention is requested toward the next important result following from equations (20)-(21). Many astronomers try to find (detect) the MBH by a MBH exposure radiation. But this radiation is small, may be detected but for a short distance, does not have a specific frequency and has a variably long wavelength. This may be why during more than 30 years nobody has successfully observed MBH events in Earth environment though the theoretical estimation predicts about 100 of MBH events annually. Observers take note!
16. Supporting the MBH in suspended (levitated) state. The fuel injector can support the MBH in suspended state (no contact the MBH with any material surface).
The maximal suspended force equals
where q is fuel consumption, kg; Vf is a fuel speed, m/s. The fuel (plasma) speed 0.01c is
conventionally enough for supporting the MBH in suspended state.
17. AB-Generator as electric generator. When the Hawking radiation reaches the cover as radio microwaves they may be straightforwardly converted to electricity because they create a different voltage between different isolated parts of the cover sphere as in an antenna. Maximal voltage which can produces the radiation wave is
where w is density of radiation energy, J/m3; E is electric intensity, V/m; H is magnetic intensity, T; ?o = 8.85в10-12 F/m is the coefficient of the electric permeability; ?o = 4?в10-7 N/A2 is the coefficient of the magnetic permeability; ? = ? =1 for vacuum.
Let us take moment when H = 0, then
where E is electric intensity, V/m; U is voltage of AB-generator, V; b is relative size of antenna, D is diameter of the cover sphere if the cover sphere is used as a full antenna, m; Pe is power of the electric station, W.
As you see about ?/4 of total energy produced by AB-Generator we can receive in the form of electricity and (1-?/4) reflects back to MBH; we may tap heat energy which convert to any form of energy by conventional (heat engine) methods. If we reflect the most part of the heat energy back into the MBH, we can have only electricity and do not have heat flux.
If we will use the super strong and super high temperature material AB-material offered in  the conversion coefficient of heat machine may be very high.
18. Critical mass of MBH located in matter environment. Many people are afraid the MBH experiments because BH can absorb the Earth. Let us find the critical mass of MBH which can begin uncontrollably to grow into the Earth environment. That will happen when BH begins to have more mass than mass of Hawking radiation. Below is the equation for the critical mass of initial BH. The educated reader will understand the equations below without detailed explanations.
where V is speed of environment matter absorbed by MBH, m/s; g is gravity acceleration of MBH, m/s; r is distance environment matter to MBH center, m; t is time, sec;
is mass loss by MBH, kg;
is mass taken from Earth environment by MBH, kg; ? is density of Earth environment, kg/m3; Mc is critical mass of MBH when one begin uncontrollable grows, kg; t is time, sec.
Let us to equate the mass
radiated by MBH to mass
absorbed by MBH from Earth environment, we obtain the critical mass Mc of MBH for any environment:
If MBH having mass M = 107 kg (10 thousands tons) is put in water (? = 1000 kg/m3), this MBH can begin uncontrollable runaway growth and in short time (~74 sec) can consume the Earth into a black hole having diameter ~ 9 mm. If this MBH is located in the sea level atmosphere (? = 1.29 kg/m3), the initial MBH must has critical mass M = 108 kg (100 thousand tons). The critical radius of MBH is very small. In the first case (M = 107 kg) ro = 1.48в 10-20 m, in the second case (M = 108 kg) ro = 1.48в 10-19 m. Our MBH into AB-Generator is not dangerous for Earth because it is located in vacuum and has mass thousands to millions times less than the critical mass.
However, in a moment of extreme speculation, if far future artificial intelligence (or super-small reasoning) beings will be created from nuclear matter  they can convert the Earth into a black hole to attempt to access quick travel to other stars (Solar systems), past and future Universes and even possibly past and future times.
19. General note. We got our equations in assumption ?/?o = r/ro. If ?/?o = (r/ro )0.5 or other relation, the all above equations may be easy modified.
AB-Generator as Photon Rocket
The offered AB- Generator may be used as the most efficient photon propulsion system (photon rocket). The photon rocket is the dream of all astronauts and space engineers, a unique vehicle) which would make practical interstellar travel. But a functioning photon rocket would require gigantic energy. The AB- Generator can convert any matter in energy (radiation) and gives the maximum theoretical efficiency.
The some possible photon propulsion system used the AB -Generator is shown in Fig.7. In simplest version (a) the cover of AB generator has window 3, the radiation goes out through window and produces the thrust. More complex version (c) has the parabolic reflector, which sends all radiation in one direction and increases the efficiency. If an insert in the AB- Generator covers the lens 6 which will focuses the radiation in a given direction, at the given point the temperature will be a billions degree (see Equation (2)) and AB- Generator may be used as a photon weapon.
The maximal thrust T of the photon engine having AB- Generator may be computed (estimated) by equation:
, N, (26)
For example, the AB-generator, which spends only 1 gram of matter per second, will produce a thrust 3в105 N or 30 tons.
Fig.7. AB- Generator as Photon Rocket and Radiation (Photon) Weapon. (a) AB- Generator as a Simplest Photon Rocket; (b) AB- Generator as focused Radiation (photon, light or laser) weapon; (c) Photon Rocket with Micro-Black Hole of AB-Generator. Notations: 1 - control MBH; 2 - spherical cover of AB-Generator; 3 - window in spherical cover; 4 - radiation of BH; 5 - thrust; 6 - lens in window of cover; 7 - aim; 8 - focused radiation; 9 - parabolic reflector.
Project of AB-Generator
Let us to estimate the possible energy production of an AB-Generator. That is not optimal, that is example of computation and possible parameters. Let us take the MBH mass M = 10-5 kg and radius of the cover sphere r = 5m. No reflection. Using the equations (1)-(24) we receive:
Remain the main notations in equations (27): Pr = Pu = 1.05в1010 W is the useful energy (?/4 of this energy may be taken as electric energy by cover antenna, the rest is taken as heat); ? = 80 m is wavelength of radiation at cover sphere (that is not dangerous for people);
= 1.17в10-7 kg/s is fuel consumption; ro = 1.48в10-32 m is radius of MBH; pe = 1.28в10-23 N/m2 is explosion pressure of MBH.
Look your attention - the explode pressure is very small. That is less in billions of time then radiation pressure on the cover surface p = 0.111 N/m2. That is no wonder because BH takes back the energy with that spent for acceleration the matter in eating the matter. No dangerous from explosion of MBH.
Heat transfer and internal electric power are
where q is specific heat transfer through the cover sphere, S is internal surface of the cover sphere, m2; ? is thickness of the cover sphere wall, m; ?h is heat transfer coefficient for steel; ?T is difference temperature between internal and external walls of the cover sphere; E is electric intensity from radiation on cover sphere surface, V/m; U is maximal electric voltage, V; Pe is electric power, W.
