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Mythologization of the Biographies of Famous People in Mass-Media

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  • Аннотация:
    People have always longed to perceive nature, have endevoured to explain for themselves world that surrounded them and to recognize their place in it. The primitive viewed everything as novelty. Trying to understand eternal principles, mankind began to create myths. This process has been continuing even till this day.

   Introduction
   As many scientist consider (Levis-Stross, Lihachev, Losev and others), the mankind from the very beginning has lived in the world of myths and legends. Resolute certitude in verity of the mythological stories accompanied the man during all his life, since birth till death. In pagan times everyone believed that his life belonged to the almighty gods, who could do with him everything they wanted. Instead of pagan gods in the christened countries appeared Christian God, and His existence again gave birth to the diversity of myths. In the modern world people in their majority ceased to trust something blindly. To believe in something they should find incontestable facts of existence of the object. An individual nowadays is characterized by strong criticism and deep-rooted habit to doubt in everything that can"t be conceived by empirical way. But even today the life of a modern man keeps myths, which primordially appeared in a faraway antiquity and took deep roots in the person"s unconscious, affecting his behavior, his evolution, and life in whole.
   Actuality of the research. At present time cultural studies begin to understand the important role of the mythology in the life of society. It perceives that myths are not only the cradle of culture but that they live, develop and even are created in modern society . In the given research mythological reasons are traced in non-fictional interpretation of the biographies of the famous people. Detection of the elements of such myth-making helps to understand some tendencies in the development of the modern society.
   The object of the research deals with the biographies of the famous people of the modern show business (J. Depp, Madonna, A. Pugachova) in their non-fictional impression.
   Scientific originality of the research is concerned with the fact that it is made according to new facts matter, presented in cultural life, and viewed with the attitude of the crossed interests of two sciences: philology and culture.
   The aim of the research is to show the existence of the three culturally-significant figurative stereotypes in the life of a modern Russian and American society with the help of the biographies of the show business stars.
   This aim is realized in the solution of the following problems:
   1) to define the mythologeme as the fact of language and culture, to show the interrelation of a myth and a mythologeme;
   2) to detect the background and development of the chosen mythologemes;
   3) to scrutinize the biographies of the famous people in the interpretation of which appeared these mythologems.
   The material of the research consists of the precedental non-fictional texts, which interpret biographies of the stars in accordance with the recited above mythologems.
   The problem of the research is the origin and development of the mythologems (culturally-significant stereotypes) in culture.
   An individual, as a social being, has definite psychological prescriptions, such as: intention to success, leadership, wealth, etc. He, who has available fund of ambition, is possessed with these prescriptions and tries to realize them. Given prescriptions have most descriptive incarnation in the images of the heroes of the folk and literary fairy-tales. It is proved true by the opinions of many scientists (for instance, Z. Freud, K.G. Jung). These schemes of the human behavior ("mythologemes") can be conditionally called with the names of the heroes of the fairy-tales (Ugly Duckling, Cinderella, John-the-Fool). The images of the given heroes may be found both in the researches devoted to them by different scientists (V. Propp, A. Veselovsky and others), and in the biographies of the famous individuals (see par. 3.2, 3.3 of the given research). For instance, if Madonna is called Cinderella in the series of publications, it doesn"t mean that in her childhood she outlived something alike. It happened so because when she reached success her biography started to be actively and consciously mythologised. Putting her as an illustration the society wants to educate a great amount of another socially active individuals since these three schemes demonstrate the social activity (Cinderella longs to get to the dance, John-the-Fool has no distinctive aim but he commits serious deeds, Ugly Duckling meets with specific concern of society to him). The scheme of the mythologization is the only one but it is scrutinized in the three mythologemes, coming to us in the fairy-tale images. Our research shows the conscious cultivation of these myhtologemes. Myhtologemes exist, beginning to be cultivated by another way, and in particular, with the help of mass media.
   Methodological background of the research consists of the scientific researches of the following authors: V. Anikin, C. Levi-Strauss, V. Propp, A. Veselovsky.
   Theoretical significance of the research consists of the necessity of culturological development of conceptualization and mythology.
   Practical significance of the research is defined by the possibility of using its material during reading the classes of culture and philology.
   The methods of the research are the following: method of the philological description of the mythologemes, method of contrast and regimentation (typology), method of analysis and the following synthesis.
   Key concepts of the research are: culture, myth, mythology.
   The course of the research is the comparative culturology. The research regards the peculiarities of the modern culture of two countries: Russia and the USA.
   The structure of the research. The bachelor research consists of introduction, in which aim and tasks of the research are shown, three chapters, revealing the particularity of the intercommunication of myth with different aspects of social culture and psychology of an individual existing in this society, conclusion where the results of the research are generalized, bibliography and appendix, in which the schemes sustaining the theoretical basis of the research are given.
   Chapter 1.The concept of "myth" in scientific and cultural context
   People have always longed to perceive nature, have endevoured to explain for themselves world that surrounded them and to recognize their place in it. The primitive viewed everything as novelty. Trying to understand eternal principles, mankind began to create myths. This process has been continuing even till this day.
   1.1.Definition of the concept of "a myth" in scientific literature
   The word "myth" inevitably evokes associations with antique sagas about gods and heroes. Herewith it is believed that a myth belongs to the past and is not available to exist in the present. To seize the essence of this conception we shall examine the statements about a myth given in the scientific literature. In the most general aspect myth is considered as "the way of the human being and attitude, entirely based on the notional linkage of a person and the world; the person perceives here psychological meanings by the way of the elementary features of the material, and regards and considers natural phenomena as animated creatures" [Cultural Study 2001: 100]. In this definition myth is viewed as psychologically-culturological category, determining relationship of the human conscience to the world that surrounds it, at that this relationship is characterized in myth with convergence vector up to complete identification. It is specified further that such a perception of the unity of oneself with the world, such a personification of reality is not confined by temporary framework by early cultural epochs, since myth is eternal: "for mythological mensuration assists in each culture and mythological images and experiences are rooted in unconscious elements of the human soul (compare Jung"s conception of archetyps - N. Sh.)" [Ibid.]. Therefore there is no surprise that myth is present even in modern reality, affecting the unconscious of individuals and aiding the mythologization of their conscience.
   A.A. Potebnya considered that "the creation of myth can"t be characterized by any time. Myth consists of transference of individual characteristics of an image that should explain the fact itself" [Potebnya 1976: 263].
   It should be mentioned that this scientist regarded myth from the psycholinguistic point of view. He presumed that "mythical world view is determined purely by psychical processes (fable-thought), mythology is created by linguistic factors" [Ibid., 267]. He specified: "The creation of a new myth consists of the creation of a new world, not in the oblivion of the preceding meaning" [Ibid., 266]. Potebnya"s opinion is important for us because his thought that the process of the world mythologization is connected with language, with word which reflects the fact of the humanization of nature, in particular, in the anthropological metaphors. Dalj in his "The Explanatory Dictionary" gave the following interpretation for the word "myth": "a fabulous, all-time, fabled event or person; an allegory acted out, that came into legends" [Dalj 1994, V. 3: 862]. Here is marked one more - folklore - form of myth"s fixing. Creative nature of myth, development of the verbal image in it and the main reason of myths" appearance, their role in development of game culture - everything this is examined in the research of J. Huizinga "Homo Ludens, or The Playing Man". This author considers myth to be "an imaginative materialization of entity..., elaborated more particularly than a single word. With the help of myth people try to explain earthly, placing the basis of human deeds in the sphere of divine... In myth great motive powers of cultural life begin: law and order, communication and enterprise, craft and art, poetry, scholarship, science" [Huizinga 1997: 24, 121]. Developing such interpretation of myth "Mythological Dictionary" concretizes and enumerates images, personified in myth: "Myths are the sagas of gods, spirits, heroes deified or connected with gods by their birth, ancestors, who functioned at the beginning of time and participated, directly or indirectly, in creation of the world, its element, both natural and cultural" [Mythological Dictionary 1990: 634].
   In a brief definition of a dictionary of aesthetics myth, as special form of social conscience, is ascribed to the early phases of the human development. Myth is defined here as "specific for primitive conscience syncretic reflection of the reality in the form of perceptibly concrete personifications and animated beings, which think quite materially..., the product of verbal folk arts, collective folk imagination" [Aesthetics 1989: 206].
   Analyzing extant approaches to the myth handling A.V. Vaschenko underlines its profound root-taking in human culture, from its appearance till the present: "Culture is expressed by myth more often than we think. Therefore it is almost impossible to designate territory of culture (and even of everyday life) existing out of myth"s influence. The comprehension of myth"s nature - in all sides of its notion - helps to understand modern conflict of culture and civilization to comprehend the communion of cultures, the place of language word"s artistry in the human society, to seize the role of a woman in culture and civilization, nature of many customs, etc." [Vaschenko 2000: 148]. Plurality of myth"s definitions in scientific literature ensues out of multiplicity, many sides and polyfunctionality of this phenomenon unique because of its complexity: "Myth appears as narration, ceremony, magic, chronotop (the basic national conception about time and space), rhythm, "archetyp", etc." [Ibid.].
   If in a previous opinion about myth the accent was put on its generally cultural functions, in the proceedings of the remarkable Russian philosopher A.F. Losev actuality and personal substance of myth are underlined. Losev supposed that myth was "the reality that is utmost by its concrete nature, intense to the maximum and intensive in the supreme degree. This is utterly essential category of thought and life, distant of any contingency and outrage... It is not a fiction but it maintains the stringent and the most fixed structure and is logically, i.e. first of all dialectically, essential category of consciousness and being in general" [Losev 2001: 36 - 37]. This point of view is the most similar with the comprehension of myth that is considered in the given research where myth is regarded as the reality of special kind, i.e. close to the Losev"s definition: "Myth is life as itself. This is life for mythical subject, with all its expectancies and dreads, anticipations and hopes, with all its real workdays and fair personal interest. Myth is not an ideal being but it is vitally felt and created material reality, and physical till animation, validity" [Ibid., 40 - 41]. For a person with mythological thinking myth is "objectively, materially and sensually created reality being at the same time laid-back from the common process of facts and thus maintaining different levels of hierarchy, different levels of detachment" [Ibid., 61]. Losev considered that "myth is a personal being, or to be more exact, it is an image of personal being, individual form, face of personality" [Ibid., 97].
   To understand mythological nature and its essence it is also important to regard the thought of the famous French ethnographer and thinker Claude Levi-Strauss, who wrote: "To understand the character of mythological thinking we should concede that myth is simultaneously endolinguistic and extralinguistic fact... Myth always belongs to the events of the past: "before creation of the world" or "in the old days" - at any rate, "ages and ages ago". But myth"s function consists in the fact that all these events, having existed in the certain period of time, are in existence out of time. Myth explains equally the past, the present and the future" [Levi-Strauss 2001: 216 - 217].
   The study of myth as "conformation of culture and mensuration of human soul" plays an important role in culture. Such scientists and philosophers as G.F. Hegel, Z. Freud, C.G. Jung, J.G. Frazer, L. Levy-Bruhl, C. Levi-Strauss, A.F. Losev, E.M. Meletinsky, O.M. Freidenberg and others made an important contribution to myth"s understanding.
   The concept of "myth" traces to the ancient Greek mythos that means story, narration, tale, legend. Its Latin analogue is fabula (narration, fable), and "elementary, or primitive mythology is the figurative poetical language that has been used by ancient tribes for clarification of natural phenomena" [Myths 1993: 5].
   Many scientists and philosophers devoting themselves to mythology science elaborated their own classifications of myth"s explanation and development. Among modern scientists we can distinguish V.E. Halizev. His opinion about myth, like Losev"s conception, is similar to the author of the given research.
   Mythology itself is treated by V.E. Halizev as "overepochal, transhistorical form of social consciousness existing in nation"s life during its history, which is connected with the peculiar way of thought" [Halizev 2002: 128; italics are of the author - N. Sh.].
