Пытьева Елена Юрьевна: другие произведения.

The modals Will and Shall

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  The modal verbs WILL and SHALL.( The summary of my lesson).
  The verbs Will and Shall are well known as the auxiliary verbs to express information about the Future. By the way , what kind of the Future? Talking about the Future, we should mention, that the Future in English can be" planned" and "unplanned" .And the Englishmen prefer to plan their future.
  The "Planned"" Future is usually expressed by the means of Present Continuous , Present Simple, structure "to be going to". And the "unplanned " Future-by the means of WILL and SHALL.
  But...The differences between the structures used to talk about the Future are not always very clear-cut. Will\Shall and present forms(especially "going to")are often both possible in the same situation, if "present" ideas like intention or fixed arrangement are a part of the meaning, but not very important.
  The choice can depend on which aspect we wish to emphasize.
  -What will you do next year?(Perhaps no clear plans have been made)
  -What are you doing next year?(emphasis on fixed arrangements)
  -What are you going to do next year?(emphasis on intentions)
  -All the family will be there.(?)-certainty!!!!
  -If your mother comes early, you"ll help me with the housework.
  -You won"t believe this.(?)-certainty!!!
  -Next year will be different.(?)-certainty!!!
  -I"m really going to stop smoking.=-I really WILL stop smoking !I really will!(A strong intention or determination)
  It"s VERY interesting information to think over ! They are most likely to act as modal verbs at all events!, aren"t they?
  But let"s stick to the point.
  WILL and SHALL are not only used for giving information about the Future. They are also common in offers , promises, orders , instructions and express their modal meanings.
  Have they always been used to talk about the future? No way!
  From the very beginning they were used as definite verbs with their definite meanings. What meanings?
  WILL expressed willingness or wishes. SHALL expressed obligation. These meanings are very important to explain their meanings as modal verbs. So ,let"s have a good look at them.
  As a modal verb it can express:
  1 )certainty or confidence about present or future situations;
  -As I"m sure you will understand, we cannot wait any longer;
  -Don"t phone them now-they"ll be having dinner;
  -There somebody coming up the stairs...-That"ll be Mary;
  -Tomorrow will be cloudy, with some rain;
  With Perfect Infinitive the certainty refers to the Past:
  -Dear Sir, you will recently have received a form;
  - We can"t go and see them now-they"ll have gone to bed;
  2)Willingness and decisions:
  -Can somebody help me?-I will;
  -If you won"t tell them the truth, I will;
  -There is the doorbell...-I"ll go. You may be seated;
  - Do as you will;
  3) Firm intention, promise, determination or threat;
  -I really will stop smoking;
  -I will stop smoking. I really will!
  - I will definitely pay you back next week;
  -I"ll phone you tonight;
  -I"ll kill him for this;
  -I"ll break his neck;
  -You"ll suffer for this!
  -I"ll hit you if you do that again!
  4) requests, orders, offers:
  -Will you send me the bill, please?
  -Come this way , will you?
  -What will you dine?
  -Will you have some more tea?
  -Will you give me a hand, translating this article?
  WILL and WOULD as modal verbs have the same meaning. But WOULD is more polite:
  Would you send me the bill, please?
  5 )current actions, habits, typical behavior:
  -She"ll sit talking to herself for hours;
  -She would sit talking to herself for hours-the same meaning, in the past;
  -When you look at clouds they will often remind you of animals;
  6)stressed WILL can be used to criticize people"s typical behavior:
  -She will fall in love with wrong people;
  -Well, if you will keep telling people what you think of them..(In this case "will" has nothing to do with the future in "if" clauses , it"s a modal "will");
  -I"ll show you the photos, if you will look at them (the same-если Вы только согласитесь посмотреть на них); In this sentence WILL is a modal verb, it has nothing to do with WILL in conditionals. Will
   here expresses willingness);
  7) giving instructions and orders:
  -Will you be quick, please?
  -Make me a cup of coffee, will you?
