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The predicative constructions.The dinamics of functioning in English prose.

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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего образования

"Московский государственный лингвистический университет"

(ФГБОУ ВО МГЛУ)

Факультет гуманитарных и прикладных наук

Кафедра грамматики и истории английского языка

Выпускная квалификационная работа на тему: " Динамика функционирования предикативных конструкций в англоязычной прозе."

по направлению подготовки (специальности) 031201 "Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур"

Студент: Пытьева Е.Ю.

Группа 0-9-48

Научный руководитель:

Старший преподаватель

Кемова К.С.

Рецензент: к. филол. н.,

Профессор к-ры лексикологии

английского языка Баринова И.В.

Зав. Кафедрой: д. филол. н.,

проф. Сорокина Т.С.

  
  

Москва

2016

MINISTRY FOR EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT

FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

MOSCOW STATE LINGUISTIC UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Humanities and Applied Sciences

Department of Grammar and History of the English Language

Graduation Paper

"The dynamics of functioning of predicative constructions in English prose/"

031201 - Theory and Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages and Cultures (major in Linguistics and Teaching)

  
   Student: Pytieva E.Y.
   Group 0-9-48
   Academic Supervisor:
   Kemova K.S.
   Reviewer: Barinova I. V., 
Ph.D., Professor of the
   Department of Lexicology
   Head of Department:
   Sorokina T.S.,
   Ph.D., Professor
  

Moscow

2016


Table of Contents

   Introduction.......................................................................................4
   Chapter 1. The notion of "secondary predication" and classifications of predicative constructions...............................................................................6
   1.1 Different approaches to the term of "secondary predication"....................6
   1.2. The overview of the existing types of classifications of predicative constructions................................................................................8
   1.3.The classification of predicative constructions..................................10
   Chapter 2. The use of Objective and Subjective predicative constructions and
   "for-to-infinitive" constructions in classical and modern English............... 19
   2.1. The use of Objective Predicative Constructions in classical and modern English.................................................................................... 19
   2.1.1. Causative verbs taking objective predicative constructions.................19
   2.1.2. The semantics of the verb "have" taking Complex Object constructions................................................................................ 23
   2.1.3.The construction "get + Complex Object" in classical and modern English.................................................................................... 27
   2.1.4. Complex Object with the verbs denoting sense perception....................31
   2.1.5. Complex Object with the verbs of mental activity.................................33
   2.1.6. The peculiarities of the verb "find", observed in Complex Object..........34
   2.2. The use of Subjective Predicative constructions in classical and modern English......................................................................................... 38
   2.3. The use of "for-to-infinitive" constructions in classical and modern English...............................................................................................44
   Chapter 3. Comparative analysis of Absolute Participial Constructions in classical and modern English literature................................................................................58
   Chapter 4. Differences in the use of gerundial predicative constructions in classical and modern English............................................................................................68
   Conclusions..................................................................................... 74
   Bibliography............................................................................
   Appendix 1..................................................................................
   Appendix 2................................................................................
  
  
  
  

Introduction.

   The topic of the present graduation paper is a comparative analysis of the predicative constructions with the Infinitive, Participle and Gerund in classical English literature and modern English. The predicative constructions are an essential structural part of the English language .It is common knowledge that any language is constantly changing. Since the 19th century the English language must have changed as well. Consequently, the predicative constructions, being an integral part of its structure, are likely to have changed .
   The overall objective of the present research paper is to analyze and to compare the use of the predicative constructions with the infinitive, participle and gerund in classical English literature and in modern English .
   The objective of the graduation paper presupposes the following tasks:
   1) to investigate into the notion of predication and provide an overview of literature concerning predicative constructions with the infinitive, participle and gerund;
   2) to reveal the frequency of predicative constructions in classical English literature and in modern English;
   3) to single out and compare the semantic classes of verbs that take predicative constructions in both classical English literature and in modern English;
   4) to reveal the peculiarities of their structure and use in accordance with the context and the way the verbs involved in the predicative structure behave;
   5) to reveal changes in the use of predicative constructions and identify typical patterns of their use.
   The paper consists of an introduction, two theoretical chapters, practical part and the conclusions.
   The first chapter is devoted to the notion of "secondary predication", contains an overview of linguistic literature dealing with this notion, different approaches to this term and to the notion of "predicative construction" as well.
   The second chapter deals with the existing classifications of the predicative constructions.
   The practical part is concerned with the comparative analysis of the use of predicative constructions in samples of classical English literature and modern English ,the tendencies in changing of their structure and in the semantic meanings of the verbs involved due to the context.
   The novelty of the paper consists in the fact that it is comparative analysis of predicative constructions in classical and modern English with the aim of revealing the frequency and changes in their use, the changes in their inner structure, due to the context; the changes in the semantic variety of the verbs involved.
   The reason why I chose this topic is the fact that predicative constructions, being an integral part of its structure, are likely to have changed as well. In modern English literature we have come across samples of these structures that are not described and identified in the modern grammar books. Moreover, the question of their classification and the notion of "secondary predication" is still disputable.

Chapter 1.

The notion of "secondary predication" and classifications of predicative constructions.

   The aim of the present chapter is to describe the notion of "secondary predication", to introduce different approaches to this term and to the notion of "predicative construction" as well. Besides, we show the existing types of classifications of predicative constructions . And finally we are going to present the classification given by A.N Kobrina, which we find the most relevant .
        -- Different approaches to the term of "secondary predication".
   The whole complex of relations between the subject and the predicate expressed grammatically in a sentence is called predication. Predication is found in any sentence. But sometimes we may find sentences which contain not only grammatical predication but the phenomenon which is called secondary predication[2]. If we try to trace the development of the notion of "secondary predication", we will discover, it was O. Jespersen , who first proposed the term "nexus" for every predicative grouping of words, no matter by what grammatical means it is realized. He distinguished between a "junction", which is not a predicative group of words (e.g. reading man) and "nexus", which is one (e. g. the man reads). "If this term is adopted, we may say that in the sentence - I saw him run-there are two "nexuses": the primary one I saw, and the secondary him run. In a similar way, in the sentence I found him ill, the primary "nexus" would be I found, and the secondary him ill". In other words, according to the majority of modern grammarians, sharing the notion of secondary predication, it was O. Jespersen who first spoke about "primary" and "secondary predication"[10]. The next steps were: In 1941 A.A. Shakhmatov developed the theory of "incomplete predication". Fourteen years later, in 1955 the whole chapter of Bally's work was devoted to the Absolute Participial Constructions. Then A.M. Peshkovsky mentioned these structures calling them "structures with an additional message"(1958). Finally,in 1959 F.I. Buslaev used the term "reduced sentence" to characterize such structures. Besides, some grammarians called them "the sentence complicated with the constructions with the verbals", which have their own subject. In 1960 there appeared the theory of semantic and syntactic "gradual, stepwise convergence" of self- separate sentences coming into contact with each other, developed by G. Paul [6] .Thus, this point has often become the top point of the linguistic discussions. As far as our viewpoint is concerned, we come to the conclusion that the term "predicative constructions", based on the relations of "secondary predication" given by A.N. Kobrina expresses in the most precise way the essence of these structures [2]. According to A.N. Kobrina, in Modern English there are several ways of expressing secondary predication .One of them is what is frequently termed the complex object, as seen in the sentences : I saw him run; We heard them sing; The public watched the team play; I want you to come tomorrow, etc. The primary predication in the first sentence is between the subject I and the predicate saw: I is the doer of the action expressed by the predicate verb. But in this sentence there is one more predication, that between him and run: the verb run expresses the action performed by him. This predication is obviously a secondary one: him is not the subject of a sentence or a clause, and run is not its predicate. In this case we can speak only of logical predication, not grammatical one. And therefore the nominal part of this construction may be called only the secondary subject while the verbal part - the secondary predicate and the relations between them are called the relations of secondary predication. The constructions which are based on the relations of the secondary predication are called predicative constructions [2]. Predicative constructions are usually built up with the help of verbals and they are used in different syntactical functions. Their peculiarities consist in the fact that they serve to express not simple parts of a sentence but complex ones. But, according to A.N. Kobrina, on the syntactic function of the group him run (or of its elements) views vary. The main difference is between those who think that him run is a syntactic unit, and those who think that him is one part of the sentence, and run another. If the phrase is taken as a syntactic unit, it is very natural to call it a complex object: it stands in an object relation to the predicate verb saw and consists of two elements. If, on the other hand , the phrase him run is not considered to be a syntactic unit, its first element is the object, and its second element is conveniently termed the objective predicative. The choice between the two interpretations remains arbitrary and neither of them can be proved to be the only right one.
        -- The overview of the existing types of classifications of predicative constructions.
   Examining linguistic literature concerned with this issue, we come to the conclusion, that there exist a lot of classifications, based on different viewpoints, that we have already mentioned. Among the authors, sharing the notion "predicative construction", we are going to introduce the following classifications:
   1. V.L. Kaushanskaya brings out 3 predicative constructions with the infinitive:
   1) the Objective-with-the- Infinitive Construction;
   2) the Subjective Infinitive Construction;
   3) the for-to- Infinitive Construction.
   She divides the predicative constructions with the participle into:
   1) the Objective Participial Construction;
   2) the Subjective Participial Construction;
   3) theNominative Absolute Participial Construction;
   4) the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. In addition, she points out the Absolute constructions without a participle:
   1) the Nominative Absolute Construction;
   2) the Prepositional Absolute Construction.
   This classification is widely used. But, we think that the notion of "secondary predication" is worth paying particular attention to as being the essence of predicative constructions.
   2. According to Kobrina A.N., predicative constructions comprise the following structures:
   1) subjective predicative construction;
   2) objective predicative construction;
   3) nominative absolute predicative constructions;
   4) for-to-infinitive constructions;
   5) gerundial complexes.
   The first two constructions have permanent functions in the sentence, the functions of the last three may vary. According to the nature of the second part of the constructions (verbal or non-verbal) all the constructions (complexes) fall into two large classes: verbal constructions and non-verbal constructions.
   Verbal constructions fall into two groups:
   1. those containing an infinitive;
   2. those containing a participle.
   The infinitive constructions are:
   1) the objective infinitive construction;
   2) the subjective infinitive construction;
   3) the for-to-infinitive construction;
   4) the absolute nominative infinitive construction.
   The participial constructions are:
   1) the objective participial construction;
   2) the subjective participial construction;
   3) the nominative absolute participial construction;
   4) the prepositional absolute participial construction.
   A.N Kobrina views these constructions in terms of secondary predication We consider her classification to be more grammatically precise and full. For this reason we will thoroughly describe it.
   3. Drosdova T.Y. offers the following classification.
   1. The Infinitive Constructions:
   1) the Complex Object;
   2) the Complex Subject;
   3) the For-to -Infinitive Construction.
   She points out the Absolute Participial Construction, speaking about predicative constructions with the participle, and defines two groups of the Gerundial Construction as it was done in previous two cases of the classification. This classification does not express the grammatical essence of predicative constructions. She does not mention "secondary predication" to be the essence of these structures. The author of this classification does not give a complete description of this phenomenon of language. Her classification is based only on their functions in a sentence. Each classification has its certain drawbacks. We consider the classification given by A.N. Kobrina to be more complete, than the classifications given by V.L. Kaushanskaya and T.Y. Drosdova, as she gives a definition of the term "predicative construction" and manages to classify them, paying special attention to their inner structure based on secondary predication. Now we present the classification of predicative constructions given by A.N. Kobrina in a more detailed way and describe the groups of verbs with which it works.
   1.3. The classification of predicative constructions.
   According to A.N. Kobrina, predicative constructions are structures intermediate between a phrase and a clause. Unlike phrases they contain two words which semantically are in subject-predicate relations to one another, as one (the nominal part) denotes the doer of the action or the bearer of the state or quality, while the other (the predicated part) may be either verbal (an infinitive, a participle, a gerund) or non-verbal (an adjective, a stative, an adverb, a noun).But unlike clauses the subject-predicate relations in complexes are not grammatically explicit, that is there is no finite verb-form in them, functioning as the verbal predicate or as a link-verb of a nominal predicate. Therefore constructions have neither real subject, nor real predicate [2].
   We are going to speak about objective and subjective predicative constructions.
   1.3.1. The objective predicative constructions .
   This predicative construction functions as a complex object. It consists of a nominal part and a part which stands in subject-predicate relations to the first part. The nominal part is a noun or a noun-pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. The second element of the construction is a verbal (an infinitive, Participle I, Participle II).
   Accordingly, the following objective constructions can be distinguished:
   1) the objective with the infinitive construction;
   2) the objective with participle I (or participle II) construction.
   1. The objective predicative constructions of both types are used after definite semantic groups of the verbs :
   1) Verbs of sense perception (to see, to watch, to hear, to feel, to observe, to notice), with bare infinitive or participle1 and participle 2 . These verbs are used only in their direct meaning in this predicative construction.
   e.g. They felt the earth shake under their feet. I felt tears running down my cheeks. ( We heard the door open and shut. I smelt something burning.
  