   Complicated by its nature, varied in manifestations mythology is also valuably polysemantic. This feature causes debates about its role in society. There exist two opposite opinions on value of mythology and possibility of its presence in human culture. Such scientists as R. Barthes, Y.M. Lotman notice in myth similar phenomena. In the book "Mythologies" (1957) Barthes characterized myth as "pseudoevidances" hiding "ideological fraud" under the power of which people get evoluntarily, as soon as they begin to discuss and summarize. The author considered that myths" aim was the world"s immobilization, its mortification: myth imposes the society an imagination about reality as primarily harmonious, thereby overturning and draining it [Barthes 1989: 46, 118, 126, 11 - 112].
   In the same way mythologized consciousness is interpreted in semiotically cultural researches of Y.M. Lotman, orientated, according to him, at the scientific tradition of Aristotle and Deckard. Here myth is deduced out of culture"s framework: cultural area (rationally logical field) and mythological (irrational) area are opposed to each other [Lotman 1992: 15, 32].
   G.G. Gadamer and D.S. Lihachev judge about mythology in totally different way. These scientists regard mythology as unique cultural value. In Gadamer"s article "Myth and Intellect" (1954) is said that scientifical and mythological world views are not antagonists, that "myth and intellect have common, movable by the same rules history" and that they are at the bottom of fact friendly and complementary. "Myth should not be derided as preachers" fraud or old wives" tales but the voice of the wise past". The philosopher mentions that "mythical charms" are unrational but myths are by no means voluntary imagination but bearers of proper, unscientific truth which "form great mental and moral strength of life" [Gadamer 1991: 97, 94, 98 - 99]. In the same way is produced Lihachev"s opinion about myth as "being packing", which serves as blessing and value "since it simplifies the world and our behaviour in it". It is even said that without "the mythologization of the being" the last "cannot be perceived" [Lihachev 1995: 341 - 344].
   In the twentieth century the scientists began to learn such phenomenon as mythical (mythological) thinking. Some of them considered that "mythical thinking on the certain phase of development is the only possible, necessary, rational; it is peculiar not to any special time but people of all the times who are on the certain degree of thought evolution; it is formal, i.e. it does not exclude any content: either religious, philosophical or scientific" [Potebnya 1976: 260]. If to uphold this point of view it is possible to allege that in the modern twenty-first century myth-making did not lose its significance and actively develops nowadays. After all, as Potebnya asserted, thinking is called mythological only then when "an image is called objective and therefore is entirely transferred as reason for the subsequent conclusions about characteristics of the signified" [Potebnya 1976: 243].
   It means that "the difference between mythical and non-mythical thinking consists in the statement that the more non-mythical thinking the more clearly is perception that the previous content of our thought is only the subjective method of perception; the more mythical thinking the more it is represented as sourse of perception" [Ibid.: 240; the italics belongs to the author. - N. Sh.].
   The mythological thinking is described also by E. Levkievskaya in her book "Myths of the Russian nation". She considers that "for the person having mythological thinking myth is particularly practical knowledge with which he follows in real life like we in daily life follow the knowledge of highway regulations or personal hygiene" [Levkievskaya 2003: 4]. The author illustrates her thought with the following example: while losing his way in the forest a man, if he lives under the laws of myth, knows that it is wood-goblin who did him much harm. The wood-goblin could manage doing it because the man entered the forest without blessing. To unload the power of the creature of the other world and find the way home the one should lay the clothes off, to turn it inside out and put it on again - everything is upturned he other world [Ibid.]
   It is really difficult to escape the influence of myth. It is eternal and omnipresent. The French scientist Roland Barthes affirmed that "myths overtake a person always and everywhere, they dispatch him to that immovable prototype which does not let him to live by his own live. Myths do not allow to breath easily (like a bloodsucker lodged inside the organism) and outline the narrow radius for the human activity where a person is allowed to fret not trying even somehow to change... the world. Myths represent the constant and tiresome exaction, insidious and uncompromising demand, for all people to recognize themselves in that eternal and nevertheless dated image that was once created, alledgedly once and for all" [Barthes 1989: 126].
   But if the final deliverance from myth is really difficult the control of its influence is possible for everyone.
   1.2.The concept of "a mythologeme" as the way of socio-cultural processes
   The term "culture" in "The Dictionary of Russian Language" (edited by A.P. Evgenjeva in one of its meanings is explained as "the complex of the achievements of the human society in the industrial, social, and spiritual life" [The Dictionary 1986: 148]. The author of the given research accounts in the same way, and in the research "culture" would be understood according to the definition given in "The Dictionary of Russian Language" edited by A.P. Evgenjeva.
   The concept "a mythologeme" was imported in the modern study of literature relatively late. In the encyclopedic reference book "The Modern Foreign Study of Literature" the mythologeme is defined as "the term of the mythological criticism, designating the borrowing from myth of the motive, theme, or its part and the reproduction in the later folklore works" [The Modern 1996: 236]. In the Internet dictionaries it is defined as "the conscientious borrowing of the mythological motives and their transferring in the world of the modern artistic culture" [www.yandex.ru].
   The mythologemes enumerated above can be affixed to the life of everyone, influencing the destiny of the person. Mythologemes can be intruded in the handling of the information about a person with the help of mass media (it would be shown in the paragraph 3.3). It occurs because the mythologemes live in the culturally informational field of the society, influencing the separate person with the help of the actualization in mass media.
   Usually the influence of the mythologemes on the human life happens spontaneously. But in the description of the biographies mythologemes are introduced artificially (see the same paragraph).
   As it was earlier mentioned in the introduction the subject of the research in the given work is the study of the tree mythologemes called so on probation (mythologemes about Cinderella, Ugly Duckling and John-the-Fool) in the non-fictional popularization of the biographies of Johny Depp, Madonna and A. Pugacheva. The given mythologemes are dominated by the personal names (or the nominal names in this role) of the main heroes of the literary (1, 2) and folk (3) fairy-tales.
   1.3.Myths in Russian and American cultures
   The USA culture comprising with the Russian one is more structured and more homogenious. The Americans live by their own, special myth - myth about "an American dream" by which are understood "the ideals of freedom and open responsibilities for everyone, built on the belief in the boundless responsibilities of the USA and its unique place in the worldby which went, according to the official political mythology, "founding fathers"... of the United States of America. In the wide understanding the American values are from the highest ones to the most simple dream of an American about his own home" [Americana 1996:29].
   "An American dream" is sort of deformation of the myth about John-the-Fool (see the paragraph 3. 2). Though, if to understand this term in the wide sense it can be allowed that all three myths are united in it (about Cinderella, Ugly Duckling and John-the-Fool). These myths are re-fused in the hearth of the American social relationships and are created in the unified fusion which got the name "the American dream".
   To confirm this thought I would like to cite an opinion of the American historian Leon Duncan who considered that "an American dream" has its attractive strength while it is not attained... People who grown up without it are told: if you work long and hard then there, ahead, on that side of the rainbow you will find a little pot of gold. But when you already have this little pot the dream loses its attractive strength. Then appears the necessity in some alternative which can import significance in your life..." [The Dream 1986: 280].
   The mythologemes "an American dream" has no concrete embodiment. Each American understands it in different way, depending on his own educational level and cultural background. For someone it is the ability of the endless usage of the researches of their country, for another it is the cause to feel patriotic feelings and so on.
   Here are some examples:
   a). miss Beilis, the president of the National Society named "The Daughters of the American Revolution" in Washington defined the essence of the given mythologemes in the following words: "I can not so directly say what "an American Dream" is. Everything I can say is to love your country. When an American flag blows on the parade my heart is overfilled with proud and I feel happy" [Ibid.: 282];
   b). Bob Braun, colonel of reserve, noticed: "For me "an American dream" is an increase of the USA prestige all over the world" [Ibid.: 282].
   A lot of Americans trying to reach "an American dream" seek only fame and wealth. They chase the material values absolutely forgetting about spiritual values. This leads, at the end, to the solitude, different phobias and dissatisfaction of life.
  Here is just one example: Mrs. Beilis, the president of the National Association of Daughters of the American Revolution in Washington, defines the essence of this mythology in this way: 'I cannot say directly what the' American dream 'is. All I can say is: love your country. When the American flag is fluttering in the parade, the heart overflows with pride and you feel happy '[Ibid: 282];
  Many Americans, trying to achieve the "American dream", strive only for fame and well-being. They chase after material values, completely forgetting about spiritual ones, which ultimately leads to loneliness, various 'phobias' and to dissatisfaction with life.
  The Cinderella myth in the US culture is often mixed with the myth of the Ugly Duckling and the myth of Jonny- the-Fool, which leads to confusion in minds and moods. Nowadays a modern American "Cinderella" is an ordinary average person from a poor family. Thanks to his/her perseverance and loyalty to the American system of values, this person finds the place in this life, achieving what was dreamed about in the youth (eg, his/her own house, expensive car, prestigious work with possible career growth and high salary, etc.) It is this situation that can be called 'grinding the' myths ', because it mixes up the characteristics of the heroes of all the mythologists considered in the work, which makes it difficult to crystallize the' myth 'that was originally laid down in the human subconscious.
  The myth of Jonny- the-Fool also acquired features of other myths. A young man from a small provincial town aims to get all the benefits from life. He goes to the metropolis, where, using all means at his disposal, he tries to achieve the 'American dream'. As a result, he gets what he wants, but he may feel dissatisfied, because the spiritual side of his life is likely to remain unaffected.
  In American "mythology" there is such a thing as a self-made man. This is the fusion of all three myths into the one and the creation of a completely new image, the image of a 'man who' made 'himself', an individual who by his work won himself the right to live according to the 'American dream'.
  It is necessary to clarify that when we talk about people who achieves the ideals of the 'American dream', we often mean ordinary people who wants something extremely small, small things that would not occur to well-known personalities because the whole 'American dream' is the dream of a man in the street, striving for a quiet, prosperous, peaceful life, willing to live without any worries and anxieties.
  You shouldn't think that the 'business above all' position which is prevalent among the majority of American youth, is a phenomenon of the 20th century. The beginning of everything was laid in the XIX century, when mass literature began to flourish in the United States. The authors of the textbook "History of Literature of the USA", published by the Institute of World Literature. A.M. Gorky, consider that the mass literature includes 'works of a low aesthetic level, designed for a wide audience and reflecting the mentality of the middle strata of society' [Literature in the USA 2003: 836]. Necessary and inalienable features of mass literature as such - formula, cliché, mythology - were noticeable in the first literary production of the colonial era (travel notes, religious sermons, political pamphlets, etc.). Puritan thinking has already created a number of national myths, even in the XVII century. The facts of American history - the creation of colonies in the New World, the development of a frontier, and the war with the Indians - were conceptualized in the formulas of heaven and hell, the building of the city of God, the struggle of angels and demons. In this literature were formed persistent concepts, ideas, images and techniques, which determined the face of all national literature, and in their simplified, elementary forms - the face of the modern mass American culture. The artistic heritage of the frontier spawned the national genre of westerns; Puritan literature became the source of a religious, and in many ways a romantic novel; 'The American dream and personal success was embodied in the narratives about' the man who created himself '; the cult of the family and the hearth was reflected in the "family romance".
  The center subject of mass literature became the myth of a simple American, a man of the people who, with the help of labor and virtue, could achieve the material wealth in his life. The ideal of 'a man who created himself' became the formula of American success in a historical context. For example, during some time a special magazine 'Success' ('Success') was published, it promoted the book 'Acre of Diamonds' in 1888, in which the author assured readers that the diamonds could be found everywhere, even in their own backyard. Next year, Andrew Carnegie's book, The Gospel of Wealth, was published. It in an instructive tone described his way to a millionth state.
  The books of Horatio Alger, which served as a model of educational literature for boys, were also very popular. About 130 of his novels describe poor adolescents who, after a lot of vicissitudes in life, managed to succeed in business. The formula of Cinderella (or Zolika, as Levi-Strauss has onece called it) fairy-tale was transformed into American style and absorbed the national myths of 'self-confidence,' 'self-creation,' 'American dream,' Franklin's commandments, and puritan virtues. On their basis, the ethics of a new middle class that appeared was formed and approved. The tytles of the Elger books are specific: 'Work and win,' 'Strive and succeed,' 'Do and dare,' 'Swim or drown.' Part of his writings Alger released in series ("Luck and Courage", "The Ragged Tom", etc.). There still exists the society of Horeyshio Alger, which annually presents prizes to people who succeeded on their own (one of them was Dwight Eisenhower, the future president of the United States of America).