We get the power heat and electric output of a AB-Generator as similar to a very large complex of present day Earth's electric power stations (Pr = 1010 W, ten billion of watts). The AB-Generator is cheaper by a hundred times than a conventional electric station, especially since, we may reflect a heat energy back to the MBH and not built a heat engine with all the problems of conventional power conversion equipment (using only electricity from spherical cover as antenna).
We hope the Large Hadron Collider at CERN can get the initial MBH needed for AB-Generator. The other way to obtain one is to find the Planck MBH (remaining from the time of the Big Bang and former MBH) and grow them to target MBH size.
1. Author has offered the method and installation for converting any conventional matter to energy
according the Einstein's equation E = mc2, where m is mass of matter, kg; c =3.108 is light
2. The Micro Black Hole (MBH) is offered for this conversion.
3. Also is offered the control fuel guns and radiation reflector for explosion prevention of MBH.
4. Also is offered the control fuel guns and radiation reflector for the MBH control.
5. Also is offered the control fuel guns and radiation reflector for non-contact suspension (levitation)
of the MBH.
6. For non contact levitation of MBH the author also offers:
a) Controlled charging of MBH and of ends of the fuel guns.
b) Control charging of rotating MBH and control of electric magnets located on the ends of the fuel
guns or out of the reflector-heater sphere.
7. The author researches show the very important fact: A strong gamma radiation produced
by Hawking radiation loses energy after passing through the very strong gravitational MBH
field. The MBH radiation can reach the reflector-heater as the light or short-wave radio radiation.
That is very important for safety of the operating crew of the AB- Generator.
8. The author researches show: The matter particles produced by the MBH cannot escape from MBH
and can not influence the Hawking radiation.
9. The author researches show another very important fact: The MBH explosion (hundreds and
thousands of TNT tons) in radiation form produces a small pressure on the reflector-heater (cover
sphere) and does not destroys the AB-generator (in a correct design of AB-generator!). That is
very important for safety of the operating crew of the AB-generator.
10. The author researches show another very important fact: the MBH cannot capture by oneself
the surrounding matter and cannot automatically grow to consume the planet.
11. As the initial MBH can be used the Planck's (quantum) MBH which may be everywhere.
The offered fuel gun may to grow them (or decrease them) to needed size or the initial MBH may
be used the MBH produce Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Some scientists assume LHC
will produce one MBH every second (86,400 MBH in day). The cosmic radiation also produces
about 100 MBH every year.
12. The spherical dome of MBH may convert part of the radiation energy to electricity.
13. A correct design of MBH generator does not produce the radioactive waste of environment.
14. The attempts of many astronomers find (detect) the MBH by a MBH exposure radiation will not be successful without knowing the following: The MBH radiation is small, may be detected only over a short distance, does not have specific frequency and has a variable long wavelength.
We got our equations in assumption ?/?o = r/ro. If ?/?o = (r/ro )0.5 or other relation, the all above equations may be easy modified.
The Hawking article was published 34 years ago (1974). After this time the hundreds of scientific works based in Hawking work appears. No facts are known which creates doubts in the possibility of Hawking radiation but it is not proven either. The Hawking radiation may not exist. The Large Hadron Collider has the main purpose to create the MBHs and detect the Hawking radiation.
The AB-Generator could create a revolution in many industries (electricity, car, ship, transportation, etc.). That allows designing photon rockets and flight to other star systems. The maximum possible efficiency is obtained and a full solution possible for the energy problem of humanity. These overwhelming prospects urge us to research and develop this achievement of science -.
The author wishes to acknowledge Joseph Friedlander (of Shave Shomron, Israel) for correcting the English and offering useful advice and suggestions.
(The reader may find some of related articles at the author's web page http://Bolonkin.narod.ru/p65.htm; http://arxiv.org , http://www.scribd.com search "Bolonkin"; http://aiaa.org search "Bolonkin"; and in the author's books: "Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight", Elsevier, London, 2006, 488 pages; "New Concepts, Ideas, Innovations in Aerospace, Technology and Human Science", NOVA, 2008, 502 pages and "Macro-Projects: Environment and Technology", NOVA 2009, 536 pages).
2. Bolonkin A.A., Non-Rocket Space Launch and Flight, Elsevier, 2006, 488 pgs.
3. Bolonkin A.A., Converting of Matter to Nuclear Energy by AB-Generator. American Journal of Enginering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.683-693. [on line] http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas24683-693.pdf , http://www.scribd.com/doc/24048466 .
4. Bolonkin A.A., Femtotechnology. Nuclear AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties, American Journal of Enginering and Applied Sciences. 2 (2), 2009, p.501-514. [On line]: http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeas/ajeas22501-514.pdf, or http://www.scribd.com/doc/24046679 .
5. Wikipedia. Some background material in this article is gathered from Wikipedia under the Creative
Commons license. http://wikipedia.org .
Possible form of photon rocket
Chapter 2 Femtotechnology for Aerospace 5 6 09
Femtotechnology: the Strongest AB-Matter with Fantastic Properties
and their Applications in Aerospace
At present the term `nanotechnology' is well known - in its' ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms. Such a power over nature would offer routine achievement of remarkable properties in conventional matter, and creation of metamaterials where the structure not the composition brings forth new powers of matter.
But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows this new `AB-Matter' has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency, zero friction, etc.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for aircraft, ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armour, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux, etc.)
People may think this fantasy. But fifteen years ago most people and many scientists thought - nanotechnology is fantasy. Now many groups and industrial labs, even startups, spend hundreds of millions of dollars for development of nanotechnological-range products (precise chemistry, patterned atoms, catalysts, metamaterials, etc) and we have nanotubes (a new material which does not exist in Nature!) and other achievements beginning to come out of the pipeline in prospect. Nanotubes are stronger than steel by a hundred times--surely an amazement to a 19th Century observer if he could behold them.
Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less smaller than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
Key words: femtotechnology, nuclear matter, artificial AB-Matter, superstrength matter, superthermal resistance, invisible matter, super-protection from nuclear explosion and radiation.
Brief information concerning the atomic nucleus.
Atoms are the smallest (size is about some 10-8 m) neutral particles into which matter can be divided by chemical reactions. An atom consists of a small, heavy nucleus surrounded by a relatively large, light cloud of electrons. Each type of atom corresponds to a specific chemical element. To date, 117 elements have been discovered (atomic numbers 1-116 and 118), and the first 111 have received official names. The well-known periodic table provides an overview. Atoms consist of protons and neutrons within the nucleus. Within these particles, there are smaller particles still which are then made up of even smaller particles still.