   2)Verbs of wish and intention (to wish, to want, to desire, to choose, to prefer, should/would like, to intend, to mean). He would like you to see him in his office (An infinitive is used with particle "to"). Nobody wanted him going there alone. (P1) Nobody wanted it done in such a way. (P2) He prefers the work done immediately.(P2)
   3)Verbs of mental activity (to think, to suppose, to consider, to believe, to know, to find, to expect, to imagine, to understand, to assume, to acknowledge, to declare, to trust, to pronounce etc). I know myself to be rather slow.(An infinitive with particle "to" is used). At first she thought Johnny killed. (P2).
   4) Causative verbs (to make, to have, to let) take a complex object with a bare infinitive. The verb to get takes a complex object with a to -infinitive as well as the verbs to order, to induce, to force, to bring oneself, to motion/gesture, arrange, to fix.
   e.g. He gestured to the visitor to sit down. The captain ordered the ship to be unloaded. How do you think the men would have their wounds dressed, get themselves washed, have their beds made if nobody worked on a Sunday?
   a) The construction "have someone do something" has the following meaning: to ensure (to cause, request, ask) that someone performs some action.
   b) The construction "have something done is widely used in describing the actions performed for somebody by anyone else : I had my hair cut yesterday. She had the door painted and new lock installed The same construction may have the meaning of the action completed: She had all her money stolen. (Someone stole all her mone).We didn't have all these problems solved.(We didn't solve all these problems). "Someone" may also be used instead of "something": She had him arrested. (She caused the police to arrest him). You had me worried. (I was worried about you. You made me worry). He had us laughing. (We were laughing because of him. He made us laugh).
   5) Verbs of emotion and attitude (to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, cannot/could not bear). I can't bear people to be unhappy or upset . I hate you going to discos. (P1) I `d like this letter sent immediately. (P2)
   6) Besides, the objective with the infinitive construction may be used with a few verbs as their indirect non-recipient object. These verbs are to wait (for), arrange for, leave for, to rely (on), to listen (to), to look (for), to count (upon) and etc. All of them except the verb to listen take the infinitive with the particle to. With the verb to listen a bare infinitive is used.
   e.g. Can I really count upon him to undertake the job? I was relying on him to put things right. I listened to them talk about me.
   Although, the objective with participle I (or participle II) construction takes the following verbs as well: the verbs to find, to leave, to discover, to catch.
   e.g. I left him sitting in his favourite armchair. I discovered the picture still being packed. The father caught Bob smoking in the bathroom. I found everything done to my liking.
   1.3.2. The subjective predicative constructions:
      -- The subjective construction with an infinitive;
   2) The subjective construction with a participle 1 or a participle 2.
   The construction consists of a noun (or a noun-pronoun) in the common case or a personal pronoun in the nominative case and an infinitive or a participle (1,2). The peculiarity of the construction is that the first element is separated from the second one by a finite verb-form which together with the infinitive or a participle (1,2) forms a compound verbal predicate of double orientation, whereas the nominal part of the construction forms the subject of the sentence. The construction does not function as one part of the sentence but falls into two parts each functioning separately. Semantically of these two parts of the predicate only the second one refers to the subject, as only this part denotes either the action or the state of the person or non-person expressed by the subject. Thus in the sentence: He is said to know five languages . He knows five languages that is important. In between the subject and the infinitive or a participle (1,2) there is a part of the predicate expressed by a finite verb which grammatically indicates subject-predicate relations. However, semantically this finite verb cannot serve as the predicate of the subject, as it denotes some comment, or estimate, or judgement, or conclusion, or attitude to the action or state expressed by the infinitive[2]. Both the subjective with an infinitive and the subjective with a participle (1,2) constructions are used with a limited number of finite verbs either in the passive or in the active voice:
   Verbs used in the passive voice fall info four groups:
        -- verbs of sense perception (hear, see, observe, watch, etc.). When used in the passive voice they are followed by a to-infinitive. They express the idea of evidence. The same idea is also rendered by some other verbs in the passive voice (such as find, discover):
   e.g. He was seen driving away from the street casually accident. (P1) Somebody was heard working his way through the thick bushes. (P1) He was found killed. (P2)
        -- verbs of mental perception (think, know, mean, believe, expect, consider, assume, presume, suppose) With this construction these verbs denote different shades of expectation, opinion, judgement:
   e.g. The Paliament is expected to introduce some changes into the laws. Programmed instruction is considered to have many advantages. The work was considered finished (P2).
   3) verbs of saying and reporting (say, report, declare, predict, etc):
   e.g. Blackberries are said to have a lot of vitamins. A new star was reported to have appeared in the East. The schoolchildren were reported missing when they didn't come home for dinner(P1).
   2) Causative verbs (cause, make, order, allow, etc.) These verbs are mostly used in the subjective construction with an infinitive:
   e.g. Jule was made to repeat her words. The doctor was ordered to change his shift. No dam was allowed to be built in this part of the country.
   The following verbs ace used in the active voice only in the subjective construction with an infinitive:
   - Verbs expressing subjective or personal attitude to facts and their evaluation (to seem, to appear, to happen, to chance, to turn out, etc.):
   e.g. The structure seemed to have been properly designed. Your friend turned out to be stronger than we expected. Everybody appeared to be enjoying themselves.
   - Modal phrases expressing different shades of probability or certainty (to be (un) likely, to be sure, to be certain, to be bound);
   adjectives or nouns with the link-verb to be expressing estimate of different kind (pleasant, hard, easy, difficult, terrible, apt, etc.);
   - The modal phrases to be apt, to be bound generally refer to habitual actions or states: We are certain to come to an agreement. You are not likely to believe my story. A strawberry, unless fresh-picked, is bound to exude juice. Chrisis is apt to strike suddenly like influenza.
  -- 1.3.3. The absolute nominative constructions.
   These constructions are called `absolute' because they are not dependent on any other part of the including sentence, though they cannot be used without it, as they lack a finite verb form and thus have no predicate. From the point of view of their transformational possibility, absolute constructions fall into two types, verbal and non-verbal ones.
   1) The Absolute Nominative Participial Constructions. These constructions take both participle 1 and participle 2.
   а)The Nominative Absolute Participial 1Construction
   The absolute nominative with participle I construction is generally used as an adverbial of reason or of attendant circumstances, although sometimes it is an adverbial of time. Occasionally, especially with the verbs to permit or to fail, it is an adverbial of condition. The weather being unusually mild at that time for the season of the year, there was no sleighing (of reason). With a yell, he sprang back, a sweat coming on his skin (of attendant circumstances). The goods having been examined, the customs officer left the ship (of time). Circumstances permitting, they will be through with it by the end of May (condition).
   b)The Absolute Nominative Participial II Construction is usually an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances or time:
   e.g. "Bye," he said, and walked away, his farewell unanswered(of attendant circumstances). Dinner served, Mrs Marlow rang the bell(of time).
   2)Prepositional Absolute Participial Constructions.
   There are prepositional absolute constructions with participle I or II. All function mainly as adverbials of attendant circumstances, although sometimes they may be other adverbials. All of them can be transformed into clauses.
      -- The Prepositional Absolute Construction with Participle I.
   e.g. With his head aching from the slap of the bullet and the blood dripping over the ear, he went over to the Frenchman.
   b) The Prepositional Absolute Construction with Participle2.
   e.g. A Negro boy lay on the pavement, with his throat cut.
   3) Absolute Constructions without a Participle.
   a) The Nominative Absolute Construction. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, of reason or attendant circumstances.
   e.g. Breakfast over, he went to his counting house (of time). She stood under the tree, her head full of strange ideas (of attendant circumstances). Her heart full of despair, she could not say a wor (of reason). This time the fish attacked from below. It hurtled up under the woman, jaws agape (of manner).
   b) The Prepositional Absolute Construction.
   e.g. He stood there trembling, with his face ablaze (of attendant circumstances). He turned away, with his hand still up (of attendant circumstances). They marched towards the square, with little flags in their hands (manner) .
   1.3.4. The for-to-infinitive constructions.
   The for-to-infinitive construction is expressed by a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case and an infinitive with the particle to. It is introduced by the preposition for.
   1) The "for-to-infinitive "construction may function as different parts of the sentence:
   e.g. It was practically impossible for them to meet anybody (subject). For one to spend a summer with them was a wonderful experience (subject). That is not for me to decide (predicative). I watched for him to appear through the bushes (object). She gave orders for everyone to stop packing (attribute). I rang for you to show the lady out (adverbial modifier of purpose). The chance was too good for Jack to miss it(adverbial modifier of consequence). The real cause of the explosion was evident enough for everyone to discuss it(adverbial modifier of consequence).
   3) The for-to-infinitive construction is commonly used after the following verbs: to ask for, to hope, to wait for, to pay for , to look for, to arrange, to suit, to take[4]: They asked for the design to be ready by September. Can you arrange for the goods to be shipped on Friday? When will it suit you for us to phone?
   2) The for-to-infinitive construction is not used after the verbs: to like, to hate, to mean, to intend[4].
   3) This predicative construction is used after a noun: an aim, an idea, a plan, a need, a mistake, a request, shame[4]: The company's main aim is for the sales to be increased. There is no need for you to get up early on Sunday.
   4) The for-to-infinitive construction also used after the adjectives expressing feelings: anxious, eager, willing, delighted, reluctant [4]. They are anxious for us to see the results of their work. We were eager for the concert to be a success. She is willing for him to be invited to the party.
   5) The for-to-infinitive construction is used after the adjectives expressing possibility, necessity, importance, frequency, urgency, benefit in the sentences with introductory "it" [4]:
   e.g. It is impossible for the work to be completed. It is necessary for them to start shipping. It is important for them to get married in September.
   6) This construction is not used after the adjectives likely and probable.
   7) This predicative construction is often used after indefinite pronouns, such as: something, anything, nothing, somebody, anybody, nobody, somewhere, anywhere, nowhere:
   e.g. Have you got something for me to type? Is there anybody for me to play chess with in the village? You must find somewhere for her to practice the piano.
   8) After the words "too" and "enough": Today the water is too cold for the swimmers to swim long distances. I explained enough for him to understand what he must do.
   1.3.5. The gerundial predicative constructions.
   The gerundial predicative construction is a predicative complex in which the nominal part is generally a noun/noun-pronoun in the possessive case or a possessive pronoun. Sometimes, however, mostly in informal speech, it may be a noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. This predicative constructions may function as different parts of the sentence:
   e.g. Your doing nothing won't help anybody (subject). Is it worth while your quarrelling all the time? (subject). The only way out will be his taking the job (predicative). She liked his worrying about his wife (object). The prospect of someone else getting a job moved them to strong moral indignation (attribute). After his being away for some time the crisis came( adverbial modifier of time). The car slid away without my having to say anything( adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances). In spite of it being cold the bushes swarmed with insects( adverbial modifier of concession).
   These examples show the use of gerundial construction with noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case:
   e.g. Do you mind me smoking? (=Do you mind my smoking?) She was angry at John trying to lie to her. (=She was angry at John's trying to lie to her). Forgive me my (me) ringing you up so early in the morning. Nothing shall prevent our(us) from doing our duty. You ought to pardon his(him) contradicting you.

Chapter 2.

The use of Objective and Subjective predicative constructions and "for-to-infinitive" constructions in classical and modern English.

   This chapter presents the results of our research work performed on the basis of the framework outlined in Chapter 1. In the research chapter we focus on the comparative analysis of the predicative constructions with verbals in classical and modern English. For our analysis we studied 984 pages, all in all, of the works of 6 well known authors of modern English literature, 2 modern film-scripts and the works of 5 famous authors, the representatives of classical English Literature. The general amount of the examples of predicative constructions under analysis is 1497,including 900 samples of Complex Object, 265 examples of Complex Subject, 121 examples of the Gerundial constructions , 154 examples of Absolute Participial Constructions and Absolute Nominative- and Absolute Prepositional constructions, 57 examples of "for-to- infinitive" constructions.
   2.1.The use of Objective Predicative Constructions in classical and modern English.
   The Objective Predicative Constructions comprising the objective with the infinitive constructions and the objective with participle(1,2)constructions, function in a sentence as Complex Object. Therefore, the term Complex Object stands for both types of these objective predicative constructions. According to our investigation. the general number of the examples of Complex Object under analysis is 900. Although Complex Object is the most frequent predicative construction to be met both in classical literature and in modern English, we come to the conclusion, that in up-to-date English literature it proves to appear twice as often as in the samples of the classical literature(605 and 295 respectively).
   2.1.1.Causative verbs taking objective predicative constructions.
   According to our data, the most numerous group of verbs included in the Complex Object proves to be the group of causative verbs, such as :to make, to let, to force, to get, to have, to push, to cause, to bring ,to press, to persuade ,to enable, to run, to provoke, to tease ,to dog, to induce, to allow..etc. The general number of examples with causative verbs involved in Complex Object is 435. They make up half of the total number of samples of Complex Object constructions. While studying, we paid attention to the fact, that in the variety of causative verbs included in this structure (Table1), the most common verbs appeared to be the verbs "make " and "let" both in the samples of modern and classical English (Table 1)

Table 1.

The frequency of causative verbs involved in Complex Object

   verb
   Modern English
   The classical English literature.
   1.make
   96
   51
   2.let
   106
   35
   3.have
   32
   10
   4.get
   23
   7
   5.allow
   4
   11
   6.force
   6
   1
   7.tell
   6
   4
   8.ask
   7
   6
   9.cause
   3
   ---
   10.urge
   1
   3
   11.induce
  