  The plot of all Alger's novels is of the same type: a poor boy, pursued by misfortunes, but extremely virtuous, with the help of labor, approximate behavior and noble patrons, succeeds. Usually he exposes deceit and intrigues of negative characters, restores justice and helps widows and offended people. At the same time, as a rule, it's not enough to be industrious and pious, the hero must be given a happy chance, which would change his life for the better. The classic plot techniques of mass literature corrected the formula of the 'American dream', introducing elements of a fairy-tale into it and, paradoxically, elements of reality. After all, in life, honest work and honesty did not always guarantee success, and often people hoped for miraculous intervention of fate or favor of higher powers. The Puritan idea of a contract between God and man and the reward for righteous behavior merged with a clear separation of good and evil and victorious justice that was obligatory for mass literature. In this way, an attempt was made to correlate material success and morality, to keep public consciousness within the framework of traditional ethical norms.
  In 1960, the American sociologist R. Williams identified several main values that have a dominant position in contemporary American culture:
  "Personal success, activity and hard work, efficiency and utility, progress,
  stuff as a sign of well-being, respect for science" [Quoted from by: Smelser 1999: 63-64].These are typical features of a self-made man, a person who, thanks to his personal qualities, made his way up (note: as 'high' as he needs it), received the fulfillment of his youthful desires and is completely happy, a person who does not want to think about spiritual values and still sometimes wonders what he lacks in his well-to-do and full life.
  Chapter 2.The concept of "fairy tale" in the scientific and cultural context
  Fairy tales can be found in the folklore of different nations worldwide. Every nation has its own national fairy tales, its own plots. But there are also international plots. They are known all over the globe or a group of nations. Such tales are closely related. V. Propp believed that 'a fairy tale is a symbol of the unity of nations. Peoples understand each other in their tales. Regardless of the linguistic or territorial or state borders, fairy tales are widely transferred from one nation to another. People, as it were, together create and develop their poetic wealth'[Propp 2000: 7]. The Russian storyteller E.V. Pomerantseva has the opposite opinion. She believes that 'the tales of the peoples of the world are not only very close to each other, but at the same time they are deeply different, because they reflect the life of the environment in which they exist, the history of the people who created and kept them, a certain historical reality. In separate versions of fairy-tale plots common to different nations, eras, countries, appear class, national, temporal differences, together creating a historical change in a fairy tale '[Pomerantseva 1963: 12].
  For the first time, fairy tales were recorded in written sources in the 22nd c. BC. in China, in the book "Shang-Hoi King". The tales were also told about in the 14th c. BC. in Egypt. In ancient Greece, fairy tales were often led by Herodotus, Plutarch, Lucian; in Rome - Puglia. In the Middle Ages, the collection of folk tales "The Acts of Rome" was known. Such famous writers as Balzac, George Sand, Anatole Frans, Maupassant, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Gorky and others turned in their time to fairy tales (fairy tales themselves or the genre itself).
  Talking about the philological meaning of the word "fairy tale" ('skazka', in Russian), Propp, examining the origin of this word, wrote: "The root of this term, -kaz-, with different prefixes acquires different meanings, but the basic meaning of the root itself is some form of message: say, indicate, to punish, etc. '[Propp 2000: 19.].
  In Russia, the word 'fairy tale' as applied to a certain genre of folk poetry has been known since the 17th century: the literacy of the Verkhotursk ruler Raf Vsevolzhsky condemned people who 'tell fairy tales unprecedented' [Novikov 1974: 8], but scientists believe that the word 'fairy tale' in the given value it was used and earlier (about it speaks, in particular, N.V. Novikov in the work quoted above).
  2.1.The definition of the concept of "fairy tale" in the modern scientific literature
  There are different definitions of the concept of "fairy tale." For example, in the "Explanatory Dictionary" by V.I. Dal the word "fairy tale" is explained as "a thoughtful story, an unprecedented and even an impossible story, a legend" [Dal 1994. T 4: 170]. In the "Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language" edited by S.I. Ozhegov and N.Y. Shvedova there's another interpretation of this concept: 'A fairy tale is a narrative, usually a folk-poetic work about fictional faces and events, mainly with the participation of the magical, fantastic forces' [Ozhegov 1994: 709]. A.P. Kvyatkovsky in the 'School Poetic Dictionary' defines a fairy tale as 'the most ancient folk genre of narrative literature of a predominantly fantastic character, with the aim of moral education or entertainment' [Kvyatkovsky 2000: 317]. The largest collector and researcher of the fairy tales A.I. Nikiforov gave the following definition of the genre under study: 'Fairy tales are oral stories used by the people for the purpose of entertainment, containing unusual events in the everyday sense (fantastic, wonderful or everyday) and differing in a special compositional and stylistic construction' [Nikiforov 1930: 7]. In addition, the tale was defined as 'an epic oral work of art, predominantly prosaic, magical, adventurous, or domestic, with a fictional setting' [Russian 1956: 295]. P.N. Sakkulin believed that the fairy tale "is essentially oral fiction of an unreal action" [Sakulin 1928: 65]. I. Porfiryev noted that 'the distinctive feature of a fairy tale is fiction' [Porfiryev 1904: 148]. In the XVIII centuryan unknown researcher of the Russian fairy tale gave it the following definition: 'A fairy tale is a story of a fictional incident ... it requires fictions ... The action of an epic poem is true, but in a fairy tale it should not be true, or it would be considered as' fairy tale ', not 'history' '[Sipovsky 1910: 84]. In the textbook 'Russian folklore' written by Y.M. Sokolov you can find the following definition of a fairy tale: 'By ... a fairy tale in the broad sense of the word, we mean the folk-poetic story of a fantastic, adventurous, novelistic and domestic character' [Sokolov 1938: 297]. This definition was repeated with a slight clarification in the course of 'Russian folk art' written by V.I. Chicherov: 'By nominating artwork and originality of its content and form as the main features for defining a fairy tale,' Chicherov writes, 'The following definition of a fairy tale can be accepted: a folk tale is understood as a verbal narrative artistic work of a magical, adventurous or everyday nature that shows phantasy, told in educational or entertainment purposes '[Chicherov 1959: 276]. This definition defines the purpose of the tale. The definition given in the monograph on the fairy tale by V.P. Anikin, which shows the collective creation of a fairy tale during the time, emphasizes its connection with the everyday culture of the people and its connection with the myth: 'Fairy tales are the oral artistic epic narratives in prose that are collectively created and collectively preserved by the people with such moral, epic, socio-political and social content that, by its very nature, requires the full or partial use of the techniques of an implausible depiction of reality and therefore resorts to fantastic fiction, the various and traditional forms of which, not repeating in any other genre of folklore, developed over the centuries in close connection with the whole structure of national life and were in initial connection with mythology '[Anikin 1950: 221]. E.V. Pomerantseva proposes to consider a 'set on fiction'as a distinctive feature separating a fairy tale from other genres of folklore: 'A characteristic feature of a fairy tale is that it is served as a story teller and perceived by listeners primarily as a poetic fiction, like a fantasy game, regardless of the magic or common, the question of the credibility of the narrative is completely removed '[Pomerantseva 1966: 137].
  Thus, most scientists generally recognize that the tale is based on fiction, fiction, regardless of whether it is a fairy tale, domestic or about animals, but it is proposed to take into account a number of other features.
  Most modern fairy tale scholars adhere to the classification of fairy tales created by V.Y. Propp, considering it a classic one. Propp singled out the following types of fairy tales: magic, common, cumulative and about animals. Since the myths chosen in this work originate in magical fairy tales (Jonny-the-Fool, Cinderella) and in fairy tales about animals (The Ugly Duckling), it seems to us necessary to show here a brief description of these two types of fairy tales.
  Tales of animals differ significantly from other types of fairy-tale genre. V.P. Anikin believes that "their specificity is manifested primarily in the peculiarities of fantasy fiction" [Anikin 1977: 40]. The scientist notes that 'the question of the initial origins of fiction in animal tales has been worrying scientists for many decades. Jacob Grimm also wanted to understand the origin of the fiction of fairy tales '[Ibid.]. Grimm "saw in an epic tale of animals a mixture of the elements of human and animal. The human shade gives the narration a meaning, and the preservation in the heroes of the properties and characteristics of the animals makes the presentation entertaining, not boring '[Ibid., 41]. Perhaps, in prehistoric times, observing the life of the wild nature and trying to understand its laws, man unwittingly transferred his properties to animals. Naive primitive fantasy erased the boundaries that separate the world of people from the world of animals. The animistic views of primitive people created the possibility of the appearance of an animal epic. In the decomposition of this epic, according to Grim, "seceded a fairy tale about animals and a fable" [Ibid.]
  Anikin particularly emphasizes the fact that 'science does not know the ancient versions of animal tales. Tales, recorded many centuries later, have almost disappeared from the everyday life of adults and have been preserved as entertaining stories intended for children. This circumstance influenced the general character of animal tales. Deep thoughts, which were originally contained in the narrative, with the passage of time were reduced to unwise morality. The peculiarity of children's perception required a significant simplification of the entire system of images '[ibid: 55].
  Distinguishing a fairy tale from other species is not always easy. But if you look closely at its structure, you can come to the conclusion that the basis of this type of fairy tale is magic fiction. If we talk about the plot classification of fairy tales, it should be noted that this is a complex genre. Fairy tales "include heroic tales about the struggle with snakes, Kashchei the Immortal (living skeleton), and plots about the quest of wonders - the golden-deer, the firebird, and the story about the stepmother and stepdaughter, and many others" [Vedernikova 1975: 36]. But 'with all the plot difference magical fairy tales have the unity of the poetic structure. This is expressed in the strict correlation of motives that form a consistently developing action from a tie through the development of an action to a culmination leading to a denouement '[ibid.].
  Researchers of folk tales believe that 'in a fairy tale, national specificity is felt especially condensed: in the images of a positive hero, in the guise of fairy-tale monsters, in specific fairy-tale formulas; here is in everything - in small and great - national identity '[Pomerantseva 1963: 71].
  L.V. Polubichenko and O.A. Egorova agreed with E.V. Pomerantseva, they claimed in their article 'Traditional forms of folk tales as a reflection of the national mentality', that 'a fairy tale that has long entered the life of man is a kind of history and treasury of folk wisdom, as well as a universal means of transmitting those ideas about the world and man himself that folded people in every historical era. As a manifestation of the national culture of each nation, the fairy tale contains plots, images and situations that are specific to this ethnic group, which finds expression in the names of the characters, the names of animals and plants, the scene of action, and distinctive traditional language forms. The national character of the tales of each nation is determined by its way of life, rituals, working conditions, folklore traditions, a special poetic view of the world, etc. '[Polubichenko, Egorova 2003: 7]. If we proceed from this principle, we can try, through Russian folk tales, to understand the peculiarity of the Russian character.
  The majority of Russian folk fairy tales have a stupid hero in their plot, who is deprived of knowledge, but possessing ingenuity, kind and sensitive soul, positive traits of character and physical strength. Without any action from his side, he suddenly got lucky (the motive of Ilya Muromets, who had spent 30 years sitting on the stove before becoming a hero), and his whole life changes radically. He, previously unfit, unknown, or simply unremarkable, begins to perform feats and even manages to receive a prize, usually expressed in the hand of a beautiful princess and half of her father's kingdom. The addition of various words to the name, like 'fool' or other offensive characteristics, illustrates the popular wisdom that sometimes a fool can be smarter than a sage. For example, in the fairy tale 'John-not-Talented and Helen the Wise' the main character is described this way: '... He's jack of all trades but master of none, not like other people; every work is not in his favor and for the future, but everything is against him... John tries to do in a good way, how it is necessary, but he has no luck and little wisdom '[Russian folk tales 1985: 254]. But, thanks to his positive qualities of character and perseverance, the hero achieves the desired: returns the escaped wife and makes her falls in love with him. Naturally, the fairy tales manifest, thus, the dream of an ordinary person to break out of the people 'into people', to become equal, regardless of origin, to a nobleman.
