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The Military Balance 1964

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    Военный баланс в 1964 году от Международного Института Стратегических Исследований. С русским переводом.


  

THE MILITARY BALANCE 1964

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1964

   The Military Balance 1963
   The Military Balance 1965

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Foreword
Communist Powers:
  Warsaw Pact: Soviet Union - Советский Союз, Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Albania
  China, North Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba
Western alliances: Alliance systems
   NATO - НАТО: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, UK, USA
   CENTO: Iran, Pakistan
   SEATO: Australia, New Zealand, Philippine, Thailand
   Protocol States: South Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
  US mutual defence treaties: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea
Non-Aligned Countries: India, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, Sweden, Switzerland, UAR, Yugoslavia
Tables

FOREWORD

   This is the sixth of the Institute's annual estimates of the nature and size of military forces of the principal powers. It covers the Communist powers, those countries which have mutual defence treaties with the United States and a number of important non-aligned countries.
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in most cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking the material.
   This document examines the military balance as it existed at the end of October 1964 and as it will, on present indications, change during the ensuing year.
   No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1965 have been included.
   The material in this document should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the nature of the balance of strategic power: it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability, efficiency, etc., on both sides. It may, however, be found useful in the context of discussions on strategy and disarmament.
   November 1964
  
   Note on the Figures
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia or reserve forces, has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Naval strengths are those of active fleets and ships in commission only, except where otherwise stated. Vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have been excluded. Figures for defence budgets are exclusive of American military aid.
  

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

   Это шестой из ежегодных выпусков Института о характере и размере вооруженных сил главных держав. Он охватывает коммунистические державы, те страны, которые имеют договоры о взаимной защите с Соединенными Штатами и ряд важных неприсоединившихся стран.
   Институт берет на себя полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Сотрудничество правительств было запрошено и в большинстве случаев было получено. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают в области сбора информации, и некоторые цифры оценочные. Институт благодарит ряд своих членов и консультантов, которые помогли собрать и проверить материал.
   В этом документе рассматривается военный баланс, как он существовал в конце октября 1964 года, и, как он по текущим показаниям, изменится в течение следующего года. Никакие прогнозы уровней силы или оружия за 1965 год не включены.
   Материал в этом документе не следует рассматривать как всеобъемлющее руководство по характеру баланса стратегических сил: он не отражает факторы географии, уязвимости, эффективности и т.д. с обеих сторон. Однако он может быть полезен в контексте обсуждений по стратегии и разоружению.
   Ноябрь 1964 г.
  
   Примечания о данных
   Данные о людских ресурсах относятся к численности регулярных сил, хотя в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, указана численность полувоенных сил, ополченцев или резервных сил. Силами военно-морского флота являются силы только активного флота, за исключением случаев, когда указано иное. Исключены суда с нормальным водоизмещением менее 100 тонн. Цифры для оборонных бюджетов не включают американскую военную помощь.

PART I. THE COMMUNIST POWERS

THE WARSAW PACT NATIONS

   Although the Eastern European nations have this year given further striking evidence that they are no longer the obedient satellites of the Soviet Union in political and economic matters, the military integration of the Warsaw Pact, which was noted last year, has continued. In particular, the forces of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany have held large-scale combined exercises with those of the Soviet Union, and for the first time these have included air-defence exercises for the participating countries, as distinct from the field air-defence manoeuvres of previous years.
   But while the integration of the Warsaw Pact forces has continued, the debate within the Soviet Union itself on the main characteristics and emphasis of Soviet defence policy has been livelier than at any time since 1960.
   The debate has been along familiar lines: on the relative emphasis to be placed on missiles on the one hand and on the ground forces of the Soviet Union on the other.
   Mr Khrushchev clearly believed that the efficacy of missile deterrence made large peace-time armies unnecessary, and there were signs towards the end of 1963 that the Soviet forces were about to be considerably reduced from the 1961 level. Last year, Mr Khrushchev announced a reduction, but it is uncertain whether this took place.
   Instead, although almost all articles in the Soviet military press have recently included a bow to the overwhelming importance of nuclear missiles, the indications are that there was heavy military opposition to the plans for a cut in the land forces, and that the debate has, for the present at least, swung in favour of the 'conservatives' who wish to retain the option of conventional predominance and more flexible opportunities for the use of ground forces outside the NATO Warsaw Pact theatre.
   Recently, too, some elements in the Soviet military hierarchy appear to have been arguing that the Soviet Union might have to face the possibility of protracted local wars which might not escalate into global conflict. In general, therefore, it would appear that although most Western governments have revised their estimates of Soviet conventional strength over the past two years, this strength is not being radically reduced and that the debate on the future military posture of the Soviet Union is not likely to end in any marked reduction in the near future.
   It is possible, however, that there may be a certain re-allocation of forces if the Sino-Soviet dispute continues to be embittered, and remains an acknowledged dispute between states and not merely between parties. But for the present there have been no more than minor reinforcements in Russia's Far Eastern territories, and Chinese territorial claims are not yet likely to make any major transfer of forces necessary. In any event, it is probable that further measures of dИtente in Europe will precede any significant reduction of Soviet forces there, rather than vice versa.
   The Eastern European armies have increased somewhat over the past year. But it should be noted that the overall size of the national forces is in most cases an inadequate basis for the number of divisions into which they are organized. It is to be assumed that a proportion of these divisions are only of skeleton strength, although there are sufficient trained men in the Reserve to bring them up to strength. Equally, the ratio of men to aircraft in the Air Forces of the Communist states is remarkably low, though the manpower of the Soviet Air Force has increased slightly over the past year with the introduction of sophisticated new aircraft.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ВАРШАВСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Хотя восточноевропейские страны в этом году дали яркие доказательства того, что они больше не являются послушными сателлитами Советского Союза в политических и экономических вопросах, военная интеграция Варшавского договора, которая была отмечена в прошлом году, продолжилась. В частности, силы Польши, Чехословакии и ГДР провели широкомасштабные комбинированные учения с войсками Советского Союза, и впервые они включали учения по противовоздушной обороне для участвующих стран, в отличие от полевых маневров предыдущих лет.
   Но пока интеграция сил Варшавского договора продолжалась, дебаты в самом Советском Союзе по основным характеристикам и акценту советской военной политики были более живыми, чем в любое время с 1960 года.
   Дискуссия шла по знакомым линиям: относительно внимания к ракетам, с одной стороны, и к сухопутным войскам Советского Союза с другой.
   Г-н Хрущев явно считал, что эффективность ракетного сдерживания делает ненужными большие армии, и в конце 1963 года появились признаки того, что советские войска должны значительно сократиться с уровня 1961 года. В прошлом году Хрущев объявил о сокращении, но неясно, произошло ли это.
   Вместо этого, хотя почти все статьи в советской военной прессе включали утверждения об огромном значении ядерных ракет, есть свидетельства того, что имело место сильное противодействие планам по сокращению сухопутных войск и что в ходе прений, пока, по крайней мере, склонились в пользу "консерваторов", которые хотели бы сохранить обычное преобладание и более гибкие возможности использования наземных сил за пределами театра НАТО-ОВД.
   В последнее время некоторые чины советской военной иерархии, по-видимому, утверждают, что Советскому Союзу, возможно, придется столкнуться с возможностью затяжных локальных войн, которые могут не перерасти в глобальный конфликт. Таким образом, в целом, казалось бы, хотя большинство западных правительств пересмотрели свои оценки советских традиционных сил за последние два года, эти силы не радикально сократились и дискуссия о будущей военной позиции Советского Союза вряд ли сможет прекратить любое заметное сокращение в ближайшем будущем.
   Возможно, однако, что может произойти определенное перераспределение сил, если конфликт между Китаем и Советским Союзом станет конфликтом между государствами, а не только между партиями. Но на данный момент на дальневосточных территориях России не было значительных подкреплений, и китайские территориальные претензии еще не вызвали какую-либо важную переброску сил. В любом случае, вероятно, дальнейшие меры разрядки в Европе будут предшествовать значительному сокращению советских войск там, а не наоборот.
   За последний год восточноевропейские армии несколько увеличились. Но следует отметить, что общий размер национальных сил в большинстве случаев является недостаточным для количества подразделений, в которые они организованы. Следует полагать, что часть этих дивизий имеет характер скелетов, и в запасе достаточно обученных людей, чтобы довести их до предела. Точно так же соотношение людей и самолетов в ВВС коммунистических государств невелико, хотя численность военнослужащих советских ВВС за последний год несколько увеличилась благодаря внедрению современных самолетов.
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 228 million.
Basic Military Service: Army 2 years, Air Force 4 years, Navy 5 years.
Defence Budget: 13,289m. roubles. This represents a reduction of about 600 million roubles on last year's budget.
   (But it should be noted that these figures do not include space research costs or the development of advanced weapons systems).
   At the official exchange rate, this figure would be approximately $14,725 million.
   It is thought that in real terms total Soviet military expenditure represents something between 30 and 35 thousand million dollars a year.
The total size of the Soviet forces is still estimated to be about 3,300,000 men, a figure which represents no change from last year's estimate.
   The para-military forces, the security and border troops, have, however, been reduced by about 10 per cent in spite of some reinforcements in the
   Chinese border areas, and now total about 270,000 men.
  