Molecules are the smallest particles into which a non-elemental substance can be divided while maintaining the physical properties of the substance. Each type of molecule corresponds to a specific chemical compound. Molecules are a composite of two or more atoms.
Fig.1. (Left) Hydrogen atom contains one proton and one electron.
(Right) Helium atom contains two protons, two neutrons and two electron.
Atoms contain small (size is about some 10-15 m) nuclei and electrons orbit around these nuclei. The nuclei of most atoms consist of protons and neutrons, which are therefore collectively referred to as nucleons. The number of protons in a nucleus is the atomic number and defines the type of element the atom forms. The number of neutrons determines the isotope of an element. For example, the carbon-12 isotope has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, while the carbon-14 isotope has 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Fig.2. More complex atom which contains many protons, neitrons and electrons.
While bound neutrons in stable nuclei are stable, free neutrons are unstable; they undergo beta decay with a lifetime of just under 15 minutes. Free neutrons are produced in nuclear fission and fusion. Dedicated neutron sources like research reactors and spallation sources produce free neutrons for the use in irradiation and in neutron scattering experiments.
Outside the nucleus, free neutrons are unstable and have a mean lifetime of 885.7Ђ0.8 s, decaying by emission of a negative electron and antineutrino to become a proton:
n0 ? p+ + e-- + ?e .
This decay mode, known as beta decay, can also transform the character of neutrons within unstable nuclei.
Bound inside a nucleus, protons can also transform via inverse beta decay into neutrons. In this case, the transformation occurs by emission of a positron (antielectron) and a neutrino (instead of an antineutrino):
p+ ? n0 + e+ + ?e .
The transformation of a proton to a neutron inside of a nucleus is also possible through electron capture:
p+ + e-- ? n0 + ?e .
Fig.3. Molecule contains some atoms connected by its electrons.
Positron capture by neutrons in nuclei that contain an excess of neutrons is also possible, but is hindered because positrons are repelled by the nucleus, and quickly annihilate when they encounter negative electrons.
When bound inside of a nucleus, the instability of a single neutron to beta decay is balanced against the instability that would be acquired by the nucleus as a whole if an additional proton were to participate in repulsive interactions with the other protons that are already present in the nucleus. As such, although free neutrons are unstable, bound neutrons are not necessarily so. The same reasoning explains why protons, which are stable in empty space, may transform into neutrons when bound inside of a nucleus.
A thermal neutron is a free neutron that is Boltzmann distributed with kT = 0.024 eV (4.0в10-21 J) at room temperature. This gives characteristic (not average, or median) speed of 2.2 km/s.
Four forces active between particles: strong interaction, weak interacting, charge force (Coulomb force) and gravitation force. The strong interaction is the most strong force in short nuclei distance, the gravitation is very small into atom.
Beta decay and electron capture are types of radioactive decay and are both governed by the weak interaction.
Basic properties of the nuclear force.
The nuclear force is only felt among hadrons. In particle physics, a hadron is a bound state of quarks (particles into nucleous). Hadrons are held together by the strong force, similarly to how atoms are held together by the electromagnetic force. There are two subsets of hadrons: baryons and mesons; the most well known baryons are protons and neutrons.
At much smaller separations between nucleons the force is very powerfully repulsive, which keeps the nucleons at a certain average separation. Beyond about 1.7 femtometer (fm) separation, the force drops to negligibly small values.
At short distances, the nuclear force is stronger than the Coulomb force; it can overcome the Coulomb repulsion of protons inside the nucleus. However, the Coulomb force between protons has a much larger range and becomes the only significant force between protons when their separation exceeds about 2.5 fm.
The nuclear force is nearly independent of whether the nucleons are neutrons or protons. This property is called charge independence. It depends on whether the spins of the nucleons are parallel or antiparallel, and has a noncentral or tensor component. This part of the force does not conserve orbital angular momentum, which is a constant of motion under central forces.
Fig.4. Atom and nucleus structure. Proton and neutron contain quarks.
The nuclear force (or nucleon-nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between two or more nucleons. It is responsible for binding of protons and neutrons into atomic nuclei. To a large extent, this force can be understood in terms of the exchange of virtual light mesons, such as the pions. Sometimes the nuclear force is called the residual strong force, in contrast to the strong interactions which are now understood to arise from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This phrasing arose during the 1970s when QCD was being established. Before that time, the strong nuclear force referred to the inter-nucleon potential. After the verification of the quark model, strong interaction has come to mean QCD.
Fig.5. Interaction between fundamental particles.
A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter.
Elementary particles are particles with no measurable internal structure; that is, they are not composed of other particles. They are the fundamental objects of quantum field theory. Many families and sub-families of elementary particles exist. Elementary particles are classified according to their spin. Fermions have half-integer spin while bosons have integer spin. All the particles of the Standard Model have been observed, with the exception of the Higgs boson.
Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks. A proton contains two up quarks and one down quark, while a neutron consists of one up quark and two down quarks; the quarks are held together in the nucleus by gluons. There are six different types of quark in all ('up', 'down', 'bottom', 'top', 'strange', and 'charm'), as well as other particles including photons and neutrinos which are produced copiously in the sun. Most of the particles that have been discovered are encountered in cosmic rays interacting with matter and are produced by scattering processes in particle accelerators. There are dozens of known subatomic particles.
Fig.6. Size and scale of nucleus particles.
Degenerate matter is matter which has such very high density that the dominant contribution to its pressure rises from the Pauli exclusion principle. The pressure maintained by a body of degenerate matter is called the degeneracy pressure, and arises because the Pauli principle forbids the constituent particles to occupy identical quantum states. Any attempt to force them close enough together that they are not clearly separated by position must place them in different energy levels. Therefore, reducing the volume requires forcing many of the particles into higher-energy quantum states. This requires additional compression force, and is manifest as a resisting pressure.
Imagine that there is a plasma, and it is cooled and compressed repeatedly. Eventually, we will not be able to compress the plasma any further, because the Exclusion Principle states that two particles cannot be in the exact same place at the exact same time. When in this state, since there is no extra space for any particles, we can also say that a particle's location is extremely defined. Therefore, since (according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)
where ?p is the uncertainty in the particle's momentum and ?x is the uncertainty in position, then we must say that their momentum is extremely uncertain since the molecules are located in a very confined space. Therefore, even though the plasma is cold, the molecules must be moving very fast on average. This leads to the conclusion that if you want to compress an object into a very small space, you must use tremendous force to control its particles' momentum.