  In the tales of the peoples of the whole world there are various analogues to the Russian hero. The Russian name "Ivan" in Russian folk tales can be replaced by any other, or the social position of a person can simply be indicated.
  The myth of Cinderella penetrated Russian culture in the 17th and 18th centuries, but long before that it was possible to find in Russian folk tales stories about the bitter share of an orphan (or a stepdaughter). But this is the basis of the Cinderella mythology. Let us recall, at least, such Russian folk tales as 'Khavroshechka', 'Mare's head', 'Father the Frost', 'Daughter and stepdaughter', etc.
  If we talk about the third of the selected myths, it should be recognized that the myth of the Ugly Duckling in Russian folk tales either does not occur at all, or is extremely rare. Reading 186 fairy tales from the collection 'Russian Folk Tales' did not reveal a single one, the plot of which would coincide with the myth that we indicated. But this 'myth' is quite often found in fairy tales of the countries of Western Europe and the East.
  2.2.Mythological roots of folk and literary tales
  Scientists who dealt with questions about the origin, development and existence of fairy tales in society, strictly separated them from the myths. Propp categorically declares: 'The relation of a fairy tale to a myth is a big problem that has occupied our science since its inception and has occupied it to the present day' [Propp 2000: 29]. An outstanding folklorist gives a detailed explanation of the difference between a fairy tale and a myth: 'A fairy tale has an entertaining meaning, a myth is sacred' [Ibid.]. The scientist notes: 'Myths are not only the constituent parts of life, they are parts of each person individually. To take a story from it means to take its life. Myth here is inherent in production and social functions, and this is not a private phenomenon, it is the law. The disclosure of the myth would deprive it of its sacred character, and at the same time its magical or, as Levi-Bruhl says, 'mystical' power. Deprived of myths, the tribe would not be able to maintain its existence ... A fairy tale, already devoid of religious functions, is not in itself a thing reduced compared with the myth from which it originated. On the contrary, freed from the bonds of religious conventions, the tale breaks out into the free air of artistic creativity, driven by other social factors, and begins to live a full-blooded life '[Propp 2002: 312-313]. Further, the Soviet folklorist writes: 'Myths were not told with entertainment purposes, although the plots were very interesting. Myths are associated with cults. Cults were supposed to act on deities, and deities - to help people. The difference between myths and fairy tales is, therefore, the difference of social function ... Myth is a story of a religious order, a fairy tale is aesthetic. A myth appeared earlier, a fairy tale - more later '[Ibid: 34]. The scientist draws the following conclusion: 'The myth and the fairy tale differ not so much in themselves as in how they are treated' [ibid: 34-35]. I.M. Tronsky, supports Propp and believes that 'a myth that has lost its social significance becomes a fairy tale' [Tronsky 1934: 534]. E.V. Pomerantseva notes: 'Having lost touch with a myth, a fairy tale can, however, still have magical significance for its performers and listeners. This explains the prohibitions on fairy tales telling in a number of nations or, on the contrary, customs to tell them in certain moments of production and social life '[Pomerantseva 1963: 10-11].
  The myths considered in this paper are far from random. In the folklore of different nations and countries you can meet fairy tales with similar subjects. Many of them, the so-called "magic", describe the struggle of a man with the society in which he lives. And often the heroes become characters, bearing the traits of the heroes of at least one of the 'myths' we have chosen.
  We should mention Levi-Strauss, who, studying the mythology of the Indians, describes such a figure as Ash-boy - 'Zolik', 'Ash Boy'. The scientist cites a table showing the parallel development of plots about Cinderella and Ash Boy.
  In addition to the 'Zolik' figure, the scientist reminds readers about beliefs in Europe: 'Let us pay attention to the fact that in Europe there is a belief that ascribes the role of a carrier of happiness to garbage (worn shoe), ash and soot (recall the custom of kissing a chimney sweeper) ...' [Levi Stross 2001: 245]. So, we can draw the following conclusion: in order to get a 'gift of fate', to achieve success in life and fulfill your own desires, you need to go through what is contrary to success. According to Levi-Strauss, these are the so-called 'garbage'. Only after a person passes through all the trials prepared for him by fate, he, if he proves worthy, will get what he wants.
  Many scientists who were engaged in their time with the problem of myth and fairy tales, tried to explain the plots used both in the myth and in the fairy tale with the help of the reconstruction of the myth. In their works, they reconstructed the myth, hoping to get to the original plot embedded in it, tried to give an explanation to the 'dark', in their opinion, moments and find the primary structure of the myth. Let us show this with examples of the works of A.N. Veselovsky, V.Y. Propp and others.
  Let's start with the plot (or 'myth') about Cinderella. Alexander Nikolaevich Veselovsky in his work 'Historical Poetics' tried to explain this myth through natural phenomena: 'Cenerentola - Cinderella. According to Estonian legend, Wannaissi, i.e. the god of the sky, daily orders Ammarik (evening light) to extinguish the fire of the sun, properly covering it, so that no trouble would follow at night, and Koit'e (morning light) would order him to light it again. Ammarik covers it with ash (= night sky) and guards it: Cinderella. Explanation of a fairy tale: the dawn becomes in the evening not a beautiful woman but an inappropriate one, lousy, etc. (from ash), and it hides until a compassionate creature illuminating the nightly paths (moon) appears in the sky: a fairy godmother of the fairy tale; in the morning, with the rise of the sun, Cinderella becomes beautiful again. For the Sun, it decorates the sky, prepares for a dance in which it moves quickly. Just like a divine bayadere, she invites the Sun to dance, but as soon as he wants to hug her, she quickly disappears. The sun pursues her, finally finds her by bright trails, the tracks of her legs, which is not similar. - Stepmother and her daughter in a fairy tale = night; they are burned (of course, morning, the combination of the dawn and the sun, which removes the darkness of the night) '[Veselovsky 2004: 503].
  V. Propp treats the same myth in a different way. The scientist sees in it a connection with the oldest initiation rite. This is the rite of 'initiation of youth at the onset of puberty' [Propp 2002: 37]. Here is how Propp himself reveals the function of initiation: 'This is one of the institutions characteristic of the clan system. This rite was performed at the onset of puberty. By this ritual a young man was introduced into a clan association, became a full member of it and acquired the right to marry '[Ibid., 39]. Speaking about the forms of this rite, the scientist notes: 'It was assumed that the boy died during the ceremony and then resurrected again as a new person. This is the so-called temporary death. Death and resurrection were caused by actions that depicted absorption, devouring a boy by a monstrous animal. He seemed to be swallowed by these animals and, after spending some time in the monster's stomach, returned, i.e. ... erupted. To perform this rite, special houses or huts sometimes shaped like an animal were built, and the door was a mouth ... The rite was always performed in the depths of a forest or shrub in strict secrecy '[Ibid. 39]. After that, revealing the essence of the ceremony, Propp assures that an almost indispensable part of the ceremony is a ban on washing. Moreover, according to the scientist, this prohibition has several explanations. In one of these explanations, Propp refers to R. Codrington, a scientist who studied the culture of the peoples of Malaysia, who writes on this subject: 'During the first 100 days he does not wash and becomes so dirty that when he leaves, they do not recognize him: that he is so filthy that he is invisible '[Codrington 1891: 81]. Propp comes to the conclusion that 'non-ability is connected with invisibility ... The yield depends on being in the state of invisibility, non-dullness, and blackness [Propp 2002: 110-111]. Consequently, it can be concluded that the mythology "Cinderella" is rooted in agricultural ceremonies.
  But ban on washing also helps to prepare for marriage. The scientist gives the following example as proof: 'His body was smeared with mud and demanded that he would walk around the village for several days and nights, throwing mud at women. Finally, he was handed over to the women who washed him, painted his face and danced in front of him '[Webster 1908: 79]. After that, the young man could marry.
  Another sacred meaning of ban on washing is a journey to the afterlife, a stay in the land of the dead. 'Zamter, quoting Radlov, indicates that a Siberian shaman, traveling to the realm of the dead with the soul of the deceased, smears the face with soot (Samter 95)' [Propp 2002: 111]. Further, the scientist concludes: 'So, it can be approved that dressing the hero so often found in folklore, exchanging clothes with a beggar, etc. is a special case of such a change of appearance associated with being in a different world ... in one fairy tale from Korguyev we see not only dressing up, but also interpreting it in this particular sense. 'And he himself went on the road. But his dress, like that of a person from that world, was already different, and it was written: 'Coming from that world,' on the back, of course '(K. 10)' [Ibid.].
  As you know, the heroine of the fairy tale Cinderella wore old battered clothes and was often smeared in soot, that's why she received her nickname. Let us recall this tale in the literary work of Charles Perrault: 'In the evening, after finishing work, she climbed into a corner near the fireplace and sat there on a box of ashes' [Tales 1987: 37]. And in the same place about the clothes of the protagonist it is said that she went 'in her old dress smeared with ashes' [Ibid.]. It should be noted that the German word Aschenputtel, unlike the Russian word 'Zolushka', which was not present in the language initially and has a derogatory connotation, was not invented specifically for the fairy tale, but had a historical basis. So called the maids, doing dirty work in the kitchen. Now in modern Germany, this word is used with connotation of contempt. Consequently, it can be concluded that the mythology "Cinderella" is multi-valued and carries the sacred values of fertility, traveling to the afterlife and the traces of the ancient initiation rite.
  V.P. Anikin explains the origin of this mythologem from the socio-historical point of view: 'The large patriarchal communal family, being a transitional form of family relations that emerged at the stage of destruction of the primitive communal order .., brought to life the very concepts of stepmother and stepdaughter ... Great patriarchal the community was torn apart by constant family contradictions and enmity of the household: wives argued because of the inheritance, their children argued too. The situation of orphans (stepchildren and stepdaughters) was particularly difficult. The former clan system did not know such a social category. Now it has arisen: they were people whose material well-being largely depended on the attitude of the new wife of their father towards them. Naturally, the new woman in the family sought to establish the position above all of her children, hating possible applicants for the property of her husband from other women. The stepmother made children to work hard so that, after inheriting something, these family members received most of what they themselves contributed to the wealth of the family with their personal work. Family oppression made possible the appearance in the tales of the theme of a life-giving collision between a stepmother and her non-native children, most often with a stepdaughter. For fairy tales, the clash of two women with different patron spirits of the family became characteristic '[Anikin 1977: 138-139]. Analyzing the mythology described here in detail, the scientist writes: 'The tale quite definitely speaks of marriage as the only real way that saved an orphan from family despotism. A man in fairy tales acts as a gentleman, in whose will to take a girl or not... It is characteristic that the stepmother herself does not run the risk of openly speaking. The only thing that is still in her power is deception and sorcery '[ibid: 141].
  The second myth considered in this work, 'Jonny-the-Fool', was interpreted by Veselovsky through natural phenomena, breaking it into two separate plots: 'Three brothers' and 'Fool (Emelyushka)'. Here is what he writes: 'Three brothers (type of Ivan Polyakov: the third brother stayed for 12 years in the ashes until he stood up. Ivan = the sun, 12 years = 12 hours) ... Fool (Emelyushka): smarter and stronger brothers (the sun and the dawn, those who fade, go blind in the evening sky seem helpless, confused, unintelligent, while wandering in the night sky, but in the morning they are renewed, being wonderful young men) '[Veselovsky 2004: 503.].
  There are also explanations of mythological plots emanating from the epic history of Russia. For example, D.O. Shepping in his article 'Ivan Tsarevich, People's Russian Bogatyr' wants to see the fairy-tale hero of the epic hero. 'The tale supposedly contains the most ancient grain of tradition, which in the epic has already been corrupted' [Propp 2000: 97]. Like the legend about Ilya, it seems, there once existed also the 'Ivanovo tradition', of which fairy tales are fragments '[Shepping 1852: 22].
  Not all scientists hold this point of view. K.S. Aksakov in a small note 'On the difference between fairy tales and Russian songs' asserts: 'There's nothing to think of comparing Ivan with Ilya Muromets, a very special, single face, mostly Russian, expressing the Russian land, the Russian people' [Aksakov 1861: 399] .