   4
   12.enable
   1
   3
   13.bring
   3
   3
   14.warn
   3
  
   15.knock
   2
  
   16.spot
   2
  
   17.run
   2
  
   18.forfeit
  
   1
   19.threaten
  
   1
   20.defy
  
   1
   21.provoke
  
   1
   22.persuade
   3
   3
   23.entreat
  
   1
   24.beg
  
   2
   25.set
  
   2
   We also found that the pair of verbs that rank second in our statistics are the verbs "have" and "get" both in classical and in modern English. In modern English they appear 3 times as often as in classical English literature.(Table1) After these verbs , in terms of frequency, come the verbs "allow", "ask" and "tell". Some of the verbs in our samples do not appear in modern English ("forfeit", "defy"," induce", "provoke"), some are not found in classical English literature ("run", "spot", "dog", "warn", "cause" - in the causative meaning).
   The following examples show the diversity of causative meanings expressed by objective predicative constructions in classical English Literature:
   1) "He had forfeited his right to be there." (J. Golsworthy);
   2) "It caused their wives and children to attend with some regularity the more fashionable churches of the Metropolis." (J. Golsworthy);
   3) In spite of his love for his son, in spite of an instinct, partly constitutional, partly the result, as in thousands of his class, of the continual handling and watching of affairs, prompting him to judge conduct by results rather than by principle, there was at the bottom of his heart a sort of uneasiness." (J. Golsworthy);
   4) James had always been exceedingly liberal to his children, and the consciousness of this made him feel it all the more deeply. (J. Golsworthy);
   5) On his approaching them soon afterwards, though without seeming to have any intention of speaking, Miss Lucas defied her friend to mention such a subject to him; which immediately provoking Elizabeth to do it, she turned to him and said:"Did you not think, Mr. Darcy, that I expressed myself uncommonly well just now, when I was teasing Colonel Forster to give us a ball at Meryton? ( J. Austen ); In the example above we can observe 3 Complex Objects with causative verbs within one short passage.
   6) "Mr. Bingley was unaffectedly civil in his answer, and forced his younger sister to be civil also, and say what the occasion required. She performed her part indeed without much graciousness, but Mrs. Bennet was satisfied, and soon afterwards ordered her carriage. (J. Austen);
   7) "And fearful, on the contrary, as being considered as intruding themselves needlessly long, she urged Jane to borrow Mr. Bingley's carriage immediately, and at length it was settled that their original design of leaving Netherfield that morning should be mentioned, and the request made". (J. Austen );
   In the example below we can see 3 Complex Objects with causative verbs within one short passage:
   8) "Why not? Every time, it's the same. When I got married you made me feel like it was something wrong. And my girls the same. You get them all crying and miserable the way you go on. Leave Alice alone. She's happy". She sighed, letting her eyes linger on the sunlit garden. "She'll marry next month. There's no reason to wait". (D. Lessing);
   Thus, by investigating, we found complex object constructions in both direct and indirect speech. The constructions mostly appear as object to the predicate of the sentence, but sometimes we find them as objects to non-finite forms "prompting him to judge", "letting her eyes linger", "provoking Elizabeth to do it". Thus, in some cases the Complex Object appears to be included in participial phrases. We also can observe the examples filled up with Complex Objects with causative verbs within one short passage (5 and 8).
   Besides, the semantic (lexical) variety of causative verbs in the samples of classical English literature is also worth paying attention to: forfeit, cause, prompt, hurt, threaten, make, let, allow, defy, provoke, tease, force, persuade, urge, get and etc. (Table 5). The diversity of causative meanings expressed by Complex Object constructions in modern English approximately the same with the exception of some verbs mentioned above and appearance some new verbs in causative meaning ("run", "spot", "dog", "warn", "cause"). But we have to emphasize that the frequency of Complex Object constructions with such verbs as "make", "let", "have", "get" has dramatically increased. (Table 1) Moreover, it is worth paying attention to the fact that the polysemy of such verbs as "have", "get", "find", "pop" is tending to increase. (Table 5)
   2.1.2. The semantics of the verb `have" taking Complex Object constructions.
   According to our data, the verb "have" among them is the most semantically diverse. The same tendency was also observed by K.S. Kemova [5]. Actually, this verb is very popular both in modern English and in classical English literature (Table 1). By studying, we revealed 32 samples of Complex Object with this verb in modern English and 10 samples-in classical English literature. In modern English the verb "have" taking a Complex Object construction occurred three times as often as in classical English literature. Therefore, we found the verb "have" to be worth speaking about in terms of the variety of meanings in different examples of Complex Object
   1) The construction "have something done" (The description is in Chapter 1.3.1.).
   This construction is very popular both in modern English and in classical English literature. The meanings of the verb "have" vary due to the context. By investigating, we single out 32 samples of this structure in modern English. In accordance with these samples, we found out, that due to the context, the meaning of the verb "have" in this construction "have something/somebody done" could vary. In some cases (a, b, c, d, g) the action is supposed to be done by somebody else for the person. Whereas in the other examples (e, f, h ,I, j, k, l) it denotes a completed action. So, more often in the samples of modern English it means the completed action. Let us introduce the examples in modern English accompanying them with semantic explanations:
   a) "I want to have him tested as well, just to be sure" (Elizabeth Naughton) = I want someone to test him;
   In this example the action will be performed by somebody else.
   b) "Have the details mapped out for the test" (Elizabeth Naughton) = Force somebody to map out the details for the test;
   In this case the action will be performed by somebody else.
   c) "And if you say another word, Andrew here is gonna have you thrown out on your ass, OK?" ("Proposal") = Andrew will make somebody throw you out;
   In this example the action will be done by someone else.
   d) "I didn't need to have "okay" defined.."( Eric Segal) = I did not need someone to define "okay";
   e) "The whips felt it would be a good thing to have a woman involved, and had hinted it would be a shame if she came to the end of her first parliamentary term with nothing to show for her undoubted ability and staunch support." (Edwina Currie) = The completed action: the woman has been involved. And it proves to be a good thing for them.
   f) "You had it surgically removed (Prince of Tides) = The person was operated on by the surgeon. Something was removed already;
   That means that the action is completed.
   g) "l don't like being lied to.l don't like secrets. l could report you. Have your license suspended."( Prince of Tides) = I could make somebody suspend your license;
   h) "I think you have it made" (Prince of Tides) = It is already done. A completed action;
   i) "Several boys of about Harry's age had their noses pressed against a window with broomsticks in it. "Look" Harry heard one of them say, "the new Nimbus Two Thousand - fastest ever" (J.K. Rowling) = a completed action;
   j) "We have a whole day planned for her and she needs to get ready" ("Proposal") = a completed action;
   k) "I'd never had my own scripts bound," (Richard Matheson) = a completed action);
   l) Jenny and I had classes the next day, Stony had the bank and so forth, and surely Tipsy would have something worthwhile planned for bright and early" (Eric Segal) = a completed action.
   Our investigation of the 10 samples of this structure in classical English literature bring us to the conclusion that the verb "have" has following meanings:
   a) "She requested to have a note sent, desiring her mother to visit Jane". (J. Austen) She asked somebody to send the note; In this case the action is supposed to be done by somebody else.
   b) "You must not have it taken". (J. Austen) = You should not have taken it. But it was already done. The action is completed. с) "She prided herself on her dinner-parties; she took no less trouble to have her guests suitably assorted than to give them excellent food"; (W.S. Maugham) = She makes them match each other = a completed action);
   d) "I had my room done" ( W.S. Maugham) = Somebody else carried out this work;
   e) "He persuaded her to have a frock or two made according to his own design" (W.S. Maugham) = Somebody would make the frocks for her. The action should be done by somebody else.
   f) "I have the Saturday Evening Post sent me". (S. Maugham) = Somebody has sent him Saturday Evening Post.
   According to the meanings of the verb "have" in the construction "have something\somebody done" due to the context, in classical English literature, we found out, that in the samples (a, d, e, f) the action is to be done by somebody else for the person. While in the other samples (b, c ) the action is already completed. So, mostly it means the action carried out by somebody else.
   2) The construction "have someone do something" usually has the following meaning: to ensure (to cause, force, make, persuade, request, ask) someone to perform the action (Chapter 1.3.1). We have the examples of such meanings both in the modern and in the classical English. In the samples of classical English literature:
   a) "I must have you dance. I hate to see you standing about by yourself" (J. Austen);
   b) "Have him placed on one side". (W.S. Maugham);
   In accordance with these only two examples we found the verb "have" to mean "to persuade' (а) and "to order" (b).
   In modern English:
   a) The goblin read the letter carefully.
   "Very well", he said, handing it back to Hagrid, "I will have Someone take you down to both vaults. Griphook!"- (J.K. Rowling) = cause;
   b) "Have my lawyer set it up"( Elizabeth Naughton) = ask;
   c) "Have them start drafting a press release"- ("Proposal") = order;
   d) "Have security take his breakfront out of his office and put it in my conference room". ("Proposal") = order;
   e) "We are desperate to have you stay!" ("Proposal") = ask;
   f) "Actually, I'll have you know that that woman is there..." ("Proposal") = force;
   g) "..and I forgot what it felt like to have people love you and make you breakfast and say.." ("Proposal") = make;
   h) "We'll soon have you cut of here" (Terry Pratchett) = make.
   According to the samples, the verb "have" means ask, order, force, make (similar causative meanings), more or less categoric. Besides, the number of samples has greatly increased in comparison with classical English literature(8).Moreover, we would like to underline that the majority of them comes from the film-scripts. That means, that it is typical to the oral speech.
   To sum up, we studied the construction "have something/somebody done" both in classical English literature and in modern English. As it is found out, the meaning of the verb "have" in this construction of Complex object does vary due to the context. Our research revealed, that in the context the verb "have" in this construction could mean the action supposed to be done by somebody else (1) or the completed action (2). In classical English literature we came across half as many samples of this structure as in modern English (6 and 12, respectively). In these samples we identified the presence of both meanings of the verb in this construction. Besides, in most cases it means the action supposed to be done by somebody else.
   The frequency of this construction in modern English is twice as high as in classical English literature (12). And, according to our data, mostly it means the completed action.
   As far as the construction "have somebody do something" is concerned, we revealed that this construction is typical to modern English, because the majority of the samples we obtained come from the film-scripts.
   While studying we met this construction in modern English 4 times as often as in classical English literature (20 and 5, respectively).
  
   2.1.3.The construction " get+ Complex Object" in classical and modern English. The verb get is very popular in modern English as well as the verb have. According to our data (Table1), the number of the samples of Complex Object with this verb obtained in modern English is 23, that is more than three times as many as in classical English literature (7).Moreover, the verb "get" is also semantically diverse. We discovered this verb to occur in the following patterns: "get somebody to do something", "get somebody doing something" and "get somebody (something) done something".
   Let us move to the examples:
   1) The meaning of the construction "get somebody to do something" is to induce, to force, to persuade, to make somebody do something. We have a lot of these examples both in modern and classical English.
   In modern English:
   a) "She ran a hand over her hair. I'm overwhelmed. I have to think about Reed and what's best for him. And how to get Julia not to hate my guts." (Elizabeth Naughton) = to persuade;
   b)We had a name already picked out. I mean, I had, and I think I got Jenny to agree finally = to induce somebody to do something; (Eric Segal);
   c) "At the BBC, a presenter was trying to get Sir Nigel Boswood to wind up so that the programme could catch the declarations from South Warmingshire, North-West Warwickshire and Hampshire South West. Boswood was enjoying himself hugely".= induce (Edwina Currie);
   d) "She had not the faintest idea how to respond, nor how to put it all in priority order. The answer was to get somebody else to do it". = to force (Edwina Currie);
   e) "I asked you over a dozen times to get Frank to do Oprah, and you didn't do it". ("Proposal") = to force;
   f) "You've got your whole lives to be together". ("Proposal") = to force;
   g) "Well, it was the only way I could get you two to shut up and get us to the airport" ("Proposal") = to force.
   As it is seen from the samples of this construction in modern English, the meaning of the verb `get" in this construction is similar to the meaning "force, to induce" somebody to do something.
   In classical English literature:
   a) "They said Kelso got some rascally adventurer, some Belgian brute, to insult his son-in-law in public--paid him, sir, to do it, paid him--and that the fellow spitted his man as if he had been a pigeon". (Oscar Wilde) = to induce;
   b) "Not on your life", said the captain, who had now recovered his confidence. "I`ve fallen in myself before now. I remember, one evening I came back from shooting, and I fell in, gun and all. Now I get a boy to carry my gun for me". (W.S. Maugham) = to force.
   We obtained only two samples of this construction in classical English literature with the same meaning of the verb "get".
   2) The meaning of the construction "get somebody doing something" is close to the previous one. But the action is in progress: In modern English: "I've been going over my retirement plans recently, and it got me thinking....("Proposal") = to force; In classical English literature: "Why not? Every time, it's the same. When I got married you made me feel like it was something wrong. And my girls the same. You get them all crying and miserable the way you go on. (D. Lessing) = to force;
   3) The meaning of the construction "get somebody or something done" is much more often to come across both in modern and in classical literature. It mostly means the completed action..
   In modern English:
   a) "She didn't need this. She had enough problems in her life right now--moving to a new city, getting Reed adjusted to life without his father, trying to figure out what the hell had happened to her." = in this case-making him adjust (Elizabeth Naughton);
   b) "If she wasn't careful, she'd get herself disbarred. "I think it's time for me to go, Mr. Mathews".( Elizabeth Naughton) = the completed action;
   c) "It's more than I can handle. And I can't even begin to focus on you until I get some of those things worked out first" (Elizabeth Naughton) = the completed action;
   d) Then she "met that Potter at school and they left and got married and had you, and of course I knew you'd be just the same, just as strange, just as--as--abnormal--and then, if you please, she went and got herself blown up and we got landed with you!" = the performed action (J. K. Rowling);
   e) "I mean, there is a certain irony involved when guys who spend the first years of their sex lives preoccupied with not getting girls pregnant = the completed action (Eric Segal);
   f) "You could do yourself a lot of good.'I could get myself killed, more like. But let me have some of those stats you were quoting and I'll look at them" (Edwina Currie) = the completed action;
   g) "She probably got him worked up into it. ("Proposal") = she forced him to complete the action;
   h) "uh... I just, uh, I just wanted to...make sure there was enough time to get all the sewing done." ("Proposal") = to complete the action-there is some difference;
   I) "I forgot what it was like to have a family. I've been on my own since I was 16, and I forgot what it felt like to have people love you and make you breakfast and say, "Hey!Couldve gotten yourself killed. You turned the boat and made me fall in, you jackass." ("Proposal") = could have killed yourself-the completed action;
  
   In the example above there are 3 Complex Objects with causative verbs ("made", "have", "get") within a short passage. These verbs are very typical in Complex Object constructions in oral speech.
  
   10) "Right now, he wanted to find out what was making the new shutter array stick again. He oiled the sliders, checked the tension on the wires, and then swung himself out over fresh air to check the shutters themselves. It wasn't what you were supposed to do, but every linesman knew it was the only way to get things done." (Terry Pratchett) = completed action. In this example we observe 2 Complex Object constructions with causative verbs "make" and "get".
   k) "He'd got three very nearly diamond rings sewn into the lining of his coat, a real one in a secret pocket in the sleeve, and a very nearly gold dollar stitched cunningly into the collar." (Terry Pratchett) = a completed action.
   By investigating we found 10 examples of this construction with the verb "get" in modern English with the same meaning of the completed action. It is well known that this construction is very popular in modern English. It mostly appears as object to the predicate of the sentence, but sometimes we find them as objects to non-finite forms: "making the new shutter array stick again", "not getting girls pregnant", "getting Reed adjusted".
   In the samples of classical English literature:
   a) "When she was discontented, she fancied herself nervous. The business of her life was to get her daughters married; its solace was visiting and news." (J. Austen ) = the completed action;
   b) "The painter had been busy mixing his colours and getting his brushes ready. He was looking worried, and when he heard Lord Henry's last remark, he glanced at him, hesitated for a moment, and then said, "Harry, I want to finish this picture to-day. Would you think it awfully rude of me if I asked you to go away?" (Oscar Wilde) = the completed action; In this case we see 2 Complex Object constructions with causative verbs within a short passage. The constructions mostly appear as object to the predicate of the sentence, but sometimes we also find them as objects to non-finite forms: " getting his brushes ready". The two verbs "have" and "get", to be compared in this construction, brought us to the conclusion, that in the Complex Object with the structure "have somebody do something" and "get somebody to do something" they mostly have causative meaning, i.e., "have" and "get" here generally mean "induce someone to do something; ensure that someone does something", with "have" close in meaning to "ask" and "get" close in meaning to "persuade". The infinitive is used without the particle "to" after "have", but with "to" after "get".
   2.1.4. Complex Object with the verbs denoting sense perception.
   By investigating the predicative constructions Complex Object we came across a lot of verbs denoting sense perception involved: to hear, to watch, to notice, to feel, to observe, to see both in classical English literature and in modern English. In the Table 2 the most frequent verbs of this group found in this structure are introduced.

Table 2.

The frequency of verbs of sense perception involved in Complex Object.