   Strategic Rocket Forces
   Operational ICBMs now total about 200. (This figure might increase substantially during 1965). Perhaps a third of these are of the second generation TCBM, which has a storable liquid fuel and is some what easier to conceal than the first-generation launcher. Like the first, the second generation have powerful boosters and very high-yield warheads. There is, however, still no evidence that they could carry a 50 megaton warhead in a ballistic trajectory.
   The chief protection for ICBM sites still appears to lie in concealment and active defence measures, though it must be assumed that sites are continuing to be hardened. The Soviet Union has made no claims on progress in anti-missile systems comparable to those made for the United States by Mr McNamara in September 1964.
   The number of MRBMs and IRBMs appears to be between 700 and 750. These can cover most strategic and semi-tactical targets such as fighter airfields in Western Europe, Britain and much of the Far East. There are two types of MRBM, with ranges of 700 and 1,100 statute miles respectively. The IRBM, with a two-stage, liquid-fuelled engine has a range of 2,100 miles. Some of the MRBMs are mobile-based and can be transported on lorries. The majority of MRBMs and IRBMs are based near the western, southern and eastern borders of the Soviet Union, on the Pacific coast and in Siberia.
   The operational personnel of the Strategic Rocket Forces, under the command of Marshal Krylov, totals about 110,000.
  
   Air Forces
   The Air Force comprises 10,500-11,500 operational aircraft. (There are in addition about 800 aircraft of the Naval Air Force.)
   The total strength of the Air Force, excluding the Naval Air Force, is 510,000 men.
   The Air Force is organized into five major components:
   (1) The Long-Range Air Force (strategic bombers);
   (2) The tactical or front-line force which includes fighters and tactical bombers;
   (3) Air Defence Command (fighter interceptors);
   (4) The land-based Naval Air Force (medium bombers);
   (5) The Air Transport Force.
   There is also an independent transport force for the airborne divisions.
   The Long Range Air Force has been very active in recent months. Exercises over long distances in the North Atlantic and North Pacific have been observed this year but this may indicate a change in the role of the Bear to naval reconnaissance missions. It is grouped in three main areas: Western Russia, the Central Ukraine and the Far East, and in addition has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic. Its strength in inter-continental bombers remains considerably below that of SAC, but there is still a very strong force of medium bombers for operations in the Eurasian theatre, and the negotiations in the Geneva Disarmament Conference on a 'bomber bonfire' have indicated that the Soviet Union still considers that its medium bombers are important to its own security. The following gives some indication of Soviet air power:
   (i) Strategic Striking Power
   (a) About 70 Turbo-prop Bears (TU 95), able to carry one large winged missile.
   120 4-jet Bisons, also able to carry a winged missile.
   (b) About 1,000 twin-jet medium-bomber Badgers (TU 16). It is possible that this force is being reduced as the Blinder enters service.
   The Naval Air Force also contains a strike force of some 400 Badgers with winged missiles for ship attack.
   Blinder, a high performance twin-jet bomber with a supersonic dash capability, is now in service. It appears to be intended for performance in the European theatre. A variant is expected to replace Badger. A developed version, incorporating a standoff air-to-surface missile which is capable of carrying a nuclear warhead, is also expected.
   (ii) Tactical Air Power
   The strength of the Soviet Tactical Air Force has remained fairly constant for the last four years or so. There are at present nearly 4,000 aircraft altogether. These include: light bombers, ground attack and interceptor fighters, transport aircraft, helicopters and reconnaissance units.
   The aircraft in service still contain a significant proportion of obsolescent aircraft, such as the MiG-15 (Fagot) and MiG-17 (Fresco) and the Il-28 (Beagle); but it appears from the continuing introduction of new aircraft in all the various tactical roles that the Soviet government is still interested in maintaining a modern and efficient force for the European theatre. The most notable aircraft to enter service recently have been the ground attack Fitter, the supersonic light bomber Brewer and the twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft Mangrove.
   (iii) Air Defence
   The extensive early warning and air defence system of the Soviet Union continues to expand, and improve in quality. Air defence weapons include:
   Surface-to-Air Missiles
   Guild. An unboosted anti-aircraft missile, with an impact range of about 18 nautical miles.
   Guideline. A 2-stage boosted anti-aircraft missile with an impact range of about 25 nautical miles, and fully effective to a height of over 60,000 feet.
   Griffon. A 2-stage boosted anti-aircraft missile. Its impact range is thought to be greater than that of Guideline, and its altitude capability is somewhat greater. It was probably for this missile that Marshal Sudets, the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Air Defence, claimed a nuclear capability last year.
   Fighters
   There are probably over 6,000 fighters in service, the majority of which are MiG 17 (Fresco) and MiG 19 (Farmer). New aircraft include the Sukhoi SU.7 Fitter and SU.9 Fishpot B. and the MiG 21 Fishbed, all of which have a maximum speed of the order of 1,200 m.p.h. and operational ceilings of about 60,000 feet. The MiG 23 Flipper is also believed to be in limited service inside the Soviet Union. Another fighter, the Fiddler, possibly of Yakovlev design, may also be in service as a long-range interceptor. It can carry bombs and two long-range air-to-air missiles.
  