Unlike a classical ideal gas, whose pressure is proportional to its temperature (PV = NkT, where P is pressure, V is the volume, N is the number of particles (typically atoms or molecules), k is Boltzmann's constant, and T is temperature), the pressure exerted by degenerate matter depends only weakly on its temperature. In particular, the pressure remains nonzero even at absolute zero temperature. At relatively low densities, the pressure of a fully degenerate gas is given by
P = Kn5/3, where K depends on the properties of the particles making up the gas. At very high densities, where most of the particles are forced into quantum states with relativistic energies, the pressure is given by P = K'n4 / 3, where K' again depends on the properties of the particles making up the gas.
Degenerate matter still has normal thermal pressure, but at high densities the degeneracy pressure dominates. Thus, increasing the temperature of degenerate matter has a minor effect on total pressure until the temperature rises so high that thermal pressure again dominates total pressure.
Exotic examples of degenerate matter include neutronium, strange matter, metallic hydrogen and white dwarf matter. Degeneracy pressure contributes to the pressure of conventional solids, but these are not usually considered to be degenerate matter as a significant contribution to their pressure is provided by the interplay between the electrical repulsion of atomic nuclei and the screening of nuclei from each other by electrons allocated among the quantum states determined by the nuclear electrical potentials. In metals it is useful to treat the conduction electrons alone as a degenerate, free electron gas while the majority of the electrons are regarded as occupying bound quantum states. This contrasts with the case of the degenerate matter that forms the body of a white dwarf where all the electrons would be treated as occupying free particle momentum states.
The Pauli exclusion principle is a quantum mechanical principle formulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. It states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. A more rigorous statement of this principle is that, for two identical fermions, the total wave function is anti-symmetric. For electrons in a single atom, it states that no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers, that is, if n, l, and ml are the same, ms must be different such that the electrons have opposite spins.
In relativistic quantum field theory, the Pauli principle follows from applying a rotation operator in imaginary time to particles of half-integer spin. It does not follow from any spin relation in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most important principles in physics, mainly because the three types of particles from which ordinary matter is made--electrons, protons, and neutrons--are all subject to it; consequently, all material particles exhibit space-occupying behavior. The Pauli exclusion principle underpins many of the characteristic properties of matter from the large-scale stability of matter to the existence of the periodic table of the elements. Particles with antisymmetric wave functions are called fermions--and obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Apart from the familiar electron, proton and neutron, these include neutrinos and quarks (from which protons and neutrons are made), as well as some atoms like helium-3. All fermions possess "half-integer spin", meaning that they possess an intrinsic angular momentum whose value is
(Planck's constant divided by 2?) times a half-integer (1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.). In the theory of quantum mechanics, fermions are described by "antisymmetric states", which are explained in greater detail in the theory on identical particles. Particles with integer spin have a symmetric wave function and are called bosons; in contrast to fermions, they may share the same quantum states. Examples of bosons include the photon, the Cooper pairs responsible for superconductivity, and the W and Z bosons.
A more rigorous proof was provided by Freeman Dyson and Andrew Lenard in 1967, who considered the balance of attractive (electron-nuclear) and repulsive (electron-electron and nuclear-nuclear) forces and showed that ordinary matter would collapse and occupy a much smaller volume without the Pauli principle.
Neutrons are the most "rigid" objects known - their Young modulus (or more accurately, bulk modulus) is 20 orders of magnitude larger than that of diamond.
For white dwarfs the degenerate particles are the electrons while for neutron stars the degenerate particles are neutrons. In degenerate gas, when the mass is increased, the pressure is increased, and the particles become spaced closer together, so the object becomes smaller. Degenerate gas can be compressed to very high densities, typical values being in the range of 107 grams per cubic centimeter.
Preons are subatomic particles proposed to be the constituents of quarks, which become composite particles in preon-based models.
A neutron star is a large gravitationally-bound lump of electrically neutral nuclear matter, whose pressure rises from zero (at the surface) to an unknown value in the center.
A neutron star is a type of remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles with zero electrical charge and roughly the same mass as protons.
A typical neutron star has a mass between 1.35 and about 2.1 solar masses, with a corresponding radius of about 12 km if the Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall (APR) Equation of state (EOS) is used. In contrast, the Sun's radius is about 60,000 times that. Neutron stars have overall densities predicted by the APR EOS of 3.7 в 1017 (2.6 в 1014 times Solar density) to 5.9 в 1017 kg/mЁ (4.1 в 1014 times Solar density). which compares with the approximate density of an atomic nucleus of 3 в 1017 kg/mЁ. The neutron star's density varies from below 1 в 109 kg/mЁ in the crust increasing with depth to above 6 or 8 в 1017 kg/mЁ deeper inside.
Fig.7. Probability structure of neutron star.
In general, compact stars of less than 1.44 solar masses, the Chandrasekhar limit, are white dwarfs; above 2 to 3 solar masses (the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit), a quark star might be created, however this is uncertain. Gravitational collapse will always occur on any star over 5 solar masses, inevitably producing a black hole.
The gravitational field at the star's surface is about 2в1011 times stronger than on Earth. The escape velocity is about 100,000 km/s, which is about one third the speed of light. Such a strong gravitational field acts as a gravitational lens and bends the radiation emitted by the star such that parts of the normally invisible spectrum near the surface become visible.
The gravitational binding energy of a two solar mass neutron star is equivalent to the total conversion of one solar mass to energy (From the law of mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2). That energy was released during the supernova explosion.
A neutron star is so dense that one teaspoon (5 millilitre) of its material would have a mass over 5в1012 kg. The resulting force of gravity is so strong that if an object were to fall from just one meter high it would hit the surface of the neutron star at 2 thousand kilometers per second, or 4.3 million miles per hour.
The Equation of state (EOS) for a Neutron star is still not known as of 2008[update].
On the basis of current models, the matter at the surface of a neutron star is composed of ordinary atomic nuclei as well as electrons.
Innovations and computations
Short information about atom and nuclei. Conventional matter consists of atoms and molecules. Molecules are collection of atoms. The atom contains a nucleus with proton(s) and usually neutrons (Except for Hydrogen-1) and electrons revolve around this nucleus. Every particle may be characterized by parameters as mass, charge, spin, electric dipole, magnetic moment, etc. There are four forces active between particles: strong interaction, weak interaction, electromagnetic charge (Coulomb) force and gravitational force. The nuclear force dominates at distances up to 2 fm (femto, 1 fm = 10-15 m). They are hundreds of times more powerful than the charge (Coulomb force and million-millions of times more than gravitational force. Charge (Coulomb) force is effective at distances over 2 fm. Gravitational force is significant near and into big masses (astronomical objects such as planets, stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes). Strong force is so overwhelmingly powerful that it forces together the positively charged protons, which would repel one from the other and fly apart without it. The strong force is key to the relationship between protons, neutrons and electrons. They can keep electrons into or near nuclei. Scientists conventionally take into attention only of the strong force when they consider the nuclear and near nuclear size range, for the other forces on that scale are negligible by comparison for most purposes.
