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Данные об экономике и государственном устройстве Ливии

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  • Аннотация:
    Данные об экономике и государственном устройстве Ливии, скопированные из CIA World Factbook 2011.

  Данные об экономике и государственном устройстве Ливии, скопированные из CIA World Factbook 2011. Основная цель данного файла - иметь под рукой, через 3-4 года, материал для сравнения этой страны под управлением "исчадия ада" Каддафи (т.е. до весны 2011 года) и её же под управлением неведомой "революционной оппозиции". Иракский и постсоветский опыт показывают, что, через несколько лет после воцарения прозападного режима, "дореволюционные" показатели начинают смотреться настолько неправдоподобно хорошо, что поневоле хочется проверить самого себя, не изменила ли мне память, и вправду ли Валовой Внутренний Продукт, скажем, уполовинился за последние полдесятилетия. Чтобы не было подобных сомнений - я делаю эту копию.
  
  People and Society:
  Nationality:
  noun: Libyan(s)
  adjective: Libyan
  
  Ethnic groups:
  Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
  
  Religions:
  Sunni Muslim (official) 97%, other 3%
  
  Languages:
  Arabic (official), Italian, English
  note: all are widely understood in the major cities
  
  Population:
  6,597,960 (July 2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 102
  note: includes 166,510 non-nationals
  
  Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32.8% (male 1,104,590/female 1,057,359)
  15-64 years: 62.7% (male 2,124,053/female 2,011,226)
  65 years and over: 4.6% (male 146,956/female 153,776) (2011 est.)
  
  Median age:
  total: 24.5 years
  male: 24.5 years
  female: 24.4 years (2011 est.)
  
  Population growth rate:
  2.064% (2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 44
  
  Birth rate:
  24.04 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 68
  
  Death rate:
  3.4 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 212
  
  Net migration rate:
  0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 94
  
  Urbanization:
  urban population: 78% of total population (2010)
  rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
  
  Major cities - population:
  TRIPOLI (capital) 1.095 million (2009)
  
  Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
  total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
  
  Maternal mortality rate:
  64 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
  
  Infant mortality rate:
  total: 20.09 deaths/1,000 live births
  country comparison to the world: 98
  male: 22.06 deaths/1,000 live births
  female: 18.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
  
  Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.65 years
  country comparison to the world: 58
  male: 75.34 years
  female: 80.08 years (2011 est.)
  
  Total fertility rate:
  2.96 children born/woman (2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 66
  
  Health expenditures:
  6.6% of GDP (2009)
  
  Physicians density:
  1.9 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
  
  Hospital bed density:
  3.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
  
  Drinking water source:
  improved: urban: 54% of population
  rural: 55% of population
  total: 54% of population
  unimproved: urban: 46% of population
  rural: 45% of population
  total: 46% of population (2000)
  
  Sanitation facility access:
  improved: urban: 97% of population
  rural: 96% of population
  total: 97% of population
  unimproved: urban: 3% of population
  rural: 4% of population
  total: 3% of population (2008)
  
  HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
  0.3% (2001 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 81
  
  HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
  10,000 (2001 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 95
  
  HIV/AIDS - deaths:
  NA
  
  Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
  5.6% (2007)
  
  Education expenditures:
  NA
  
  Literacy:
  definition: age 15 and over can read and write
  total population: 82.6%
  male: 92.4%
  female: 72% (2003 est.)
  
  School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
  total: 17 years
  male: 16 years
  female: 17 years (2003)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Economy:
  The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, 25% of GDP, and 80% of government revenue. The weakness in world hydrocarbon prices in 2009 reduced Libyan government tax income and constrained economic growth. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. The process of lifting US unilateral sanctions began in the spring of 2004; all sanctions were removed by June 2006, helping Libya attract greater foreign direct investment, especially in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Corporation (NOC) set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2012. In November 2009, the NOC announced that that target may slip to as late as 2017. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.
  
  GDP (purchasing power parity):
  $90.57 billion (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 74
  $86.95 billion (2009 est.)
  $89.01 billion (2008 est.)
  note: data are in 2010 US dollars
  
  GDP (official exchange rate):
  $74.23 billion (2010 est.)
  