   Land Forces
   The total size of the Soviet Army (including the Home Air Defence Force) is estimated at 2,200,000 men. It is thought to be organized in 140 divisions. There are three degrees of combat-readiness in the Soviet Army (as was stated in the book Military Strategy published last year in the Soviet Union under the editorship of Marshal Sokolovsky), but about half the 140 divisions are at or near full combat-strength. The remainder could be brought up to strength at short notice, although about a quarter of the total, i.e. some 35 divisions, at the lowest degree of readiness, would require major reinforcement.
   The geographical distribution of the Army is as follows:
   75 divisions in European Russia
   22 divisions in Central Russia
   17 divisions in the Far East
   26 divisions in Eastern Europe. (20 in East Germany, 2 in Poland, 4 in Hungary)
   The 26 divisions in Europe are among those maintained at combat strength. So are at least 12 of the divisions in the Far East; the other 5 divisions there are thought to be in the second category of readiness : below combat strength, but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war. The 75 divisions in European Russia are of varying degrees of strength, but the majority of the remaining 32 combat-ready divisions are probably among them. The 22 divisions in Central Russia would require major reinforcement.
   By types of division, the distribution is approximately:
   (1) Tank divisions: 50. (9,000 men and 375 medium and heavy tanks at full strength.)
   (2) Motorized divisions: 90. (11,000 men, 210 medium tanks at full strength).
   Ten of the tank divisions are in East Germany, 1 in Poland, and 2 in HungaryIt has been estimated that the total force of 26 divisions in Central Europe could be increased to 70 within a month if mobilization and movement were unimpeded by interdiction.
   The airborne forces total some 70,000 men in 9 divisions. The transport fleet could lift 2 divisions and supporting elements simultaneously over short or medium ranges.
   The military doctrines of the Soviet Army still envisage a major offensive role for it in future war and accordingly emphasize training for large-scale advance at high speed. Infantry formations contain Armoured Personnel Carriers which would enable them to advance across radioactive terrain. But it may be questioned whether the logistics and command organization of the Soviet Army are so highly developed that it could accomplish the 60-mile per day advance of official theory.
   Tactical nuclear weapons units are now organic to Soviet formations whether inside or outside the Soviet Union, and the conventional firepower of a Soviet division is as great as that of most divisions in NATO. The Soviet Army is also well-equipped for offensive and defensive chemical warfare.
   Its equipment includes:
   (i) Tanks The standard medium tank (T-54/55) has a 100 mm. gun. The 54-ton heavy tank (T-10) has a 122 mm. gun. Soviet tanks can deep wade.
   (ii) Artillery The main types are 122 mm., 130 mm. and 152 mm. The main anti-tank guns are 57 mm., 85 mm. and 100 mm. Self-propelled assault guns are becoming obsolescent except in airborne divisions. The Soviet Army has also retained a considerable air defence capability, including surface-to-air missiles.
   (iii) Missiles Tactical missiles for use by the ground forces include those with ranges from 10 to about 300 miles, some of which are carried on modified tank chassis. The smaller missiles are all on tracked chassis.
  
   Sea Power
   The total strength of the Soviet Navy and naval air force is 460,000 men. In total tonnage, it is the second biggest navy in the world, but its main strength still lies in the submarine fleet. There are indications that the Naval Air Force and the missile-bearing submarines have an increasingly important role in Soviet strategy.
   (i) Submarines There are some 400 conventionally powered and 30 nuclear-powered submarines.
   (Nuclear submarine production appears to have settled down to the rate of ten a year.)
   At least 40 can fire ballistic missiles, and carry an average of three each. Over 300 are ocean-going. The four submarine fleets are distributed as follows: 70 in the Baltic fleet, 150 in the Arctic, 50 in the Black Sea, and about 120 in the Far East. The 40 missile-carrying submarines are divided between the Arctic and Far East fleets.
   (ii) Sea-to-ground Missiles A very large naval missile has been shown in Moscow parades, and it is probable that the Soviet Union has successfully developed the true submarine-launched ballistic missile, which Mr Khrushchev claimed. But it does not appear to have been generally introduced into service yet, or to have the range of the American Polaris missiles. Of the 40 missile firing submarines, however, some do have a limited capability for submerged firing. A ballistic missile with a range of 400 miles is deployed on G and Z class submarines for surface firing.
   (iii) Tactical Missiles Some ships and submarines are known to be fitted with cruise missiles for anti-ship use. Submarines would have to fire such missiles from the surface.
   (iv) Naval Air Force There are no aircraft-carriers in the Soviet Navy. The land-based Naval Air Force comprises about 400 bomber and 400 other aircraft. Most of the bombers are based on the north-western and south-western shores of the Soviet Union. They comprise:
   (a) The Tu-16 Badger with a range of 3,500 miles. The partial replacement of this aircraft with a version of the Blinder may begin soon.
   (b) The torpedo-carrying 11-28 Beagle with a range of 1,500-1,800 miles.
   (v) Surface Ships The surface-ships of the Soviet Navy consist of:
   Cruisers 20 (of which 2 are missile-firing)
   Destroyers 90
   Missile-firing Destroyers 15
   Fast Patrol Boats, many with surface-to-surface missiles 400
   Other vessels 1,900
   (A number of adapted trawlers are used for radar and reconnaissance purposes.)
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
   The cruisers are of three different types.
   Sverdlov, one or two have been re-equipped with medium-range surface-to-air missile launchers, perhaps as an experiment;
   Chapayev and Kirov.
   New destroyers include:
   Kynda class, Kashin class, Krupny class, Kildin class and Ketlin class.
   Soviet press articles in the summer of 1964 suggest that the Russians have re-established a small Marine Corps, units of which are said to have been stationed in the Baltic and Pacific Fleets.
  
   Para-Military Forces
   The security and border troops now number some 270,000. There are also perhaps about 1,5 million DOSAAF members who participate actively in para-military training.

СОВЕТСКИЙ СОЮЗ

Население: 228 миллионов.
Военная служба: армия 2 года, ВВС 4 года, флот 5 лет.
Оборонный бюджет: 13 289 млн. рублей. Это примерно на 600 млн рублей меньше, чем в прошлом году.
   (Следует отметить, что эти цифры не включают расходы на космические исследования и разработку современных систем вооружений).
   По официальному обменному курсу эта цифра составит приблизительно 14 725 млн. долл.
   Считается, что в реальном выражении общие военные расходы СССР составляют от 30 до 35 миллиардов долларов в год.
Общая численность советских войск по-прежнему оценивается примерно в 3 300 000 человек, что не отличается от прошлогодней оценки.
   Однако численность военизированных формирований, сил безопасности и пограничных войск сократилась примерно на 10%, несмотря на некоторое усиление в китайских приграничные районах, и в настоящее время они насчитывают около 270 000 человек.
  
   Стратегические ракетные войска
   В настоящее время развернутых МБР было около 200. (Эта цифра может значительно увеличиться в течение 1965 года). Возможно, треть из них относится к МБР второго поколения, на долго-хранимом жидком топливе, и их легче скрыть, чем ПУ первого поколения. Как и первое, второе поколение имеет мощные ускорители и очень мощные боеголовки. Однако до сих пор нет доказательств того, что они могут нести 50-мегатонную боеголовку на баллистической траектории.
   Основная защита объектов МБР по-прежнему, по-видимому, заключается в сокрытии и активных мерах защиты, хотя следует предположить, что базы продолжают укрепляться. Советский Союз не имел прогресса в противоракетной системе, сопоставимым с прогрессом, достигнутым в Соединенных Штатах г-ном Макнамарой в сентябре 1964 года.
   Количество БРСД, по-видимому, составляет от 700 до 750. Они могут охватывать большинство стратегических и оперативных целей, таких как аэродромы истребителей в Западной Европе, Великобритании и на Дальнем Востоке. Существует два типа БРСД с дальностями 700 и 1100 миль соответственно (Р-5 и Р-12 -ЕТ). Двухступенчатая жидкостная БРСД двигателем имеет дальность полета 2100 миль (Р-14 -ЕТ). Некоторые БРСД являются мобильными и могут перевозиться на грузовиках. Большинство БРСД развернуты вблизи западных, южных и восточных границ Советского Союза, на тихоокеанском побережье и в Сибири.
   Личный состав РВСН, с командующим маршалом Крыловым, составляет около 110 000 человек.
  