  -Come this way, will you?
  8 ) negative forms express refusals, unwillingness( will not, won"t, wouldn"t-решительный,категоричный отказ):
  -She won"t open the door;
  -I tried to persuade her, but she wouldn"t hear ( она и слышать не хотела);
  -We invited him several times, but he wouldn"t come ( так и не пришел);
  -I won"t have you speak to me like that ( я не потерплю..);
  With the lifeless things " won"t" and "wouldn"t" mean , that a thing fails to perform an action:
  -The lock will not open (никак не открывается);
  -The pen won"t write;
  -The car wouldn"t start;
  9) negative form "won"t" expresses urgent plea:
  -Won"t you have some more tea?
  -Won"t you sit down,please?
  10)set phrases-would sooner ,would rather:
  -I would sooner die, than let you do this (я скорее умру, чем позволю тебе сделать это);
  -I would rather let you do this (уж лучше я позволю тебе сделать это);
  11)set phrases:
  -Boys will be boys;
  -Accidents will happen;
  -Would you mind my smoking here?
  12)possibility, capability:
  -This car will hold six passangers;
  -Will these gloves fit you?
  -She will be in her early thirties;
  -This will be your uncle;
  -They will have left by now;
  14)desire (would):
  -I wish it would stop raining;
  -I wish he would tell me the truth;
  -It would have to rain tonight of all evenings (надо же именно сегодня вечером пойти дождю!);
  I want to draw your attention to the fact, that in all cases the meanings of the modal verb WILL is someway or other connected with its older meaning-willingness .
  SHALL as a modal verb expresses:
  1) The intention to perform an action in the future and the necessity, the obligation of performing:
  -We shall let you know as soon as there"s any news;
  -We shall have completed the first section by March;
  -I have never visited New York and most probably never shall!
  -The President shall appoint all ambassadors with the consent of the US Senate;
  2 )In affirmative sentences shall can express warning or even threat, when the 2-nd or the 3-d person takes SHALL;
  -She shall meet her deserts ( получит по заслугам)!
  -You shall pay for this!
  -They shall regret it!
  -You shall answer for your action!
  -You shall do as I tell you!
  -You shall stay just where you are!
  2) certainty, determination, promise( with the 1-st, the 2-nd and the 3-d person):
  -You shall have whatever you want;
  -He shan"t come here!
  -You shall get the money back!
  -We shall overcome our enemies!
  -We shall win!
  3)In the interrogative sentences with the 1-st and the 3-d person- asking for the instructions:
  -Shall I open the window?(Мне открыть окно?)
  -Shall I call for the taxi?(Мне вызвать такси?)
  In all these cases (asking for the instructions),one must pay attention to the answer:
  -Yes , please, do, please..
  -Please, don"t...
  -I don"t think there is any need...
  -Certainly not .I "m freezing.
  -No, you needn"t (neutral).
  -Who shall answer the phone?(Кому отвечать по телефону?)
  -Shall I read?
  -What time shall we come and see you?
  -What on earth shall we do?
  4) to express obligation, necessity in Business English, in law documents:
  -All payments shall be made in cash by the end of the month;
  -The hirer shall be responsible for maintenance of the vehicle;
  5) readiness to perform the action:
  -I"ll drive, shall I?
  -We"ll fax the letter, shall we?
  If we have a good look at the modal verbs SHALL and WILL, we"ll see, that their meanings somehow or other are connected with their older meanings(willingness for WILL and obligation for SHALL);
  So, let"s check up your home exercises to understand ,how it works. The students were supposed to do some practical exercises at home: Ex.53 p.135.ex.56 p.136 "Сборник упражнений по грамматике английского языка для студентов 1-3 курсов факультета ГПН" Т.И Грибанова ,Е.Н Коршунова, стр.157-159.
  The exercises were checked up, every case of using SHALL and WILL was discussed, their meanings were explained.
  After that the students wrote the quiz on modal verbs.
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