  
  
  
   The verb
   Modern English
   Classical English literature
   1.see
   48
   35
   2.hear
   36
   15
   3.feel
   34
   4
   4.watch
   22
   8
   5.notice
   2
   0
   6.observe
   0
   1
   7.show
   1
   1
   The verbs denoting sense perception is the second numerous group of verbs to appear in Complex Object. The general number of verbs of sense perception found in Complex Object is 210. The variety of Complex Object constructions with these verbs is shown both in the samples of modern English and classical English literature:
   1) "Oh! dear, yes; but you must own she is very plain. Lady Lucas herself has often said so, and envied me Jane's beauty. I do not like to boast of my own child, but to be sure, Jane--one does not often see anybody better looking (J. Austen);
   2) "She was still very poorly, and Elizabeth would not quit her at all, till late in the evening, when she had the comfort of seeing her sleep, and when it seemed to her rather right than pleasant that she should go downstairs herself." (J. Austen);
   3) Mary had heard herself mentioned to Miss Bingley as the most accomplished girl in the neighbourhood; and Catherine and Lydia had been fortunate enough never to be without partners, which was all that they had yet learnt to care for at a ball. (J. Austen);
   4) "Through the boy's shirt he could feel a taut body leaning sinuously into his own, the soft blond hair resting briefly on his shoulder. He felt happy, and thrilled, as the lights whizzed past, the music throbbed. The ache was concentrating itself in the pit of his stomach. Soon it would be time." (Edwina Currie);
   5) "I saw a color television set hung near the ceiling. To my left, a chair--orange-red upholstery like leather, arms of stainless steel." (R. Matheson);
   6) "I felt myself begin to rise. I was a bubble, bobbing up and down. I thought I saw a tunnel up above me, dark and endless. I turned over and looked down and was stunned to see my body lying on the bed. Bandaged and immobile. Fed through plastic tubes. I was connected to." (R. Mathe son); In the example above we observe 2 Complex Object constructions with the verbs of sense perception within a short passage.
   7) "Ten years ago, there had been lots of pictures of what looked like a large pink beach ball wearing different-colored bonnets--but Dudley Dursley was no longer a baby, and now the photographs showed a large blond boy riding his first bicycle, on a carousel at the fair, playing a computer game with his father, being hugged and kissed by his mother. The room held no sign at all that another boy lived in the house, too." (J. K. Rowling);
   8) "I knew that it was all that kept my body living. Revulsion came now as I saw my legs and arms begin to twitch. (R. Matheson.); In this case there are 2 Complex Objects within a short passage.
   To sum up, in these examples we mostly find Complex Object constructions with the participles: "saw him offered" (P2), "showed a large blond boy riding, playing, being hugged and kissed" (P1), "to see my body lying" (P1), "saw a color television set hung" (P2), "feel a taut body leaning" (P1), "heard herself mentioned"(P2), "see anybody better looking"(P1), "kept my body living" (P1). Besides, the constructions mostly appear as object to the predicate of the sentence, but sometimes we find them as objects to non-finite forms: "seeing her sleep".
   2.1.5.Complex Object with the verbs of mental activity.
   The verbs of mental activity are also to be met in Complex Object Constructions both in modern English and in classical English literature. The general number of different verbs belonging to this semantic group to take Complex Object is 50. Table 3 shows the distribution of the verbs of mental activity in Complex Object Constructions both in modern English and in classical English literature.

Table 3.

The distribution of the verbs of mental activity in Complex Object

   The verb
   Modern English
   Classical English literature
   1.consider
   3
   3
   2.know
   6
   3
   3.expect
   7
   4
   4. wait for
   2
   4
   5.think
   1
   2
   6.believe
   o
   1
   7.mean
   1
   2
   8.suppose
   1
   1
   9.recall
   2
  
   The variety of Complex Object constructions with the verbs of mental activity as well as the verbs of intention is shown in both the samples of classical English literature and in modern English:
   1) "If Elaine had indeed known whom to approach about such a valuable post a different name would have hovered on her tongue: her own." (Edwina Currie);
   2) "A man in street clothes was approaching me. I expected him to pass me. (R. Matheson);
   3) "I willed myself to feel amused. That might be fun, I told myself. Even in a dream, how many men receive the chance to listen to their own eulogy". (R. Matheson.);
   4) "This boy was another good reason for keeping the Potters away; they didn't want Dudley mixing with a child like that. None of them noticed a large, tawny owl flutter past the window." (J.K. Rowling); In this example we found 2 Complex Object constructions, both taking participles, within a short passage.
   5) "Aunt Petunia burst into tears and said she couldn't believe it was her Ickle Dudleykins, he looked so handsome and grown-up. Harry didn't trust himself to speak. He thought two of his ribs might already have cracked from trying not to laugh." (J.K. Rowling);
   According to the samples observed, we also come to the conclusion that the samples of the Complex Object with the verbs of mental activity and intention taking participles (both 1 and 2) occur in modern English.
   2.1.6.The peculiarities of the verb "find" observed in Complex Object.
   While studying the samples of the Complex Object constructions explored in both types of English, we consider the verb "find" worth paying attention to. It also has a variety of meanings depending on the structure of the construction itself and the context:
   1) The construction "find somebody doing something" can have the meaning of attendant circumstances. In modern English:
   a) "I wake up to find Ann lying by my side." (R. Matheson) = I discovered, I noticed;
   b) "I had found him sitting on his bed, cheeks wet with tears" (R.Matheson) = I saw him, I noticed him sitting;
   c) "Cautious with his remarks, because she was press, he found himself making a considerable effort to entertain and look after her." (Edwina Currie) = he noticed that he was making;
   d) "Dickson found Elaine Stalker in the Commons library catching up on the week's newspapers. " (Edwina Currie ) = he saw her catching up;
   e) "Her stomach rolled again at that thought, and she turned to find Julia Harrison staring at her with suspicious eyes." (Elizabeth Naughton) = she unexpectedly noticed that Julia was staring at her;
   f) "But for some reason, when he'd called and asked, she'd found herself saying yes." (Elizabeth Naughton) = he heard her saying;
   g) "She laughed. He could get used to that laugh. He found himself smiling too. Really smiling, for the first time in weeks" (Elizabeth Naughton) = he felt that he was smiling;
   h) "Then there was a great scraping of chairs and the next moment, Harry found himself shaking hands with everyone in the Leaky Cauldron." (J.K. Rowling) = he noticed that he was shaking.
   In classical English literature:
   a) "Lord Henry went out to the garden and found Dorian Gray burying his face in the great cool lilac-blossoms, feverishly drinking in their perfume as if it had been wine." (Oscar Wilde) = saw him burying);
   b) "When Lord Henry entered the room, he found his uncle sitting in a rough shooting-coat, smoking a cheroot and grumbling over The Times."
(Oscar Wilde) = he saw him sitting);
   c) "Suddenly I found myself shaking with laughter." (W.S.Maugham) = I felt that I was shaking with laughter.
   As it was found out, in the construction " find somebody doing something" the verb find acts as the verb of sense perception and has the meaning of attendant circumstances.
   2) The construction "find somebody to do something we found only in the examples of classical English literature:
   a) "Miss Bingley was engrossed by Mr. Darcy, her sister scarcely less so; and as for Mr. Hurst, by whom Elizabeth sat, he was an indolent man, who lived only to eat, drink, and play at cards; who, when he found her to prefer a plain dish to a ragout, had nothing to say to her." (J. Austen) = when he learned, that..);
   b) "I was too confused by the crowd in which I found myself to notice who was there." (WS.Maugham) = realized, understood).
   3) The construction "find somebody done something" can have the following meanings in modern English:
   a) "I found myself unsurprised by that."(R. Matheson) = to feel;
   b) "Dickson found himself slightly irritated by Muncastle." (Edwina Currie) = to feel;
   c) "Stepping carefully, holding on to Peter and squeezing around corners, he found himself led into a narrow airless alcove equipped with a wooden bench." (Edwina Currie ) = to feel somebody leading him;
   d) "If he simply tried to stay put he would find himself settling, neglected, in the middle ranks, as other layers slowly and inexorably piled on top, like a garden compost heap in which the richest bits may be deep down, but no one ever bothers to find them." (Edwina Currie) = to feel;
   e) "He walked over to the stationery cabinet, found the scotch left from before the election and poured himself a couple of fingers." (Edwina Currie) = to discover, to notice);
   f) "So far, she'd found pictures of him cozied up to a black-haired vixen at some charity function"( Elizabeth Naughton) = to discover, to notice);
   In classical literature:
   a) "She had obtained private intelligence that Mr. Darcy did not wish for cards; and Mr. Hurst soon found even his open petition rejected." (J. Austen ) = to discover;
   b) "Well, I found myself seated in a horrid little private box, with a vulgar drop-scene staring me in the face.( Oscar Wilde ) =to discover, to notice;
   c) "They said at Apia that one day she would roll right over; and the owner, a German - American who managed one of the largest stores, said that no money was big enough to induce him to go out in her. The cook, a Chinese in while trousers, very dirty and ragged, and a thin white tunic, came to say that supper was ready, and when the skipper went into the cabin he found the engineer already seated at table. The engineer was a long, lean man with a scraggy neck. He was dressed in blue overalls and a sleeveless jersey which showed his thin arms tattooed from elbow to wrist." (W.S. Maugham) = to notice, to discover; In the example above we observe 3 Complex Object constructions within a short extract. Besides, two of them take the participles2.
   4) The construction "find somebody do something" in the meaning of the verb of sense perception-to see:
   In modern English literature: "You'll find staff all wear their ID badges religiously, the MPS expect you to know who they are and can get quite stroppy if you ask to check - even though it's them we're protecting."(Edwina Currie) = see.
   The obtained examples of the predicative construction of this type with the verb "find" make us conclude that they describe both some physical actions or states and unexpected actions (as it was shown above). Thus, we can shape the sphere of its usage.
  
   Conclusions:
  
   According to the data, we have to point out that:
   1. The Complex object is the most common of all the predicative constructions to come across both in classical and in modern literature (900 samples - the general amount);
   2. This construction appears to take the Participle 1 and Participle 2 much more often, than the Infinitive both in classical and in modern English. It makes us suppose that one of the main functions of complex object constructions is description of actions in progress, or visualization.
  
   3. In modern English the predicative construction Complex Object proves to appear twice as often as in the samples of the classical literature (605 and 295 consequently);
   We suppose that the reason for this phenomenon is the influence of oral speech on contemporary written- literary language. That may be a sign of syntactic condensation as reflection of the modern tendency to express ideas as shortly as possibly in the fields of lexis, grammar and phonetics
  
   4. Among the variety of the verbs the verbs "to make" and "to let" are the most common to come across in both cases (Table 1).We explain these verbs to occur so frequently for the same reason(3).
  
   5. The great variety of verbs included in the predicative construction Complex Object in classical literature tends to decrease in the samples of modern one. Its dramatic decrease has been observed in the film scripts, where the conversation is particularly close to oral speech;
   6. Moreover, while the number of the examples of Complex Object constructions with synonymous verbs observed in the samples of classical literature is decreasing in up-to-date literature, the polysemy of verbs is tending to increase;
   7. This fact is most evident in the group of causative verbs. Especially in the verbs to have, to get and to find. We observed the variety of the meanings of the verb "HAVE" in the different types of the Complex Object constructions, depending on the structure of the construction itself and the context.
   8. The models with all the verbs ( have, get, find) in this predicative construction Complex Object proved to differ from those common models usually given in the classical textbooks. We have shown the different meanings of these verbs they can have in this predicative construction depending on the structure of the construction itself and the context. It is worth paying attention to.
   2.2. The use of Subjective Predicative constructions in classical and modern English.
   COMPLEX SUBJECT is one more infinitive construction generally called the subjective infinitive construction or the nominative infinitive construction. We would like to mention that Subjective Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case. The peculiarities of this construction are described in Chapter 1(1.3.2.). It is necessary to underline that this construction requires the verbs of definite semantic groups (verbs of sense perception, verbs of mental activity, reporting verbs, verbs of suggestion (the same that can be used in the Complex Object). But all of them are used in the Passive voice. Another group of verbs belongs to the verbs denoting statement, supposition, unexpected actions: to prove, to turn out, to appear, to seem, to chance, to happen; All these verbs are used in the active voice. Besides, this construction appears after the modal constructions:
   to be (un) likely -
   to be certain, to be sure -
   It is to be mentioned that subjective infinitive construction or nominative infinitive construction can play in the sentence the definite role of COMPLEX SUBJECT.
   Examining the given examples of classical and modern English we found out that the total amount of this type of the predicative constructions is 265. In classical literature there are 108 examples, in modern literature there are 157 examples. According to this distribution one can say that in modern literature this construction is more frequent.
   Among all the variety of verbs to be found in the Complex Subject the verb SEEM is the most common to come across (128). In classical English literature-52,in modern prose -76 examples.(Table 4)
   1) The construction with the verb SEEM is found with the indefinite infinitive (active):
   a) "As he sat in the usual morning traffic jam, he couldn't help noticing that there seemed to be a lot of strangely dressed people about." (J.K. Rowling);
   b) "Mercer flourished the cake and began fumbling with matches. He seemed to take for ever. Mrs Stalker signalled the Labour man and the two edged sideways off the platform followed by the Liberal, leaving Mercer muttering a lonely incantation over the lighted candle. (Edwina Currie);
   c) "I never even set eyes on him. And yet I seem to see him more clearly than many men, my brothers, for instance, with whom I passed my daily life for many years." (S. Maugham);
   2) With the indefinite infinitive passive: "Hagrid's coat seemed to be made of nothing but pockets--bunches of keys, slug pellets, balls of string, peppermint humbugs, teabags. (J.K. Rowling);
   3) With the perfect active infinitive:
   a) "A fine thing it would be if, on the very day YouKnow-Who seems to have disappeared at last, the Muggles found out about us all. I suppose he really has gone, Dumbledore?" (J.K. Rowling)
   b) "For a full minute the three of them stood and looked at the little bundle; Hagrid's shoulders shook, Professor McGonagall blinked furiously, and the twinkling light that usually shone from Dumbledore's eyes seemed to have gone out." (J.K. Rowling);
   c) "They stared at each other, seeming to have forgotten that Harry and Dudley were still in the room. Dudley wasn't used to being ignored." (J.K. Rowling);
   4) With the continuous active infinitive:
   a) "When the mail arrived, Uncle Vernon, who seemed to be trying to be nice to Harry, made Dudley go and get it. They heard him banging things with his Smelting stick all the way down the hall. Then he shouted, "There's another one!" (J.K. Rowling);
   b) "There was a horrible smell in the kitchen the next morning when Harry went in for breakfast. It seemed to be coming from a large metal tub in the sink. (J.K. Rowling);
   5) with the Continuous passive infinitive:
   a) "Aye--because she asked him at last how he liked Netherfield, and he could not help answering her; but she said he seemed quite angry at being spoke to." (J.Austen );
   b) "He didn't seem at all upset at being almost knocked to the ground. On the contrary, his face split into a wide smile and he said in a squeaky voice that made passersby stare." (J.K. Rowling);
   6) With the participle:
   a) "I was going to ask more but it all seemed too confusing(participle1) and I let it go as I followed Albert through his house. Every room was large, bright and airy with massive window openings which overlooked the luxuriant scenery." (R.Matheson);
   b) "I was so vexed to see him stand up with her! But, however, he did not admire her at all; indeed, nobody can, you know; and he seemed quite struck with Jane (participle2) as she was going down the dance." (J.Austen);
   e) "His horse was alone in the stable, and seemed unimpressed to see him. He got the bridle on, while hopping on one foot." (Terry Pratchett).
   6) There are two possible variants of the negation with SEEM:
   a) "Wouldn't it be better just to go home, dear?" Aunt Petunia suggested timidly, hours later, but Uncle Vernon didn't seem to hear her."(J. K. Rowling);
   b) "Professor McGonagall flinched, but Dumbledore, who was unsticking two lemon drops, seemed not to notice. "It all gets so confusing if we keep saying 'You-Know-Who.."(J.K. Rowling);
   7)The verb SEEM included in the participle construction or structure with a gerund:
   a) "They stared at each other, seeming to have forgotten that Harry and Dudley were still in the room. Dudley wasn't used to being ignored."(J.K. Rowling);
   b) "On his approaching them soon afterwards, though without seeming to have any intention of speaking, Miss Lucas defied her friend to mention such a subject to him; which immediately provoking Elizabeth to do it, she turned to him and said: "Did you not think, Mr. Darcy, that I expressed myself uncommonly well just now, when I was teasing Colonel Forster to give us a ball at Meryton?" (J. Austen);
   There are interesting examples when one predicative construction is turning into another:
   a) "My father pretended to look embarrassed, and my mother seemed to be waiting for me to bow down or something. I mean, it's not Secretary of State, after all!" (Eric Segal);
   b) "We are desperate to have you stay." ("Proposal").

