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Грамматика английского языка

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    Упражнения по грамматике английского языка (с ответами). Редакция, решение и поиск материала - Роман Луценко, 2016.


   Part II. SYNTAX

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

   Exercise 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.
   Laura was terribly nervous.(A declarative sentence, affirmative, two member sentence, full, predicate: a compound nominal predicate, extended: no independent elements, no adv mod). Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by, "Is this Mrs. Scott's house?"(interrogative (вопросительные) general Q, two-member sentence),and the woman, smiling queerly, said, "It is, my lass."(declarative)Oh, to be away from this!(exclamatory) She actually said, "Help me God!" (imperative, formulaic expression) as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. (declarative, 2 member sentence, homogeneous members, subj: 3rd person singular personal pronoun)To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in anything, one of those women's shawls even!(exclamatory (восклицательные), extended , elliptical). I'll just leave the basket and go, she decided.(declarative complex sentence: 2-member sentence, extended, full, the subject is a personal pronoun, verbal predicate (simple), homogeneous members). I shan't even wait for it to be emptied.(declarative: negative 2-member sentence, extended, full, the subject is a personal pronoun, simple predicate, adv mod of purpose)
   Then the door opened. (declarative: 2-member sentence , extended, full, asimple predicate). A little woman in black showed in the gloom.(declarative: simple, 2-member sentence, extended, full, a simple predicate).
   Laura said, "Are you Mrs. Scott?"(interrogative sentence: general Q) But to her horror the woman answered, "Walk in, please, miss,"(imperative) and she was shut in the passage.(declarative) "No," said Laura, "I don't want to come in. (declarative: negative) I only want to leave this basket."(declarative)
   The little woman in the gloomy passage seemed not to hear her. (declarative: negative) "Step this way, please, miss,"(imperative) she said in an oily voice, and Laura followed her. (declarative)
  
   Exercise 2. Define the type of question.
   1. "Who is he?" I said.(special question) (or `wh'-question; "who" is the subject) "And why does he sit always alone, with his back to us too?" (special Q) 2. "Did she have a chill?" he asked, his eyes upon the floor. (general Q)3. You have Mr. Eden's address, haven't you, Mr. Ends? (Tag/disjunctive Q) 4. Is literature less human than the architecture and sculpture of Egypt?(General Q) 5. We shall be having some sort of celebration for the bride, shan't we, Mr. Crawley? (Tag/disjunctive question) 6. "Can I see the manager?" I said, and added politely, "alone." (General Q)7. When had the carriage been back from taking Miss June to the station? (Special)8. What is the meaning of that? (Special) She is going to live in the house, isn't she? (disjunctive/tag)9. He couldn't understand what Irene found wrong with him: it was not as if he drank. Did he run into debt, or gamble or swear? (Alternative Q)10. Were you talking about the house?(General Q) I haven't seen it yet, you know. Shall we all go on Sunday? (General Q)11. Don't you realize it's quite against the rules to have him.(General) 12. How will you carry the bill into effect?(Special Q) Can you commit a whole country to their own prisons?(General Q)
  
   Exercise 3. Point out two-member sentences (say whether they are complete or elliptical) and one-member sentences.
   1. He stared amazed at the calmness of her answer. (Galsworthy) (2 member, complete)2. We must go to meet the bus(2-member, complete). Wouldn't do to miss it. (1 member, elliptical) 3. Obedient little trees, fulfilling their duty. (one-member sentence; nominal) 4. Lucretius knew very little about what was going on in the world. (2-member, complete) Lived like a mole in a burrow. Lived on his own fat like a bear in winter. (elliptical, 1 member) 5. He wants to write a play for me (2-member, full). One act. One man. (elliptical, 1 member, nominal)Decides to commit suicide. (Mansfield) (elliptical, 1 member)6. A beautiful day, quite warm. (1 member, elliptical)(Galsworthy) 7. "What do you want?" (2-member, complete) "Bandages, stuff for wounded." (1 member, elliptical)(Heym) 8. "How did he look?"(2-member, complete) "Grey but otherwise much the same." "And the daughter?" "Pretty." (1 member, elliptical)(Galsworthy) 9. And then the silence and the beauty of this camp at night. The stars. The mystic shadow water. The wonder and glory of all this. (1 member, elliptical, nominal)(Dreiser) 10. "I'll see nobody for half an hour, Macey," said the boss.(2-member, complete) "Understand? Nobody at all." (1 member, elliptical)(Mansfield) 11. "Mother, a man's been killed." (2 member, complete) "Not in the garden?" (1 member, elliptical) her mother. (Mansfield) 12. Garden at the Manor House. (nominal) A flight of grey stone steps leads up to the house. (2-member, complete) The garden, an old-fashioned one, full of roses. Time of year, July. Basket chairs, and a table covered with books, are set under a large yew tree. (Wilde) (1 member, elliptical, nominal)
  
   Exercise 4. Point out the subject and say by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian.
   1. At that moment the postman(a noun in the common case), looking like a German army officer, came in with the mail. (Mansfield) В тот самый момент почтальон, похожий на офицера немецкой армии/выглядящий как (... ), вошёл с письмом/ почтой. 2. The clock (a noun in the common case)struck eight. There was no sign of any of the other guests. Часы пробили восемь. Не было никаких знаков / ни единого знака (присутствия) других гостей/ Другие гости не собирались появляться.(Huxley) 3. Now, there is something (indefinite pronoun) peculiarly intimate in sharing an umbrella. (Mansfield) А вот в совместном использовании зонта есть что-то особенно сокровенное/ Сейчас есть что-то странно интимное в том, чтобы идти под одним зонтиком.4. Together we(pers. pronoun) walked through the mud and slush. (Mansfield) Вместе мы прошли сквозь грязь и слякоть/снеговую жижу.5. Something(indefinite pronoun)impersonal and humble in that action seemed to reassure the Consul. Что-то/Нечто беспристрастное и непритязательное в этом поступке, кажется, переубедило консула.(Cronin) 6. The sight of them, (a noun in the common case)so intent and so quick, gave Bertha a curious shiver. (Mansflied) Их взгляд, такой быстрый и полный решимости, (заставил Берту поёжиться)дал Берте чудной/необычный/возбужденный/любопытный трепет. 7. Eighto'clock(a group of words) in the morning. Miss Ada Moss(a noun in the common case) lay in a black iron bedstead, staring up at the ceiling. (Mansfield) Восемь утра. Мисс Ада Мосс валялась на чёрном железном остове (каркасе)кровати, уставившись в потолок.8. Still, thegoodofmankind(a group of words)wasworthworkingfor. Все еще (И всё же), добро человечества стоило того, чтобы работать на него(на добро)(Galsworthy) 9. Sometimes the past (a noun in the common case) injects itself into the present with a peculiar force. Иногда прошлое вводит себя/вторгается в настоящее с особенной силой.(Heym) 10. Forgetting some things(a gerundial phrase) is a difficult matter. (Voynich) Забывание некоторых вещей это серьезное дело. / Забыть что-то - дело нелёгкое. 11. To cross from one end to the other (an infinitive phrase)was difficult because of the water. Пройти из одного конца в другой было сложным из-за воды.(Heym) 12. "A person(a noun in the common case) doesn't have to be rich to be clean," Charles(a noun in the common case) said. (Braine) "Человеку не нужно быть богатым, чтобы быть чистоплотным", - сказал Чарльз. 13. There was an eagerness and excitement(a group of words) in the faces of the men. (Heym)Было рвение и волнение в лицах людей./общества. /Лица людей светились/сияли/сквозили рвением и волнением/желанием и возбуждением. 14....and Timothy's (a noun in the possessive case)was but oneof hundreds of such homes in this City of London... И квартира Тимотибыла не больше, чем одна из сотни похожих (квартир) в этом районе Сити в Лондоне.(Galsworthy) 15. Let's get out quick. It's(introductory it) no good wasting time. Давайтеспросим/выведаем/уйдем/сбежим (Давайтевыметаться.)быстро. Нет ничего хорошего в трате времени. / Бесполезно тратить время. (Maugham) 16. "Very well," said Soames(a noun in the common case), "then we know where we(personal pronoun) are." Очень хорошо, - сказал Соамс, теперь мы знаем, кто мы / где мы.(Galsworthy) 17. Now, to go through a stormy night and with wet clothes,and, in addition, to be ill nourished and not to have tasted meat for a week or a month(infinitive phrases), is about as severe a hardship as a man can undergo. Сейчас, пройти всю ночь в шторм, в мокрой одежде и, вдобавок, плохо питаться и не есть мяса неделю или месяц - это довольно тяжелое испытание, которое может вынести человек.18. She(personal pronoun) did not know. The "No"(quotation group) was stronger than her craving to be in Frisco's arms and forget this dreary existence. (Prichard) Она не знала. Отказ был сильнее, чем ее желание быть/оказаться в объятиях Фриско и (ее желание) забыть эту безотрадную действительность. 19. The mining industry(a group of words)might make wealth and power for a few men and women. But the many(indefinite pronoun) would always be smashed and battered beneath its giant treads. Горнодобывающая промышленность могла бы обеспечить кучку людей (мужчин и женщин) властью и богатством. Но всё остальное большинство (имеется в виду типа остальное население, рабочие) при этом непременно будут раздавлены и втоптаны в грязь гигантскими подошвами (ботинками) этих самых (власть имущих) людей. (Prichard) 20. Yes, that(demonstrative pronoun) did sound rather far-fetched and absurd. (Mansfield) Да, этозвучалодовольнонатянутоиабсурдно.21. This(demonstrative pronoun), of course, in her present mood, was so incredibly beautiful... She (personal pronoun) began to laugh. (Mansfield)Это, конечно, в ее настоящем расположении духа было так невероятно прекрасно. Онаначаласмеяться. 22. To live on good terms with people one (indefinite pronoun) must share their work and interests. Чтобы жить в хороших отношениях с людьми, нужно разделять их работу и интересы. (Prichard) 23. These three(numeral) deemed themselves the queens of the school. Эта троица (эти трое)считала (считали)себя королевами школы.(Ch. Bronte) 24. Whowere these people (a group of words)? Whatare they (personal pronoun)? Кембылиэтилюди?Ктоони?(Galsworthy) 25. His(possessive pronoun)was the harsh world of reality. No one(indefinite pronoun)could walk around his drawing. Егомирбылмиромсуровойреальности. Никтонемогподходитькегочерчению. (Stone) 26. Governing the district of Cremmen(a gerundial phrase)wasn't turning out to be an easy and pleasant job. Управление округом Креммен оказалось не такой уж легкой и приятной работой. (Heym) 27. The firing (noun in the common case) increased in volume. Стрельба/Перестрелканабиралаобороты/ разрасталась/увеличивалась.(Heym) 28. High and lowall(defining infinitive) made fun of him. (Thackeray)Вездеивсюду, всесмеялисьнадним.29. For a woman to look at her best(an infinitive phrase) is a point of discipline. Для женщины выглядеть на все сто (наилучшим образом / сногсшибательно) - это дело порядка/дисциплины. (James) 30. Your coming home(a group of words) has made me as foolish as a young girl of nineteen. (Abrahams) Твой приход домой сделал меня такой глупой, как молодая девятнадцатилетняя девушка. 31. And now his heir and nephew (a group of words), Thomas Esmond,began to bid for his uncle's favour. И тогда его наследник и племянник, Томас Эсмонд, начал предлагать цену за покровительство/услугу/одолжение его дяди.(Thackeray)
  