  V. Propp adheres to the point of view of Aksakov and, examining the statements of P.A. Bessonov in the annexes to the songs of P.V. Kireyevsky, remarks: 'For him [Bessonov - N.S.], fabulous Ivan is a representative of pagan Russia, which is proved by absolutely fantastic ways (like the false-philological analysis of the name' Ivan 'and the characteristics of its distribution), then this Russian Ivan enters into a new period of his life - epic. Bessonov identifies this collective Russian Ivan with Mikula Selyaninovich, with Ilya Muromets (through the tale of Sydna), with Dobrynya (through the plot of the husband at the wedding of his wife), etc. Thus, the collective fabulous Ivan represents prehistoric Russia, and the heroes of epics are already the historical ... The fabulous Ivan somehow turns out to be the representative of nomadic Russia, and the epic heroes personify the people - the world and the people of the country' [Propp 2000: 98 - 99].
  Analyzing the image of Ivan the Fool, Anikin remarks: 'the first and most characteristic feature of the social image of Ivan, the younger son, is that he is a destitute person. It was not confluence of chance that led him to this position, not that he was a fool, but the existing order that makes him impoverished. In relation to Ivan, both the father and the brothers who do not hide their contempt for Ivan treat him unfearly, trying to rob him '[Anikin 1977: 135]. The fairy tale invariably and constantly talks about the luck of the main character. Happiness floats in his hands by itself. In real life, the poor are not lucky, but in a fairy tale everything turns out the opposite. So the tale reveals its social sympathies. Anikin asks the question: 'Who and what brings Ivan luck?' [Ibid.]. Answering, the scientist notes that if we talk about fairy tales in which the main character (usually the youngest son) is deprived of an inheritance or received only animals in memory of his father, then 'the same' beast 'he inherited helps him. The cat and the dog become Ivan's faithful helpers. '[Ibid.]. Anikin argues that "the traditional basis of this storyline position goes back to the ancient ideas of people about the possibility of helping those animals that people considered to be creatures located to themselves" [Ibid.]. According to the author, it is possible that 'the fabulous motive of help rendered to the hero by the animals also speaks of the rudimentally preserved ancient ideas about some special connection that existed between Ivan, the younger son and the patrons of the family hearth' [Ibid.]. Many fictional creatures (for example, an invisible cap - 'Night Dances', kind spirit in the fairy tale of the same name) protect Ivan (or a hero with a different name but similar fate) because he enjoys the disposition of all the mythical forces of the mother race.
  Anikin notes an interesting fact: 'The tales stubbornly connect Ivan, the third son, with the furnace. He also received the corresponding nickname - the baker '[Ibid: 135-136]. And the matter here is not at all in the laziness of the main character, which, allegedly, can be called the main trait of his character. On the contrary, many fairy tales still retain in themselves the descriptions of the work of the younger son: 'Only the old man took the plow, the boy asks:' Let me, I'll plow! '. And plowed so much until lunchtime - the old man would not manage '[Silver Book 1993: 115-116]. Anikin explains this fact as follows: 'If you remember that the younger sons were the custodians of the family hearth and they were given the obligation to perform special religious rituals associated with the worship of family heart spirits and ancestors, then Ivan's special attachment to the furnace becomes clear. Ivan, the youngest son, according to the storytellers, is under the auspices of the forces who favored those who remained faithful to the old customs of the mother race, who were not greedy, did not seek wealth only for themselves. And it is precisely because of the non-observance of these covenants that the elder brothers of Ivan, who have succumbed to the evils of a new society - become greedy and acquisitive '[ibid: 136].
  Propp also notices this connection of the protagonist with the stove: 'In fairy tales it is often said that the hero is lying on the stove before committing his exploits ... The younger son sits on the stove, this trait is not reported about the older ones ... Ivan has a connection with the stove . His seat is not a domestic phenomenon. His name speaks about it: he is 'Ivan Zapechin', 'Ivashko the Baker', 'Ivan Zepocin', 'The Sparks Hazard'. This name suggests that Ivan is thought not so much lying on the stove, as sitting behind it: 'He sat down on the stove by the pipe'. He is the "slaver." According to some tracks, it is clear that Ivan is not on the stove bench, but inside the stove or even under the stove. He has a connection with ashes, with soot, with cinder: 'He sat forever on the stove and lay in the ashes'. Hence another name of Ivan. He is Popyalov: 'There lived a sabre grandfather and a woman, and they had three sons: two wise, and the third fool was named Ivan, nicknamed Popyalov' [Propp 1976: 216-217.]. According to the scientist, this frequent sitting in the ashes testifies to 'some age-old connection of Ivan with the stove, and not about the domestic sitting on the stove' [Ibid: 217]. Developing his thought, Propp writes: 'But this does not limit Ivan's connection with the furnace, with the hearth. Often he is born from it. '[Ibid.]. For example, a fairy tale is given in which 'a boy (Telpushok) is born from a block of wood, which is laid on a stove to dry. 'There was a chunk, and a boy became.' '[Ibid.].
  Referring to many foreign scientists (J. Frazer, F. de Coulange, E. Rode), Propp comes to the conclusion that the birth of the hero from the furnace is not accidental. This motif, like many other motifs of fairy tales, has its roots in deep antiquity. This is what Fustel de Culange says about this: '... the hearth was at first only a symbol of the cult of the dead, .. under the stone of this hearth any ancestor rested, and the fire was laid in his honor: the fire seemed to support his life or was himself his ever-waking soul '[Kulanzh 1906: 29].
  Fustel de Culange claims that 'they did not bury somebody under the hearth, but, on the contrary, kindled fire over the grave, .. this is the primary form of honoring the ancestor ... The ancestor quickly turns into a deity. Prayers of help are sent to him. He can save from all misfortune. He is the savior and protector '[Propp 1976: 223].
   Based on this statement, Propp concludes that "the hero of a fairy tale ... is precisely the savior" [Ibid.], but his brothers are never. And further: 'The appearance of a hero... is the result of some kind of trouble, the appearance of a hero (including his appearance from the stove) is a direct response to the onset of trouble. In the person of the hero, who appears from the stove, one can see an echo of a similar cult of ancestors as assistants and deliverers'[Ibid.].
  Propp's conclusion is obvious: "The motive of the hero sitting on the stove and coming down from it or being born from it, has developed on the basis of the custom of burying the dead in the house" [Ibid: 225].
  As for the third, chosen archetype (myth) "The Ugly Duckling", it was not developed in such detail. There is an opinion about it (expressed by D. Nagishkin, for example) that this culturally significant imaginative stereotype is nothing but the 'last modification' of the Cinderella's image, 'adapted to the era of enlightenment and development of democratic movements' [Nagishkin 1957: 97].
  2.3.Heroes of "fairy tales"
  The purpose of this paragraph is to systematize and analyze the actions of selected heroes of the type of fairy tales, which is called "magic". An attempt will also be made to compare, on the basis of these actions, the statistics of fifty-one selected fairy tales. 'Magic' tales in this paragraph are divided into three categories:
  - fairy tales with variants of the plot about Jonny-the-Fool;
  - fairy tales, whose plotlines are similar to the tale of Cinderella;
  - tales that have similarities in the plot with tales of the Ugly Duckling.
  Twenty tales were assigned to the first category. Almost in each of them the main character is a simple (often poor) person. Only four fairy tales speak of a prince, and in two more - of a merchant's son and a poor nobleman. The name of the hero varies (Simon, Ivan, Andrew, Simon, Jose, Gunnar ...). In eight variants, the hero is nameless. V. Propp writes about this: 'In a fairy tale, a hero, as a rule, does not have a name. There are several types of fairy tales and, accordingly, several types of heroes, but these types do not represent individual characters. The name 'Ivan' is the name of a type, not a person. Very often, the type is determined by its social position: the king, the prince, the prince, the merchant, the soldier, the priest, the master, the peasant son, the farm-man ... The fabulous Ivan-prince or the Ivan-peasant son is the same character for a whole series of different plots. The same can be said about the princess, she will be called Elena, Anastasia, Vasilisa, or Marya the Beautiful '[Propp 1976: 99]. E.V. Pomerantseva says the same: 'The main character of a fairy tale is essentially one. Regardless of whether his name is Ivan Tsarevich or Ivan the Peasant Son, Roll the Pea or Andrew the Archer, Dunno or Emelya the Fool, his appearance, behavior, fate are the same. We can see the generalized collective image of a positive hero, created by the fantasy and dream of the people and embodied in the concrete images similar to each other, woven into various plot schemes. No matter how diverse the adventures of all these heroes are, no matter how varied the monsters with whom they fight, and the obstacles they overcome, the main storyline of all these tales is one. A courageous, fearless, loyal, handsome hero overcomes all troubles and hardships and wins his happiness, either it is the royal throne, the princess's hand or the victory over the enemies of the motherland '[Pomerantseva 1963: 63].
  The main feature of this type of fairy tale is the presence of a magic helper (although in five tales the helper is not mentioned). Magic helpers can be varied. Propp singled out the following types of magic helpers: zoomorphic assistants (for example, grateful animals), anthropomorphic assistants of a fantastic character ("all kinds of clever people with extraordinary skill or craft" [Propp 2000: 214], for example, Gorynia, Dubynya, Usynya, etc. a group of assistants, according to the scientist, are "invisible spirits, sometimes with very peculiar names (" Shmat-Mind "," Invisible ", etc.). They are on call, for this you need to know the spell formula, turn the magic ring and so on. To the number of sudden about the emerging invisible helpers, the devil may belong '[Ibid, 215]. In the fairy tales chosen for this work, the magic assistants are also diverse. These are also grateful animals (the snake in the fairy tale' The Serpent the Snake ', the pike, the sparrow -' John-not Talented and Helen the Wise ", Falcon -" Crystal Mountain "), and the forces of nature (the South Wind -" Enchanted Queen "), and people who want to thank the main character (two elders -" Fast messenger "). In addition to the magic assistants, Propp distinguishes in a special category and magic items that also help the hero: "Objects act in the story quite as living beings and from this point of view can be conventionally referred to as "characters". So, the self-cutting sword itself cuts the snake, the ball rolls and points the way ... There is no such thing that under certain circumstances could not play the role of the magic one '[Ibid]. Magic subjects in the considered fairy tales practically do not occur. They are present only in two fairy tales. This is an invisible cap ("Night Dances") and a mare's head ("Mare's head").
  Due to the positive qualities of his character, such as generosity, generosity, generosity, and (often) magic help, heroes usually change their social status. The son of a wretched old man, a peasant son, a soldier, a Cossack grow rich ('Fast messenger', 'Enchanted Queen', 'Bride of the Mouse') and even marry princesses and princesses ('Enchanted Queen', 'Ivan the Bogatyr', 'Brave boy ").
  Tales of the second category (of Cinderella) are sixteen options. They also tell about simple, unremarkable (except for their spiritual qualities) people who change their social position at the end of the tale with or without a magic helper.
  From the development in the tales of the two previous mythologems differ versions of the tales of the Ugly Duckling. Here the emphasis is not on changing the social status of the protagonist, but on his physical ennobling. Such tales can often be distinguished from the general group due to the title of any physical deficiency of the main character ('Prince with donkey ears', 'Prince-Rabbit', 'Golden Turtle', 'Feathered Deer', 'Young Man Pumpkin'). Thus, fifteen fairy-tale variants were chosen, in which the heroes were either forced by the witchcraft to live in the guise of an animal ('Prince-Rabbit', 'Egle', 'Daughter of Count Mara'), or had some kind of physical flaw that disappeared by the end fairy tales ("Prince with donkey ears", "Feathered deer" "Hatikatsugi", "Long-eared Kharzam", "Brokeback Princess"). Many of them find companions of life among ordinary people (which can be considered a mirror image of fairy tales about Cinderella): Egle, Golden Tortoise. Others choose a mate, as a reward for suffering, from the 'noble class': 'Black Bull of Norrow,' 'Daughter of Count Mara', 'Prince-Rabbit'.
  Thus, having considered the fairy tales containing the features of the myths that interest us, it can be concluded that the heroes of the fairy tales of all three categories according to the tasks set for them and the trials that fell to their share differ little from each other. Differences should be sought in what metamorphosis occurred with them at the end of their adventures and in how they were awarded for their quest.