Table 4

The distribution of the most common verbs and expressions in Complex Subject in modern and classical English.

   The verb
   Modern English
   Classical English literature
   1.Seem
   76
   52
   2.To be likely
   6
   5
   3.To be bound
   1
   4
   4.To be sure
   1
   1
   5.To be desperate
   2
   0
   6.To be easy
   0
   2
   7.happen
   5
   3
   8.appear
   5
   3
   9.turn out
   6
   1
   10.suppose
   18
   1
   11.force
   0
   3
   12.dispose
   0
   3
   On investigating the samples of Complex Object in modern English and classical English literature we come to the conclusion, that the most popular verb to be included in this construction both in modern English and in classical English literature appears the verb "seem". Besides, the modal expressions to be desperate, to be easy, to be likely, to be bound , to be sure are also common in this construction. As Table 4 shows, the verbs used in Complex Subject in active voice (appear, happen, turn out) are more often to come across than the others. We observed the fact, that the verb "suppose" is very popular in modern English in this construction.
   The variety of samples of Complex Subject in modern English is seen in the following examples marked by especial "density" of the constructions:
   1) After roughing it here and there it was very agreeable to sit in a comfortable chair, the fire burning brightly on the hearth, charming tea-things set out on a charming table, and talk with this amusing, attractive woman. She treated me as a prodigal returned from his husks and was disposed to make much of me (S. Maugham):
   2) With her own hands she makes me tea-cozies that I am forced to use when she is here and doilies and centrepieces for the dining-room table". (S. Maugham);
   3) "Don`t be ridiculous, Jane. It`s so undignified. It`s so ungraceful. I always thought you were a sensible woman. Really you`re the last person I should ever have thought likely to fall in love with a boy". (S. Maugham);
   4) "Had it struck you that she was a humorist?" "I`m bound to say it hadn`t." (S. Maugham);
   5) "You appear to be saying that, for most of us, there's a choice between being nice and being effective. But we can't be both. Is that right?'`I'm not sure how to answer that. Of course it's possible, as Nigel himself shows. But he does seem to be an exception, which suggests there is a rule. Competence in politics, particularly among ministers, requires hard talking and frequently unpopular decisions. (Edwina Currie );
   In this example we observe 2 Complex Subjects within a short passage.
   6) If you're tempted to say something to them it's safer to pick up a private phone. If your remarks are likely to be hostile to the government I'd rather you say them to me instead. The Strangers' (Edwina Currie);In this example we can see 2 Complex Object constructions within a short extract.
   7) Politicians were required to make promises which could not be kept. They were supposed to know all the answers in a world of shifting uncertainty. The man who responded truthfully `I don't know' would be sidelined very quickly.(Edwina Currie);= 2 Complex Subjects within a short passage.
   8) To have been warned that he was likely to be called, not in a few days' time, which would have been bad enough, but immediately after the front benches tomorrow and thus become the first maiden speaker - that was utterly terrifying. (Edwina Currie)
   9) She's making me work the weekend. They tell you to quit? We are desperate to have you stay. We are desperate to have you stay. Let me explain to you the process thats about to unfold." ("Proposal");=2 Complex Subjects within a short passage.
   10) Ma'am, we're not authorized to take you to the airport. Larry Ferris, don't make me call your mother. We are desperate to have you stay." ("Proposal");=2 Complex Subjects within a short extract.
   11) Oh, sorry. I'm a bit chesty to begin with and I happened to be knocked up when I wore this."("Proposal");=2 Complex Subjects within a short passage.
   12) "The observer who chanced to be present at the house of old Jolyon Forsyte. For the first time, as a family, they appeared to have an instinct of being in contact, with some strange and unsafe thing. Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune; (J. Golsworthy) =3 Complex Subjects within a short passage.
  
   2.3. The use of "for-to-infinitive" constructions in classical and modern English.
  
   According to the definition of this predicative construction given in the theoretical part, "the for-to-infinitive" construction is expressed by a noun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case and an infinitive with the particle to. It is introduced by the preposition for. The construction may function as different parts of the sentence: Subject, Predicative, Object, Attribute, Adverbial modifier of purpose, of consequence. This construction takes the verbs of different semantic groups. The variety of the verbs included is unlimited. The general amount of these predicative constructions both in classical English literature and in modern English is 57 (23 and 34 respectively).
   Having analyzed the samples obtained in modern English we discovered some peculiarities. Though the function of this predicative construction in the sentence can differ, we paid attention to the fact that in most cases (19) this predicative construction is used as the subject of the sentence:
   1) "But what do you think, Father?" "I think Jennifer is admirable. And for a girl from her background to get all the way to Radcliffe...The Sonovabitch derived enormous satisfaction from my remaining seated (Subject) ( Eric Segal);
   2) Why was it all right for Dad to be away, but not for her mother? Was that the way the world ran? (Subject) (Edwina Currie);
   3) She waited while they each flipped through the files. "I know it's one thing for her to say she can't remember anything. It's another for you to see it in black and white. (Elizabeth Naughton);
   4) "It's not a good idea for you to come home this weekend. I'm just not sure that l want to see you right now (Subject) (Prince of Tides);
   5) "It would be a dream come true for me to see my one grandchilпs wedding. A sign from the universe that you're meant to be together; It would be a dream come true for me to see my one grandchilпs wedding".(Subject) ("Proposal");
  
   2. This predicative construction can be often found as an Object of the sentence in modern English. We discovered 10 samples of this type.
   1) "I need for you to file this fiancИe visa for me, please" (The Object) ("Proposal"); "I guess I will pop for you to fly first class. But make sure you use the miles." (Object) ("Proposal");
   2) "I haven't got any money--and you heard Uncle Vernon last night ...he won't pay for me to go and learn magic." (Oblect) (J.K. Rowling);
   3) My father pretended to look embarrassed, and my mother seemed to be waiting for me to bow down or something." (Object) (Eric Segal); Within one sentence there are Complex Subject turning into the "for-to - infinitive" construction. (Object) (Eric Segal);
   4) Whether it was caused by the effort of wanting so badly for Ann to believe or by her continuing sorrow, I had no idea. (Object). ("What dreams come true" 2009);
  
   3. 5 times we singled out this predicative construction in the function of adverbial modifier mostly of purpose (4) and of consequence (1):
   1) For something to do, I checked out her notebooks. Her handwriting was curious -- small sharp little letters with no capitals (who did she think she was, e. e. cummings?) (The Adverbial modifier of purpose) ( Eric Segal);
   2) Moist realized he was looking at himself from a distance, as if part of himself was floating outside his body like a child's balloon ready, as it were, for him to let go of the string. (the Adverbial modifier of purpose). (Terry Pratchett);
   3) " I walked into the living room, past a knot of people; none of them were clear enough for me to recognize. Still the dream, I thought. I clung to that (Adverbial modifier of consequence) (R. Matheson);
   4. Only once we met this construction in the function of attribute : "Had to stop, a car was speeding toward me. There was room for it to move around me but it didn't. Hit my left front fender, sent me spinning. (Attribute) (R. Matheson);
  
   5. Twice it functions as the predicative:
   1) "Me? No, not at all. I'm easy. It's for you to decide.' She glanced up. Her husband looked a little upset. She shrugged, sorry she could not share his love affair with the political world; but he had always known that.-in the function of Predicative. (Edwina Currie);
   2) "What good would it do for me to speak if they believed me dead? I had to think of something else; it was the only answer."(Predicative. ) (R. Matheson);
   In some cases (3) we took notice of the unusual position of the preposition "for" of this construction:
   1) "It's the only way to get the point across. I like Mitch, but he's not the first man I've met that I like. I just didn't want you to hear this from him later or for it to come up out of context." " For it to come up out of context"- in the function of the Subject. (Elizabeth Naughton);
   "I didn't want for it to come up out" - The position of the Preposition "for" in this extract is unusual. (Usually I want something for you to do.) But in this case it goes right after the verb "want".
   2) I need for you to send the boxes in my office to....to this address, please. I need the boxes to go out today." I need for you to send the boxes in my office to....to this address, please. (Object) ("Proposal"); The position of the Preposition "for" in this extract is unusual. (Usually I need something for you to do.) But in this case it goes right after the verb "need". And in this short extract this unusual position of the preposition "for" is repeated .
   3) "I need for you to file this fiancИe visa for me, please" (The Object) ( "Proposal"); "I guess I will pop for you to fly first class. But make sure you use the miles." (Object) ("Proposal"); The position of the Preposition "for" in this extract is not common.(Usually: I need something for you to do;I pop something for you to fly. But in this case it goes right after the verb "need" and "pop". And in this short extract this unusual position of the preposition "for" is repeated :
   a) "I guess I will pop for you to fly first class. ("pop for you to fly")
   b) "I need for you to file this fiancИe visa for me.." ("need for you to fly").
  
   7. On examining the samples, we took notice of the fact that this predicative construction in modern English was to be met most often in the sentences (19) with introductory "it":
   1) "He turned to Andrew. `Now then, old chap. It is a good thing for bright sparks like you to get to know journalists and to learn how to talk to them without saying anything." - in the function of the Subject.(Edwina Currie);
   2) "Me? No, not at all. I'm easy. It's for you to decide." She glanced up. - in the function of Predicative. (Edwina Currie);
   3) "It needed only one misplaced pest for a minister or civil servant to be pilloried for hours, often on television." In the function of Object. (Edwina Currie);
   4) "Simone pulled up in front of Chaser's, the sports bar where she'd agree to meet Mitch Mathews. Nerves bounced around in her stomach as she checked her lipstick in the rearview mirror. It wasn't unethical for her to meet with the man. (Subject). (Elizabeth Naughton);
   5) "It's not a good idea for you to come home this weekend. I'm just not sure that l want to see you right now. I'm just not sure that l want to see you right now..we don't make each other feel good anymore. (Subject) ( Prince of Tides);
   Besides, this predicative construction in impersonal sentences with "it" as a subject most often appears with adjectives : right, easier, easy, hard, unethical, true, unusual, impossible, possible, exciting (11) [4]:
   1) It couldn't be easy for the girl to see someone who looked so much like her mother. Kate hadn't considered the girl's feelings in all this when she'd decided to come by here today. She'd been so intent on finding answers, she hadn't thought of anyone but herself. (Subject) (Elizabeth Naughton);
   2) "Simone pulled up in front of Chaser's, the sports bar where she'd agree to meet Mitch Mathews. Nerves bounced around in her stomach as she checked her lipstick in the rearview mirror. It wasn't unethical for her to meet with the man. (Subject) (Elizabeth Naughton);
   3) It was not unusual for me to come home at two or three in the morning. I mean, six courses, plus editing the Law Review, plus the fact that I actually authored an article in one of the issues (Subject) (Eric Segal);
   4) Proof of what I say is that I started this letter talking about Dad but ended up talking about Mom and Dad. Because it's impossible for me to talk about him without talking about her as well. They go together. That's the trouble. (Subject) ("What dreams come true" 2009);
   5) "I can't describe how long it took me to accept it," Albert told me. "Mostly, I couldn't understand how it was possible for me to be admitted to a place I'd always been positive didn't exist." (Object) ("What dreams come true" 2009);
   7) "You know, it's exciting for me to experience you like this." (Subject) ("Proposal");
   We also met this type of predicative construction in impersonal sentences with introductary "it" after a noun (8):
   1) "He turned to Andrew. "Now then, old chap. It is a good thing for bright sparks like you to get to know journalists and to learn how to talk to them without saying anything. The Globe asked the whips" office if they could meet a few of the new intake" - (Subject). (Edwina Currie);
   2) "He cursed those Members who craved seats on committees solely to make trouble. It needed only one misplaced pest for a minister or civil servant to be pilloried for hours, often on television." (Object). (Edwina Currie);
   3) Big red warning flags went off in her mind. The way he was watching her, the sinister smile, those sexy eyes. If she wasn't careful, she'd get herself disbarred. "I think it's time for me to go, Mr. Mathews." (get herself disbarred.- "I think it's time for me to go, Mr. Mathews-in the function of the Subject) (Elizabeth Naughton);
   4) "It's not a good idea for you to come home this weekend. I'm just not sure that l want to see you right now. I'm just not sure that l want to see you right now..we don't make each other feel good anymore. (Subject) ( Prince of Tides);
  
   This predicative construction proves to appear after " there is/there are"- construction + a noun:
   1) "Had to stop, a car was speeding toward me. There was room for it to move around me but it didn't. Hit my left front fender, sent me spinning. (Attribute) (R. Matheson);
   2) His last, comforting thought before he fell asleep was that even if the Potters were involved, there was no reason for them to come near him and Mrs. Dursley. The Potters knew very well what he and Petunia thought about them and their kind...(Subject) (J.K. Rowling);
   3) In truth there was not a lot for Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition to feel happy about, after losing another election. The greasy-pole game - who was out, who was in, which names were moving smoothly up, which into political oblivion - now dominated bars and tea rooms. In the function of the Subject. (Edwina Currie ).
   This construction in the samples of modern English is to be met after the verbs (wait for, pay for, need (3), pop, want, scrounge for):
   1) "It's the only way to get the point across. I like Mitch, but he's not the first man I've met that I like. I just didn't want you to hear this from him later or for it to come up out of context." " For it to come up out of context" - in he function of the Object. (Elizabeth Naughton); the verb "want". "I didn't want for it to come up out" - The position of the Preposition "for" in this extract is unusual. (Usually I want something for you to do.) But in this case it goes right after the verb "want".
   2) "I need for you to file this fiancйe visa for me, please" (The Object) ("Proposal"); "I guess I will pop for you to fly first class. But make sure you use the miles."(Object) ("Proposal"); the verbs "need", "pop".
   But in this case it goes right after the verb "need" and "pop". And in this short extract this unusual position of the preposition "for" is repeated :
   a) "I guess I will pop for you to fly first class.("pop for you to fly")
   b) "I need for you to file this fiancйe visa for me.."("need for you to fly").
   3) "I haven't got any money--and you heard Uncle Vernon last night ...he won't pay for me to go and learn magic." (Oblect) (J.K. Rowling); the verb - "pay for".
   4) "Where did he go to study when he saw the tie placed on the doorknob of our room (the traditional signal for 'action within')? Admittedly, he didn't study that much, but he had to sometimes .Ray had to scrounge for places to sack in -- neighbors' couches, etc., assuming they had nothing going for them. (Object) (Eric Segal); the verb-scrounge for.
   5) My father pretended to look embarrassed, and my mother seemed to be waiting for me to bow down or something. I mean, it's not Secretary of State, after all .Within one sentence there are Complex Subject turning into the "for-to-infinitive " construction. (Object) (Eric Segal); the verb -"wait for"
  
   In classical English Literature the distribution of this construction in terms of its function in the sentence is as follows:
   1. In most samples under analysis (12) this predicative construction is found in the function of the subject:
   1) They moved, as he spoke, like music, and seemed to have a language of their own. But he felt afraid of him, and ashamed of being afraid. Why had it been left for a stranger to reveal him to himself? - Subject.) (Oscar Wilde);
   2) "Aye, so it is," cried her mother, "and Mrs. Long does not come back till the day before; so it will be impossible for her to introduce him, for she will not know him herself." (Subject) (J.Austen);
   3) "Do you mean to tell me that you can bring yourself to believe that it`s possible for a young man to care for a woman old enough to be his mother?" | It`s possible for a young man to care-Subject). (S. Maugham);
   4) "Gilbert is twenty-seven now. It`s just the time for a pretty girl to come along. Did you notice the other evening at Jane`s that pretty little niece of Sir Reginald`s? (Subject) (S. Maugham);
   5) "How impossible and wrong would it have been for any family, with the regard for appearances which should ever characterize the great upper middle-class, to feel otherwise than uneasy! (Subject) (J. Golsworthy);
   6) "it will be just as well for her not to see so much of June. (Subject) (J. Golsworthy).
   2. Only twice this predicative construction functions as an object:
   1) "Jane is putting the finishing touches to her appearance. I`m longing for you to see her. She`s all in a flutter. She says he adores her. His name is Gilbert and when she speaks of him her voice gets all funny and tremulous. It makes me want to laugh." - Object) (S. Maugham);
   2) He stopped. "But I never meant..." he muttered, waiting for her to turn and run to him. "I didn't mean..."Object (D. Lessing);
  
   The predicative construction "wait for her to turn and run to him", according to the most textbooks, belongs to the Complex Object. We come to the conclusion, that this construction can belong both to the Complex Object and to "for-to- Infinitive" construction.
  