  
   Exercise 5. State the nature of it. Translate into Russian. It was dusky in the dining-room and quite chilly.(impersonal IT) - Встоловойбылотемноидостаточнопрохладно/холодно. 2 The bell rang. It was lean, pale Eddie Warren in a state of acute distress (demonstrative IT) - Прозвинелзвонок. Это был худой, бледный Эдди Воррен в состоянии сильного\крайнего отчаяния. 3. Oh! Oh! Oh! It was a little house. (demonstrativeIT) It was a little pink house.(demonstrative IT)Оу! (х3) Этобылмаленькийдом. Этобылмаленькийрозовый, матьего, дом. 4. But in her bosom['buz?m] there was still that bright glowing place. Itwasalmostunbearable. (introductoryIT)Новеесердце\душе\грудивсеещебыл (сохранялся) тотяркий, пылкий/тлеющийуголок (нет, неуголёк). Этобылопрактическиневыносимо. 5. She sat up, but she felt quite dizzy, quite drunk. Itmusthavebeenthespring.(demonstrativeIT) Онасела, нооначувствоваласебясовершенноошеломленной, совершеннопьяной/опьяненной. Должнобыть, этобылоиз-завесны./Это, должнобыть, весна. 6. Itwasmarvelloustobemadelovetolikethat.(introductoryIT) Изумительно, когдазатобойтакухаживают./Изумительно, когдастобойтакзанимаютсялюбовью. 7. It is the moon that makes you talk to yourself in that silly way. (emphaticIT)Это луна заставляет говорить с собой так глупо.8. It is very distressing to me, Sir, to give this information. (introductoryIT) Датьтакуюинформацию, Сэр, дляменяоченьзатруднительно. 9. He took the path through the fields: it was pleasanter than the road. (personalIT). Он пошел через поля, это было лучше/приятнее, чем идти по дороге/чем дорога. 10. If this is liberty, it isn't going to mean a thing. (personalIT) Еслиэтосвобода, онанебудетничегозначить/небудетзначитьничегозначительного. 11. It was now almost four-thirty in the afternoon.(impersonal IT) Былопочтиполпятоговечера. 12. I took a good room. It was very big and light and looked out on the lake.(personal IT) Язанялхорошуюкомнату. Онаоченьбольшаяисветлаяивыходитнаозеро/свидомнаозеро.
  
   Exercise 6. Point out the predicate and say to what type it belongs.1. Presently she grew tired of that and looked across at her sister. (1. The сompound nominal predicate; 2. simple verbal predicate) 2. You shall have as many dances as you like. I shan't dance with anyone except you End Maxim. (compound modal predicate) 3. Well, d'youfeel any better now? (compound nominal predicate) 4. Harry was enjoying his dinner. (simple predicate) 5. Alice went on, he ought to stop doing nothing and criticising everybody. (1.simple verbal predicate; 2.compound modal aspect predicate) 6. Everything is being taken down and used against you.(simple verbal predicate.) 7. The story will only get repeated and exaggerated. (compound nominal predicate) 8. But I've got to have a word with him. (compound verbal modal predicate) We got to do something about it. (compound nominal predicate)9. Shebecame bitter and unapproachable.(compound nominal predicate) 10. Her marriage was more or lessfixed for the twenty-eighth of the month.(simple verbal predicate) They were to sail for India on September the fifth. (compound modal predicate)11. Leila's partner gavea little gaspinglaugh. (phraseological predicate) 12. You are to go straight to your room. You are to say nothing of this to anyone. (compound modal predicate) 13. He was a country doctor. (compound nominal predicate) He died young. (compound nominal predicate) 14. I began to stammer my apologies. (compound aspect predicate) He would not listen to me. (compound modal predicate). 15. To walk in this way behind him seemed to Annette already a sufficient marvel. (compound nominal predicate) 16. A ship -- the Vestris -- is reported to be arriving at Joppa. (Subjective Infinitive Construction) 17. Led was having a little new sort of weeping fit daily or every other day. (phraseological predicate) 18. Even now he was able to find a thin excuse for that young idiot. (compound modal predicate) 19. Do not delay, there is no time.(simple verbal predicate) Teacher Williams lies dead already.(compound nominalpredicate) 20. The grey house had ceased to be a home for family life. (compound aspect predicate) 21. Kit had been told to do nothing in particular. (simple verbal predicate) 22. Lately he'd madeefforts to bring the matter up with Brian or Colin. (phraseological unit) 23. The sky shone pale. (compound nominalpredicate) 24. These days are finished. (simple verbalpredicate) They are blotted out. (simple verbalpredicate) I must begin living all over again. (compound modal aspect predicate) 25. Next day, by noon, I was up and dressed, and sat wrapped in a shawl by the nursery hearth.(compound nominalpredicate) 26. And all the while he felt the presence of Pat and had to keep on resisting the impulse to turn round.(1. simple verbal 2. Compound modal aspectpredicate) 27. But Abramoviciremainedquiet. (compound nominal predicate) 28. Morning broke quiet and hushed, subdued as if holding its breath. (compound nominal predicate) 29. There were a number of people out this afternoon. (compound nominalpredicate). And the band sounded louder and gayer. (compoundnominalpredicate) 30. This has proved surprisingly difficult. (compound nominal predicate)
  
   Exercise 7. Say where the predicate is simple and where it is compound (nominal or verbal).
   1. Two young girls in red came by.(simple) (Mansfield)2. Demetrius came alive (nominal) and pressed a flock of inquiries. (Douglas)3. And in many ways along lines you'd more or less approve, I am coming to feel the mill apart of myself. (simple) (Lindsay)4. He tried to be both firm and friendly. (nominal) I've felt dependent (compound nominal predicate) on him. (Lindsay)5. He now felt(simple) only a confused ache of memory and a growing desire to be home. (Lindsay)6. No one was(simple) there to meet Dick. He felt(simple) a twinge of disappointment. (Lindsay)7. There was(compound nominal) a silence but not an uncomfortable one. (Braine) 8. He was vaguely aware(nominal) of his father standing by kitchen-range with his coat off. (Lindsay)9. The day of our wedding came. (simple) He was to call(verbal modal) for me to choose the furniture. (Mansfield)10. A good reliable husband he'd make. (compound nominal predicate) And our Alice is a great one(compound nominal predicate) for wanting a place of her own. (Lindsay)11. That made all the difference.(simple) The room came alive(nominal) at once. (Mansfield)12. "She sounds serious,"(nominal)Albertineinsisted. (simple) "She keeps talking(compound verbal aspect predicate) about it." (Kahler)13. Not even her own children had seen Ma break down. (the Objective predicative) She'd keep a proud face (compound modal nominative predicate) always. (Mansfield)14. My lady keeps(simple) a list of the names in a little red book (Mansfield)15. Charlie kept quiet. (nominal) (Priestley) 16. Cedric Thompson stood(simple) a good three inches above me. (Braine) 17. For a moment I stood aghast(nominal), peering after her shadowy figure, and wondering what had taken(simple) her. (Weyman)18. And then they sat silent(nominal) for a few moments together. (Trollope)19. I sat(simple) writing letters on a piece of paper with a pencil. (Haggard)20. And for some time he lay gasping(nominal) on a little flock mattress, rather unequally posed between this world and the next. (Dickens)21. After many adventures I and a little girl lay senseless(nominal) in the Bad Lands. (Haggard) 22. He seemed glad(nominal) to see me. (Du Maurier)23. At that moment everything in her life seemed to be(the Subjunctive Infinitive construction) a source of desperate anxiety. (Murdoch)24. You can smile away(compound verbal modal) till you split(simple) your cheek, but you still got to do(compound verbal modal) a day's work to earn a day's wages. Apples don't grow(simple) on monkey-trees. (Lindsay)25. She grew to know(compound verbal aspect predicate) the two elderly men better than any other member of Eden's family. (London)26. Yates grew impatient. (nominal) (Heym)27. She turned(simple) once more to Mr. Godfrey. (Collins)28. Gwendolenturned pink and pale(nominal) during this speech. (Eliot)29. Mr. Bruffremained (simple)to dinner, and stayed(simple)through the evening. (Collins)30. Michelangelo remained silent. (nominal) (Stone)31. I gave up(simple) the attempt and went (simple) upstairs to unpack. (Braine) 32. Michelangelo's knees went weak. (nominal) He sat down(simple) on his bed. (Stone)33. I looked(simple) at the photograph above the mantelpiece and saw(simple) my own lace for the first time. (Braine) 34. Giovanni looked crestfallen. (nominal) (Stone)35. He was beginning to sound really angry. (the compound aspect nominal predicate) (Murdoch).
  