  Chapter 3.The functioning of myth and fairy tales in modern society
  Being engaged in myths, there is a high probability to encounter in almost every literary storyline one of the three mythologies discussed in this work, and if the 'myths' about Cinderella and Ugly Duckling are relatively new 'acquisitions' that appeared in Russian culture in the 17th and 19th centuries, the myth of Jonny-the-Fool has such deep roots in the oral culture of the Russian people that it is not possible to get rid of it. After all, it's not for nothing that the majority of Russian folk fairy tales narrates about the life and misadventures of a hero of the same name, a young man who is illiterate, but who managed to achieve a certain position in life thanks to the coincidence of circumstances and benevolence of fortune.
  Mythologems 'work' in the life and fate of many people, often unremarkable, living modestly. Most often, one can learn about their 'work' by familiarizing oneself with the biography of a famous political, science or cultural figure. This is because such people have achieved something in life, they are known in their own country (and sometimes abroad), and it is with examples of their destinies and achievements that the easiest way to trace the 'work' of this or that myth is. In this part of the study, an attempt will be made to prove the hypothesis of the possibility of personal development within the framework of such myths as 'Cinderella', 'The Ugly Duckling', 'Jonny-the-Fool'.
  3.1.Media as an active social force
  In the modern world, the 'mythologization' of the personality and the formation of the mythological thinking and mythological reality occurs through a powerful influence on the mass consciousness and psyche of a single person. Nowadays, as in pagan and early Christian times, modern 'mythology' ('neo-mythology', as some scientists call it, including V. A. Asatiani in one of his publications in ' Bulletin of Moscow State University") heavily influences people's lives.
  Mass communication is unthinkable without myths. For information to be perceived by millions of people and become part of their consciousness, it must be clothed in the form of a myth. In Russia, television is the most influential mass media. It is with the help of television that a virtual mythological reality is created, which is embedded in the minds of millions of television viewers.
  Even the word "television", is connected with myths, because it means "to see at a distance." The age-old dream of humanity, reflected in the tales of various nations, has come true. With the help of "magic mirrors", "magic balls" and other magic devices, fairy-tale characters could be seen from a distance. Now anyone who has TV also has this 'fabulous opportunity'. Television seems to be a continuation of our organs of sight. However, in reality, what we see on the screen is not our 'vision.' But the psychology of the viewer is such that he takes someone else's look for his own. In this substitution lies there's one of the clues to the enormous influence of television on people. Television is not just an intermediary between myth-makers and television viewers. This is a special environment that has a number of unique tools that turn it not only into the channel of delivery of myths, but also into a 'factory' for their production.
  Television most often does not carry true information. Even television news is just myths. They are based on real events (and not always), but they are not a mirror of reality. Facts are just an excuse, a starting point for the formation of a television myth. At the same time, the mythological interpretation of real events is carried out by television so believably that the viewer takes the myth for reality. People tend to believe what they see, because the visual perception channel intuitively seems to be the most reliable. The Russian saying is not accidental: 'It's better to see once than hear a hundred times.'
  Television focused on the average person makes him more primitive than he really is, forcing him to believe in the stories that are presented to him. What is called humor on television is not just not funny, but sad, and so much so that sometimes you want to cry.
  Romanian researcher Mircea Eliade, dealing with various aspects of the myth and its use by the media, wrote: 'Recent studies have revealed those mythical structures of images and behaviors that are used in influencing societies and media groups' [Eliade 2000: 173 ]. Considering the mythological personality on the examples of American comics, the scientist explained: 'The characters of 'comics' are a modern version of mythological or folklore heroes. They embody the ideal of a significant part of the general public to such an extent that the various vicissitudes of their fate, and even more death, cause real shocks to readers, they send thousands of telegrams and letters to authors and editors of newspapers and magazines with protests '[Ibid: 173-174 ]. Turning to specific examples, Eliade considers the myth of Superman (this myth, in the understanding of the author of this work, can be considered a variation of the myth of Jonny-the-Fool): 'The myth of Superman satisfies the secret desires of a contemporary person, who, aware of himself destitute and weak, wants that one day he will become a 'hero', 'exceptional person', 'superman' '[ibid: 174]. Mythological behavior, according to the author, 'is also revealed in the obsessive desire to achieve' success ', so characteristic of modern society and expressing a dark and unconscious desire to go beyond human capabilities' [Ibid: 175]. The scientist makes a logical conclusion: 'With the help of the mass media, mythologization of personalities takes place, their transformation into an image' [Ibid: 174]. It is worth thinking very seriously about the last words of a scientist, because nowadays it is difficult to talk about the existence of some kind of 'objective reality'. The endless streams of the most diverse information, the abundance of symbols, images, 'pictures' create in people the feeling that the world around them is constantly and rapidly changing right before our eyes. Everything is changeable, constantly only one thing - the changes themselves. One 'picture replaces the other, and it's impossible to discern a certain' objective reality 'in this kaleidoscope of images. Tsuladze in his book "Political Mythology" hypothesizes that "the abundance of" pictures ", in turn, leads to the devaluation of images. A person has not yet had time to 'digest' one or another image, but he is already offered a new one '[Tsuladze 2003: 21].
  The mad circulation of images leads to the 'mythologization' of the consciousness of modern man, the myth is a stable structure and allows you to bring some sort of orderliness into the chaotic 'picture of the world'. The myth turns out to be the only "reality" in which a person truly believes.
  The so-called 'screen culture' (the term of Moscow professor V.A. Asatiani) also contributes to the 'mythologization' of public views. She 'assigns the individual a passive role, thereby destroying the creative act of perceiving a work of art. Art is a sphere of not only creativity, but also co-creation. The passivity of the individual, created by the dominance of audiovisual media and computer equipment, gradually causes the degradation of public taste. Its place is occupied by clichés, which are perceived imperatively. Those who use such clichés, as well as those who create them, are included in a single closed process, where the main task is the constant reproduction of an acquaintance, and the search for a new one is expressed only in the further improvement and development of engineering and technical means (which is at least, the new series, which appeared not so long ago on television and played on the NTV channel "Graf Krestovsky" ('The Count of Krestoff') with A. Baluyev in the leading role. This series is nothing more than a modern Russian interpretation of the work by Alexander Dumas the father "The Count Monte Cristo "- N. S.). Due to this, in modern art the notion of the 'well-known' was established as the main criterion for evaluation, which almost completely superseded the traditional evaluation criteria. Above the personal evaluation criteria prevail generally accepted. They go to watch, buy, listen, put on, etc. first of all, what is known '[Asatiani 2005: 127]. The scientist, not without reason, makes a bitter conclusion for our culture: 'today, labels,' brands ', and not creations are attracting attention' [Ibid.].
  In his article, published in the Moscow State University Bulletin, Asatiani reflects on the realities of modern reality. The professor says that 'the general tendencies of the development of culture throughout modern history indicate an increase in the destructive changes in artistic culture associated with the recreation of myth. The spread of mass culture and the introduction of collective representations by modern media, the general degradation of individuality indicate that in the broadest spheres of culture a phenomenon is growing that, due to the orientation and mechanism of its action, can be characterized as 'neomyphology'. Neomythology gives a person a false sense of belonging to cultural phenomena, awareness of fateful decisions for society, etc. Electronic media create and all the time feed in the person the illusion that he is an accomplice to some infinite and brilliant ritual, which is actually just as inaccessible to him as the Olympic palace in its time. In varying degrees, this applies to all spheres of public life ... '[ibid., 126].
  The author's thoughts on the so-called 'quasi-folklore' are also interesting (V.A. Asatiani's term). The scientist says the following: 'If in the sphere of culture conditions are created under which external factors regularly dominate the individual's consciousness, make a claim to some kind of superconsciousness, in whose networks the human spirit is confused, in this case our aesthetic ability, which is otherwise it requires implementation, switches to the field of reproduction of collective, mass samples. It is then that the shift that causes the replacement of art by 'quasi-folklore,' 'audiovisual folklore,' as we call it, occurs [Ibid., 129].
  Myths already influence the children's mind, the initial stage of the formation of spirituality. These ancient "fairy tales" remain in the human mind and can be transmitted both consciously (parents tell the kids fairy tales for the night) and at a subconscious level (images of fiction, the influence of cinema characters, the use of certain signs in television programs). In the future, this influence only grows stronger and gradually forms in the subconscious of man a special mythical reality, makes him think in mythological categories, strive to achieve the mythical ideal, which sometimes leads to complete emptyness of the individual's spiritual world. And the media plays an important role in this process. 'Originating in the era of the Holy Roman Empire, the periodical press gradually turned into a powerful channel for disseminating information and now, together with the electronic media, has a great influence on the formation of public opinion' [Minaeva 2002: 26]. In order to strengthen this influence, the mass media use in their messages an organic combination of verbal and non-verbal means of speech influence. This feature of the media is considered by L.V. Minaev in the article "Multimodus texts print media and advertising." She states: 'In advertising texts, a combination of non-verbal and verbal components of a message creates a conceptual plan for the image of a product / service, a political leader or a corporation ... Non-verbal elements of a non-verbal message push the reader / viewer to certain conclusions, but they never give the full picture necessary for to make it. 'Only that which leaves free space to the imagination is fruitful. The more we look, the more our thought should add to what we see, and the more the thought works, the more our imagination should be excited '[Lessing 1953: 91]. It is the imagination of the reader / viewer that will cause a lot of associations in his mind related to the 'piece' of the overall picture (that is, the image of the product being created), and the creators of the advertising message are counting on '[Minaeva 2002: 27, 28-29].
  The above quote brings us to well-defined conclusions: the myth operates on images. This ensures his memorability, recognition, integrity. At the same time, any image allows for differences in the interpretation of its details, which allows the myth to grow into various details, variants. And this is true. In Russian folk fairy tales, the hero, having a different origin, fights against various kinds of evil spirits, but the result of this struggle is the same: good always triumphs over evil. In the myth (in its modern sense) a compromise with evil is often possible.
  3.2.Correlation of biographies of famous people with selected myths
  The concept of "biography" is defined by the "Newest Dictionary of Foreign Words and Expressions" rather briefly, as a "description of a person's life" [Newest Dictionary 2002: 130].
  In this section, an attempt will be made with specific examples (biographies of famous personalities) to show the action in the fate of a person of a particular mythologeme.
  CINDERELLA & JONNY-THE-FOOL
  In childhood - poor and humiliated. In her youth, she meets a person who helps her find a way out of her difficult situation and become an influential lady. N.M. Vedernikova identifies the following positive features of Cinderella: 'Modesty, diligence, politeness distinguish her from envious sisters and help her overcome evil, undergo all the ordeal' [Vedernikova 1975: 49].
  Today's 'Cinderellas' can often be called self-made women ('women who have made themselves'), as in many cases they achieve everything on their own, without any specific help. This is reflected in the transformation of the mythology, because the current "Cinderellas" sometimes combine in themselves the features of the "ugly duckling" (and often, "Jonny-the-Fool").
  It can almost be said with certainty that in real life this image applies to both women and men.
  This mythology demonstrates a significant improvement in the social status of the individual. The personality itself does not undergo significant changes (Cinderella from the very beginning was a kind, hardworking, patient girl). The conditions for the realization of this mythology often include external factors ('magic helpers', benefactors, friends).
  Examples:
  Hans Christian Andersen. (1805 - 1875). Denmark. Born in a small provincial town in the family of a poor shoemaker and an illiterate laundress, Andersen, with the help of friends, managed to get an education and became a storyteller. In his fairy tales, more than one generation of children grew up, both in Denmark and in the whole world [Everything about everyone. T. 1: 14-18].
  Giuseppe Verdi. (1813 - 1901). Italy. Son of the innkeeper, born in a small village, Verdi became a famous Italian musician who turned Italian opera into truly folk art [Ibid: 70-74].
  Francisco Goya-i-Lucientes. (1746 - 1828). Spain. Goya was the son of a peasant, but having shown his artistic abilities in childhood, he later became a world-famous artist [Ibid: 111-114].