   3. We discovered this construction to function as adverbial modifier only in four cases (3 of them is adverbial modifier of purpose and one-of consequence):
   1) The mate called one of the crew and gave him the order. The captain watched the Kanaka climb and waited for him to speak. But the Kanaka shouted down that he could see nothing but the unbroken line of foam. The captain spoke Samoan like a native, and he cursed him freely. Adverbial Modifier of purpose. (S. Maugham ):
   2) His mood shifted. He deliberately held out his wrist for the bird to take flight, and caught it again at the moment it spread its wings. He felt the plump shape strive and strain under his fingers ; the Adverbial modifier of purpose, (D. Lessing);
   3) "Tell away!" she said, laughing, and went back to the gate. He heard her singing, for him to hear: I've got you under my skin, Adverbial Modifier of purpose, (D. Lessing);
   4) Elizabeth Bennet had been obliged, by the scarcity of gentlemen, to sit down for two dances; and during part of that time, Mr. Darcy had been standing near enough for her to hear a conversation between him and Mr. Bingley, who came from the dance for a few minutes, to press his friend to join it. "= the Adverbial Modifier of consequence, (J. Austen);
   4. In the function of attribute this construction is to be met more often (4), than in modern English:
   1) "Suddenly the painter appeared at the door of the studio and made staccato signs for them to come in.(Attribute) (Oscar Wilde);
   2) "He was unique. There never was anyone more beautiful. There was no more reason for him than for a wonderful blossom to flower on a wild plant. He was a happy accident of nature. (ATTRIBUTE) (S. Maugham);
   3) To be lonely, and grow older and older, yearning for a soul to speak to! Attribute (J. Golsworthy);
   4) He had left his wife sitting on the sofa in the drawing-room, her hands crossed in her lap, manifestly waiting for him to go out. This was not unusual. It happened, in fact, every day." the Attribute, (J. Golsworthy);
   5. And only once it is found in the function of predicative:
   1) "That was for him to find out. (Predicative ) (J. Golsworthy);
   On examining the samples, we took notice of the fact that this predicative construction in classical English literature appeared mostly in sentences with introductory "it" (12):
   1) There was something in his low languid voice that was absolutely fascinating. His cool, white, flower-like hands, even, had a curious charm. They moved, as he spoke, like music, and seemed to have a language of their own. But he felt afraid of him, and ashamed of being afraid. Why had it been left for a stranger to reveal him to himself? ( Subject.) (Oscar Wilde);
   2) "Aye, so it is," cried her mother, "and Mrs. Long does not come back till the day before; so it will be impossible for her to introduce him, for she will not know him herself." (Subject) (J. Austen);
   3) "But I felt it high time for me to leave the two ladies to themselves, so I took my leave. (Subject) (S. Maugham);
   4) How impossible and wrong would it have been for any family, with the regard for appearances which should ever characterize the great upper middle - class, to feel otherwise than uneasy! (Subject) (J. Golsworthy);
   5) "It will be just as well for her not to see so much of June. (Subject) (J. Golsworthy);
  
   Besides, this predicative construction in sentences with the introductory "it" mostly appears with an adjectives (8): impossible (3), possible, important, dreadful, wrong
   :
   1) How impossible and wrong would it have been for any family, with the regard for appearances which should ever characterize the great upper middle-class, to feel otherwise than uneasy! (Subject) (J. Golsworthy);
   2) "I knew you`d behave like a gentleman. It would have been dreadful for her for people to think that you had left her." (Subject) (S. Maugham);
   3) "We`re going to Italy for our honeymoon. Gilbert has never had a chance of studying Renaissance architecture, and of course it`s important for an architect to see things for himself. And we shall stop in Paris on the way and get my clothes there."
   4) "Do you mean to tell me that you can bring yourself to believe that it`s possible for a young man to care for a woman old enough to be his mother?" (Complex Object; it`s possible for a young man to care-Subject). ("Jane" by S. Maugham 1923).
   8. This predicative construction proves to appear in impersonal sentences with impersonal "it" after a noun:
   1) "I noticed that when she smiled she showed white, small and regular teeth. They were a real, beauty. Her smile was certainly very sweet. But I felt it high time for me to leave the two ladies to themselves, so I took my leave. (Subject) ("Jane");
   2) "Gilbert is twenty-seven now. It`s just the time for a pretty girl to come along. Did you notice the other evening at Jane`s that pretty little niece of Sir Reginald`s? I thought Jane was looking at them both with a good deal of attention, and I wondered to myself." (Subject) ("Jane").
   9. Only once it appears after "there is/are" construction + a noun":
   1) "He was unique. There never was anyone more beautiful. There was no more reason for him than for a wonderful blossom to flower on a wild plant. He was a happy accident of nature. (ATTRIBUTE) ( S. Maugham ).
   10. We also found this predicative construction after the verbs (leave for, wait for (2), long for, yearn for, sing):
   1) "But he felt afraid of him, and ashamed of being afraid. Why had it been left for a stranger to reveal him to himself? ( Subject.) (Oscar Wilde ); (leave for).
   2) "The mate called one of the crew and gave him the order. The captain watched the Kanaka climb and waited for him to speak. But the Kanaka shouted down that he could see nothing but the unbroken line of foam. The captain spoke Samoan like a native, and he cursed him freely. ( Adverbial Modifier of purpose. ( S. Maugham ); (wait for).
   3) "Jane is putting the finishing touches to her appearance. I`m longing for you to see her. She`s all in a flutter. She says he adores her. His name is Gilbert and when she speaks of him her voice gets all funny and tremulous. It makes me want to laugh." (Object) ( S. Maugham); (long for).
   4) "Tell away!" she said, laughing, and went back to the gate. He heard her singing, for him to hear: 'I've got you under my skin, ( Adverbial Modifier of purpose) (D. Lessing ); (singing).
   5) He stopped. "But I never meant..." he muttered, waiting for her to turn and run to him. "I didn't mean..."( Object) (D. Lessing ); (wait for).
   6) To be lonely, and grow older and older, yearning for a soul to speak to! Attribute) (J. Golsworthy ); (yearn for).
   11. This predicative construction appears after a noun not only in impersonal sentences in the samples of classical English literature:
   1) His mood shifted. He deliberately held out his wrist for the bird to take flight, and caught it again at the moment it spread its wings. He felt the plump shape strive and strain under his fingers; and in a sudden access of troubled spite, shut the bird into a small box and fastened the bolt. (D. Lessing "Flight" 1957);
   2) "Suddenly the painter appeared at the door of the studio and made staccato signs for them to come in. (Attribute) (Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray" 1890);
   3) "... but for some time I was kept back by my own doubts, fearing lest it might seem disrespectful to his memory for me to be on good terms with anyone with whom it had always pleased him to be at variance" (J. Austen "Pride and prejudice" 1813);
   Conclusions:
   To sum up, we came across 81 examples of the predicative construction "for-to-infinitive" both in the texts under examination of the classical English literature and modern English, including the film scripts. There are 36 examples in the classical literature and 45 - in modern English.
   Generally, we came to the conclusion that:
   1. Most of these constructions both in the classical English literature and in modern English function as the subject of the sentence (12 and 19, accordingly). But more often we met them in the samples of modern English.
   2. We found this construction in the function of an object In the samples of modern English five times oftener than in the classical English literature (10 and 2, consequently).
   3. We came across this construction in the function of adverbial modifier in modern English approximately as often as in the classical English literature (5 and 4, accordingly). Most of all it was the adverbial modifier of purpose.
   4. As an attribute this construction works four times oftener in the samples of the classical literature (4 and 1, accordingly).
   5. We discovered only a few examples of this construction in the predicative function: two examples in modern English and only one in the samples of the classical English literature.
   6. Finally, on exploring the samples both in the classical and in modern English, one interesting question appeared: the belonging of the construction "wait FOR somebody TO do something" as well as the same construction with other verbs, that take the preposition (to ask ( for), to apply (for), to campaign (for), to arrange (for), to look (for), to long for, to leave for, to rely (on),to depend (on), to listen (to), to count (on, upon), to the Complex Object or to the predicative construction "For + to + infinitive". This construction "wait FOR somebody TO do something" has been treated by all modern textbooks as the Complex Object construction so far.
   According to [4], it is said, that this predicative construction - "For + noun/pronoun + infinitive" is used after the following verbs: to ask for, to hope, to wait for, to pay, to look for, to arrange, to suit, to take:
  
   Therefore, the verbs that take the preposition, and predicative constructions with them, accordingly, can belong both to the Complex Object and to "for-to-infinitive" construction. But these two predicative constructions, nevertheless, exist as the different predicative constructions.
   We came to the conclusion that:
   1. The main reason, as we suppose, that the predicative construction "FOR+ to+ infinitive" may function as different parts of the sentence. While the predicative construction Complex Object functions ONLY as the object.
   2. "for-to-infinitive" construction may take only Infinitive, while the Complex object takes both the Infinitive and the Participle.
   3. "for-to-infinitive" construction is possible with a great variety of verbs, without any semantic limitation, while the Complex Object takes the verbs of definite semantic groups. Perhaps, these are main reasons to differentiate these two predicative constructions.

Chapter 3.

Comparative analysis of Absolute Participial Constructions in classical and modern English literature.

Table 5.

The distribution in modern and classical English literature.

