Cambyses (or Cambese) is the Greek version of the name of several monarchs of Achaemenid line of ancient Persia. The same name appears as Kambujiya (or perhaps Kambaujiya or Kamboujiya) in old Persian, as Kamboja in the Indian epic Mahabharata, as C-n-b-n-z-y in Aramaic, Kambuzia in Assyrian, Kambythet in Egyptian, Kam-bu-zi-ia in Akkadian, Kan-bu-zi-ia in Elamite, and Kanpuziya in Susian language.
Lydia is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkey's modern provinces of Izmir and Manisa. Its traditional capital was the city of Sardis (Turkish: Sart). However, at its greatest extent, the Kingdom of Lydia covered all of western Anatolia.