Воздушные силы
   Военно-воздушные силы составляют 10 500-11 500 действующих самолетов. (Кроме того, около 800 самолетов военно-морских ВВС).
   Общая численность ВВС, за исключением Военно-морских воздушных сил, составляет 510 000 человек.
   ВВС состоит из пяти основных компонентов:
   (1) ВВС дальнего действия (стратегические бомбардировщики);
   (2) тактическая или фронтовая авиация, которая включает истребители и тактические бомбардировщики;
   (3) Командование ПВО (истребители-перехватчики);
   (4) Авиация наземного базирования военно-морского флота (средние бомбардировщики);
   (5) Военно-транспортная авиация.
   Существуют также независимые транспортные силы для воздушно-десантных дивизий.
   Военно-воздушные силы дальнего действия были очень активными в последние месяцы. В этом году наблюдаются полёты на больших расстояниях в Северной Атлантике и в северной части Тихого океана, но это может указывать на изменение роли Ту-95 для морской разведки. Они сгруппированы по трем основным направлениям: Западная Россия, Центральная Украина и Дальний Восток, а также имеют пункты базирования в Арктике. Межконтинентальных бомбардировщиков остается значительно меньшее, чем у SAC, но на евразийском театре все еще существуют очень мощные силы средних бомбардировщиков, и переговоры на Женевской конференции по разоружению о "бомбардировочном сокращении" показали, что Советский Союз по-прежнему считает, что его средние бомбардировщики важны для собственной безопасности. Ниже приводятся некоторые сведения о советской авиации:
   (i) Стратегическая Дальняя Авиация
   (a) Около 70 турбо-винтовых Ту-95, способных нести одну большую крылатую ракету.
   120 4-двигательных реактивных М4, также способных нести крылатую ракету (не несли -ЕТ).
   (b) около 1000 2-х двигательных реактивных бомбардировщиков Ту-16. Возможно, что их число уменьшается, с вводом в строй Ту-22.
   Военно-морские воздушные силы также около 400 Ту-16 с крылатыми ракетами для атак кораблей.
   В настоящее время введен Ту-22 высокоэффективный 2-х двигательный реактивный бомбардировщик со сверхзвуковой скоростью. Представляется, что он предназначен для действий на европейском театре. Ожидается, что он заменит Ту-16. Ожидается также разработка ракеты "воздух-поверхность", способной нести ядерную боеголовку.
   (ii) Фронтовая авиация
   Силы советских тактических ВВС оставалась довольно постоянноми в течение последних четырех лет или около того. В настоящее время насчитывается почти 4000 самолетов. К ним относятся: легкие бомбардировщики, штурмовики и истребители-перехватчики, транспортные самолеты, вертолеты и разведывательные подразделения.
   В настоящее время эти силы содержат значительную долю устаревших самолетов, таких как МиГ-15, МиГ-17 и Ил-28; но продолжается введение новых самолетов различных тактических ролей, поскольку Советское правительство по-прежнему заинтересовано в поддержании современных и эффективных сил для европейского театра. Самыми заметными самолетами, которые недавно появились на службе, были истребители-бомбардировщики Су-7, сверхзвуковые бомбардировщики Як-28Б и двухдвигательный разведывательный самолет Mangrove (Як-25РВ -ЕТ).
   (iii) ПВО
   Широкая система раннего предупреждения и противовоздушной обороны Советского Союза продолжает расширяться и улучшается качественно. Оружие ПВО включает:
   Ракеты класса "земля-воздух"
   Guild (С-25 -ЕТ). Одноступенчатая зенитная ракета с дальностью около 18 морских миль.
   Guideline (С-75 -ЕТ). 2-ступенчатая усиленная зенитная ракета с дальностью около 25 морских миль и высотностью более 60 000 футов.
   Griffon (Даль на вооружение не принята -ЕТ). 2-ступенчатая большая зенитная ракета. Считается, что его дальность действия больше, чем у С-75, и высотность несколько выше. Вероятно, об этой ракете маршал Судет, главнокомандующий советской ПВО, как о имеющей ядерный потенциал в прошлом году.
   Истребители
   Вероятно, более 6000 истребителей находятся на службе, большинство из которых - МиГ-17 и МиГ-19. Новые самолёты Су-7, Су-9 и МиГ-21, каждый из которых имеет максимальную скорость порядка 1200 миль/час и потолки около 60 000 футов. Считается, что в Советском Союзе также используется ограниченно МиГ-23 Flipper (Е-152, на вооружение не принят). Другой истребитель, Fiddler, возможно, проект Яковлева (Туполева, Ту-128 -ЕТ), может также использоваться в качестве дальнего перехватчика. Он может нести бомбы и две дальние ракеты класса "воздух-воздух".
  
   Сухопутные войска
   Общий численность Советской Армии (включая ПВО) составляет 2 200 000 человек. Предполагается, что они сведены в 140 дивизий. В Советской Армии три степени боеспособности (как было указано в книге "Военная стратегия", опубликованной в прошлом году в Советском Союзе под редакцией Маршала Соколовского), но около половины из 140 дивизий находятся в полном или близким к полному боевому составу. Остальная часть может быть доведена до предела в кратчайшие сроки, хотя около четверти общего числа, т.е. около 35 дивизий с малой степенью готовности потребуют значительного усиления.
   Географическое распределение выглядит следующим образом:
   75 дивизий в Европейской России
   22 дивизии в Центральной России
   17 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке
   26 дивизий в Восточной Европе. (20 в ГДР, 2 в Польше, 4 в Венгрии)
   26 дивизий в Европе держиватся в полном боевом составе. Также, по крайней мере, 12 из дивизий на Дальнем Востоке; другие 5 дивизий, как полагают, относятся ко второй категории готовности: но не требуют серьезного усиления в случае войны. 75 дивизий в Европейской России имеют разную степень готовности, но большинство из оставшихся 32 боевых дивизий, вероятно, среди них. 22 дивизии в Центральной России потребуют серьезного усиления.
   По типам распределение примерно такое:
   (1) Танковые дивизии: 50 (9000 человек и 375 средних и тяжелых танков в полном составе).
   (2) Мотострелковые дивизии: 90 (11 000 человек, 210 средних танков в полном составе).
   10 танковых дивизий находятся в Восточной Германии, 1 в Польше и 2 в Венгрии. По оценкам, общие силы из 26 дивизий в Центральной Европе могут быть увеличены до 70 в течение месяца, если мобилизация и переброска будут проходить беспрепятственно.
   Воздушно-десантные войска насчитывают около 70 000 человек в 9 дивизиях. Транспортная авиация может одновременно поднимать 2 дивизии и их осуществлять их поддержку на короткие или средние расстояния.
   Военные доктрины Советской Армии по-прежнему предполагают большую наступательную роль армии в будущей войне и, соответственно, делают упор на подготовку к крупномасштабному наступлению на высокой скорости. Пехотные формирования имеют бронетранспортеры, которые позволят им продвигаться по радиоактивной местности. Но может быть поставлено под сомнение, настолько ли развита материально-техническая и командная организация Советской Армии, что она могла бы достичь 60-мильных суточных темпов официальной теории.
   Тактическое ядерное оружие теперь органично для советских формирований как внутри, так и за пределами Советского Союза, а огневая мощь обычных средств советской дивизии столь же велика, как и у большинства дивизий в НАТО. Советская Армия также хорошо оснащена для наступательной и оборонительной химической войны.
   Её вооружение включает:
   (i) Танки Стандартный средний танк Т-54/-55 имеет 100-мм пушку. 54-тонный тяжелый танк Т-10 имеет 122-мм пушку. Советские танки могут ходить по дну водоёмов
   (ii) Артиллерия Основные калибры 122-мм, 130-мм и 152-мм. Основные противотанковые пушки 57-мм, 85-мм и 100-мм. Самоходные штурмовые орудия устарели, за исключением АСУ воздушно-десантных дивизий. Советская Армия также имеет значительный потенциал ПВО, включая ракеты класса "земля-воздух".
   (iii) Ракеты Тактические ракеты сухопутных войск имеют дальности от 10 до 300 миль, некоторые из которых перевозятся на модифицированном танковом шасси. Меньшие ракеты на гусеничном шасси.
  