   The type of the predicative construction
   In modern English literature
   In classical English literature
   1.The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction
   84
   9
   2.The Nominative Absolute Construction
   39
   4
   3.The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction
   7
   6
   4.The Prepositional Absolute Absolute Construction
   3
   2
   It was found that the general number of the predicative constructions of this type both in classical and modern English literature is 154. That means that in modern English literature these predicative constructions prove to appear 4 times as often as in the samples of the classical literature (133 and 21, consequently); According to our research, we revealed the following distribution of the samples of these predicative constructions in classical and modern English literature(Table 5).
   Besides, all the constructions are placed mostly at the end of the sentence. In this case, they function as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances or manner.
   In classical English literature:
   1) "He had left his wife sitting on the sofa in the drawing - room, her hands crossed in her lap, manifestly waiting for him to go out. This was not unusual. It happened, in fact, every day." The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction. (J. Golsworthy);
   2) "In Meryton they parted; the two youngest repaired to the lodgings of one of the officers' wives, and Elizabeth continued her walk alone, crossing field after field at a quick pace, jumping over stiles and springing over puddles with impatient activity, and finding herself at last within view of the house, with weary ankles, dirty stockings, and a face glowing with the warmth of exercise". The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. (J. Austen);
   3) "Do you remember a photograph that I used to have on the piano before I had my room done of a woman in a tight dress with tight sleeves and a gold locket, with her hair drawn back from a broad forehead and her ears showing and spectacles on a rather blunt nose? Well, that was Jane Fowler." The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction. (S. Maugham);
   4) "My first thought was that this was the son of Jane Fowler`s fiance (I had not known he was a widower) come to say that his father was prevented from dining by a sudden attack of gout. But his eyes fell immediately on Mrs. Fowler, his face lit up, and he went towards her with both hands outstretched. Mrs. Fowler gave him hers, a demure smile on her lips, and turned to her sister-in-law." ?) (S. Maugham); The Nominative Absolute Construction (his face lit up, a demure smile on her lips)
   It is an interesting example - the author describes both characters in the same way, using the Nominative Absolute Construction, to emphasize that the two people in love have so much in common.
   5) "She sat on the white sand, hour after hour, with the tears running down her checks, and at night dragged herself wearily back across the creek to the little hut where she had been happy." The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction(S. Maugham);
   6) "And then the night, with that great sky shining with gold, that seemed to stretch more widely than the skies of Europe, and the soft airs that blew gently through the open hut, the long night again was all too short." The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (S. Maugham);
   7) "How sad it is!" murmured Dorian Gray with his eyes still fixed upon his own portrait. " The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (Oscar Wilde);
   8) "And how charming he had been at dinner the night before, as with startled eyes and lips parted in frightened pleasure he had sat opposite to him at the club, the red candleshades staining to a richer rose the wakening wonder of his face." (The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (as with startled eyes and lips parted) + The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (the red candleshades staining to a richer rose the wakening wonder of his face) (Oscar Wilde);
   9) "He moved warily along the hedge, stalking his granddaughter, who was now looped over the gate, her head loose on her arms, singing. The light happy sound mingled with the crooning of the birds, and his anger mounted. "Hey!" he shouted; saw her jump, look back, and abandon the gate. Her eyes veiled themselves, and she said in a pert neutral voice: "Hullo, Granddad." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction(, her head loose on her arms) (D.Lessing);
   10) "Waiting for Steven, hey?" he said, his fingers curling like claws into his palm." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (D. Lessing);
   11) "Released by his half-deliberate anger, they fell back laughing at him. "We're glad you like it." They moved off, now serious and full of purpose, to the gate where they hung, backs to him, talking quietly. More than anything could, their grown-up seriousness shut him out, making him alone; (The Nominative Absolute Construction (backs to him) (D. Lessing); "Backs to him" - the Nominative Absolute Construction in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances with the absence of the article before the word "Backs".
   In modern English:
   We would like to note that in the film scripts there are no samples of the predicative constructions of this type. It may be natural as this type of predicative constructions is typical of written discourse.
   1) "If you even think about uttering the words love and marriage right now, I'll puke." Mitch frowned. "Look, if it makes you feel any better, I'm sure, hot or not, she won't go out with me. Not now, at least." Something in his tone and the way he checked the rearview mirror again made Ryan glance back at Julia. Her eyes were already closed, her head resting against the window." The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (her head resting against the window) ( Elizabeth Naughton);
   2) "With her body close to his like this, every minute of their life together flashed in front of his eyes. She felt so good, so right. He didn't want to let go"(The Prepositional Absolute Construction (with her body close to his like this) (Elizabeth Naughton); We would like to point out this example as being the only one of the Prepositional Absolute Construction standing at the beginning of the sentence.
   3) "Which was ludicrous because she knew nothing about this man. He was quiet as they walked, his hands shoved deep in the front pockets of his jeans, his eyes on the ground in front of him, and as they headed toward her car his words from earlier echoed in her mind. (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (his hands shoved deep in the front pockets of his jeans) + the Nominative Absolute Construction (his eyes on the ground in front of him) (Elizabeth Naughton);
   4) "It is like that. We mean nothing to you. I can read it on your face. I saw it the day you stood in front of my house. You look at us and see nothing. And we look at you and see everything. And it doesn't matter one damn bit." He scrubbed a hand through his hair, irritation radiating from his strong, muscular body. Kate dropped to the bench, all the fight suddenly gone. (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (irritation radiating from his strong, muscular body) + the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (all the fight suddenly gone). (Elizabeth Naughton);
   5) "Ryan's pulse raced as he stood in the yard, sunglasses in hand, trying to figure out what the hell he'd just seen. No way that was real. He mentally ticked off time in his mind as his gaze shifted across the sand to Annie. Words choked in his throat." (The Nominative Absolute Construction (sunglasses in hand); (Elizabeth Naughton); The Nominative Absolute Construction (sunglasses in hand) in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, placed in the middle of the sentence. We pay attention to the absence of the article before the word "HAND";
   6) Ryan checked the address he'd finagled from Annie's secretary and glanced at the small, two-story cottage along the beach with gray shaker siding and seagull wind chimes hanging from the front porch. Nothing like his house in Sausalito." (The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (with gray shaker siding and seagull wind chimes hanging from the front porch ) (Elizabeth Naughton);
   7) " Mitch had his arm around her neck, sporting the same goofy smile, and Ryan was on her other side, his arm around her waist, a smirk across his handsome face.(2 Nominative Absolute Constructions(his arm around her waist, a smirk across his handsome face.) (Elizabeth Naughton);
   8) "Mitch didn't bother to knock when he reached Julia's room, just pushed the door open. She was sitting on her bed, arms crossed over her chest, glare of the century on her face." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (arms crossed over her chest) + the Nominative Absolute Construction (glare of the century on her face)(Elizabeth Naughton);
   9) "From the corner of my eye I saw Phil Cavilleri, pale, slack-jawed, eyes wide with amazement and adoration combined. We listened to Jenny finish the sonnet, which was in its way a kind of prayer for A place to stand and love in for a day,with darkness and the death' hour rounding it." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (eyes wide with amazement and adoration combined) + the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction (With darkness and the death' hour rounding it.) (2) (Eric Segal);
   10) "Dickson made the place sound more congenial, less mysterious. Elaine made a mental note to give the Kremlin a miss. He was watching her, head on one side, trying to assess her reactions. The conversation was evidently all part of an elaborate quadrille. She wished someone would tell her the rules." The Nominative Absolute Construction (head on one side) (Edwina Currie) The Nominative Absolute Construction( head on one side)in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, placed in the middle of the sentence, with the absence of the article before the word "head".
   11) "Tessa Muncastle, head bowed, was picking at the tablecloth and talking in a low, urgent voice." (Edwina Currie); The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction( head bowed) is in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, placed after the NOUN. The absence of the article before the word " head" is worth paying attention to.
  
   The omission of the article makes us suppose that in this way the construction manifests explicitly its adverbial character. Its nominal elements seem to lose their nominal features (articles or pronouns), which contributes to the semantic homogenization of the construction. Thus, the construction is seen as a dependent unit with a pronounced focus on the idea of manner or attendant circumstances.
  
   12) "We've made it, darling,' he whispered, and kissed her tousled blonde head. She smiled up at him, tears in her eyes - of excitement, tiredness, gratitude, and a strange awareness that a part of their life was changing for ever," (The Nominative Absolute Construction (tears in her eyes - of excitement, tiredness, gratitude) (Edwina Currie);
   13) "Roger Dickson was equally relaxed as he took the escalator from the car park. One hand stayed nonchalantly in his pocket; the other carried no more than a Financial Times opened at the page where its editor grovelled over his previous day's call to vote Labour." (The Nominate Absolute Participial Construction (One hand stayed nonchalantly in his pocket; the other carried no more than a Financial Times opened at the page where its editor grovelled over his previous day's call to vote Labour) (Edwina Currie);
   The Nominate Absolute Participial Construction is opening the sentence.
   14) "Madam Speaker was looking at him, eyebrow raised. Are you ready? Nod, take deep breath." (Edwina Currie); (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction(eyebrow raised) is in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. closing the sentence. There is no article before the word "eyebrow".
   15) "Over on the far side of the room Andrew, cup in hand, was bending over a table talking to colleagues. He seemed almost to have forgotten them." (The Nominative Absolute Construction (cup in hand) (Edwina Currie); "Cup in hand" - the Nominative Absolute Construction (without a verbal), with the function of Adverbial Modifier of attendant circumstances, placed after the NOUN. There is no article before the word "hand" in this case .
   16) "She sat up, startled, pulling her hand away, flesh tingling. The remaining whisky spilled into the bath, its alcohol mixing with the steam. Suddenly the place smelled lascivious, like a brothel." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (flesh tingling) + the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (its alcohol mixing with the steam) ( Edwina Currie);
   17) "There had been a slight atmosphere, just for a second. Andrew Muncastle, head bent, had been shifting his feet while the two had flirted so briefly and innocently. Dickson found himself slightly irritated by Muncastle. (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (head bent) (Edwina Currie); In this example the Absolute Nominative Participle 2 Construction (head bent) is placed after the Noun of the sentence and is in the function of adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. The absence of the article before the word " head" is worth paying attention to.
   18) "Andrew nodded stiffly and took his advice. People drifted away. Elaine watched surreptitiously, head on one side like a bird, as Dickson's tall, broad-shouldered figure strolled down the library corridor." (The Nominative Absolute Construction (head on one side like a bird) ( Edwina Currie); The Nominative Absolute Construction (head on one side like a bird) is also worth paying attention to for the absence of the article before the word " head". Besides, this construction is in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, placed after the NOUN of the sentence.
   19) "It was Sunday evening, peaceful and idyllic, all of us together. I felt myself begin to rise from darkness. I was lying on a bed. The pain was back again, all through me. I had never known such pain before I knew that I was slipping." (The Nominative Absolute Construction (all of us together) + the Nominative Absolute Construction (all through me) (R.Matheson); The two Nominative Absolute Constructions, placed at the end of the sentence, in the function of adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. They emphasize the similarity of the way the situation described.
   20) "She woke up with a start, her gaze alarmed. "Chris?" she said. Again, that momentary leap of hope. Shattered when it quickly grew apparent that she wasn't looking at me but through me. Tears began to well in her eyes. She drew up her legs and clutched her pillow tightly in her arms, pressing her face against it, body shaking with sobs. My eyes dragged open, the lids feeling weighted." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (her gaze alarmed) + the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (body shaking with sobs) + the Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (the lids feeling weighted) (R. Matheson); In this example we have 3 Nominative participial constructions within one passage.
   21) "Ginger was lying at Ann's feet. As I stepped into the living room, she lifted her head abruptly and stared at me, ears drawn back." (The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (ears drawn back) (R. Matheson);
   The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction (ears drawn back) is in the function of an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, placed at the end of the sentence. The absence of the article before the noun "ears" is worth paying attention to.
  
   Conclusions:
   1. There are 154 examples of the predicative constructions of this type both in classical and modern English Literature all in all. That means, that In modern English literature the predicative constructions prove to appear 4 times as often as in the samples of the classical literature (133 and 21, consequently);
  
   2. While in the samples of classical literature the number of the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions was approximately the same as the number of the Prepositional Absolute Participial Constructions, in the examples of the modern literature the number of the Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions is 8,4 times as large as the number of the Prepositional Absolute Participial Constructions (84 and 10, respectively);
   3. In modern English the use of the Nominative Absolute Participial constructions is dramatically increasing, in comparison with the classical English literature (84 and 9 consequently).
   4. The same tendency is observed with the Absolute Nominative Constructions: In modern English there are 39, in the classical English literature - 3;
   5. The number of the Prepositional Absolute Participial constructions both in classical and modern English is almost the same: in modern English there are 10 and in the classical English literature there are 8 examples;
   6. Speaking about the position of this type of predicative constructions in the sentence, we have already mentioned that most of them are found at the end o the sentence :
   7. But we also have found the example of the Nominate Absolute Participial Construction and the Prepositional Absolute Construction, opening the sentence (12,2 examples).
   8.We come across a number of the Nominative Absolute Participle 2 Constructions and the Nominative Absolute Constructions, placed mostly after the Noun of the sentence, In the function of adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances. The point is, that there are no articles before the Nominative Parts of these Constructions (10,11,14,16,17 examples); But some of them are still placed at the end of the sentence (13,20); It's worth paying attention to: ("head bent", "ears drawn back", "head on one side like a bird", "cup in hand", "eyebrow raised", "head bowed", "head on one side"). All of them are singled out above. We would like to highlight the fact that the omission of the article makes us suppose that in this way the construction manifests explicitly its adverbial character. Its nominal elements seem to lose their nominal features (articles or pronouns), which contributes to the semantic homogenization of the construction. Thus, the construction is seen as a dependent unit with a pronounced focus on the idea of manner or attendant circumstances.
  
   9. Very often these predicative constructions appear together with different predicative constructions, even within one sentence or within very short extract of the text, sometimes one predicative construction turns into another (1,9,14);
   10. We observed short passages of the texts, filled up with the Absolute Nominative Participial Constructions (19).

Chapter 4.

Differences in the use of gerundial predicative constructions in classical and modern English.

   As it was mentioned above, the gerundial predicative construction is a predicative com­plex in which the nominal part is generally a noun/noun-pronoun in the possessive case or a possessive pronoun. Sometimes, however, it may be a noun/noun-pronoun in the common case or a personal pronoun in the objective case. The construction may function as different parts of the sentence: Subject, Predicative, Object, Attribute, Adverbial modifier: of time, of attendant circumstances, of concession. This predicative constructions can include the verbs of different semantic groups. The total amount of the samples is 121, with 64 samples in the modern English and 57 samples in the classical one. According to the data obtained, we can come to the conclusion of а certain distribution of gerundial constructions of the definite type both in modern and in classical English. There is a difference. The distribution of gerundial constructions of different types in classical and modern English is introduced in the Table 6.

Table 6.

   Noun/Pronoun
   Modern English
   Classical English
   1. Noun in the common case.
   26
   5
   2. Noun in the possessive case.
   10
   8
   3. Pronoun in the objective case
   7
   1
   4. Pronoun in the possessive case.
   21
   43
  
   As it is shown in the Table 6, the Pronoun in the possessive case is used twice as often in the samples of the classical literature in the gerundial constructions(43 and 21 respectively). We would like to introduce these examples in classical English literature:
   1) "I find myself very unwell this morning, which, I suppose, is to be imputed to my getting wet through yesterday. My kind friends will not hear of my returning till I am better. They insist also on my seeing Mr. Jones -- therefore do not be alarmed if you should hear of his having been to me -- and, excepting a sore throat and headache, there is not much the matter with me". -- Yours, etc. (J. Austen);
   In this example we have a density of gerundial constructions with the pronoun in the possessive case (4). The widespread use of gerundial complexes in classical English literature is likely to be typical of the literature of that time. Moreover, in this case it can be typical feature of the author's style of writing.
   2) "Lady Lucas quieted her fears a little by starting the idea of his being gone to London only to get a large party for the ball;" (J. Austen); In the example above we observe gerundial construction passive with the pronoun in the possessive case. In 2 examples below we observe 2 gerundial constructions with the noun in the possessive case and the pronoun in the possessive case:
   3) "Mr. Robinson's asking him how he liked our Meryton assemblies, and whether he did not think there were a great many pretty women in the room, and which he thought the prettiest? and his answering immediately to the last question: 'Oh! the eldest Miss Bennet, beyond a doubt; there cannot be two opinions on that point." (J. Austen);
   4) "The former was divided between admiration of the brilliancy which exercise had given to her complexion, and doubt as to the occasion's justifying her coming so far alone." (J. Austen); In the example above there are 2 gerundial constructions-noun in the possessive case and pronoun in the possessive case, one transforming into another.
   5) "He was directly invited to join their party, but he declined it, observing that he could imagine but two motives for their choosing to walk up and down the room together, with either of which motives his joining them would interfere. "What could he mean? She was dying to know what could be his meaning?"--and asked Elizabeth whether she could at all understand him?" (J. Austen); In this example one can observe 3 gerundial constructions with the pronouns in the possessive case.
   6) "I`m afraid just at first he`ll be rather lonely and I shall feel more comfortable if I can count on your keeping an eye on him."(W.S. Maugham);
   7) "But now the house would be empty. Gone all the young girls with their laughter and their squabbling and their teasing. He would be left, uncherished and alone, with that square-fronted, calm-eyed woman, his daughter." (D. Lessing); In the example above we can see 2 gerundial constructions with pronoun in the possessive case.
   8) "I wonder at Jolyon's allowing this engagement," he said to Aunt Ann..."They tell me there's no chance of their getting married for years." (J. Golsworthy);
   In this case above we can see 2 gerundial constructions within a short passage-with the noun in the possessive case and the pronoun in the possessive case. In accordance with Table 7, the pronoun in the possessive case is often to be seen in gerundial constructions in modern English:
   1) Middle of nowhere, this was. Editor's revenge, no doubt, for his announcing he was leaving for a much better job on The Globe. London beckoned. No more tedium at magistrates' courts reporting poll tax and social security dodgers, no more penning sycophantic rubbish about visiting royals and local politicians."(Edwina Currie);
   In this example we observe 2 gerundial constructions-with pronoun in the possessive case and noun in the possessive case.
   2) "I would certainly have no objection to your joining the Peace Corps, Oliver." "Does your face hurt?" "No, sir." It was beginning to hurt like hell. "I'd like Jack Wells to look at it on Monday."(Eric Segal);
   3) "But he wished he hadn't said anything. If there was one thing the Dursleys hated even more than his asking questions, it was his talking about anything acting in a way it shouldn't, no matter if it was in a dream or even a cartoon--they seemed to think he might get dangerous ideas.." (J.K. Rowling);
   According to Table 7, the Pronoun in the objective case appears to come across much more often in the samples of modern English (7 and 1 respectively). We would like to introduce the examples in modern English:
   1) "Kate took a deep breath and tamped down the frustration and guilt burning in her chest that she shouldn't even be feeling. "Do you think there will ever be a day when we can have a conversation without you swearing at me for one reason or another?" (Elizabeth Naughton);
   2) "Mommy's heart stopped because of an...accident. The doctors started it again. It's different from someone dying (Elizabeth Naughton);
   In the following three examples from the film-script "Prince of Tides" we can observe gerundial constructions with the pronoun in the objective case:
   3) "l am sick and tired...of you never showing me any respect in my own house.";
   4) "Why don't you just say it? I'm responsible for all your problems.....including you not having a job.";
   5) "I'm sick and tired of you never showing me any respect!";
   6) "Anyway, it was easy to think of them making love. It seemed completely right. I remember all the times." (R. Matheson);
   7) "Even though they fought, their fighting never turned them against each other. It always ended with them embracing and kissing, smiling, laughing." (R. Matheson);
  