   Exercise 9. Point out the predicative and say by what it is expressed.
   1. Annette was completely dazed.(participle) (Murdoch)2. Their highest concept of right conduct, in his case, was to get(infinitive) a job. (London)3. I'm five foot eleven(a group of words) in my socks. (Braine) 4. Sally, herself, was quite content(adjective) for a while to enjoy becoming acquainted with her son, washing and feeding him, taking him for walks in the bush, singing him to sleep. (Prichard)5. Mr. de Morfe was as generous and hail-fellow-well-met(adjectives) with them as ever. (Prichard) 6. I am cold.(adjective) And I always was such(indefinite pronoun) a one for being warm."(Mansfield)7. Your resemblance to your mother is very striking.(adjective)] (Murdoch)8. He did not answer. I was aware(adjective) again of that feeling of discomfort. (Du Maurier)9. I hated myself. My question had been degrading, shameful. (adjective) (Du Maurier)10. Their interests were' hers(absolute possessive pronoun) as well as the interests of everybody. (Prichard) 11. He's a good chap. (noun) He makes you feel it'sworth while being alive. (Lindsay)12. Arrived here, his first act was to kneel down(infinitive) on a large stone beside the row of vessels, and to drink(infinitive) a copious draught from one of them. (Lindsay)13. Either course seemed unthinkable (adjective), without any connection with himself. (Lindsay)14. The nightmare of my life has come true. We are in danger of our lives. We are white people(noun) in a Chinese city. (Buck)15. The best thing is for you to move in with me and let the young lady stay with your mother. (infinitive construction) (Abrahams)16. But she was herself(reflexive pronoun) again, brushing her tears away. (Lindsay)17. The rest of the time was yours (absolute possessive pronoun). (Douglas)18. How(adverb)do you feel physically?(Ch. Bronte)19. Who(pronoun) are you? (Shaw)20. The Irish are a philosophic as well as a practical race (noun). Their first and strongest impulse is to make the best of a bad situation. (infinitive phrase)(Dreiser)
  
   Exercise 10. Use the adjective or adverb.
   1. Catherine smiled at me very happily.(Hemingway) 2. I felt very wellmyself. (Hemingway)3. I felt terrible when we started.(Hemingway)4. He sounded briskand cheerful. (Priestley) 5. It will sound strange.(Dickens)6. The hay smelled good.(Hemingway)7. I write English badly. (Ch. Bronte)8. I looked at her attentively. (Ch. Bronte)9. But don't look sad, my little girl. It breaks my heart (Ch. Bronte)10. He was looking at me __ and __ (gravely; intently) (Ch. Bronte)11. It [the wine] tasted very __ after the cheese and apple, (good)(Hemingway)12. The brandy did not taste __ (good)(Hemingway)13. The pistol felt __ on the belt, (heavy)(Hemingway)14. Silas received the message __. (mute) (Eliot)15. I thought he looked __ (suspicious)(Hemingway)
  
  
  
   Exercise 11. Point out the subjective and the objective predicative and say by what part of speech it is expressed.
   1. How(subjective) do you feel? (Hemingway) 2. The half hour he had with her... left him(objective) supremely happy(subjective) and supremely satisfied (subjective) with life. (London)3. How to be shown things and make appropriate comments seems to be an art(subjective) in itself. (Leacock)4. She had her arms about him, murmuring his name in a pleading question, but he held her away(objective) from him. (Wilson)5. From behind the verandah she heard these words: "I don't, Annette." Did father know that he called her mother(objective) Annette? (Galsworthy)6. He did not grow vexed (subjective); though I continued icy and silent(subjective). (Ch. Bronte)7. John Ferrier felt a different man(subjective) now. (Conan Doyle)8.I would suggest that in the meantime we remain perfectly quiet(subjective) and keep these matters secret(objective) even from Oliver himself. (Dickens)9. He [Harper Steger] was not poor. (subjective) He had not even been born poor. (subjective) (Dreiser) 10. Gilt held him immobile(subjective) for only an instant... (Wilson)11. As a gesture of proud defiance he had named his son Francis Nicholas. (objective) (Cronin)
  
   Exercise 12. Translate into English, using a compound nominal predicate.
   1. Музыказвучалачудесно. The music sounds wonderful. 2. Этот цветок хорошо пахнет.Thisflowersmellsgood. 3. Ваши слова звучат странно. Yourwordssoundstrange. 4. Этотогурецгорькийнавкус. Thiscucumbertastesbitter. 5. Бифштекс хорошо пахнет. Beefsteaksmellsgood. 6. Эта материя груба на ощупь.Thisfabricfeelsrough. 7. Вода в этой местности плоха на вкус. The water in this area tastes bad. 8. Этанотазвучитрезко. Thisnotesoundsshrill. 9. Ячувствуюсебяплохо. Ifeelbad. 10. Она выглядит хорошо. Shelooksgood. 11. Она чувствует себя хорошо.Shefeelswell. 12. Онатолькокажетсяхорошей. Shejustseemsgood. 13. Пирожное хорошее на вид.Thecakelooksgood.14. Свисток прозвучал пронзительно. The whistle sounded piercing. 15. Этирозыпахнутупоительно. These roses smell intoxicating.
  
   Exercise 14. Point out the subject and the predicate.
   1. On her going to his house to thank him, hehappened to see her through a window. (Dickens)2.To describe one's character is difficult and not necessarily illuminating. (Murdoch)3. The three on the sofa rise and chat with Hawkins. (Shaw)4. Nothingseemed to matter. (London)5. To be wantedis always good. (Stone)6. Seeing you there will open up a new world. (Murdoch). Thereafter Iread everything on the subject. Icame to know many Negroes, men and women. (Buck)8. Elaine, this ill-advised behaviour of yoursis beginning to have results. (Erskine)9. Presently allwas silent. Theymust have gone through the service doors into the kitchen quarters. (Du Maurier)10. The citizens of occupied countrieswere to be subjugated individually. (Wescott)11. Itwasallwrong this situation. Itought not to be appening at all. (Du Maurier)12. My wayis not theirs, itis no use trying to runaway from them. (Lindsay)13. No onegot the better of her, never, never. (Du Maurier)14. Lewishamstopped dead at the corner, staring in blank astonishment after these two figures. (Wells)15. We and all the peoplehave been waitingpatient for many an hour. (Jerome K. Jerome)16. Onecannot help admiring the fellow. (Dickens)17. Then he [Tom] gave a low distinct whistle. Itwas answered from under the bluff. (Twain)18. The girl [Aileen] was really beautiful and much above the average intelligenceand force. (Dreiser)19. This religiondid give promise of creating a new society. There all mencould be equally valuable as human beings. (Buck)20. Wemust begin here and now to show. Thus wemight prove our difference from those white men. (Buck)
  
   Exercise 16. Use the appropriate form of the verb.
   1. Huckleberry's hard pantingswerehis only reply, (Twain)2. There is many a true word spoken in jest, Mr. Cokane. (Shaw)3. Each of us was afraid of the sound of his name. (Bennett)4. On such meetings five minutes(represents the time as a whole) was the time allotted предоставлять, выделять to each speaker. (London)5. Neither his father nor his mother was like other people.(2 homogeneous members connected by conjneither nor always in sing) (Dreiser)6. It was dark and quiet. Neither moon nor stars were visible. (Collins) 7. Plenty of girls have taken to me like daughters and cried at leaving me. (Shaw)8. He and Ihave nothing in common. (Galsworthy)(word group consisting of 2 nouns connected by the conj "and")9. But I wonder no wealthy nobleman(дворянин; аристократ) or gentleman has taken a fancy to her: Mr. Rochester, for instance. (Ch. Bronte)10. To be the busy wife of a busy man, to be the mother of many children(the subj is expressed by the infwhich represent 1 person or thing) was, to his thinking, the highest lot of woman, (Trollope) 11. Her family were(or was, depending on the contest) of a delicate constitution. (E. Вrопte)12. Hers was(or were depending on the contest) a large family.13. "Well," says my lady, "are the police coming?" (Collins)14. Nobody knows I am here. (London)15. But after all, who has the right to cast a stone against one who has suffered? (Wilde)16. There are men who exercise dominion from the nature of their disposition, and who do so from their youth upwards, without knowing... that any power of dominion belongs to them, (Trollope)17. Plain United States is good enough for me. (London)18. He half started as he became aware that someone near at hand was gazing at him. (Aldington)19. Fatting cattle consume from 5 to 10 gallons of water a head daily, (Black) 20. She is supposed to have all the misfortunes and all the virtues to which humanity is subject. (Trollope)21. It was a market-day, and the country people were all assembled with their baskets of poultry, eggs and such things... (Thackeray)22. The precept as well as the practice of the Primitive Church was distinctly against matrimony. (Wilde)23....Ratterer and Hegglund..., as well as most of the others, were satisfied that there was not another place in all Kansas City that was really as good. (Dreiser)24. Twelve years is a long time. (Galsworthy)25. There were a great many ink bottles. (Dickens)26. May and I are just friends.(Keating) 27. The bread and butter is for Gwendolen.(Wilde)28. I am afraid it is quite clear, Cecily, that neither of us is engaged to be married to anyone. (Wilde)29. It _is_ they that should honour you. (Trollope) 30. Great Expectations by Dickens was published in I860. 31. The family party were seated round the table in the dark wainscoted parlour... (Eliot)32. Everybody is clever nowadays.33. There is a number of things, Martin, that you don't understand. (Wilde)34. The number of scientific research institutes in our country are very large. 35. Her hair, which was fine and of medium brown shade, was brushed smoothly across the top of her head and then curled a little at each side. (Priestley) 36. After some apologies, which were perhaps too soft and sweet... the great man thus opened the case. (Trollope)37. It was as if the regiment were half in khaki, half in scarlet and bearskins. (Galsworthy)38. Youth and Agewas a weekly, and it had published two-thirds of his twenty-one-thousand-word serial when it went out of business. (London)39. There were a number of men present. (Walpole) 40... the flowers came in such profusion and such quick succession that there was neither time nor space to arrange them. (Heym)
  