  Elvis (Auron) Presley. (1935 - 1977). USA. Presley was born in a poor family, and died in his own huge estate. During his life, he recorded more than 40 albums of songs, becoming the 'king of rock and roll' and the idol of teenagers of many generations, both at home and abroad [Ibid: 343-346].
  Madonna (Louise Veronica Ciccone). (born in 1958). USA. With her fate Madonna repeated the story of the Cinderella. She practically did not know her mother: she died when the girl was five years old. It was not easy for her family: her father soon got married, and the girl and her stepmother had an open rivalry. Having passed a thorny and not quite righteous path to glory, Louise Ciccone becomes a singer and a movie star. Now her name is known all over the world [Ibid: 233-237].
  Marilyn Monroe (Norma Jean Baker Martenson). (1926 - 1962). Wandering from early childhood in orphanages and foster families, almost without knowing their insane mother, Marilyn Monroe, thanks to her luck and hard work, became a symbol of her era, becoming a world-famous actress [Ibid: 258-261].
  Alexey Andreevich Arakcheev. (1769 - 1834). Russia. Born in an ancient but impoverished noble family. The family had no means for home education. The boy studied at the village clerk. Having learned to read and write, he entered the St. Petersburg Regiment. Due to his discipline and performance, he was recommended by the corps commander, Count N. Saltykov, for the position of home teacher. The future emperor Paul I noticed him at Saltykov. After his death, Arakcheev left a huge fortune [Ibid., Vol. 4: 11-16].
  Catherine I (Marta Skavronskaya). (1684 - 1727). Russia. Historians still argue about its origin. According to one version, she is the daughter of a Swedish soldier, on the other - a Latvian peasant. In her childhood and youth, she earned her living by helping the cook and washing clothes in the house of a Lutheran pastor. Did not get an education. Possessing visual appeal, she became the lover of Marshal B. Sheremet first, and then of prince A. Menshikov. It was at his favorite that Peter I noticed her. Having repulsed her from Menshikov, the Russian emperor soon married her and made her empress. The change in social status did not affect the character of Catherine. She remained unpretentious and modest [ibid., Vol. 8: 144-148].
  UGLY DUCK
  In childhood - ugly and inconspicuous. Then it turns into a 'beautiful swan'. A modest, quiet, and sometimes, maybe even a downtrodden girl in a short time turns into a beautiful, self-confident girl. The environment in which she lives is often hostile to her, despising her and not allowing her to express herself, which prevents her from feeling confident.
  The same can be said about men.
  It is worth noting that sometimes there is only a psychological change. Physically, a person does not change, but those around him begin to look at him differently.
  This mythology marks the physiological and psychological improvement of the individual.
  Examples:
  Sharon Stone (born in 1958). USA. Critics believe that 'with their fate, the actress repeated the story of the ugly duckling from the tale of Andersen' [Ibid., T. 1: 417]. In her youth, she was nothing special among her peers, and suddenly, after years, turned into a beautiful swan [Ibid. T. 1: 417-420].
  Alla Borisovna Pugacheva. (born in 1949). Russia. The famous pop singer in childhood was a very indecisive and notorious girl. She herself admitted in one of her interviews: 'I loved singing since childhood. And she was afraid to do it '[ibid., Vol. 4: 339-348].
  Rolan Anatolyevich Bykov. (1929 - 1998). Russia. In their youth, the selection commissions of theatrical schools refused to accept him, because they had a bad idea of an actor with such a peculiar face, and besides, of small stature [Ibid. T. 4: 339-348].
  Ekaterina Romanovna Dashkova. (1743 - 1810). Russia. Dashkova went down in history as the first Russian woman who managed to take responsible scientific posts. She was simultaneously the director of the Academy of Sciences and the president of the Russian Academy. When she was 15 years old, friends called her a scientist. It should be noted that, according to the description of contemporaries, Ekaterina Dashkova was ugly, of small stature, with a flat nose and thick cheeks [Ibid: 96-100].
  Edita Stanislavovna P'eha. (born in 1937). France, Russia. Pieha was born in a small mining town. Her father, a miner, died when the girl was 4 years old. Having passed through the life thorns, P'eha has achieved a lot in her life. Now she is a wealthy pop singer, beloved by many viewers [Ibid., V. 5: 331-337].
  3.3.Ways to mythologize biographies in the interview genre
  It is possible to confirm the hypothesis put forward by a number of specific examples taken from the biographies of the stars of show business: A.B. Pugacheva, Madonna and Johnny Depp and interviews with these personalities.
  The term 'interview' in the Brockhaus and Euphron dictionary is interpreted as 'a meeting of newspaper reporters with political and public figures and scholars to talk about an event or a current issue' [Brokgauz 2003: 248]. In the New Dictionary of Foreign Words and Expressions, the same concept is interpreted in approximately the same way: 'Interviews are a genre of journalism; conversation of a journalist with one or several personalities on any pressing issues '[Newest Dictionary 2002: 346]. In the 'Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language', edited by Ozhegov-Shvedova, the interview is considered to be 'a print (or broadcast on radio, television) conversation with some person' [Explanatory Dictionary 1994: 244].
  If we talk about the mythology 'Cinderella', then to illustrate her work, in our opinion, the life of the American singer Madonna is the most suitable, in a special way interpreted in various interviews and articles devoted to the 'star'. It is enough to look through the headings of articles or sections to make sure that this person is mythologized. Moreover, the majority of magazines and newspapers deliberately brings her image under the image of the modern Cinderella. Although there are headlines that refer the reader to other literary characters with a similar (or just unusual) fate. For example: 'Youth spent in the trash' (explicit reference to the myth described here - N.S.) [Vasilyev 2000]; 'Louise in Wonderland' (Carroll's tale was called 'Alice in Wonderland' - N.S.) [Sawyer 2000]; 'Poor Liza' (right along Karamzin - N.S.) [Chernov 1992].
  In the texts of articles and media interviews, they try to emphasize the unhappy childhood of the singer, her striving for 'heights', achieving success only after the struggle for existence and other qualities of Cinderella. In the article 'Madonna Forever. Just Madonna ', published in the journal' The Cult of Persons ', journalist Yevgeny Petrov notes:' The strategy was the same - to climb up to glory, to wealth, to love and everyone's attention, to stop the view of the world at any cost '[Petrov 2001]. The same article tells about the childhood of the singer. The emphasis is again on the Cinderella myth: 'Cloudless time ended when her mother died of breast cancer, and Silvio Anthony Ciccone (Madonna's father N.S.) married a second time. Madonna was then about seven years old, and she felt like the heroine of all the tales of an evil stepmother. As you know, the most optimistic of them is 'Cinderella' '[Ibid.]. Mythologema unfailingly "works" in the youth of the singer. Before becoming a 'star', she had to 'live ... in the slums next to petty criminals and drug dealers, to work as a waitress in a diner' [Ibid.]. The author of the article persistently makes it clear to readers that Madonna is none other than the same Cinderella who has achieved success. In the life of Madonna, according to the author, there were also 'magic assistants': 'Soon an increase in penny salaries was discovered: an announcement in the erotic magazine about shooting as a nude model appeared - a typical story of thousands of provincials dreaming of a beautiful life and a career in the capital. Then compatriots came from somewhere - rock musicians from Detroit, then some other unknown bands, and there was a turn in the unfolding career ... '[Ibid.]. Petrov emphasizes that the fate of the Madonna is 'a typical story of thousands of provincials who dream of a beautiful life and a career in the capital' [ibid.]. L. Kudryavtseva in the article 'Unknown Madonna' emphasizes that 'Madonna herself' made 'her appearance and figure. They say she was plump. And here: the most severe diet, daily two and a half hours of charging, plus running. Madonna ... is able to stay on stage a whole evening without a minute of respite and not betray her fatigue '[Kudryavtseva 1991]. The theme of childhood is very popular in the media about Madonna. There are articles based on facts (Yuri Zubtsov - article 'Fairy of Fulfillment of Desires', Domovoy Magazine No. 9, September 2000; Cheryl Garat - Interview with Madonna - Cosmopolitan Magazine - January 1995; Roman Vasiliev - Article ' Goodbye, Madonna? The era of great pop leaves after the era of great rock, Voyage and Recreation Magazine, October 2000, etc.), but there are also frankly false, calculated for a sensation, like, for example, Vladimir Chernov's article 'Poor Lisa. The mother of the famous singer Madonna lives in Russia" ('Spark', No. 14-15, 1992). This article also presents the mythological image of Cinderella. But mythologization is based not on facts, but on fiction. This is a "duck", as newspaper reporters say. The author of the article claims in earnest that the mother of the singer, who died of breast cancer, is actually alive and is in Russia. And Madonna herself came to America from Russia. Madonna's mother, according to Chernov, is a beggar woman. She 'asks at the Savyolovsky station near the Soyuzpechat booth' [Chernov 1992]. Vladimir Chernov tells the story of the life of a young Madonna in his own way. According to him, the father of the future "star" sat in the camp, drank, spoke French, and "loved to read the novel" Poor Lisa "" [Ibid.]. That is why the singer was called Liza (note that Madonna's name is Louise. - N. Sh.). Chernov describes her childhood and adolescence, noting that she was an exemplary daughter, a pioneer, but in the sixth grade 'friends threw Liza off the right road, Savelovsky girls who sold three rubles for themselves' [Ibid.]. The author of the article paints in detail the life of a future star. It turns out that Madonna was allegedly taken from Russia by 'Ngamba, a student from the University of Lumumba, from the blackest Africa' [Ibid.]. In Africa, according to Chernov, the girl returned to her former 'profession' and began to earn a living in brothels: 'Her clients are good - soldiers from the American base, pay in green' [Ibid.]. Miraculously, the resurrected mother unexpectedly recognized her missing daughter on the cover of the Soviet Screen magazine. Madonna herself does not refuse to talk about his childhood. In an interview with Cheryl Garate, she admitted that the early death of the mother 'still does not give rest to the soul, and Madonna talks a lot about it with her brothers and sisters, with her father, when you manage to catch him alone' [Garate 1995]. With her mother's death, she explains many of the problems in the Ciccone family. When the mother died, no one spoke of this: the father was crushed by grief, the children were told to be strong and not to cry. 'This does not mean that we did not cry, but we did not understand why we were crying. We were completely confused and everyone was waiting for Mom to return. Then, three years later, my father just married our housekeeper and told us to call her mom, because she is our new mother. This caused even more confusion, because it was not clear where the former had gone. Everyone struggled with his grief as best he could - someone wanted to uncommon success in life, someone, on the contrary, lowered his hands. It was all a manic psychosis - so we struggled with our pain, with what was in our hearts '[Ibid.]. When she moved to New York, she didn't remember her family for five years. Then she began to understand more and started calling her father. 'But even now it is difficult for him to accept that my - present glory is the result of those five years. He cannot calmly return to that period of his life. It is easier for him not to return. As soon as I feel that it is painful for him, I stop talking '[Ibid.]. Madonna admits: 'I did not recognize my stepmother, continuing to treat her as a housekeeper' [Ibid.]. Having received everything she dreamed about, the modern 'Cinderella' suddenly declares: 'I was in a hurry to be in front, I was striving to the top ... but I forgot why I needed all this and why was something missing all the time?' [Lukyantsev 2003]. The journalist interviewed the singer notes: 'She asks a question:' Is this modern life suitable for me? Is it free? ' And the answer is - no, not for free. She reached the limit of well-being, but not satisfaction: "a room full of expensive knick-knacks, ... lawyer and manager, ... 3 nannies, secretary, driver, plane, trainer and butler, guard (or five?), Gardener and stylist, do you think I'm satisfied? "" The singer sums up: "I survived the American Dream and made sure that everything is not what it seems" [Ibid.]. Some journalists in their articles create their own myth about Madonna. They frankly call her "deity." For example, James Patrick Hermon in an introduction to an interview with Madonna writes: 'She, like a real deity, had everything: wealth, fame and love' [Hermon 1998]. The image of Madonna, as can be seen from the above material, is perfectly suited to illustrate the influence of the Cinderella mythology (in combination with typical American myths about the American dream and a self-made woman) on the fate of a person.