Strong nuclear forces are anisotropic (non spherical, force distribution not the same in all directions equally), which means that they depend on the relative orientation of the nucleus.
Typical nuclear energy (force) is presented in fig.8. When it is positive the nuclear force repels the other atomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons). When nuclear energy is negative, it attracts them up to a distance of about 2 fm. The value r0 usually is taken as radius of nucleus. The computation of strong nuclear force - interaction energy of one nucleus via specific density of one nucleus in given point - is present in Fig.9. The solid line is as computed by Berkner's method  with 2 correlations, dotted line is computer generated with 3 correlations, square is experimental. Average interaction energy between to nucleus is about 8 MeV, distance where the attractive strong nuclear force activates is at about 1 - 1.2 fm.
Fig.8. Typical nuclear force of nucleus. When nucleon is at distance of less than 1.8 fm, it is attracted to nucleus. When nucleon is very close, it is repulsed from nucleus.
(Reference from http://www.physicum.narod.ru , Vol. 5 p. 670).
Fig.9. Connection (interaction) energy of one nucleon via specific density of one nucleon in given point. Firm line is computed by Berkner's method with 2 correlations, dotted line is computer with 3 correlations, square is experiment. (Reference from http://www.physicum.narod.ru , Vol. 5 p. 655).
2. AB-Matter. In conventional matter made of atoms and molecules the nucleons (protons, neutrons) are located in the nucleus, but the electrons rotate in orbits around nucleus in distance in millions times more than diameter of nucleus. Therefore, in essence, what we think of as solid matter contains a -- relatively! --`gigantic' vacuum (free space) where the matter (nuclei) occupies but a very small part of the available space. Despite this unearthly emptiness, when you compress this (normal, non-degenerate) matter the electrons located in their orbits repel atom from atom and resist any great increase of the matter's density. Thus it feels solid to the touch.
The form of matter containing and subsuming all the atom's particles into the nucleus is named degenerate matter. Degenerate matter found in white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Conventionally this matter in such large astronomical objects has a high temperature (as independent particles!) and a high gravity adding a forcing, confining pressure in a very massive celestial objects. In nature, degenerate matter exists stably (as a big lump) to our knowledge only in large astronomical masses (include their surface where gravitation pressure is zero) and into big nuclei of conventional matter.
Our purpose is to design artificial small masses of synthetic degenerate matter in form of an extremely thin strong thread (fiber, filament, string), round bar (rod), tube, net (dense or non dense weave and mesh size) which can exist at Earth-normal temperatures and pressures. Note that such stabilized degenerate matter in small amounts does not exist in Nature as far as we know. Therefore I have named this matter AB-Matter. Just as people now design by the thousands variants of artificial materials (for example, plastics) from usual matter, we soon (historically speaking) shall create many artificial, designer materials by nanotechnology (for example, nanotubes: SWNTs (amchair, zigzag, ahiral, graphen), MWNTs (fullorite, torus, nanobut), nanoribbon (plate), buckyballs (ball), fullerene). Sooner or later we may anticipate development of femtotechnology and create such AB-Matter. Some possible forms of AB-Matter are shown in fig.10. Offered technologies are below. The threads from AB-Matter are stronger by millions of times than normal materials. They can be inserted as reinforcements, into conventional materials, which serve as a matrix, and are thus strengthened by thousands of times (see computation section).
2. Some offered technologies for producing AB-Matter. One method of producing AB-Matter may use the technology reminiscent of computer chips (fig.11). One side of closed box 1 is evaporation mask 2. In the other size are located the sources of neutrons, charged nuclear particles (protons, charged nuclei and their connections) and electrons. Sources (guns) of charged particles have accelerators of particles and control their energy and direction. They concentrate (focus) particles, send particles (in beam form) to needed points with needed energy for overcoming the Coulomb barrier. The needed neutrons are received also from nuclear reactions and reflected by the containing walls.
Fig.10. Design of AB-Matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.) and electrons (a) linear one string (monofilament) (fiber, whisker, filament, thread); (b) ingot from four nuclear monofilaments; (c) multi-ingot from nuclear monofilament; (d) string made from protons and neutrons with electrons rotated around monofilament; (e) single wall femto tube (SWFT) fiber with rotated electrons; (f) cross-section of multi wall femto tube (MWFT) string; (g) cross-section of rod; (h) - single wall femto tube (SWFT) string with electrons inserted into AB-Matter. Notations: 1 - nuclear string; 2 - nucleons (neutrons, protons, etc.). 3 - protons; 4 - orbit of electrons; 5 - electrons; 6 - cloud of electrons around tube.
Various other means are under consideration for generation of AB-Matter, what is certain however that once the first small amounts have been achieved, larger and larger amounts will be produced with ever increasing ease. Consider for example, that once we have achieved the ability to make a solid AB-Matter film (a sliced plane through a solid block of AB-matter), and then developed the ability to place holes with precision through it one nucleon wide, a modified extrusion technique may produce AB-Matter strings (thin fiber), by passage of conventional matter in gas, liquid or solid state through the AB-Matter matrix (mask). This would be a `femto-die' as Joseph Friedlander of Shave Shomron, Israel, has labeled it. Re-assembling these strings with perfect precision and alignment would produce more AB-matter film; leaving deliberate gaps would reproduce the `holes' in the initial `femto-die'.
The developing of femtotechnology is easier, in one sense, than the developing of fully controllable nanotechnology because we have only three main particles (protons, neutrons, their ready combination of nuclei 2D, 3T, 4He, etc., and electrons) as construction material and developed methods of their energy control, focusing and direction.
Fig.11. Conceptual diagram for installation producing AB-Matter. Notations: 1 - installation; 2 -AB-Matter (an extremely thin thread, round bar, rod, tube, net) and form mask; 3 - neutron source; 4 - source of charged particles (protons, charged nuclei), accelerator of charged particle, throttle control, beam control; 5 - source of electrons, accelerator of electrons, throttle control, beam control; 6 - cloud of particles; 7 - walls reflect the neutrons and utilize the nuclear energy.