   Exercise 17. Point out the kind of object and say by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian.(Ответы внизу упражнения)
   I. What have you got there?(demonstrative pronoun, direct obj)(Cronin) 2. She pretended not to heart (the inf) (Mansfield) 3. Marcellus found the luggage packed and strapped for the journey. (Douglas) 4. I know all about it, my son. (Douglas) 5. I have to show Dr. French his. room. (Shaw) 6. I never heard you express that opinion before, sir. (Douglas) 7. Halting, he waited for the Roman to speak first. (Douglas) 8. He was with you at the banquet. (Douglas) 9. They don't want anything from us -- not even our respect. (Douglas) 10. I beg your pardon for calling you by your name. (Shaw) 11. I found myself pitying the Baron. (Mansfield) 12. I've got it framed up with Gilly to drive him anywhere. (Kahler) 13. He smiled upon the young men a smile at once personal and presidential. (Kahler) 14. Gallio didn't know how to talk with Marcellus about it. (Douglas) 15. Laura helped her mother with the good-byes. (Mansfield) 16. Why did you not want him to come back and see me to-day? (Mansfield) 17. Mr. Jinks, not exactly knowing what to do, smiled a dependant's smile. (Dickens) 18. He found it impossible to utter the next word. (Kahler) 19. Marcellus issued crisp orders and insisted upon absolute obedience. (Douglas) 20. He's going to live his own life and stop letting his mother boss him around like a baby. (Kahler) 21. I will suffer no priest to interfere in my business. (Shaw) 22. Papa will never consent to my being absolutely dependent on you. (Shaw) 23. Do you know anything more about this dreadful place? (Douglas) 24. She hated Frisco and hated herself for having yielded to his kisses. (Prichard) 25. They had been very hard to please. Harry would demand the impossible. (Mansfield) 26. His part in the conversation consisted chiefly of yesses and noes. (Kahler) 27. Michelangelo could not remember having seen a painting or sculpture of the simplest nature in a Buonarrotti house. (Stone)
   1. Direct obj, interogative pronoun 'what'
Чтотамутебя?
2. Direct object. Infinitive. Онапритворяласьнесердцем.
3. Direct, noun in common case; indirect (for), noun in comm case. Мацареллообнаружил, чтобагаж/вещиужебылисобраныиобвязаны/перевязаны/сцепленыремнямидляпутешествия.(complex obj: a noun and 2 participles )
4. direct, defining pronoun(all); indirect (about), pronoun 'it' (notional meaning)(with the preposition). Явсё (обэтом) знаю, сынок...
5. Direct, noun in common case; indirect (1st type - доэтоговсе indirect ивообщеиндиректыбезуказаниятипадальше - 2nd type), a noun in cc. ЯдолженпоказатьДокторуФранцуегокомнату.
6. Complex obj - personal pronoun + inf; ("you express" - direct obj, noun in cc). Я никогда не слышал, чтобы вы, сэр, выражали это/такое мнение.
7. For-toinfinitiveconstruction(indirect) Прервавшись/замолкнув, он ждал, пока Роман(ец) не заговорит первым.
8. Indirect obj, personal pronoun in objective case. Онбылсвами/стобойнабанкете.
9. Direct, indefinite pronoun; 'us' indirect, personal pron; direct, noun in cc ('respect'). Ониничегоотнаснехотят - даженашегоуважнения.
   10. Direct (pardon), noun in cc; indirect, gerundial phrase ('calling you'). Прошупрощениязато, чтоназвалваспоимени.
11. (gerundialconstruction) 'myselfpityingtheBaron' Япоймалсебянамысли, чтожалеюБарона.
12.`todrivehim' (infinitive); МыобусловилисьсЖелтофиолью, чтояотвезуегокудаугодно.
13. 'men, smile' (object): Онулыбнулсямолодымлюдям - одновременноличноипо-президентски.
14. Indirect `Marcellus'; indirect, pron 'it' (notional).
15. `mother' Direct
16. `him to come back' Complex obj
   17. Cognate obj `smile'
   18. Direct, pron 'it' (formal/introductory); direct `impossible'
19. `orders' Direct, noun; indirect (upon), noun.
20. `life' - cognate obj; `his mother boss him around' (objective-with-the-infinitive-construction)
21.`no priest to interfere' objective infinitive
   22. `tomybeing' complexobjexpressedbytheger.construction. Папанизачтонесогласится/непозволит/недопуститмоейполнойзависимостиоттебя.
23. Direct `anything', indefpron; indirect,(preposition)
24. Direct, noun (Frisco); direct, `herself' reflective pron; `kisses' indirect (to), noun.
25. `to please' direct infinitive. Direct `the impossible', substantivized adjective.
26. Indirect (of) `yesses, noes'
27. Direct, `having seen a painting or sculpture of the simplest nature' gerund
   Exercise 18. Point out the Complex Object and say by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian.
   1. He could see the man and Great Beaver talking together. (gerundialconstruction) Он мог видеть мужчину и великого бобра, как они разговаривают. (London)2. She had lied about the scullery door being open on the night of the disappearance of the bank-notes.(gerundialconstruction) Она обманула насчет открытой двери в буфетную в ночь пропажи купюры. (Bennett)3. Each woman thought herself triumphant and the other altogether vanquished.(adjectives) Каждая женщина думает, что она торжественна, что она покорит всех остальных. (Buck)4. Thus these two waited with impatience for the three years to be over.(for-to-infinitiveconstruction) Так эти двое прождали с нетерпением, когда три года уже закончатся. (Buck)5. Sammy watched Mr. Cheviot slowly take the receiver from the girl.(noun+inf) Сэмми наблюдал, как Чэвиот медленно забрал трубку у девушки. (Priestley) 6. He hated her to work in the boarding house.(pronoun+inf) (Prichard)Онаненавидела, когдаонаработалавпансионе.7. TheConsulfelthislegs, giveway.(noun+inf) Консул чувствовал, как подводили его ножки. (Cronin)8. Mother objected to Aimee being taken away from her game with the boys.(Prichard)(gerundialconstruction)Матьвозражала, чтоЭминепозволяютигратьсмальчиками. 9. They had never heard him speak with such urgency, (pronoun+inf) his eyes glowing like amber coals in the fading light. Они никогда не слышали, как он говорил с такой срочностью, его глаза горели, как янтарные угли в затухающем свете. (Stone)
  
   19.
   1. Он посвящал музыке все свободное время.Hedevotedalotoftimetomusic. 2. Объяснитемне, пожалуйста, значениеновыхслов. Explaintomethemeaningofnewwords, please. 3. Мыприписываемтепломутечениюмягкийклиматэтогоострова. Weascribethemildclimateofthisislandtothewarmcurrent. 4. Оноткрылнамсекретсвоегоизобретения. Herevealedtousthesecretofhisinvention. 5. БайронпосвятилоднуизсвоихпоэмГете. ByrondedicatedoneofhispoemstoGoethe. 6. Вы видели, чтобы кто-нибудь вышел из комнаты? Haveyouseenanybodyleavetheroom? 7. Она объявила нам о своем желании уехать работать на целину.She told us about her intention to go working on (the) virgin soil.8. Не приписывайте мне того, чего я никогда не делал.DonotascribetomethingsI'veneverdone/made. 9. Он посвящает общественной работе все свое свободное время.Hedevotesallhisfreetimetocommunitywork. 10. Мневчеранепочиниличасы. Ididn'thavemywatchrepairedyesterday. 11. Я никогда не слышал, чтобы об этом студенте плохо отзывались. I never heard anyone speak ill/badly of this student. 12. Яхочуперешитьсвоепальто. Iwanttoaltermycoat. 13. Войдя в картинную галерею, я увидела мою приятельницу, стоявшую у окна.Having entered the art gallery, I saw a friend of mine standing in front of the window.14. Онахотела, чтобыейсшилипальтокНовомугоду. ShewantedhercoattobemadebytheNewYear. 15. Спойте нам. Singtous. 16. Спойте нам еще одну арию из "Евгения Онегина".Sing to us another aria [???r??] from Eugene Onegin (Юджин).
  
   Exercise 20. Point out the attribute and say by what it is expressed.
   1.Thefirst (numeral) day's journey from Gaza to Ascalon (a group of words) was intolerably(Douglas)2. What do you say to a stroll through the garden,(a group of words) Mr. Cockane?(a noun in the common case)(Shaw) 3. It was such a cruel thing to have happened to that gentle, helpless creature.(inf construction)(Prichard) 4. He was always the first to enterthe dining-room and the last to leave.(numeral and the adj)(Mansfield) 5. Sally hated the idea of borrowing and living on credit.(preposition phrase with the gerund)(Prichard) 6. The two men faced each other silently.(ordinal numeral)(Douglas) 7. It was an easy go-as-you-please existence.(adj, quotation group)(Prichard) 8. I am not in the habit of reading other people's letters.(prepositional phrase)(Shaw) 9. He thrust his hands deep into hisovercoat pockets.(possessive pron, noun)(Galsworthy) 10. It was not a matter to be discussed even with a guide, philosopher and friend so near and trustedas the Professor.(the inf in the passive voice)(Kahler) 11. Ethel, the youngest, married a good-for-nothing little waiter.(the loose apposition; adj in the superlative degree, quotation group)(Mansfield) 12 He pointed to a house on a near-by shady knoll.холмик; бугор(adjs)(Douglas) 13. It was just onelittle sheet of glass between her and the great wet world outside.(numeral, adjs)(Mansfield) 14. She had a pair of immense barearms to match, and a quantity of mottled пёстрыйhair arranged in a sort of bow.(prep.phrase, participle)(Mansfield) 15. Dicky heard right enough. A clear, ringing little laugh was hisonly reply.(adjs, gerund, pronoun)(Mansfield) 16. To think that a man of his abilities would stoop toопускатьсяsuch ahorribletrick as that.(pronoun;adj)(Dreiser) 17. There was a blackbird perched on the cherry-tree, sleek and glistening.(participial constructions)(Braine) 18. Amiddle-aged man carrying a sheaf of cardswalked into the room. (adj)Braine) 19. Daniel Quilp began to comprehend the possibility of there being somebody at the door. (prepositional phrase)(Dickens) 20. Still, Pett'shappiness or unhappiness is quite a life and death question with us. (adj, a noun in the possessive case, adverb, nouns) (Dickens)
  