  Now let us turn to the myth "Ivanushka the Fool." To illustrate this myth, the biography of American actor Johnny Depp was chosen as an example. The press presents him in different ways, but almost always in interviews and articles on his biography, the emphasis is on the typical qualities of Ivan the Fool: a cheerful, never discouraged character, lack of a higher education diploma, romance, etc. (For more on the qualities of Jonny-the-Fool, see above, in paragraph 3.2 - N. S.).
  A lot is written about his childhood. The negative features of his life in his youth are often emphasized. The author, who disappeared under the VUS login, writes in one of the articles from the Internet: 'Johnny began to drink, smoke and speak almost simultaneously. No, when he spoke exactly, the story is silent. But he began to drink and smoke weed at eleven, play the guitar at twelve, and lost his innocence at thirteen. At sixteen, he was shoved out of school, after which Johnny took up the guitar and created the band The Kids ('Kids'), which Iggy Pop appreciated '[VUS 2003]. At the beginning of the article, the author briefly provides biographical information about the actor. In the article 'education' he puts a short word: 'no' [ibid.]. The author assigns a special role to tattoos, which occupy a large place in the fate and on Depp's body. VUS notes: 'He made the first tattoo at fifteen. Born John Christopher Depp II was the fourth child in the family of a civil engineer who traveled from one facility to another throughout Kentucky. That year, dad left the family, leaving his apartment and four children. Depp deleted from the memory of his father, and immortalized on the hand the name of the abandoned father of his mother. Johnny's body - his intimate diary, tattoos and incisions on his arm remind of the most important. The latest acquisition is three small black squares on the right ring finger. Homebrew Malevich always mechanically draws such in the fields of the script and all the pieces of paper that fall into his hands. And for the tattoo on his left hand, he chose the favorite number three '[Ibid.]. Alexander Izotov in his article 'Mr. Blockbuster. Johnny Depp - a simple American Parisian "also describes the actor's childhood is far from the best:" The youngest child in the family, the son of a worker and a waitress, Johnny was never prosperous. Sex, drugs, and rock and roll were his biggest addictions '[Izotov 2004].
  Johnny Depp himself, answering a question from one of his interviewers, Martin Palmer: 'What was your childhood like?', Replies: 'It was quite normal, although, of course, there were times when it was difficult for me, but in general I was an ordinary child. You know, compared to what many children have to go through today, my childhood was blessed, I have nothing to complain about ... '[Palmer 2005]. The press often characterizes this actor is far from the best. For example, in the already cited work written under the VUS login, Depp says: 'Rebel, pahabnik, brawler' [VUS 2003]. Martin Palmer notes that the 'star' 'is one hundred percent responding to its ... image of the eternal bully' [Palmer 2005].
  As in the tales of Ivan the Fool, the hero's rebirth occurs after he finds his happiness. In the case of Johnny Depp, rebirth began when he married Hollywood actress Vanessa Paradis. This is Depp's second wife. The actor has two children from her: a daughter, Lily-Rose Melody (born 1999), and a son, Jack (born 2002). Here is how Michel Fontanelli writes in an interview with Depp 'Blown Away by Whitey: Johnny Depp': 'Fatherhood changed Johnny Depp. While his past is rich in antics can tell embellished stories about defeated hotel rooms, drunken (or rather narcotic) parties in the Los Angeles club 'Viper Rum' and about novels with the most elusive and beautiful creatures in show business - among them Winona Ryder and Kate Moss - these wild, wild days are forever behind for Depp.
  Yes, this infamous bad guy who once gave up his soul to the Hollywood way of life without brakes, traded frivolous life for the key to the heart of one woman. While Lily-Rose Melody is perhaps not yet mature enough to tie her shoelaces herself, by her presence in the life of her loving father's heart, she forever tightened the knot that tied Depp to his desperate past self. Having become a father (and a significant person for Mom Lily-Rose, French actress Vanessa Paradis), Depp no longer needs to look for her lost spirit. On the contrary, he again - and perhaps for the first time - discovered himself in the innocent eyes of a newborn daughter '[Fontanelli 2003]. Johnny Depp himself confirms the words of the interviewer: 'Question: Last year you told Interview magazine:' I don't think I lived before. This child gave me life ... She became the only reason to get up in the morning, the only reason to breathe ' . Answer: I think this is a fairly universal feeling that everyone, a man consecrated by fatherhood, feels when someone feels like a father for the first time. For me - and I never belonged to these grief-me-types busy with myself - this was the first really pleasant moment in my life, in addition to being full of dedication. The world has ceased to revolve around me, and everything that I have ever had to experience, if we talk about life experience, has lost its meaning '[Ibid.]. As can be seen from the above quotes online articles, journalists often impose on the life and work of Johnny Depp the features of the mythology Ivan the Fool.
  To illustrate the third, and last, mythology (The Ugly Duckling), the biography of the Russian 'star' of show business, A. B. Pugacheva. Journalist Masha P. in her article 'You took away Pugacheva from me,' published on www.dni.ru, writes: 'A friend told me that there is a strict editorial rule in the most popular Russian newspaper: if the article mentions Alla Pugacheva, then the material put on the front page. And the newly created Yandex-News service, which collects the information picture of the day, for the request 'Alla Pugacheva' gives out 5 news only for the last three days '[Masha P. 2003]. The author asks a question: what is the Pugacheva phenomenon? Masha P. is trying to find the answer to this question in the life and work of Alla Borisovna. Describing the singer's biography, the journalist notes: 'When the second, very desirable daughter was born to Zinaida Arkhipovna Odegova and Boris Mikhailovich Pugachev on April 15, 1949, their first son (the first son died a year earlier from diphtheria), nobody could assume that this girl was born with surgical throat disease, it will become one of the main cultural elements of the world's largest country. No one knew that one day she would turn into a "mediocre maid", "amateur" (according to the chairman of the revision committee of the Union of Composers Chaplygin), a "hooligan" (after a scandal at the Pribaltiyskaya hotel in St. Petersburg), a "diva" and a "living legend" (through the efforts of some particularly servile journalists), even in 'Alla Borukhovna Mikhelson' '[Ibid.]. Fame came to Alla Borisovna not immediately. The journalist notes: 'Pugacheva became famous not for one moment, she long and consistently went to her fame - through music education, through secret recordings on the radio, through trips to geological parties and concerts in rural houses of culture. This is not at all beautiful with a completely non-model figure gradually penetrated the consciousness of the Soviet musical audience which was not educated musically, once entrenched there with a magnificent and still very few (except herself) transcended song 'Harlequin' '[Ibid.].
  Alexey Belyakov in the article 'Believe it or not,' states that the prima donna herself 'composed her life' [Belyakov 2002]. Belyakov notes: 'Once, in a warm company, Alla Borisovna sat down at the piano. Everyone calmed down, waiting to hear her heartfelt singing, but instead she suddenly said, touching the keys: "Now I will tell you about my life." For several hours, with bated breath, everyone listened to Pugacheva: what she said was more exciting than any novel. After a couple of days, when she met someone from the newly enchanted audience, she grinned: 'Did you believe? Yes, I composed everything!' '[Ibid.]. The author writes that 'at school she told her friends that she was sent to Earth from space. The girlfriends did not believe ... Nothing foreshadowed a star in a thin schoolgirl who wore glasses in an ugly setting '[Ibid.]. Considering the biography of Alla Borisovna, the author of the article believes that 'Pugachev can be accused of many sins, but no one dares to say that the fame itself fell into her hands. She walked toward her in an agonizing way, having experienced all that was necessary. Before the triumphant Arlekino, sung in the Bulgarian town of Slynchev Bryag in 1975, Alla swam along the Siberian rivers with concerts for oilmen and hordes of mosquitoes: she walked along the winding corridors of Mosfilm, where in many films she sang off-screen; shaking on carts on collective farms with always drunk concert brigades '[Ibid.]. Speaking about the appearance of the future "star", Belyakov remarks: "Pugacheva was never a beauty, but she did not suffer from a lack of attention to herself from the opposite sex" [Ibid.]. Over time, the myths worked, and the Ugly Duckling turned into a beautiful swan. Alla Borisovna began to talk about. The press published articles about her, her family and personal life, sometimes unverified facts were used. The diva herself complains of this. In an interview with the newspaper Argumenty i Fakty, she tells journalist Vladimir Polupanov: 'Your colleagues all the time lie for some reason ... They wrote in the newspaper: I lost three thousand dollars in a casino. Why did you lose? WON! I came out happy and shouted: 'Three thousand!' They remembered it, but won or lost - no longer important '[Polupanov 2004]. Sometimes there are some incredible things. In the article 'Siren,' an anonymous journalist writes: 'Recently, a clairvoyant was asked to see the future. What, in particular, will be done in Moscow, on Red Square in a hundred years? The sorcerer smoked incense and began peering into a polished silver ball. 'I see!' The clairvoyant said in a terrible voice. 'I see letters on the Mausoleum. Not Lenin, no ... A-L-L-A! Alla Pugacheva lies in the Mausoleum!' Hearing this, lovers of knowing the future almost fainted. But then it the situation began more interesting. The evoked spirit of Lenin complained that there was little mad Joseph on his head, so now in general in his former native mausoleum this intolerable singer is found, and he, the revolutionary of the highest standard, was carried out. The spirit cried and swore obscenely. "Do the people go to see Pugachev?" - asked the curious of the sorrowful spirit. 'They do,' the spirit replied, apparently being in an extreme degree of irritation, 'they did not go to me like this' [Www.abp-monolog.narod.ru].
  The above examples illustrate well the mythologization of the biography of Alla Pugacheva.
  So, from all of the above, we can draw the following conclusion: journalists have colorfully shown the path that the 'stars' of show business usually follow. In the case of Madonna, as well as with Johnny Depp and A. B. Pugacheva, for us it was important that the idea of mythologization was confirmed by the artists themselves. Indeed, quite a bit of time passes from childhood to the adult years of our 'heroes', and a myth about them is already complex. In this part of the work it was shown how the 'separation' from reality and the emergence of mythologization occur. After reading numerous interviews with the "stars" of show business, the bizarre distortion of our media life is especially felt. If you also connect a television here with its not always truthful information, then you can assert with a fair degree of confidence that our whole life is a myth.
  Conclusion
  This work realizes the goal to show the functioning of the three most active in modern Russian and American culture by myths using the example of the biographies of the 'stars' of show business. An attempt was made to find the most accurate definition of the notion 'myth' (from the point of view of modern scientific literature) and to show the historical development of this concept (according to the theory of V.E. Halizev). The basic concept of the study - the mythology - was defined as guiding sociocultural processes.
  When analyzing the mythical spaces that exist in Russian and American cultures, we came to the conclusion that, although the myths in these cultures have common roots, they have changed significantly in the course of historical processes and in each of the cultures they acquired their own characteristics peculiar only to this country.
  When considering the links of a myth with its later formation - a fairy tale - the notion of a "fairy tale" was considered in scientific and cultural contexts.
  In the course of the study, it was discovered that the selected myths originate in sacral myths and traditions, that many of the layers, which remain in folklore and cannot be explained at first glance, according to some scholars (V. Propp, A. Veselovsky, K. Levi Strauss and others) are nothing more than long-forgotten rudimentary elements that have roots in the attitude of the world (see paragraph 2.2 for details). The paper attempts to identify the mythological roots of folk and literary tales and presents a description and systematization of the heroes of "fairy tales".
  For a number of reasons already mentioned during the study, the myth has a strong influence on the consciousness of modern man. When studying the influence of myths on the consciousness of the average person, the role of the mass media in shaping the 'mythological' thinking of a person and society was noted. Seventeen biographies of outstanding people were attracted to illustrate the conscious use by biographers of three selected myths in describing the creative fate of a person. In conclusion, the ways of mythologizing the biographies of Madonna, J. Depp, and A. B. Pugacheva in the genre of interviews.
  Finishing work, I would like to say that the 'myth' in the twentieth century began to play a significant role in the consciousness of modern man. He turned out to be stronger than any humanitarian science that explains him. The myth changes the usual picture of the world so much that it is possible to say that we live inside the myth. Is it possible to force the myth to serve the people? Our answer: not only possible, but necessary. But this is the task of state ideology and other work.
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