3. Using the AB-Matter (fig.12). The simplest use of AB-Matter is strengthening and reinforcing conventional material by AB-Matter fiber. As it is shown in the `Computation' section, AB-Matter fiber is stronger (has a gigantic ultimate tensile stress) than conventional material by a factor of millions of times, can endure millions degrees of temperature, don't accept any attacking chemical reactions. We can insert (for example, by casting around the reinforcement) AB-Matter fiber (or net) into steel, aluminum, plastic and the resultant matrix of conventional material increases in strength by thousands of times--if precautions are taken that the reinforcement stays put! Because of the extreme strength disparity design tricks must be used to assure that the fibers stay `rooted'. The matrix form of conventional artificial fiber reinforcement is used widely in current technology. This increases the tensile stress resistance of the reinforced matrix matter by typically 2 - 4 times. Engineers dream about a nanotube reinforcement of conventional matrix materials which might increase the tensile stress by 10 - 20 times, but nanotubes are very expensive and researchers cannot decrease its cost to acceptable values yet despite years of effort.
Another way is using a construct of AB-Matter as a continuous film or net (fig. 13).
Fig.12. Thin film from nuclear matter. (a) cross-section of a matter film from single strings (side view); (b) continuous film from nuclear matter; (c) AB film under blow from conventional molecular matter; (d) - net from single strings. Notations: 1 - nucleons; 2 - electrons inserted into AB-Matter; 3 - conventional atom.
Fig.13. Structures from nuclear strings. (a) nuclear net (netting, gauze); (b) primary cube from matter string; (c) primary column from nuclear string; (d) large column where elements made from primary columns; (e) tubes from matter string or matter columns.
These forms of AB-Matter have such miraculous properties as invisibility, superconductivity, zero friction, etc. The ultimate in camouflage, installations of a veritable Invisible World can be built from certain forms of AB-Matter with the possibility of being also interpenetable, literally allowing ghost-like passage through an apparently solid wall. Or the AB-Matter net (of different construction) can be designed as an impenetrable wall that even hugely destructive weapons cannot penetrate.
The AB-Matter film and net may be used for energy storage which can store up huge energy intensities and used also as rocket engines with gigantic impulse or weapon or absolute armor (see computation and application sections). Note that in the case of absolute armor, safeguards must be in place against buffering sudden accelerations; g-force shocks can kill even though nothing penetrates the armor!
The AB-Matter net (which can be designed to be gas-impermeable) may be used for inflatable construction of such strength and lightness as to be able to suspend the weight of a city over a vast span the width of a sea. AB-Matter may also be used for cubic or tower solid construction as it is shown in fig.13.
Estimation and Computation of Properties of AB-Matter
1. Strength of AB-Matter.
Strength (tensile stress) of single string (AB-Matter monofilament). The average connection energy of two nucleons is
1 eV = 1.6в10-19 J, E = 8 MeV = 12.8в10-13 J. (1)
The average effective distance of the strong force is about l = 2 fm =2в10-15 m (1 fm = 10-15 m). The average connection force F the single thread is about
F1 = E/l = 6.4в102 N . (2)
This is worth your attention: a thread having diameter 100 thousand times less than an atom's diameter can suspend a weight nearly of human mass. The man may be suspended this invisible and permeable thread(s) and people will not understand how one fly.
Specific ultimate tensile stress of single string for cross-section area s = 2в2 = 4 fm2 =4в10-30 m2 is
? = F/s = 1.6в1032 N/m2. (3)
Compressive stress for E = 30 MeV and l = 0.4 fm (fig.1) is
? = E/sl = 3в1033 N/m2. (4)
The Young's modulus of tensile stress for elongation of break ? =1 is
I = ?/? = 1.6в1032 N/m2. (5)
The Young's modulus of compressive stress for ? =0.4 is
I = ?/? = 7.5в1033 N/m2. (6)
Comparison: Stainless steel has a value of ? = (0.65 - 1)в109 N/m2, I = 2в1011 N/m2. Nanotubes has ? = (1.4 ¤ 5)в1010 N/m2, I = 8в1011 N/m2 . That means AB-Matter is stronger by a factor of 1023 times than steel (by 100 thousands billion by billions times!) and by 1022 times than nanotubes (by 10 thousand billion by billions times!). Young's modulus, and the elastic modulus also are billions of times more than steel and elongation is tens times better than the elongation of steel.
Strength (average tensile force) of one m thin (one layer, 1 fm) film (1 m compact net) from single strings with step size of grid l = 2 fm =2в10-15 m is
F = F1 /l = 3.2в1017 N/m = 3.2в1013 tons/m. (7)
Strength (average tensile force) of net from single string with step (mesh) size l = 10-10 m (less than a molecule size of conventional matter) which does not pass the any usual gas, liquids or solid (an impermeable net, essentially a film to ordinary matter)
F = F1 /l = 6.4в1012 N/m = 6.4в108 tons/m. (8)
That means one meter of very thin (1 fm) net can suspend 100 millions tons of load.
The tensile stress of a permeable net (it will be considered later) having l = 10-7 m is
F = F1 /l = 6.4в109 N/m = 6.4в105 tons/m. (9)
2. Specific density and specific strength of AB-Matter.
The mass of 1 m of single string (AB-Matter. Monofilament) is
M1 = m/l =1.67в10-27/(2в10-15) = 8.35в10-13 kg. (10)
where m = 1.67в10-27 kg is mass of one nucleon; l = 2в10-15 is distance between nucleons, m., the volume of 1 m one string is v = 10-30 m3. That means the specific density of AB-Matter string and compact net is
d = ? = M1/v = 8.35в1017 kg/m3. (11)
That is very high (nuclear) specific density. But the total mass is nothing to be afraid of since, the dimensions of AB-Matter string, film and net are very small and mass of them are:
a) mass of string M1 = 8.35в10-13 kg (see (10)), (12)
b) mass of 1 m2 solid film Mf = M1/l = 4.17в102 kg, l = 2в10-15. (13)
c) mass of 1 m2 impenetrable net Mi = M1/l = 8.35в10-3 kg, l = 10-10 m, (14)
d) mass of 1 m2 permeable net Mp = M1/l = 8.35в10-6 kg, l = 10-7 m . (15)
As you see the fiber, nets from AB-Matter have very high strength and very small mass. To provide an absolute heat shield for the Space Shuttle Orbiter that could withstand reentries dozens of times worse than today would take only ~100 kilograms of mass for 1105 square meters of surface and the offsetting supports.