   Военно-Морской Флот
   Общая численность военно-морского флота СССР составляет 460 000 человек. По общему тоннажу это второй по величине флот в мире, его основная сила по-прежнему заключается в подводном флоте. Имеются данные о том, что морская авиация и ракетные подводные лодки играют все более важную роль в советской стратегии.
   (i) Подводные лодки Имеется около 400 обычных и 30 атомных подводных лодок.
   (Кажется, что производство атомных подводных лодок составляет до 10 в год).
   По меньшей мере 40 могут нести баллистические ракеты по три на каждой. Более 300 лодок - океанские. Подводный флот распределяется следующим образом: 70 на Балтике, 150 в Арктике, 50 на Черном море и около 120 на Дальнем Востоке. 40 ракетных подводных лодок поделены между Северным и Тихоокеанским флотами.
   (ii) Ракеты типа "море - земля" На московских парадах демонстрируется очень большая военно-морская ракета, и вполне вероятно, что Советский Союз успешно разработал настоящую баллистическую ракету с подводным стартом, о которой заявлял Хрущев. Но, похоже, что они не введены в эксплуатацию или не имеют дальности американских ракет Polaris. Однако из 40 подводных лодок с ракетами, некоторые имеют ограниченную возможность для подводного старта. Баллистические ракеты с радиусом действия 400 миль разворачивается на подводных лодках класса G и Z для надводного старта.
   (iii) Тактические морские ракеты Известно, что на некоторых кораблях и подводных лодках установлены противокорабельные крылатые ракеты для. Подводные лодки могут пускать такие ракеты с поверхности.
   (iv) Морская авиация В ВМФ СССР нет авианосцев. Силы морской авиации наземного базирования включают около 400 бомбардировщиков и 400 других самолетов. Большинство бомбардировщиков базируются вблизи северо-западных и юго-западных берегах Советского Союза. Они включают:
   (a) Ту-16 с дальностью 3500 миль. Частичная замена этого самолета на Ту-22 может начаться в ближайшее время.
   (b) Торпедоносцы Ил-28 с дальностью 1500-1800 миль.
   (v) Надводные корабли Надводный советский флот включает:
   Крейсеры: 20 (из которых 2 являются ракетными)
   Эсминцы: 90
   Ракетные эсминцы: 15
   Быстроходные патрульные катера, многие из которых имеют ракеты класса "земля-поверхность": 400
   Другие суда: 1900
   (Ряд адаптированных траулеров используется для целей радио-разведки).
   Часть эсминцев и небольших судов не полностью укомплектована экипажами.
   Крейсеры трёх типов.
   Свердлов, один или два, были оборудованы ракетными пусковыми установками средней дальности, возможно, в качестве эксперимента;
   Чапаев и Киров.
   Новые эсминцы включают типы:
   Kynda (пр.58 -ЕТ), Kashin (пр.61 -ЕТ), Krupny (пр.57 -ЕТ), Kildin (пр.56М -ЕТ) и Ketlin (пр.56 -ЕТ).
   Советские статьи в печати летом 1964 года свидетельствуют, что русские восстановили небольшие подразделения морской пехоты на Балтийском и Тихоокеанском флотах.
  
   Полувоенные силы
   В настоящее время численность внутренних и пограничных войск составляет около 270 000 человек.
   Около 1 миллиона членов ДОСААФ, активно участвуют в военном обучении.
  
  
   POLAND
Population: 31,500,000.
Length of military service: Army 18 months, Air Force, Navy and special services 3 years. Internal security forces: 27 months.
Total Regular Forces: 272,000.
Defence Budget: 22,233,000,000 zloty.
Army Total strength: 215,000.
   14 divisions: 4 armoured, 9 motorized, 1 airborne.
   There are nearly 3,000 tanks.
Navy Total strength: 12,000.
   7 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   70 naval aircraft.
   110 other ships, including 12 minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 45,000. There are 1,000 aircraft.
   4 fighter ground-attack regiments (mainly MiG-17s).
   5 fighter regiments (MiG-19s and a proportion of MiG-21s).
   2 bomber regiments (Il-28s).
   Surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 45,000 Security and border troops, including armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years.
Total Regular Forces: 235,000.
Defence Budget: 10,948,000,000 crowns.
Army Total strength: 200,000.
   14 divisions: 4 tank, 10 motorized.
   There are 3,000 tanks, of which a considerable proportion are now T-10s and T-54s.
   The army is now at about 80% of combat strength.
Air Force Total strength: 35,000. 700 first line aircraft, organized in
   5 interceptor regiments with MiG-17s, 19s and 21s, and
   4 ground attack regiments with MiG-17s, and a number of MiG-15s in a fighter bomber role.
   Transport units are equipped with Il-14s and Il-18s.
   There are surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 35,000.
  
   EAST GERMANY
Population: 17,000,000.
Length of military service: normally 18 months.
Total Regular Forces: 106,000.
Defence Budget: 2,764,000,000 DM (Ost).
Army Total strength: 80,000.
   The army is organized in 2 army corps.
   There is a total of 6 divisions, 2 armoured and 4 motorized.
   There are perhaps 1,500 tanks, mainly T-34s, and another 500 amphibious vehicles.
Navy Total strength: 15,000.
   4 destroyers.
   150 other vessels, including 16 minesweepers.
   Some landing craft are under construction.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000. There are some 400 aircraft, organized in 2 air divisions of interceptors.
   Each division comprises 3 wings of 3 squadrons, mainly MiG-19s and MiG-21s, supported by MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   There are some surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 70,000 security and border troops.
   There is also an element of intensive military training among some units of the Kampfgruppen.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,000,000.
Length of military service: a maximum of 3 years.
Total Regular Forces: 104,000.
Defence Budget: 6,150,000,000 forints.
Army Total strength: 95,000.
   5 divisions : 1 armoured, 4 motorized.
   There are about 1,000 tanks, mainly T-34s with some T-54s.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000. 150 aircraft.
   3 interceptor regiments, each of 2 groups of 3 squadrons.
   At least one squadron is now equipped with MiG-21s.
   The rest of the interceptor force still has MiG-17s.
   Surface-to-air missile batteries are also operational.
Para-military forces 35,000.
  