   Exercise 21. Point out the apposition and say whether it is close or loose.
   1. Maria, the mother, (loose) had not taken off her shawl. Loose apposition (Cronin)2. One of our number, a round-faced, curly-haired little man of about forty, (loose) glared atпристальноилисердитосмотреть him aggressively. (Braddon)3. There are plenty of dogs in the town of Oxford. (Jerome K. Jerome) (close apposition)4. You look all right, Uncle Soames. (Galsworthy) (close apposition)5. James, a slow and thorough eater, stopped the process of mastication. [?mФst?'ke??(?)n] 1) жевание(Galsworthy) (loose apposition)6. He felt lost, alone there in the room with that pale spirit of a woman. (close apposition)(London)7. But the doctor -- a family physician well past middle age -- was not impressed. (loose apposition)(Carter)8. They, the professors,(loose) were right in their literary judgement... (London)9. In consequence neither Oscar nor his sister Martha had had any too much education or decent social experience of any kind. (close apposition)(Dreiser)10. But now he had seen that world, possible and real, with a flower of a woman...(close apposition) (London)
   Exercise 22. Point out the kind of adverbial modifier, and state by what it is expressed. Translate into Russian.
   l. Gallioslowly nodded his head. (ofmanner)Он медленно кивал головой. 2. He's coming Saturday atone o'clock. (of time)Онпридетвсубботувчас. 3. Lucia stopped them in their trackswith a stern command. (of manner)Люсиприказалаостановитьсяихнадороге. 4. Sally was sitting on the front seat of the buggy(коляска), dumb and unhappy at being ignored. (ofmanner) (prepositionalabsoluteconstruction) Сэллисиделанапереднемсиденииколяски тупоинерадостно проигнорирована.5. I feel my own deficiencies too keenly to presume so far.(ofdegree)Я чувствую мои собственные недостатки слишком остро проявляются.6. A few miners (шахтеры) hung on, hoping the mines(шахты) would reopen. (ofcause)(participle) Некоторые шахтеры крепко держались, надеясь шахты приоткрылись.7. The first bar of gold raised hopes sky high.(донебес)(of degree)Первыйкусокзолотапредвосхитилнадеждывысоковнебо. 8. She had to talk because of her desire to laugh. Она должна была рассказывать из-за ее желания посмеяться. (ofcause)9. Gallic pushed back his huge chair and rose to his full height as if preparing to deliver an address. Галик отодвинул свой огромный стул и встал в полный рост, как будто готовился передать адрес. (ofcomparison)10. He takes a glass and holds it to Essie to be filled. (of сause)Он берет стакан и держит его у Эсси, чтобы заполнить.11. Morris was walking too quickly (manner) for Sally to keep up with(result) him. Морич шел так быстро, чтобы быть на одном уровне с Салли. 12. The poor woman was annoyed with Morris for dumping his wife on her.(ofcause)Бедную женщин раздражал Моррис тем, чтобы оставить его жену с ней.13. It was quite a long narrative. (of degree) Этобылодовольнодлинноеповествование.14. Of course Laura and Jose were far too grown-up to really care about such things. (ofdegree)Конечно, Лора и Хосе были слишком взрослыми, чтобы действительно заботиться о таких вещах.15. Now and then(frequency) Gavin would stop to point outsilentlysome rarity. (purpose)Теперь и Гэвин бы остановился, чтобы указать молча на некую редкость. 16. And for all her quiet manner, (concession)and her quiet smile, she was full of trouble. И для всех ее спокойная манера (концессии) и ее милой улыбка представляла море неприятностей.17. Theyoungschoolteacher'sspiritsrosetoadecidedheight. (ofdegree)Состояние духа молодого учителя поднялось до высоты решимости. 18. Evil report, with time and chance to help it, travels patiently, and travels far.(ofattendantcircumstances/ ofmanner/ ofmanner) Молва со временем и с возможностью помочь этому путешествует терпеливо и едет далеко.
  
   Exercise 23. Follow the direction for Exercise 22.
   1. At the top of the stairs (of place; a noun with accomp. words) she paused to wave(of purpose; infinitive) to him. (Douglas) 2. Marcellus accepted this information without betraying(of manner; prepositional phrase (with a gerund)) his amazement. (Douglas) 3. Having knocked on his door(of time; perfect participle 1), she firmly(manner; adverb) entered Grandpa's room. (Cronin) 4. After waiting for a few minutes(of time; gerund+preposition), he marched up the steps, closely(of manner; adverb) followed by Demetrius. (Douglas) 5. Why do you alwayslook at things with such dreadfully practical eyes(manner)(London) 6. David appeared in the open door,(place)one hand clutching a sheaf of bills(of manner; absolute participial constr), under his other arm an account book(attcircum;participal phrase). (Stone) 7. That night(of time; a noun with accompanying words+ demonstrative pronoun) I could scarcely(of manner; adverb едва) sleep for thinking(of cause; a prepositional phrase with a gerund) of it. (Cronin) 8. She did feel sillyholding Moon's handlike that(cause). (Mansfield) 9. Then(time) Gallio cleared his throat, and faced his son with troubled eyes(of manner; a preposit phrase with a noun). (Douglas) 10. We have some exceptionally(of degree/measure; adverb) fine roses this year. (Douglas) 11. Jonathan shook his head slowly(of manner; adverb), without looking up(of manner, prep phrase with a gerund), his tongue bulging his cheek(of manner;absolute participial constr). (Douglas) 12. But it was of no use. Marcellus' melancholy was too(adv mod of degree) heavy to be lifted(of result; infinitive). (Douglas) 13. She [Sally] never(frequency; adverb) would have been able to make a success of the dining-room but for the kindness and assistance of the men(of concession; prep phrase + a noun with accomp words). (Prichard) 14. On being informed(cause; gerund) of the old man's flight, his fury was unbounded. (Dickens) 15. To be a complete artist(result, inf) it is not enough to be a painter, sculptor or architect. (Stone) 16. Sally was furious with herself for having fainted(of cause).Сэлли была в ярости из-за того, что упала в обморок. (Prichard) 17. With all her faults(of concession), she was candor(онабыласамаискренность) herself. (Hardy) 18. The receiving overseer, Roger Kendall, thoughthin and clerical(канцелярский)(of concession; prepositional phrase), was a rather(of degree; adverb) capable (умелый) man. (Dreiser)
  
  
  
   Exercise 24.Point out all the adverbial modifiers expressed by Predicative Constructions. Translate into Russian.
   1. Marcellus strode (шагали) heavily to and fro (сюда) before the entrance, his impatience mounting. (восходящий)(Douglas)2. On her applying (применение) to them, reassured by this resemblance (сходство), for a direction to Miss Dorrit, they made way for her to enter a dark hall.(Dickens)3. Well, women's faces have had too much power over me already for me not to fear them.(Hardy)4. I almost doubt whether I ought not to go a step farther, and burn the letter at once, for fear of its falling into wrong hands.(Collins)5. Michelangelo went to Jacopo's side, ran his hand caressingly (ласкающе) over the sarcophagus, his fingers tracing (следить) out in its low relief the funeral procession of fighting men and horses.(Stone)6. Michelangelo went into the yard and sat in the baking sun with his chin resting on his chest. (Stone) 7. That over, she sat back with a sigh and softly rubbed (тёр) her knees. (Mansfield)8. He opened the door for the Senator to precede him. (Douglas)9. They were returning to Fogarty's; their hands full of flowers.(Prichard)10. She pressed his hand mutely (молча), her eyes dim. (тусклый) (London)11. His being an older man, (gerundial construction) that made it all right. (Warren)12. On the second of these days Granacci burst into (ворваться) the studio, his usually placid (спокойный) eyes blinking hard. (participial phrase)(Stone)13. He stood beside (рядом) me in silence, his candle in his hand. (Conan Doyle)14. In a room within the house, Cowperwood, his coat and vest off, was listening to Aileen's account of her troubles. (Dreiser)15. There was room enough for me to sit between them, and no more. (Collins)
  
   Exercise 26. 1. In the morning, however, there was a comforting excitement in leaving the train. (Kahler)(a parenthesis expressed byan adverb which to a certain extent serves as connectives)2. May be, after all, there was something in that wild idea of Albertine's. (Kahler) )(a parenthesis expressed by modal word) (a parenthesis expressed by a prepositional phrase)3. They gave him, in fact, a pleasant feeling of vicarious fatherhood. (a parenthesis expressed by a prepositional phrase)4. Nicholas, unfortunately, had passed an unquiet night. (Cronin)(a parenthesis expressed by a modal word)5. Nevertheless, despite this reasoning there remained in the Consul's breast that strange sense of jealousy. (Cronin)(a parenthesis expressed by adverb which to a certain extent serves as connective)6. How fortunate to have such a reliable couple in the house. Naturally, he counted on the Burtons as an official standby. (Cronin)(a parenthesis expressed by a modal word)7. I am a human being, seЯor (direct address, a noun, denoting title), and must take advantage of my opportunities. Frankly, I am accustomed to good wine. (Cronin) (a parenthesis expressed by an adverb)8. He was surprised, evidently, to find Sally so much at home and bustling about like that.(a parenthesis expressed by modal word)(Prichard) 9. She was quite unconcerned, as a matter of fact, about being left alone in the camp, (a parenthesis expressed by prepositional phrase)10. Perhaps her colonial upbringing had something to do with it. (Prichard) (a parenthesis expressed by modal word)11. It was still too early for his ride, but he did not go back to bed, he wasn't deeply worried, to be sure, but he knew that he wouldn't be able to sleep. (Kahter) (a parenthesis expressed by an infinitive phase)
  
   Exercise 27. Point out what parts are detached and by what they are expressed.
   1. Now their laughter joined together, seized each other and held close, harmoniously, (adverbial modifier) intertwined through each other's fabric and substance. (attribute) (Stone) 2. Huckleberry Finn was there, with his dead cat. (detached object) (Twain) 3. We reached the station, with only a minute or two to spare. (adverbial modifier) (Collins) 4. Blind and almost senseless (att), like a bird caught in a snare (adv mod of comparison), he still heard the sharp slam of the door. (Cronin) 5. As he strode along he was conscious, within himself (manner), of a deep, pervading sense of power. (Cronin) 6. With his hands by his sides(adv mod of attendant circumstances), he strolled very slowly and inconspicuously, down the border. (Cronin) 7. One summer, during a brief vacation at Knocke, his visit had come to the notice of Harrington Brande. (Cronin) 8. We are very poor, senor, with many mouths to feed, (predicative) and these fish would make a good meal for us. (Cronin) 9. Unbelievingly, (adverb)his eyes fixed, lips tightly compressed, Brande stared at the advancing youth. (Cronin) 10. He remembered her brave and hardy, with a small-boned (object) eager face, enriched with weather and living. (Sadnborn) 11. The girls had met and were strolling, arm in arm, (adv mod of manner) through the rose arbor.(place) (Douglas) 12. Stout, middle-aged, full of energy, clad in a grease-stained dark blue print dress (attribute)... she bustled backwards and forwards from the kitchen to the dining-room. (Prichard) 13. She had become very drab and unattractive, with all the hard work, no doubt. (adv) (Prichard) 14. But, for all that, (concession) they had a very pleasant walk. (Dickens)
  