   As we show in Table 7, the Noun in the common case is much more often to be met in modern English (26 and 5 accordingly). Let us present some examples of gerundial constructions with the Noun in the common case in modern English:
  
   1) Yet you must go on feeling, somehow - about one constituent's little problem, or about some poor child dying in the desert ten thousand miles away;" (Edwina Currie);
   2) "Roger Dickson was surprised at his own distaste. Maybe he was getting too old for this sexist schoolboy joking.." (Edwina Currie);
   3) "The monitor on the wall pinged as the name of the person speaking in the Chamber changed from an obscure backbencher to the new Labour spokesman." (Edwina Currie);
   4) "The sight of Kate sitting contentedly beside me made me smile and kneel to pet her again. "Has she been here with you?" I asked."( R. Matheson);
   5) "He drummed his fingers on the steering wheel and his eyes fell on a huddle of these weirdos standing quite close by."(J.K. Rowling);
   6) "Up!" she screeched. Harry heard her walking toward the kitchen and then the sound of the frying pan being put on the stove."(J.K. Rowling);
   7) "When he had been younger, Harry had dreamed and dreamed of some unknown relation coming to take him away, but it had never happened; the Dursleys were his only family." (J.K. Rowling);
   8) "From downstairs came the sound of Dudley bawling at his mother, I don't want him in there... I need that room..." (J.K. Rowling);
   9) "And by the way, Harry, talking about silly marriages, what is this humbug your father tells me about Dartmoor wanting to marry an American? Ain't English girls good enough for him?" (J.K. Rowling).
  
   As seen from Table 6 (1,3), the use of the pronoun in the objective case and the noun in the common case is typical of modern English. Finally, judging our data (Table 6), the Noun in the possessive case in the amount does not differ so dramatically (in the modern - 10, in the classical -- 8). The distribution of the predicative construction of this type is approximately the same both in modern and in classical English. We would like to show some of the examples obtained:
   1) "Where do you go when you die?" Her fingers paused on the keyboard. Reed hadn't once asked about death in the weeks since Jake's passing. "To heaven." (Elizabeth Naughton);
   2) "At school. You know, that private institution you spend a fortune to send me to? I learn a lot at school." "Nice to know my money's being put to good use." (Elizabeth Naughton);
   3) "Kate hadn't considered the girl's feelings in all this when she'd decided to come by here today." (Elizabeth Naughton);
   4) "Middle of nowhere, this was. Editor's revenge, no doubt, for his announcing he was leaving for a much better job on The Globe. London beckoned. No more tedium at magistrates' courts reporting poll tax and social security dodgers, no more penning sycophantic rubbish about visiting royals and local politicians." (Edwina Currie);
   In this case we observe 2 gerundial constructions-with pronoun in the possessive case and noun in the possessive case.
   5) "I heard Ann's sobbing getting louder. "Don't", I said. I couldn't bear the sound of it. I tried to back off but it followed me.?" (R. Matheson);
   6) "Ann's tortured crying of my name ripped me from sleep." (R. Matheson);
   7) I turned toward the kitchen, hearing the gurgle of the Sparklett's bottle being tapped." (R. Matheson);
   8) "I laughed. The charitable words were spoken in such a tone as to leave me in small doubt of Mrs. Tower`s meaning." (W.S. Maugham);
   9) "Mr. Robinson's asking him how he liked our Meryton assemblies, and whether he did not think there were a great many pretty women in the room, and which he thought the prettiest?" (J. Austen);
   10) "On Miss Lucas's persevering, however, she added, "Very well, if it must be so, it must." (J. Austen).
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Conclusions.
  
   Table 7
   The total number of examples obtained:1497
   Predicative construction
   Total number
   Modern English
   Classical English literature
   Complex Object
   900
   605
   295
   ComplexSubject
   265
   157
   108
   "for-to-infinitive" construction
   57
   34
   23
   The Absolute Nominative Participial Constructions
   154
   133
   21
   Gerundial Constructions
   121
   64
   57
  
   It is common knowledge that each language is constantly changing. And predicative constructions being an integral part of its structure are likely to have changed.
   To investigate these changes we were supposed to carry out the comparative analysis of predicative constructions with verbals both in modern and classical English.
   For our analysis we studied 984 pages, all in all, written by 6 well known authors of modern English literature, 5 famous authors, the representatives of classical English Literature. Besides we investigated 2 modern film-scripts.
   According to the Table 7,the general amount of the examples of predicative constructions under analysis is 1497, including 900 examples of Complex Object constructions. 265 examples of Complex Subject, 121 examples of gerundial constructions,154 samples of Absolute Participial constructions and 57 examples of "for-to-infinitive" constructions(Table 7).
   According to our research, the total number of each construction has increased in modern English .The number of such predicative constructions as Complex Object, Absolute Nominative Participial constructions has increased dramatically.
   We suppose that the reason for this phenomenon is the influence of oral speech on contemporary written literary language. That may be a sign of syntactic condensation as reflection of the modern tendency to express ideas as shortly as possibly in the fields of lexis, grammar and phonetics.
   Complex Object constructions are the most frequent to be met both in classical and modern English.(900).
   According to our investigation in the samples of modern English it appears twice as often as in classical English literature(605 and 295 respectively).The most numerous group of verbs taking Complex Object constructions proves to be the group of causative verbs.(Table 1). The general number of the examples of Complex Object with causative verbs is 435.They make up half of the total number of all examples of Complex Object constructions.
   According to the Table 1, the most frequent verbs in this group taking Complex Object are the verbs make and let both in classical and modern English, Then follows the pair of verbs have and get. But in modern English they appear 3 times as often as in classical English literature. The frequency of the examples of these causative verbs taking Complex Object has increased dramatically.
   We think that the reason for this dramatically increasing number of the examples with these verbs is likely to be the influence of oral speech on contemporary written- literary language, which was mentioned above.
   Besides. in accordance with our research, the variety of causative verbs taking Complex object constructions is also changing. Some of the verbs that do appear in our examples of classical English fail to come across in modern English,such as: "forfeit", "defy"," induce", "provoke".
   Some verbs found in the examples in modern English are not discovered in classical English literature ("run", "spot", "dog", "warn", "cause" - in the causative meaning).
   No doubt that dramatically increased frequency of such verbs as have , get , find, make(Table 1) in modern English related to the polysemy of meanings of these verbs ,depending on the structure of the predicative construction itself and on the context.
   The verb have among them is the most semantically diverse. We showed the diversity of meanings of the verbs have, get, find depending on the structure of the predicative construction itself and on the context in Chapter 2(2.1.2, 2.1.3 and 2.1.6 ,respectively).
   The verbs denoting sense perception is the second numerous group of verbs to appear in Complex Object. The general number of verbs of sense perception found in Complex Object is 210.We also have to emphasize that Complex Object constructions with these verbs appear in modern English twice or even thrice as often as in classical English, according to the Table 2.In these examples we mostly find Complex Object constructions with the participles(P1 or P2).
   According to the samples observed with the verbs of mental activity, we also come to the conclusion, that there is a tendency of taking more often participles, not infinitives both in classical and in modern English.
   Thus, Complex Object construction appears to take the Participle 1 and Participle2 much more often, than the Infinitive both in classical and in modern English, with dramatically increased number of the examples in modern English. It makes us suppose that one of the main functions of complex object constructions is description of actions in progress, or visualization.
   Most of" for-to-infinitive" constructions both in the classical English literature and in modern English function as the subject of the sentence (12 and 19, accordingly). But more often we met them in the samples of modern English.(Table 7).
   By studying Absolute Participial Constructions(Table 5), it was found that the general number of the predicative constructions of this type both in classical and modern English literature is 154. That means that in modern English literature these predicative constructions prove to appear 4 times as often as in the samples of the classical literature (133 and 21, consequently);
   The total number of these constructions has dramatically increased in modern English.
   Besides, all the constructions are placed mostly at the end of the sentence, functioning as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances or manner
  
   We also come across a number of the Nominative Absolute Participle 2 Constructions and the Nominative Absolute Constructions, placed mostly after the Noun of the sentence in the function of adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances or manner. The point is, that there are no articles before the Nominative Parts of these Constructions: "head bent", "ears drawn back", "head on one side like a bird", "cup in hand", "eyebrow raised", "head bowed", "head on one side".(Chapter 3, ex.8,10,11-19, 21).
   The omission of the article makes us suppose that in this way the construction manifests explicitly its adverbial character. Its nominal elements seem to lose their nominal features (articles or pronouns), which contributes to the semantic homogenization of the construction. Thus, the construction is seen as a dependent unit with a pronounced focus on the idea of manner or attendant circumstances.
   Very often Absolute Participial Predicative Constructions appear together with different predicative constructions, even within one sentence or within very short extract of the text, sometimes one predicative construction turning into another. Moreover, we showed a great deal of examples above, commenting our investigation, filled up with the same predicative constructions within a short passage of the text as well.
   As far as gerundial constructions is concerned, our conclusions are the following(Table 6):
   As it is shown in the Table 6, the pronoun in the possessive case is used twice as often in the samples of the classical literature in the gerundial constructions(43 and 21 respectively . The widespread use of gerundial complexes in classical English literature is likely to be typical to the literature of that time. Moreover, in this case it can be typical feature of the author's style of writing.
   The pronoun in the objective case appears to come across much more often in the samples of modern English(7 and 1 respectively)(Table 6) as well as the noun in the common case (26 and 5 accordingly).
   We think this model to be typical in modern English.
   We suppose that the reason for this phenomenon is the influence of oral speech on contemporary written literary language. That may be a sign of syntactic condensation as reflection of the modern tendency to express ideas as shortly as possibly in the fields of lexis, grammar and phonetics
   Sources of examples:
   1. Richard Matheson "What dreams come true", 2009.
   2. Elizabeth Naughton "Wait for me", 2011.
   3. Eric Segal "Love Story", 1970.
   4. Edwina Currie "A Parliamentary Affair", 1994.
   5. Terry Pratchett "Going Postal", 2010.
   6. "Prince of Tides", film-script , 1991.
   7. "Proposal", film-script, 2009.
   8. Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray", 1890.
   9. Jane Austen "Pride and Prejudice", 1813.
   10. John Golsworthy "The Forsyte Saga. The man of property", 1906.
   11. Somerset Maugham "Red", 1921.
   12. Somerset Maugham "Jane", 1923.
   13. Somerset Maugham "A man with a scar", 1923.
   14. Dorris Lessing "Flight", 1957.
  
  
  
  
   Bibliography
      -- Беклемешева Н.Н. "Интерпретация вторично-предикативных структур в перспективе актуального членения" .Специальность 10.02.19 -- теория языка. АВТОРЕФЕРАТ диссертации на соискание ученой степени кандидата филологических наук, Москва 2011.
   2)Беклемешева, Н. Н. Полипредикативные конструкции и их перевод английского языка на русский [Текст] / Н. Н. Беклемешева //Профессионально ориентированное обучение иностранному языку и переводу в вузе: Материалы международной конференции.-- М.: РУДН,2009. -- С. 57-65.
      -- Васильева С.Ф. "Лингвосинергический подход к исследованию предикативности"("Вестник Ставропольского государственного университета" N68,2010г.);
      -- Дроздова Т.Ю. "English Grammar. Reference and Practice", 2012, стp.307-320, 340-341.
      -- Каушанская В.Л. "Грамматика английского языка." - М.: Айрис - пресс, 2012, стр.200-204, 210, 234-242.
      -- Кемова К.С. "Лингводидактический аспект функционирования предикативных конструкций с неличными формами". Статья. 2015.
      -- Кобрина, Е.А. Корнеева, М.И. Оссовская, К.А. Гузеева . "Грамматика английского языка. Морфология. Синтаксис." Союз. С.-Петербург. 1999, стр.70-98, 282-295.
      -- Мачхелян Гарри Г. "Современный Английский Язык для общения без Ошибок." Москва 2013. стр.482-495, 500-519, 523.
      -- Мележик К. Н. "Неличные формы глагола на межьязыковом уровне", Южно-Сахалинск, 2009.
      -- Саурбаев Р.Ж. "Полупредикативные конструкции в современном английском и татарском языках"("Гуманитарные исследования".2010.N3(35) ;
      -- Чубарова А.Л. "Включенный предикат и способы его выражения в современном английском языке". Статья 2008.
      -- Annette Capel, Wendy Sharp "Objective", proficiency.Cambridge,2002.
      -- Collins Cobuild "English Grammar", Digital Edition:www.collingslanguage.com/wordbanks.
      -- Ed Swick "English Sentence Builder", 2009, by The McGraw-Hill Companies.
      -- Elaine Walker, Steve Elsworth "Grammer Practice for advanced students",New Edition, Longman, 2010.
      -- Jon Marks, Alison Wooder "Check your vocabulary for natural English Collocations",A&C Black London,2007.
      -- Martin Hewings"Grammar for CAE and Proficiency", Cambridge, 2009.
      -- Michael Swan "Practical English Usage". Third Edition, Oxford.
      -- Quirk R., Greenbaum S. A University Grammar of English
      -- Richard Walton "Focus on Advanced English C.A.E." Grammar Practice revised and Updated,2000.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
   Apptndix 1 Table 8.
   Appendix 2 Table 9.
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

The VERB

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone by J. K. Rowling (1997)

Edwina Currie "A Parliamentary Affair (1994)"

"Love story" by Eric Segal (1970)

"Proposal"-film 2009

R. Matheson.

"What dreams come true"(2009

WAIT FOR ME"

by Elizabeth Naughton

(2011)

"Going Postal "by Terry Pratchett(2010)

Prince of Tides-the film(1991

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