   ROUMANIA
Population: 19,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years.
Total Regular Forces: 222,000.
Defence Budget; 4,110,000,000 lev.
Army Total strength: 200,000.
   12 divisions.
   1 armoured division.
   11 motorized divisions.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   1 submarine.
   2 destroyers.
   60 other vessels, including 36 minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000. 300 aircraft.
   3 fighter divisions, each possessing 2 regiments of 3 squadrons.
   Mainly MiG-17s, but MiG-21s are now entering service.
   There is also one light bomber regiment with Il-28s.
   Surface-to-air missile batteries are also entering service.
Para-military forces 60,000.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,100,000. Length of military service: 2 years.
Total Regular Forces: 150,000.
Defence Budget: 260,000,000 leva.
Army Total strength: 125,000.
   11 divisions: 3 armoured, 8 motorized.
   They are now at about 60 per cent of combat strength.
   There are over 2,000 tanks, mainly T-54s with some T-34s.
Navy Total strength: 5,000.
   3 submarines.
   2 destroyers.
   80 other vessels, including 20 minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000. 450 aircraft.
   2 interceptor groups and a reconnaissance group, each with MiG-17s and some MiG-21s.
   A fighter-bomber group has MiG-15s.
   Surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 15,000.
  
   ALBANIA
Population: 1,900,000.
Length of military service: Army 2 years, Air Force, Navy and special units, 3 years.
Total Regular Forces: 37,800.
Defence Budget: 2,817,000,000 leks.
   Albania does not collaborate in any way with the other members of the Warsaw Pact, to which it still nominally adheres.
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   6 Brigades, some armoured units.
Navy Total strength: 2,800.
   4 submarines.
   35 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000. 100 aircraft, including
   2 squadrons of MiG-17s.
Para-military forces 12,500.
  

CHINA

Estimated Population: 750,000,000.
Military Service: 3 years (selective).
   The Chinese military forces, like those of the Soviet Union under Stalin, adhere closely in their military doctrine and training to Mao Tse tung's own pronouncements on military strategy. Nevertheless, if the inheritance of Mao's doctrines appears restrictive, it is also reasonably well suited to the current military preparedness and posture of the country. China's greatest asset is its manpower, and in every other respect it is quite unable to claim the status of a great, or even a medium, military power despite the quality of its native scientists. Indeed, China is probably the only country in the world which is totally deprived of access to the sophisticated equipment and expertise which the world's leading military nations continue to make available to a host of lesser countries. In these circumstances, Mao's doctrines of the ultimate decisiveness of the human element and the supreme importance of revolutionary and political indoctrination make a certain sense for the kind of wars that China could contemplate fighting. They also imply an avoidance of serious conflict with either the United States or the Soviet Union and a deliberate isolation of China from those areas of conflict which could lead to a world war. The Chinese can thus contemplate, or abet, limited wars in South Asia precisely because there is little likelihood at present that their current posture could lead to the introduction of nuclear weapons, and because they can therefore claim to be free of the 'nuclear fetishism' of which they have until recently accused Mr Khrushchev.
   The explosion at Lop Nor in Sinkiang of a Chinese nuclear device in October, 1964 has shown not only that the regime is anxious to claim a nuclear status, but also that Chinese nuclear technology is apparently considerably more advanced than it was generally given credit for. Not only was the triggering technique of implosion more sophisticated than had been expected, but the fissile material was uranium-235, not plutonium. Other nuclear powers have not previously succeeded in producing uranium-235 without a gaseous diffusion plant: it is considered possible that China has constructed one of these, or conceivably that it has succeeded in constructing a gas centrifuge. Both of these would be industrial achievements of a high order. A third possibility is that the Chinese Government has used the method of electromagnetic separation abandoned by the United States in 1944. Some partially-enriched uranium must have been supplied to China by the Soviet Union as fuel for the research reactors which it had built. This could have contributed to a programme using any one of these methods. At present, in any case the means by which the country procured uranium-235 is still a mystery.
   It is to be supposed that missiles have been fired on the range that has been developed in Sinkiang. There is no sign of a Chinese designed bomber. China is unlikely to have an advanced indigenous capability in delivery systems in the foreseeable future, though it is possible that the government may decide to be content with cruder instruments than those available to the United States or the Soviet Union. Even so, the regime appears to recognize the effective limitations of its nuclear capability: recent statements have emphasized that China still regards the nuclear bomb as a 'paper tiger'.
   There is no sign today of disagreement on policy between the Communist Party and the military hierarchy in China. The selection of conscripts is more rigorous than in the past decade (only one in seven or eight young men of military age is conscripted into the People's Liberation Army, most of the rest are trained in the militia) and it would appear that the Party can rely completely on the PLA. Training and leadership at the middle and lower levels have also improved considerably in recent years.
   For all this, the Chinese Army still suffers greatly from inadequate logistic support and obsolescent equipment. It has a high standard of tactical mobility but is restricted at the strategic level. Chinese forces can be moved from area to area, but there is no area defence system, and the effective defence of any one area would leave many others open to attack. In general, mobility is restricted by a shortage of motor-transport and petrol, by the obsolescence of the armoured equipment, and by an inadequate range of specialized (e.g. reconnaissance and troop-carrying) vehicles. It is best over bad terrain, where the endurance of the Chinese soldiers enables them to move comparatively fast.
   The equipment of the army is largely Soviet, of the generation of the Second World War, delivered before supplies were stopped in 1960, or else manufactured in China from Soviet, or Chinese-modified, blue-prints. But it should, again, be noted that this kind of equipment, robust and simple to operate, is in many respects highly suitable for the PLA. It includes a range of Soviet artillery up to 152 mm. calibre, and 160 mm. mortars, and the JS-2 heavy tank. The T-54 is also probably replacing the T-34.
   It is impossible to estimate how much China spends on defence, but there is some evidence that in spite of rapidly obsolescent equipment and a comparative deterioration of China's military position, the proportion of the GNP which is allotted to conventional defence may be declining.