  GDP - real growth rate:
  4.2% (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 91
  -2.3% (2009 est.)
  2.3% (2008 est.)
  
  GDP - per capita (PPP):
  $14,000 (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 82
  $13,700 (2009 est.)
  $14,400 (2008 est.)
  note: data are in 2010 US dollars
  
  GDP - composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.6%
  industry: 62.9%
  services: 34.6% (2010 est.)
  
  Labor force:
  1.729 million (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 124
  
  Labor force - by occupation:
  agriculture: 17%
  industry: 23%
  services: 59% (2004 est.)
  
  Unemployment rate:
  30% (2004 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 176
  
  Population below poverty line:
  NA
  note: About one-third of Libyans live at or below the national poverty line
  
  Household income or consumption by percentage share:
  lowest 10%: NA%
  highest 10%: NA%
  
  Investment (gross fixed):
  13% of GDP (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 140
  
  Budget:
  revenues: $45.85 billion
  expenditures: $38.75 billion (2010 est.)
  
  Taxes and other revenues:
  61.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 10
  
  Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
  9.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 8
  
  Public debt:
  3.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 133
  3.9% of GDP (2009 est.)
  
  Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  2.5% (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 81
  2.4% (2009 est.)
  
  Central bank discount rate:
  4% (31 December 2009)
  country comparison to the world: 85
  5% (31 December 2008)
  
  Commercial bank prime lending rate:
  6% (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 148
  6% (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Stock of narrow money:
  $29.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 56
  $29.82 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Stock of broad money:
  $35.98 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 70
  $36.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Stock of domestic credit:
  $45.59 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 66
  $41.82 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Market value of publicly traded shares:
  $NA
  
  Agriculture - products:
  wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
  
  Industries:
  petroleum, petrochemicals, aluminum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
  
  Industrial production growth rate:
  2.7% (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 122
  
  Electricity - production:
  26.95 billion kWh (2008 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 64
  
  Electricity - consumption:
  22.89 billion kWh (2008 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 66
  
  Electricity - exports:
  117 million kWh (2008 est.)
  
  Electricity - imports:
  48 million kWh (2008 est.)
  
  Oil - production:
  1.789 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 18
  
  Oil - consumption:
  289,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 46
  
  Oil - exports:
  1.385 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 18
  
  Oil - imports:
  575 bbl/day (2009 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 199
  
  Oil - proved reserves:
  46.42 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 9
  
  Natural gas - production:
  15.9 billion cu m (2009 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 33
  
  Natural gas - consumption:
  6.01 billion cu m (2009 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 56
  
  Natural gas - exports:
  9.89 billion cu m (2009 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 21
  
  Natural gas - imports:
  0 cu m (2009 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 84
  
  Natural gas - proved reserves:
  1.548 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 23
  
  Current account balance:
  $16.16 billion (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 17
  $9.381 billion (2009 est.)
  
  Exports:
  $46.31 billion (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 58
  $37.06 billion (2009 est.)
  
  Exports - commodities:
  crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
  
  Exports - partners:
  Italy 31.6%, France 13%, China 9.2%, Spain 9.1%, Germany 8.4%, US 4.5% (2010)
  
  Imports:
  $24.65 billion (2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 64
  $22 billion (2009 est.)
  
  Imports - commodities:
  machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
  
  Imports - partners:
  Italy 16.3%, China 10.3%, Turkey 9.7%, France 6.8%, Germany 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, Egypt 5.7%, Tunisia 4.8% (2010)
  
  Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
  $99.84 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 20
  $98.92 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Debt - external:
  $6.386 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 99
  $5.884 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
  $17.08 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 71
  $14.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
  $15.32 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
  country comparison to the world: 49
  $13.92 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
  
  Exchange rates:
  Libyan dinars (LYD) per US dollar -
  1.2648 (2010)
  1.2535 (2009)
  1.2112 (2008)
  1.2604 (2007)
  1.3108 (2006)

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