   Exercise 28. 1. He had lived with this block for several months now (adv. mod. of time; a noun with accompanying words, an adverb), studied it in every light, from every angle, in every degree (adv mod of manner; nouns with acc words) of heat and cold (objects; nouns in cc). (Stone)2. He felt discouraged, strangely empty. (predicatives within a compound nominal predicate; participle II, adjective) (Cronin)3. There were tangerines and apples (subjects; nouns) stained with strawberry pink. (Mansfield)4. He came in slowly, hesitated (adv mod of manner; participle II), took up a toothpick from a dish on the top of the piano, and went out again. (simple predicates) (Mansfield)5. But I was exceedingly nice, a trifle diffident, appropriately(manner) reverential. (predicatives within a compound nominal predicate) (Mansfield)6. From the edge of the sea came a ripple and whisper (subjects; nouns). (Wells)7. They went side by side, hand in hand, silently toward the hedge. (adv mod of manner; prepositional phrases, an adverb) (Galsworthy)8. The light outside had chilled, and threw a chalky whiteness on the river. (simple predicates; verbs) (Galsworthy)9. Thousands of sheets must be printed, dried, cut. (homogeneous parts within a compound modal predicate; verbs) (Heym)10. Opening the drawer he took from the sachet a handkerchief and the framed photograph of Fleur. (objects; nouns) (Galsworthy)11. The Captain was mostly concerned about himself, his own comfort, his own safety. (objects; a pronoun, nouns) (Heym)12. Her mother was speaking in her low, pleasing, slightly metallic voice. (attributes; participle I, and adjectives) (Galsworthy)13. And suddenly she burst into tears of disappointment, shame and overstrain. (objects; or maybe attributes; nouns) (Galsworthy)14. She extended a slender hand and smiled (simple predicates) pleasantly and naturally. (adv mod of manner; adverbs) (Wales) 15. Then, without a word of warning, without the shadow of a provocation, he bit that poodle's near foreleg. (adv mod of manner/att circumstances; prepositional phrases) (Jerome /C- Jerome) 16. It could be smashed by violence but never forced to fulfil. (homogeneous parts within a compound modal predicate) (Stone)17. Never before had the friar(монах) had such power and never had his voice rung out with such a clap of doom. (simple predicates; verbs) - compound sentence, lexical repetition, parallel construction
  
   Ex 29
   5. The prior'shearty, warm-cheekedfacewent dark at the mention ofSavonarola'sname. Declarative, affirmative, 2- member sentence, extended, full, subj: face -noun in common case, personal definite, predicate: compound nominal(link verb to go in the past form + nominal part(predicative) expressed by an adj), homogeneous attributes expressed by adj and part II, 2 attributes: nouns in the genitive case, at the mention - adv modifier of time, expressed by noun in common case + preposition,directobj expressed by a noun in common case (Stone)
   6. Ah, to be a soldier, Michelangelo, to fight in mortal combat, to kill the enemy with sword and lance, conquer new lands and all their women? Thatisthe life! (Stone) 1Declarative, -, one - member: inf sentence, extended, elliptical, independent elements: interjection ah,direct address: Michelangelo, detached subjs expressed by inf construction and a bare inf. 2. exclamatory, 2-member sentence, extended, full, subj - demonstrative pronoun, personal, definite, predicate - link verb to be - compound nominal predicate , simple nominal predicative expressed by a noun in common case. 7. Hesaiditin a very mature, man-to-mantone. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete, two-member sentence; definite personal sentence; the subject expressed by a personal pronoun; the predicate expressed by simple verbal predicate; it- direct object, expressed by personal pronoun; adv. Modifier of manner expressed by 1)adjective, 2)set expression)
   8. Evidently, George and the sheriffwere getting alongin a very friendly way, for all the former's bitter troubles and lack of means. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete, two-member sentence; definite personal sentence; the subject expressed by nouns in the common case; a simple predicate expressed by a phraseological unit; an adv. Modifier of manner expressed by noun with accompanying words, adv. Modifier of concession expressed by nouns with accompanying words; the close attribute expressed by adjectives; the parenthesis expressed by modal words)
   11. Suddenlyall the differencesbetween life and deathbecameapparent (легко) различимый. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. Subj. expressed by noun with accompanying words; the predicate - the compound nominal predicate; the attribute - close; the adv. Mod. Of manner expressed by adverb)
   12. Michelangelobegan to see picturesin his mind: of strugglesборьбаbetween men, of the rescueспасение of women, of the wounded, the dying. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The Subj. expressed by a proper noun; the predicate - compound aspect verbal predicate (mixed type), direct obj - pictures, adv.mod. of place; homogeneous attributes (отслова pictures(какие?) : of struggles between men, of the rescueof women, of the wounded, the dying)
   13. I ama thousand timescleverer andmore charmingthan that creature, for all her wealth. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. Subj. expressed by a personal pronoun, the compound nominal predicate: link-verb to be + homogeneous predicatives, expressed by comparative degree of adj, adv. Mod. Of 1) degree expressed by a numeral, 2) degree,3) comparison, 4) concession ), for all her wealth. - detached part
   14. Iam not accustomedto having more than one drink.
   (declarative affirmative, extended, complete two-member; Subj. exp by a personal pronoun; Compound Nominal Predicate by a link-verb to be in the negative form and participle II; indirect prepositional object by a gerundial phrase; adv mod of degree by an adverb)
   15. Bertoldo, Ifeel the needto be solitary, to workbeyond all eyes, even yours.
   (declarative affirmative, two-member, complete, extended; Subjexp by a personal pronoun, simple verbal Predicate by a link-verb `to feel' and a noun; homogeneous attributes expressed by infinitives; adv mod of place or manner; a detached attribute; direct address `Bertoldo' - independent part)
   16. Miss Fultonlaidher moonbeamfingerson his cheeks and smiledher sleepy smile.(Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. . Miss Fulton -The Subj. expressed by personal name; laid , smiled -the predicate -simple verbal; fingers -direct object expressed by a noun; her moonbeam, - her sleepy -the close attribute ; on his cheeks- adv.mod. of place; her sleepy smile- the adv. Mod. Of manner expressed by a noun with accompanying words)Miss - close apposition, cognate obj -(a smile)
   17. Sallyfound it difficult to visitanybodyherself. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The Subj. expressed by personal name ; the predicate-?the compound nominal predicate(link verb to find+ predicative difficult;formal object expressed by a personal pronounit,anybody- direct objects expressed by personal and indefinite pronouns; herself- the adv. Mod. Of manner expressed by pronoun)
   18. And surely, no manin his senseswantsthedisastrous consequences of this rushto goany further.
   (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. the subject expressed by noun; the simple verbal predicate; 1) attribute expressed by a set-phrase; 2) attribute expressed by adj.; 3) attribute expressed by noun with accomp. Words; complex object expressed by a noun + inf.; 1) adv. Mod. Of 1) manner (it is detached) expressed by an adv., 2) manner expressed by adv.)
   19. To drawonedoes not needbigmuscles.
   (Declarative, affirmative, extended, impersonal, complete two-member sentence. The subject expressed by the indefinite pronoun; the simple predicate; complex object expressed by the inf.; direct object expressed by a noun; attribute expressed by an adj.)
   20. And yet, as though overcome, sheflung downбросиласьon a couch and pressedher handsto her eyes.
   (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The subj. expressed by personal pronoun; simple verbal predicate expressed by 1) phrasal verb; and yet - a parenthesis; 1) adv.mod. of manner expressed by a verb and a conjunction, 2) adv.mod. of place,3) adv.mod. of place; direct object expressed by a noun and a pronoun )
  
   21. Itwas asimpleface and could have been handsome, in spite of its saffron жёлто-оранжевыйцвет colouring, but for the soft, full mouth. (Cronin) declarative affirmative, two-member, complete, extended, Demonstrative subj IT, predicate compound nominal: link-verb to be in the past form + predicative expressed by a noun in common case verbal modal predicate(exp by a modal verb can in the perfect form), adverbial modifier of concession(expressed by conj, a noun in a common case, + adj, adverbial modifier of condition: here we can observe 2 homogeneous adjs( еслибудемрассматриватьотдельно) expressed by a noun in a common case+ adj).
  
   22. The Lieutenant[le'ten?nt], without cap, sword[s?:d]/ 1) меч or gloves, and much improved in temper and spirits by his meal,chooses the lady'ssideof the room, and waits, much at his ease, for Napoleonto begin. (Shaw) declarative affirmative, two-member, complete, extended, the subj - close apposition denoting a rank, simple verbal predicate, The For-to-Infinitive Construction : for Napoleonto begin, detached attributes or adv modifiers of manner: expressed by nouns and accompanying words, detached adv mod of manner.(or degree(much?)
  
   23. With his strange, hawking [h?:k] распространять cry and the jangle of the cansthe milk-boywenthis rounds. (Mansfield)declarative affirmative, two-member, complete, extended, subj expressed by a noun in CC, compound nominal predicate link verb to go in past form + personal pronoun in the obj case+ noun in plural /or this all " went his rounds" can be treated as a phraseological phrase), adv mod of manner(With his strange, hawking [h?:k] распространять cry and the jangle of the cans).
  
   24. The man and daughter, the mother being dead, brought their letterfrom a church in West Tennessee and were accepted forthwith into fellowship.(Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The Subj. expressed by nouns;the predicates -simple verbal;direct objects expressed by nouns;close attribute expressed by pronoun ; the adv. Mod. Of place expressed by a noun with accompanying words; the adv. Mod. Of manner expressed by adv ;the mother being dead- detached adv.mod. expressed by nominative absolute participial constraction)
   25. Hecould not bringhimselfto faceStanek.(Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The Subj. expressed by personal pronoun;the predicate- compound verbal modal predicate;direct object expressed by pronoun;the adv. Mod. Of place expressed by noun;close attribute expressed by personal name)
   26. Therewas a two-storey newwing,with a smartbathroombetweeneachtwobedrooms and almost up-to-datefittings. (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The Subj. expressed by noun;the predicates -simple verbal;there-adv.mod. of place; betweenbedrooms and fittings- adv.mod. of place; two-storey new-close attributes expressed by adv; a smart-close attribute expressed by adjective; bathroom-direct objects expressed by noun;each two-close attributes expressed by an edj and numeral; up-to-date-close attributes expressed by an edj)
   27. Her [Aileen's]eyesgleamed almost pleadingly for all herhauteur, like a spirited collie's, and hereventeethshowed beautifully.(Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The Subj. expressed by nouns;the predicates -simple verbal; direct objects expressed by noun;close attribute expressed by pronouns ; the adv. Mod. Of degree expressed by an adv; the adv. Mod. Of manner expressed by adverbs)
   28. In the afternoon, leaning from my window, Isawhim passdown the street, walkingtremulously and carrying the bag.
   (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. subj. Expressed by personal pronoun; simple verbal predicate; him; the bag - direct objects; homogeneous attributes (expr. By verbs); adv. Mod. Of 1) time; 2) manner expr. By participial phrase; 3) of place; 4) of manner)
   29. Amazed and amused, theywatchedwhitemenscurryingснующихabout the ridgeхребет, digging and burrowinginto the earthlikegreatratsкрысики.
   (Declarative, affirmative, extended, complete two-member sentence. The subj. expressed by personal pronoun; simple verbal predicate; men - direct object; white (an adj.),scurrying,digging,burrowing- homogeneous attributes expressed by participles ; adv.mod. of 1) manner (participle II); 2) place; 3)place; 4)comparison; great - attribute)
   30. Hesat downby the oak tree, in the sun, his fur coat thrown open, his hat roofing with its flat top the pale square of his face. (Galsworthy) declarative affirmative, two-member, complete, extended, subj expressed by a personal pronoun he, simple verbal predicate, 1. Adv mod of place expressed by a noun and accompanying words, 2. Adv mod of place expressed by a noun in the common case + preposition "in", 3,4 advmodS of attendant circumstances - expressed by a noun and accompanying words( есличто, тосрединихесть participle II)