КИТАЙ

Население: 750,000,000.
Военная служба: 3 years (выборочно).
   Китайские вооруженные силы, как и Советского Союза при Сталине, строго придерживаются своей военной доктрины и подготовки согласно заявлениям Мао Цзэ-дуна о военной стратегии. Тем не менее, если следование доктринt Мао представляется ограниченным, оно достаточно хорошо подходит для нынешней военной готовности и положения страны. Наибольшим преимуществом Китая является его людская сила. Во всех других отношениях он совершенно не может претендовать на статус великой или даже средней военной державы, несмотря на качество своих местных ученых. Действительно, Китай, вероятно, единственная страна в мире, которая полностью лишена доступа к сложному оборудованию и знаниям, которые ведущие мировые державы мира продолжают распространять среди множества меньших стран. В этих условиях доктрины Мао о предельной значимости человеческого фактора и о высшем значении революционной и политической идеологии имеют определенный смысл для тех войн, которые Китай может вести. Также подразумевается предотвращение серьезного конфликта с Соединенными Штатами или Советским Союзом и преднамеренная изоляция Китая от тех областей конфликта, которые могут привести к мировой войне. Таким образом, китайцы могут провоцировать ограниченные войны в Южной Азии именно потому, что в настоящее время маловероятно, что их нынешняя позиция может привести к применению ядерного оружия и потому, что они могут утверждать, что они свободны от "ядерного фетишизма", в котором они до недавнего времени обвиняли Хрущева.
   Взрыв на Лоп-Нор в Синьцзяне китайского ядерного устройства в октябре 1964 года показал не только то, что режим стремится заявить о ядерном статусе, но также и о том, что китайские ядерные технологии, по-видимому, более продвинуты, чем это обычно считалось. Мало того, что техника имплозии была более сложной, чем ожидалось, но расщепляющимся материалом был уран-235, а не плутоний. Другим ядерным державам ранее не удалось произвести уран-235 без установки газообразной диффузии: считается, что Китай построил одну из них или, предположительно, ему удалось построить газовую центрифугу. Оба были бы индустриальными достижениями высокого порядка. Третья возможность заключается в том, что китайское правительство использовало метод электромагнитной сепарации, заброшенный Соединенными Штатами в 1944 году. Частично обогащенный уран мог поставляться в Китай Советским Союзом в качестве топлива для исследовательских реакторов, которые он построил. Это могло бы помочь программе, используя любой из этих методов. В настоящее время, в любом случае, средства, с помощью которых страна закупила уран-235, по-прежнему остаются загадкой.
   Предполагается, что ракеты были выпущены в районе в Синьцзяне. Нет никаких признаков китайского бомбардировщика. В ближайшем будущем Китай вряд ли будет иметь передовые возможности передовых стран в системах доставки, хотя, возможно, правительство может принять решение о том, чтобы довольствоваться более грубыми инструментами, чем те, которые доступны для Соединенных Штатов или Советского Союза. Тем не менее, по-видимому, режим признает ограниченность своего ядерного потенциала: в недавних заявлениях подчеркивается, что Китай по-прежнему рассматривает ядерную бомбу как "бумажный тигр".
   Сегодня нет никаких признаков несогласия в политике между Коммунистической партией и военной иерархией в Китае. Выбор призывников является более строгим, чем в последнее десятилетие (только один из семи или восьми молодых людей военного возраста призван в Народно-освободительную армию, большая часть остальных обучается в ополчении), и, похоже, партия может полностью полагаться на НОАК. Обучение и командование на среднем и нижнем уровнях также значительно улучшились в последние годы.
   При всем этом китайская армия по-прежнему сильно страдает от неадекватной материально-технической поддержки и устаревающего оборудования. Она имеет высокий уровень тактической мобильности, но ограничен на стратегическом уровне. Китайские войска могут быть перемещены из района в район, но нет системы обороны территории, и эффективная оборона любой области оставит многие другие открытыми для нападения. В целом, мобильность ограничена нехваткой автотранспорта и бензина, устареванием бронетанковой техники и недостаточным составом специализированных (например, разведывательных) транспортных средств. Они лучше будут действовать на пересечённой местности, где выносливость китайских солдат позволяет им двигаться сравнительно быстро.
   Вооружение армии в значительной степени советское, поколения Второй мировой войны, доставленных до того, как поставки были остановлены в 1960 году, или же изготовлены в Китае на основе советских китайско-модифицированных образцов. Но следует также отметить, что такое вооружение, надежное и простое в эксплуатации, во многих отношениях очень подходит для НОАК. Оно включает в себя ряд советских артиллерийских орудий до 152 мм калибра и 160 мм минометов и тяжелых танков ИС-2. Т-54 также, вероятно, заменяет Т-34.
   Невозможно оценить, сколько Китая тратит на оборону, но есть некоторые свидетельства того, что, несмотря на быстро устаревающее оборудование и сравнительное ухудшение военного положения Китая, доля ВНП, отведенная для обычной обороны, может снижаться.
  
Army Total strength: 2,250,000.
   115 divisions. There are now 4 armoured divisions, and 1 or 2 airborne divisions, supporting troops and desert cavalry.
   There are some well equipped mountain divisions in Tibet.
   The greater part of the manpower is divided among some 30 field armies.
   They are adequately equipped with infantry weapons, light and medium mortars, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles and light and medium artillery,
   and in some cases tanks, all of which are produced in China.
   There are grave shortages of heavy and self-propelled artillery as well as transport, and there is only primitive radar and
   electronic communications equipment. The Chinese airlift capability could only be measured in terms of battalions.
Navy Total strength: 136,000, including Naval Infantry.
   28 submarines.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   800 other vessels.
   500 naval aircraft.
   There are some high-speed MTBs.
   The rest are mainly coastal vessels and patrol boats.
   The Chinese amphibious capability is primitive.
Air Force Total strength: 90,000. 2,300 aircraft.
   Most of these are MiG interceptors, mainly MiG-15s and -17s with a small number of MiG-19s.
   There is a force of light bombers, mainly Il-28s, and a small number of transports, including a few recently acquired Il-18s.
   The Civil Air Bureau has about 350 aircraft, which could be used to supplement the Air Force transport capabilities.
   The training of pilots is still inhibited, by lack of spare parts, though there may have been some progress in producing aviation spirit.
   The average flying-time for a pilot may be no more than 10 hours a month.
Para-military forces
   There are perhaps a quarter of a million armed para-military forces, backed up by a civilian militia of many millions.
  
  NORTH VIETNAM
Population: 17,000,000.
   The North Vietnamese armed forces still receive aid from both China and the Soviet Union, though the Chinese proportion is probably increasing.
   A few MiG 15s and 17s arrived in North Vietnam in August 1964.
The Regular Army numbers about 250,000. There is also a regionally organized militia of about 200,000.
   The Frontier and Coastal Security troops, and the People's Armed Security Force total another 40,000.
   (Assessments of the size of this force have been considerably reduced.)
   The Regular Army is thought to have about 100 miscellaneous armoured vehicles, which probably include some Soviet PT-76 tanks, made available
   to the anti-government forces in Laos in 1961.
   There has been a significant increase in the army's antiaircraft capability, and it appears to have Soviet 85 mm. guns in quantity.
   It has otherwise no heavy equipment, and meagre transport and logistic support.
There are about 2,500 men in the North Vietnamese Navy. It has about 80 ships, mainly patrol vessels.
   North Vietnam provides help to both the Pathet Lao (in Laos) and Viet Cong (in South Vietnam) guerrillas.
   The full-time Viet Cong forces total about 30,000 men.
  
   СЕВЕРНЫЙ ВЬЕТНАМ
Население: 17 000 000 человек.
   Вооруженные силы по-прежнему получают помощь как от Китая, так и от Советского Союза, хотя доля Китая, вероятно, увеличивается.
   Несколько МиГ-15 и 17 поступили в Северный Вьетнам в августе 1964 года.
Регулярная армия насчитывает около 250 000 человек.
   Существует также организованное на региональном уровне ополчение около 200 000 человек.
   Войска пограничной и береговой безопасности и Народные вооруженные силы безопасности составляют еще 40 000 человек.
   (Оценки размеров этих сил значительно сократились).
   Предполагается, что в регулярной армии насчитывается около 100 различных бронированных машин, которые, вероятно, включают
   советские танки ПТ-76, которые были доступны для антиправительственных сил в Лаосе в 1961 году.
   Значительное увеличение зенитных средств армии, включая советский 85-мм пушки.
   До этого не было тяжелого оборудования и была скудная транспортная и материально-техническая поддержка.
В Северо-вьетнамском флоте насчитывается около 2500 человек. В нем около 80 кораблей, в основном патрульных судов.
   Северный Вьетнам оказывает помощь как партизанам Патет-Лао (в Лаосе), так и Вьетконгу (в Южном Вьетнаме).
   Полные силы Вьетконга насчитывают около 30 000 человек.
  
  NORTH KOREA
Population: 12,000,000.
The North Korean Army is estimated at 325,000 men organized in 19 divisions.
The Air Force has about 20,000 men and some 500 aircraft, mainly MiG-15s.
The Navy has a strength of 7,000 and about 120 ships, mainly patrol boats.
  