The specific strength coefficient of AB-Matter-- very important in aerospace-- -]5] is
k = ?/d = 1.6в1032 /8.35в1017 =1.9в1014 (m/s)2 < c2 = (3в108 )2 = 9в1016 (m/s)2.(16)
This coefficient from conventional high strong fiber has value about k = (1 - 6) в109 -.
AB-Matter is 10 million times stronger.
The specific mass and volume density of energy with AB-Matter are
Ev = E/v =1.6в1032 J/m3 , Em = E/mp =7.66в1014 J/kg . (17)
Here E=12.8в10-13 J is (1), mp = 1.67в10-27 kg is nucleon mass, kg, v = 8в10-45 m3 is volume of one nucleon. The average specific pressure may reach
p=F1/s=12.8в10-13/4в10-30 =3.2в10-27 N/m2.
3. Failure temperature of AB-Matter and suitability for thermonuclear reactors.
The strong nuclear force is very powerful. That means the outer temperature which must to be reached to destroy the AB fiber, film or net is Te = 6 MeV. If we transfer this temperature in Kelvin degrees we get
Tk = 1.16в104 Te = 7в1010K. (18)
That temperature is 10 thousands millions degrees. It is about 50 - 100 times more than temperature in a fusion nuclear reactor. The size and design of the fusion reactor may be small and simple (for example, without big superconductive magnets, cryogenics, etc). We can add the AB matter has zero heat/thermal conductivity (see later) and it cannot cool the nuclear plasma. This temperature is enough for nuclear reaction of the cheap nuclear fuel, for example, D + D. The AB matter may be used in a high efficiency rocket and jet engines, in a hypersonic aircraft and so on.
No even in theory can conventional materials have this fantastic thermal resistance!
4. Energy generated by production of AB-Matter.
Getting of AB-matter produces a large amount of nuclear energy. That energy is more than the best thermonuclear fusion reaction produces. Joining of each nucleon produces 8 MeV energy, when joining the deuterium D and tritium T (2+3=5 nucleolus) produced only 17.5 MeV (3.6 MeV for every nucleon). If we use the ready blocks of nucleons as the D=2H, T=3H, 4He, etc., the produced energy decreases. Using the ready nucleus blocks may be necessary because these reactions create the neutrons (n). For example:
2H + 2H ? 3He + n + 3.27 MeV, 3H + 2H ?4He + n + 17.59 MeV , (19)
which may be useful for producing the needed AB-Matter.
Using the ready blocks of nucleons decreases the energy getting in AB-Matter production but that decreases also the cost of needed material and enormously simplifies the technology.
A small part (0.7 MeV) of this needed energy will be spent to overcome the Coulomb barrier when the proton joins to proton. Connection of neutrons to neutron or proton does not request this energy (as there is no repulsion of charges). It should be no problem for current technology to accelerate the protons for energy 0.7 MeV.
For example, compute the energy in production of m = 1 gram = 0.001 kg of AB-Matter.
E1g = E1m/mp = 7.66в1011 J/g . (20)
Here E1= 8 MeV= 12.8в10-13 J - energy produced for joining 1 nucleon, mp =1.67в10-27 kg is mass of nucleon.
One kg of gasoline (benzene) produces 44 MJ/kg energy. That means that 1 g of AB-Matter requires the equivalent energy of 17.4 tons of benzene.
5. Super-dielectric strength of AB-Matter film. Dielectric strength equals
Ed = E/l =8 MV/10-15 m= 8в1015 MV/m . (21)
The best conventional material has dielectric strength of only 680 MV/m .
6. AB-Matter with orbiting electrons or immersed in electron cloud. We considered early the AB-Matter which contains the electrons within its' own string, film or net. The strong nuclear force keeps the electron (as any conventional matter particle would) in its sphere of influence. But another method of interaction and compensation of electric charges is possible- rotation of electrons around AB-Matter string (or other linear member) or immersing the AB-Matter string (or other linear member, or AB-Matter net --) in a sea of electrons or negative charged atoms (ions). The first case is shown in fig. 3d,e,g , the second case is shown in fig. 3f.
The first case looks like an atom of conventional matter having the orbiting electron around the nucleus. However our case has a principal difference from conventional matter. In normal matter the electron orbits around the nucleus as a POINT. In our case it orbits around the charged nuclear material (AB-Matter) LINE (some form of linear member from AB-Matter). That gives a very important difference in electrostatic force acting on the electron. In conventional cases (normal molecular matter) the electrostatic force decreases as 1/r2, in our AB-Matter case the electrostatic force decreases as 1/r. The interesting result (see below) is that the electron orbit in AB-Matter does follow the usual speed relationship to radius. The proof is below:
where m = me = 9.11в10-31 kg; V - electron speed, m/s; r is radius of electron orbit, m; ? is charge density in 1 m of single string, C/m; E is electrostatic intensity, A/m or N/C; k = 9в109 Nm2/C2 is electrostatic constant, e = 1.6в10-19 C is charge of electron, C; Np is number of proton in 1 m of single string, 1/m. As you see from last equation (22) the electron speed is not relative to radius. The real speed will be significantly less than given equation (22) because the other electrons block the charge of the rest of the string.
The total charge of the system is zero. Therefore we can put Np =1 (every electron in orbit is kept by only one proton in string). From last equation (22) we find V = 22.4 m/s. That means the electron speed carries only a very small energy.
In the second case the AB-Matter (string girder) can swim in a cloud (sea) of electrons. That case occurs in metals of conventional matter. But a lattice of metallic ions fills the volume of conventional metal giving drag to electron flow (causing electrical resistance).
The stringers and plate nets of AB-Matter can locate along the direction of electric flow. They constitute only a relatively tiny volume and will produce very small electric resistance. That means the AB-Matter may be quasi-super-conductivity or super-conductivity.
The electrons rotate around an AB-Matter string repel one from other. The tensile force from them is
For distance d = 2в10-15 m the force equals F = 10.5 N. This force keeps the string and net in unfolded stable form.
Some Properties of AB-Matter
We spoke about the fantastic tensile and compressive strength, rigidity, hardness, specific strength, thermal (temperature) durability, thermal shock, and big elongation of AB-Matter.
Short note about other miraculous AB-Matter properties:
1. Zero heat/thermal capacity. That follows because the mass of nucleons (AB-Matter string, film, net) is large in comparison with mass single atom or molecule and nucleons in AB-Matter have a very strong connection one to other. Conventional atoms and molecules cannot pass their paltry energy to AB-Matter! That would be equivalent to moving a huge dry-dock door of steel by impacting it with very light table tennis balls.