THE COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES

   Exercise 1. Point out the coordinate clauses (mark the elliptical ones) and comment on the way they are joined.
   1. It was high summer, and the hay harvest was almost over. (causativeccordination) (Lawrence) 2. All the rooms were brightly lighted, but there seemed to be complete silence in the house. (adversative coordination) (Murdoch) 3. One small group was playing cards, [another sat about a table and drank, or, tiring of that, adjourned to a large room to dance to the music of the victrola or player-piano]. (asyndetically) (Dreiser) 4. His eyes were bloodshot and heavy, his face a deadly white, and his body bent as if with age. (elliptical) (Dickens) 5. He only smiled, however, [and there was comfort in his hearty rejoinder], [for there seemed to be a whole sensible world behind it]. (Priestley) 6. You'll either sail this boat correctly or you'll never go out with me again. (disjunctive) (Dreiser) 7. Time passed, and she came to no conclusion, nor did any opportunities come her way for making a closer study of Mischa. (copulative, adversative) (Murdoch) 8. She often enjoyed Annette's company, yet(=но) the child made her nervous. (adversative c.) (Murdoch) 9. She ran through another set of rooms, breathless, her feet scarcely touching the surface of the soft carpets; then a final doorway suddenly and unexpectedly let her out into the street. (asydentically) (Murdoch) 10. It was early afternoon, but very dark outside (adversative c.), and the lamps had already been turned on. (causative c., elliptical) (Murdoch) 11. A large number of expensive Christmas cards were arrayed on the piano; while(=a) upon the walls dark evergreens, tied into various clever swags of red and silver ribbon, further proclaimed the season. (copulative c.) (Murdoch) 12. Brangwen never smoked cigarettes, yet he took the one offered, fumbling painfully with thick fingers, blushing to the roots of his hair. (adversative) (Lawrence)
  
  
  
   Exercise 2. Define the kinds of subordinate clauses (subject, object and predicative clauses). Translate into Russian.*массазапутанности*
   1. Miss Casement stopped what she was doing and stared at Rainsborough. (Murdoch)obj clause connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what"2. What you saw tonight was an ending. Subj clause is connected by means of connective "what" (Murdoch)3. About what was to come she reflected not at all. Obj clause is connected with the principal clause by means of connective by prep "about"(Murdoch)4. It's odd how it hurts at these times not to be part of your proper family.Subj clause Is connected with the principle clause by means of a conjunctive pronoun "how" (Murdoch)5. The trouble with you, Martin, is that you are always looking for a master. Predicative clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Murdoch)6. Suddenly realizing what had happened, she sprang бростаться, прыгнутьto her feet. Predicative, Ноеслиещевнемсмотреть, тотаместьobj clause is connected with the principal clause asyndetically (Caldwell) 7. "It looks as though spring will never come," she remarked. Predicative clause is connected asyndetically 2 independent clauses(a sentence containing direct speech) (Caldwell)8. I want you to sit here beside me and listen to what I have to say. Obj clause introduced by a preposition " to" (Caldwell)9. Who and what he was, Martin never learned. Obj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connectives "what" and "who" (London)10. That I am hungry and you are aware of it are only ordinary phenomena, and there's no disgrace.бесчестье; унижениеsubj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (London)11. What he would do next he did not know. Obj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (London) 12. It was only then that I realized that she was travelling too.Subj clause introductory IT is used in the principle clause, is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Murdoch)13. What I want is to be paid for what I do. 1. Subj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what", 2. Obj clause is introduced by a preposition "for", is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (London) 14. I cannot help thinking there is something wrong about that closet.Obj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the construction "there is" (Dickens)-15. And what is puzzling me is why they want me now. Subj clause is connected with the principle clause synthetically by means of the connective "what" (London) 16. That was what I came to find out. Predicative clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (London)17. What I want to know is when you're going to get married. Subj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (London)18. Her fear was lestчтобыне, какбыне they should stay for tea. . Predicative clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the negative conj "lest" (Ch. Bronte)19. That they were justified in this she could not but admit. Obj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (London)20. What was certain was that I could not now sleep again. Subj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Murdoch)21. What vast огромный, обширный wound that catastrophe had perhaps made in Georgie's proud and upright spirit I did not know. Obj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (Murdoch)22. After several weeks what he had been waiting for happened. (London)23. And let me say to you in the profoundest глубокий; серьёзный and most faithful seriousness that what you saw tonight willhave no sequel. продолжение(Murdoch)24. I understand all that, but what I want to know is whether or not you have lost faith in me(потеряллитыверувменя)? Predicative clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "whether" (London)25. He could recall withвспоминатьstartling clarity what previously had been dim and evasive (object)[?'ve?s?v]/ 1) уклончивыйrecollections of childhood incidents, early schooling and young manhood. (Caldwell)26. It's been my experience that as a rule the personality of a human being presents as much of a complexity as the medical history of a chronic invalid.Subj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Caldwell)27. He [Cowperwood] had taken no part in the war, and he felt sure that he could only rejoice inобладать its conclusion -- not as a patriot, but as a financier.Obj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Dreiser)28. He felt as if the ocean separated him from his past care, and welcomed the new era of life which was dawning for him.(predicative)Predicative clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "as if" (Thackeray)29. It was noticeable to all that even his usual sullen smile had disappeared. Subj clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Caldwell)30. That I had no business with two women on my hands already, to go falling in love with a third troubled me comparatively сравнительно little. (Murdoch)31. I only write down what seems to me to be the truth. Obj clauseis introduced by the preposition "down", is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (Murdoch)32. Believe me, believe us, it is what is best for you. predicative clause is connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (Murdoch)33. Pleasantly excited by what she was doing, she momentarily моментально; мгновенно expected somebody to stop her and remind her that she had forgotten to buy the evening paper and had failed to take the bus home at the usual time. Obj clauseis connected with the principle clause by means of the conjunction "that" (Caldwell)34. I dislike what you call his trade. Obj clauseis connected with the principle clause by means of the connective "what" (Murdoch)
  
  
  
   Exercise 3. Define the kinds of attributive clauses. Translate into Russian.
   1. "Everybody who(restrictive) makes the kind of blunder (промах) I did should apologize," he remarked (высказаться) with a pronounced nodding of his head. (Caldwell) 2. Rachel had become aware of the fact that(appositive) she was talking loudly. (Swinnerton) 3. He took after his blond father, who(non-restrictive) had been a painter. Rosa took after her dark-haired mother, who had been a Fabian. (Murdoch) 4. What we are interested in, as author and reader, is the fact that(appositive) publishing in England is now an integral (цельный) part of big business. (Fox) 5. The first thing(restrictive) Martin did next morning was to go counter both to Brissenden's advice and command. (London) 6. The invalid, whose(restrictive) strength was now sufficiently restored, threw off his coat, and rushed towards the sea, with the intention of plunging in, and dragging the drowning man ashore.(наберег) (Dickens) 7. He was suddenly reminded of the crumpled (мятый) money(restrictive) he had snatched (урвать) from the table and burned in the sink. (Caldwell) 8. Georgie, who(non-restrictive) is now twenty-six, had been an undergraduate at Cambridge, where(non-restrictive) she had taken a degree in economics. (Murdoch) 9. He would speak for hours about them to Harry Esmond; and, indeed, he could have chosen few subjects more likely to interest the unhappy young man, whose(non-restrictive) heart was now as always devoted to these ladies; and who(non-restrictive) was thankful to all who(restrictive) loved them, or praised them, or wished them well. (Thackeray) 10. I hardly know why I came to the conclusion that(appositive) you don't consider it an altogether fortunate attachment. (Pinero) 11. He walked to the window and stood there looking at the winter night that(restrictive) had finally come upon them. (Caldwell) 12. What terrified her most was that she found deep in her heart a strong wish that(appositive) Mischa might indeed want to reopen negotiations. (Murdoch) 13. Directly in front of her window was a wide terrace with a stone parapet which swept round to what she took to be the front of the house, which(restrictive) faced the sea more squarely. (Murdoch) 14. He spent half the week in Cambridge, where(restrictive) he lodged with his sister and lent his ear to neurotic undergraduates, and the other half in London, where(restrictive) he seemed to have a formidable number of well-known patients. (Murdoch) 15. I went upstairs to lie down and fell into the most profound and peaceful sleep that(appositive) I had experienced for a long time. (Murdoch) 16. "Palmer Anderson," said Georgie, naming Antonia's psychoanalyst, who(restrictive) was also a close friend of Antonia and myself. (Murdoch) 17. She looked to him much the same child as(restrictive) he had met six years ago... (Murdoch) 18. Rosa had the feeling that(restrictive) she was both recognized and expected. (Murdoch) 19. Maybe the reason you don't want to go to a specialist is because you don't want to change--you want to stay as you are.(restrictive) (Caldwell) 20. Gretta regarded him with a look on her face that(appositive) was unrevealing of her thoughts. (Caldwell) 21. Such light as there was from the little lamp fell now on his face, which looked horrible -- for it was all covered with blood. (restrictive) (Priestley) 22. Three days after Gretta and Glenn Kenworthy's Saturday night party, which(non-restrictive) was still being talked about among those who(restrictive) had been present, Royd Fillmore presented a formal resignation to the governing board of Medical Square Clinic. (Caldwell)
  
   Exercise 4. Define the kinds of attributive clauses and punctuate accordingly.
   1. That is all I can tell you(attributive relative restrictive) . (London)2. He was under the impression that an attempt was going to be made to convict him(attributive appositive). (Dreiser)3. Whenever she came, which was often, she came quite noisily. (attributive relative non-restrictive continuative). (Dreiser)4. The things her father said seemed meaningless and neutral. (attributive relative restrictive)5. Then she came to New York where she remained two years. (attributive relative non-restrictive)6. I opened Palmer's close-fitting hall door, which is always unlocked, and ushered Dr. Klein inside. (attributive relative non-restrictive). 7. What happened was the last thing that any of them expected to happen. (attributive relative restrictive).8. I shook out my scarf which was damp and soggy мокрый. (attributive relative non-restrictive)9. She had no idea where she was going. (att appositive)10. There were times when I wanted to stop the car and tell him to get out. (attributive relative restrictive).11. His hair, which was short sleek and black, was just visible beneath the capacious brim of a low-crowned brown hat. (attributive relative non-restrictive). 12. But he could see now no reason why he should not smoke. (att appositive).13. The bar was crowded with men, which she had expected it to be, and at first she was not able to find a place to sit down. (attributive relative non-restrictive continuative)
   Exercise 5. Insert who, whom, that, which, as.
   1. One oil lamp was lit in the bow, and the girl whom(who/ that)Mr. Tench had spotted from the bank began to sing gently a melancholy, sentimental and contended song about a rose that(which)had been stained with true love's blood. (Greene) 2. None of us who/that were there will ever forget that day. (Greene) 3. I don't believe all that they write in these books. (Greene) 4. The great protective cover under which the Germans had operated was torn from them. (Heym) 5. I call her probably the very worst woman that ever lived in the world... (Dickens) 6. I saved such of the equipment as could not be replaced, and I saved the personnel... (Heym)7. Pettinger was pleased that Prince Yasha, who was a cool observer and a military man... estimated the situation exactly as he, himself, did. (Heym) 8. There was a feeling in the air and a look on faces which/thathe did not like. (Galsworthy) 9. All that I can remember is that you gave a beautiful performance. (Thornton)
   Exercise 6. Define the nature of adverbial clauses. Translate into Russian.
      -- He too had moved and was now standing where she had been a moment before. (adv clause of place)(Priestley) 2. Once they reached the open country открытуюместность the car leapt forward like a mad thing. (adv clause of time)(Murdoch) 3. Alban's eyes glittered as he looked at the buses and policemen trying to direct the confusion.(advclause of time) 4. He watched until the final wisp of smoke had disappeared. (predicative) 5. Even after Glenn had nodded urgently to her, she continued to look as if she did not know whether to run away from him or to walk back down the corridor to where he stood. (1. Adv clause of time 2.predicative clause; from himиwhere he stood.(secondary predication) - еслилезть, тоadv clause of place)6. And he followed her out of the door, whatever his feelings might be. Какиебыегочувства (adv clause of concession)(Lawrence) 7. Icame awaythe first moment I could. (adv clause of time) 8. If anything particular occurs, you can write to me at the post-office, Ipswich. (adv clause of condition)(Dickens) 9. A cat with a mouse between her paws who feigns [fe?n]/ 1) притворяться boredom is ready to jump the second the mouse makes a dash for freedom (adv clause of time). 10. Gladys leaned forwardподатьсявперёд and then turned her head sothat she could look Penderel almost squarely прямо in the face. (adv clause of purpose) (Priestley) 11. I could work faster if your irons were only hotter. (adv clause of condition). 12. The aftermath последствия of the cub reporter's deed делорепортера-новичка was even wider than Martin had anticipated. (adv. Clause of comparison)13. But these two people, insufferable невыносимыеthough they might be in other circumstances, were not unwelcomed небылинежеланными (гостями). (adv. Clause of concession)14. Brissenden lay sick in his hotel, too feeble слабый to stir out чтобыдвигаться, and though Martin was with him often, he did not worry him with his troubles. (adv. Clause of concession) 15. Had the great man said but a word of kindness to the small one, no doubt Esmond would have fought for him with pen and sword перомишпагой to the utmost of his might допределасвоегомогущества. (adv. Clause of condition)16. When Rainsborough received this news he was made so miserable by it that he was not sure that he could survive. (1. adv. Clause of time; 2. Of result)
   17. However friendly she might seem one day, the next she would have lapsed to her original disregard of him, cold, detached, at her distance. (adv. Clause of concession)
   18. Howard puffed затянулся his cigarette thoughtfully before speaking, as if he was still uncertain about what he should say. (adv. Clause of comparison)
   19. How she would reach the villa, and what she would find therewhen she arrived, she had not even dared смогла to imagine. (adv. Clause of time)20. I paused while she took off her coat... (adv. Clause of time )
   20. I paused while she took off her coat (adv m of time)... (Murdoch)21. I don't know what would have concluded the scene, had there not been one person at hand rather more rational than myself, and more benevolent than my entertainer. (object clause) (Lawrence) 22. And you will find that it is scarcely less of a shock for you(object) because you saw what you expected to see(adv m of cause). (Murdoch)23. When he left the car, (adv m of time) he strode along the sidewalk as a wrathful man will stride, and he rang the Morse bell with such viciousness that it roused him to consciousness of his condition, so that he entered in good nature, smiling with amusement at himself. (London) 24. Wherever they were together or separate, (adv m of place) he appeared to be travelling in one intellectual direction or along one mental groove, and she another. (Dreiser)25. As I had no taste for this particular discussion, and also wanted to get off the subject of my dear brother, (adv m of cause) I said, "What will you be doing on Christmas Day?" (Murdoch)26. "In that case," said Palmer, "since we are going away for good, (adv m of cause) I doubt if we shall meet again." (Murdoch)27. Dazed as he was (adv m of concession), he realized that there was just a chance of escape. (Priestley) 28. No matter how brilliant a physician is(adv m of concession), a thing like that will ruin his career. (Caldwell)29. She could hardly hear his voice, so(result) deafening and continuous was the clatter of the waves upon the stones. (Murdoch)30. At least it was good to be on one's legs again, and though the night was hideous(adv m of concession), the situation seemed less precarious than it did when one was sitting in there, playing fantastic tricks with mechanisms.(adv m of time)(Priestley) 31. It means to make the plane a part of you, just as if it were strapped behind you the minute it became airborne. (adv m of comparison) (Moyt)
  
   Exercise 7. Define the kinds of clauses introduced by that. Translate into Russian.
   1. His smile was so easy, so friendly, that Laura recovered. (adv clause of result) (Mansfield) 2. It was just luck that he didn't catch the boat. (subject c.) (Greene) 3. It infuriated him to think that there were still people in the state who believed in a loving and merciful God.(object c.) (Greene) 4. The impression he gathered was that he would be able to make his own terms.(predicative) (Galsworthy) 5. In the front hall, under a large picture of fat, cheery old monks fishing by the riverside, there was a thick, dark horse-whip that had belonged to Mr. Spears' father. (attributive relative restrictive c.) (Mansfield) 6. At first she used to read to me, but it was such a dismal performance that I could not bear to hear her.(result) (Harraden) 7. I remember the landscape was buried deep in snow, and that we had very little fuel.(object c.) (Aldington) 8. In fact, Mrs. Spears' callers made the remark that you never would have known(restrictive) that there was a child in the house. (object clause) (Mansfield) 9. I believe that all we claim is(object clause) that we try to say what appears to be the truth (predicative c.), and that we are not afraid either to contradict ourselves or to retract an error. (object c.) (Aldington) 10. The box that the fur came out of was on the bed. (attributive restrictive c.) (Mansfield) 11. "I sit alone that I may eat more, (purpose)" said the Baron, peering into the dusk... (Mansfield)
  
   Exercise 8. Define the kinds of clauses introduced by as. Translate into Russian.
   1. Harmless as this speech appeared to be (adverbial clause of concession), it acted on the travellers' distrust, like oil on fire. (Dickens) 2. Even as she talked she was here and there about the room, commenting on this (adv c of time), that, and other episodes with which both she and Miss Redmond seemed familiar. (Dreiser) 3. I was in real distress, as I can tell you.(parenthetical clause) (Dreiser) 4. He kissed her quickly and ran towards the wicket as fast as he could.(comparison) (Maugham) 5. Then she looked very carefully around, nodding her head as she did so, seeming to count the objects. (time) (Murdoch) 6. He was, as I saw him now (parenthetical clause), too fanciful and too erratic. (Dreiser) 7. His wife, as I have said (parenthetical) , was small, talkative, cricketlike, and bounced here and there in a jumpy way. (Dreiser) 8. Such trees as(attributive relative restriction) there were stood out ragged and lorn against a wealth of sky. (Dreiser) 9. She and a certain Wally, the surgeon above mentioned, as she breathlessly explained (parenthetical), were out for a drive to some inn up the Hudson shore. (Dreiser) 10. As you may imagine, (parenthetical) I am suffering from shock. (Murdoch) 11. As I didn't reply (cause), she sighed and turned away to pull the curtains across the darkened windows. (Murdoch) 12. As you must know perfectly well (parenthetical), you could get your wife back if you wanted her even now. (Murdoch) 13. Sally gave him a smile. It was as sweet and innocent as it had ever been. (comparison) (Maugham) 14. Another day, at tea-time, as he sat alone at table (time), there came a knock at the front door. (Lawrence) 15. "Do as I tell you, (manner)" I said. (Murdoch) 16. In front of a big book-case, in a big chair, behind a big table, and before a big volume, sat Mr. Nupkins, looking a full size larger than any one of them, big as they were. (concession) (Dickens) 17. "This is grave news," she added, as we pushed our way to the exit.(time) (Murdoch) 18. "How are you and Alexander?" "We're as well as can be expected (comparison)," said Rosemary. (Murdoch) 19. And, young as you were (concession) -- yes, and weak and alone -- there was evil, I knew there was evil in keeping you. (Thackeray) 20. As I turned to look at her(time) she seemed transfigured. (Murdoch) 21. He stretched himself on his bed as a dog stretches himself.(manner) (Maugham) 22. Yet could I, as things were, rely on Georgie to be cheerful and lucid? (parenthetical) (Murdoch) 23. How trivial as this contact may seem to some (concession), it was of the utmost significance to Clyde. (Dreiser) 24. I shall only try now to describe him as I saw him at the start (manner), before I knew certain crucial facts about him. (Murdoch)
  

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