2. Zero heat/thermal conductivity. (See above).
3. Absolute chemical stability. No corrosion, material fatigue. Infinity of lifetime. All chemical reactions are acted through ORBITAL electron of atoms. The AB-Matter does not have orbital electrons (special cases will be considered later on). Nucleons cannot combine with usual atoms having electrons. In particular, the AB-Matter has absolute corrosion resistance. No fatigue of material because in conventional material fatigue is result of splits between material crystals. No crystals in AB-Matter. That means AB-Matter has lifetime equal to the lifetime of neutrons themselves. Finally a container for the universal solvent!
4. Super-transparency, invisibility of special AB-Matter-nets. An AB-Matter net having a step distance (mesh size) between strings or monofilaments of more than 100 fm = 10-13 m will pass visible light having the wave length (400 - 800)в10-9 m. You can make cars, aircraft, and space ships from such a permeable (for visible light) AB-Matter net and you will see a man (who is made from conventional matter) apparently sitting on nothing, traveling with high speed in atmosphere or space without visible means of support or any visible vehicle!
5. Impenetrability for gas, liquids, and solid bodies. When the AB-Matter net has a step size between strings of less than atomic size of 10-10 m, it became impenetrabile for conventional matter. Simultaneously it may be invisible for people and have gigantic strength. The AB-Matter net may -as armor--protect from gun, cannon shells and missiles.
6. Super-impenetrability for radiation. If the cell size of the AB-Matter net will be less than a wave length of a given radiation, the AB-Matter net does not pass this radiation. Because this cell size may be very small, AB net is perfect protection from any radiation up to soft gamma radiation (include radiation from nuclear bomb).
7. Full reflectivity (super-reflectivity). If the cell size of an AB-Matter net will be less than a wavelength of a given radiation, the AB-Matter net will then fully reflect this radiation. With perfect reflection and perfect impenetrability remarkable optical systems are possible. A Fresnel like lens might also be constructible of AB-Matter.
8. Permeable property (ghost-like intangibility power; super-passing capacity). The AB-Matter net from single strings having mesh size between strings of more than 100 nm = 10-11 m will pass the atoms and molecules through itself because the diameter of the single string (2в10-15 m) is 100 thousand times less then diameter of atom (3в10-10 m). That means that specifically engineered constructions from AB-Matter can be built on the Earth, but people will not see and feel them. The power to phase through walls, vaults, and barriers has occasionally been portrayed in science fiction but here is a real life possibility of it happening.
9. Zero friction. If the AB-Matter net has a mesh size distance between strings equals or less to the atom (3в10-10 m), it has an ideal flat surface. That means the mechanical friction may be zero. It is very important for aircraft, sea ships and vehicles because about 90% of its energy they spend in friction. Such a perfect surface would be of vast value in optics, nanotech molecular assembly and prototyping, physics labs, etc.
10. Super or quasi-super electric conductivity at any temperature. As it is shown in previous section the AB-Matter string can have outer electrons in an arrangement similar to the electronic cloud into metal. But AB-Matter strings (threads) can be located along the direction of the electric intensity and they will not resist the electron flow. That means the electric resistance will be zero or very small.
11. High dielectric strength (see (21)).
AB-Matter may be used for devices to produce high magnetic intensity.
Applications and new systems in Aerospace and aviation
The applications of the AB-Matter are encyclopedic in scope. This matter will create revolutions in many fields of human activity. We show only non-usual applications in aerospace, aviation that come to mind, and by no means all of these.
1. Storage of gigantic energy.
As it is shown in -, the energy saved by flywheel equals the special mass density of material (17). As you see that is a gigantic value of stored energy because of the extreme values afforded by the strong nuclear force. Car having a pair of 1 gram counterspun fly-wheels (2 grams total) (20) charged at the factory can run all its life without benzene. Aircraft or sea ships having 100 gram (two 50 gram counterspun fly-wheels) can fly or swim all its life without additional fuel. The offered flywheel storage can has zero friction and indefinite energy storage time.
2. New propulsion system of space ship.
The most important characteristic of rocket engine is specific impulse (speed of gas or other material flow out from propulsion system). Let us compute the speed of a part of fly-wheel ejected from the offered rocket system
Here V is speed of nucleon, m/s; E = 12.8в10-13 J (1) is energy of one nucleon, J; m = 1,67в10-27 kg is mass of one nucleon, kg. The value (24) is about 13% of light speed.
The chemical rocket engine has specific impulse about 3700 m/s. That value is 10 thousand times less. The electric rocket system has a high specific impulse but requires a powerful compact and light source of energy. In the offered rocket engine the energy is saved in the flywheel. The current projects of a nuclear rocket are very complex, heavy, and dangerous for men (gamma and neutron radiation) and have specific impulse of thousand of times less (24). The offered AB-Matter rocket engine may be very small and produced any rocket thrust in any moment in any direction.
The offered flywheel rocket engine used the AB-matter is presented in fig.7a. That is flywheel made from AB-matter. It has a nozzle 3 having control of exit mass. The control allows to exit of work mass in given moment and in given position of flywheel. The flywheel rotates high speed and the exhaust mass leave the rocket engine with same speed when the nozzle is open. In result the engine has thrust 6. As exhaust mass may be used any mass: liquid (for example, water), sand, small stones and other suitable planet or space material (mass). The energy needed for engine and space ship is saved in the revolving flywheel. This energy may be received at started planet or from space ship engine.
Fig. 14. Schema of new rocket and propulsion system. (a) Propulsion system from AB matter and storage energy. (b) Rocket with offered propulsion system.
Notations: 1 - cover (flywheel) from AB-matter; 2 - any work mass; 3 - nozzle with control of exit mass; 4 - direction of rotation; 5 - direction of exhaust mass; 6 - thrust; 7 - space ship; 8 - offered propulsion system; 9 - undercarriage; 10 - rotary mechanism; 11 - planet surface.
The rocket used the suggested engine is shown in fig, 7b. That has a cabin 7, the offered propulsion system 8, undercarriage 9 and rotary mechanism 10 for turning the ship in need position.
Let us to estimate the possibility of offered rocket. Notate, the relation of the exhaust mass to AM-matter cover mass of flywheel are taken a = 10, the safety (strength) factor b = 4. About 20% of space ship is payload and construction and 80% is the exhaust mass. Then exhaust speed of throw away mass and receiving speed by space ship are:
where V speed of exhausted mass, m/s; k = ?/d = 1.9в1014 (m/s)2 is strength coefficient (16); ms is final mass of rocket, kg; Vs = 8480 km/s is final speed of rocket, m/s; m is throw off mass, kg.
Let us to remind the escape speed of planets.
Table 1. Some data and escape speed from planets of Solar system.
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