   CUBA
Population: 7,500,000.
   The Soviet forces in Cuba, now mainly instructors and advisers, have been reduced to below 3,000 men.
   They are equipped with modern weapons, which include a surfaceto-surface missile with a range of about 25 miles for use in the coastal defence organization. There are 24 surface-to-air missile sites. These were Soviet-manned but are now believed to be, practically, at least, under Cuban control.
The Cuban regular army totals about 90,000. It is organized at battalion level, and is equipped only with light and medium arms and artillery.
   There are also modern anti-tank missiles, T-54 tanks, SU-100 assault guns and wheeled APCs.
The Navy has
   5 frigates, 6 Kronstadt-class coastal escorts,
   12 Komar-class missile-firing fast patrol boats,
   16 P.6 P.T. boats and 40 associated small patrol craft.
The Cuban Air Force has a substantial number of MiG-15s, -17s and -19s, and about 40 MiG-21s, possibly equipped with air-to air missiles.
   It also possesses a considerable number of helicopters.
   There is a well-trained militia of about 200,000 men and women
  
   КУБА
Население: 7 500 000 человек.
   Советские войска на Кубе, в настоящее время в основном преподаватели и советники, были сокращены до менее 3000 человек.
   Они оснащены современным оружием, в которое входит ракета "поверхность-поверхность" ракета с радиусом около 25 миль для береговой обороны. Есть 24 ракетных комплексов класса "земля-воздух". Они были советскими, но теперь они, по сути, находятся под кубинским контролем.
Кубинская регулярная армия насчитывает около 90 000 человек. Она организован на уровне батальона и вооружена только легким и средним оружием и артиллерией. Имеются также современные противотанковые ракеты, танки Т-54, САУ СУ-100 и колесные БТР.
Военно-морской флот имеет 5 фрегатов, 6 сторожевых Kronstadt, 12 ракетных катеров Komar, 16 торпедных катеров P.6 и 40 малых патрульных катеров.
ВВС Кубы имеют значительное число МиГ-15, -17 и -19 и около 40 Миг-21, возможно оснащенных ракетами класса "воздух-воздух".
   Они также располагают значительным числом вертолетов.
   Имеется хорошо подготовленное ополчение численностью около 200 000 мужчин и женщин
  

PART II. THE WESTERN ALLIANCES

THE ALLIANCE SYSTEMS

   The Western system of alliances is complex and may alter in the years immediately ahead if it is deemed necessary to develop a stronger system for the containment of China as well as the Soviet Union. At the core of the system is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which unites the United States, Canada and Iceland with Britain, France, Germany and nine other European countries in a collective security agreement whereby 'an attack on one country is regarded as an attack on all' and under which a permanent system of political and military planning is maintained. The United States, Britain and France are linked with four Asian and Australasian countries in the South East Asia Treaty Organization, a collective security treaty which does not have the same automatic provision for collective action as NATO. Britain is allied to three countries of the Northern Middle East by a similar type of treaty in the Central Treaty Organization, with which the United States is associated. The United States is also joined to Australia and New Zealand by the ANZUS Pact under which the three countries would provide mutual defence in the event of an attack on any of them. She has bilateral mutual defence treaties with Japan, Taiwan and South Korea.
   The 23 countries belonging to one or more of these treaty arrangements are normally considered the 'aligned' states of the non-Communist world, a phrase deriving from an earlier phase of East-West relations. But they are not the only countries which have defence arrangements with the Western powers. The United States is linked to 19 countries of Latin America by the Rio Pact which makes provision for collective military action in the event of armed attack on the Americas. She also has a mutual defence assistance treaty with Spain.
   Britain is linked to another 20 countries by their membership of the Commonwealth which involves various kinds of joint military training and assistance but no explicit provision for collective action in the event of war. However, in addition to her explicit treaty relationships with Canada, Australia and New Zealand in the North Atlantic and South-East Asia Treaty Organizations, Britain is directly linked to Malaysia by a mutual defence agreement signed in 1957, and to Malta by an agreement signed in 1964. Australia and New Zealand also provide military assistance to Malaysia under the ANZAM agreement of 1953.
   France has military responsibilities toward the countries of l'Union Africaine et Malgache which includes all the African members of the former French Community except Mali.

СИСТЕМЫ АЛЬЯНСОВ

   Западная система альянсов сложна и может измениться в ближайшие годы, если будет необходимо разработать более прочную систему сдерживания Китая, а также Советского Союза. В основе системы лежит Организация Североатлантического договора, объединяющая США, Канаду и Исландию с Великобританией, Францией, Германией и девятью другими европейскими странами в соглашении о коллективной безопасности, согласно которому "нападение на одну страну рассматривается как нападение на все" и в соответствии с которым поддерживается постоянная система политического и военного планирования. Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания и Франция связаны с четырьмя азиатскими и австралийскими странами в Организацию Договора Юго-Восточной Азии - договоре о коллективной безопасности, который не имеет такого же автоматического положения для коллективных действий, как НАТО. Британия объединяется с тремя странами Ближнего Востока по аналогичному типу договора в Организации Центрального договора, с которой связаны Соединенные Штаты. Соединенные Штаты также объединились с Австралией и Новой Зеландией в пакт ANZUS, согласно которому эти три страны будут обеспечивать взаимную защиту в случае нападения на кого-либо из них. Имеет двусторонние договоры о взаимной защите с Японией, Тайванем и Южной Кореей.
   23 страны, принадлежащие к одному или нескольким из этих договорных механизмов, обычно считаются "союзными" некоммунистического мира, из более раннего этапа отношений между Востоком и Западом. Но это не единственные страны, которые имеют соглашения о защите с западными державами. Соединенные Штаты связаны с 19 странами Латинской Америки Рио-Пактом, который предусматривает коллективные военные действия в случае вооруженного нападения на Америку. У нее также есть договор о взаимной обороне с Испанией.
   Британия связана с еще 20 странами своим членством в Содружестве, которое предусматривает различные виды совместной военной подготовки и помощи, но не содержит четких положений о коллективных действиях в случае войны. Вместе с тем, помимо ее явных договорных отношений с Канадой, Австралией и Новой Зеландией в NATO и SEATO, Великобритания напрямую связана с Малайзией соглашением о взаимной защите, подписанным в 1957 году, и Мальтой по подписанному соглашению в 1964 году. Австралия и Новая Зеландия также оказывают военную помощь Малайзии в соответствии с соглашением ANZAM 1953 года.
   Франция имеет военные обязанности по отношению к странам Союза Африки и Малгаше, в которые входят все африканские члены бывшего французского сообщества, кроме Мали.

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

   There are two major and one minor military commands in NATO - those of Europe, the Atlantic, and the Channel respectively. These take their directives from the Military Committee, which in June 1964 created a new more broadly based international planning staff under the Standing Group of American, British and French representatives. Only Allied Command Europe has national forces 'assigned' to its operational control in peacetime. However, all three commands include further 'earmarked' forces - forces which member countries have agreed to place at the disposal of the commanders in the event of war.
   The strategic nuclear forces of the United States, the United Kingdom and of France remain under national command and control. However, as far as American strategic weapons are concerned, both the two major NATO commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System, based on the U S Strategic Air Command at Omaha, Nebraska. In addition the United States has, since 1963, committed three Polaris submarines to the planning control of the Europe Command (SHAPE) and the United Kingdom has committed RAF Bomber Command in the same manner. In June 1964 a new agreement was signed on the exchange of nuclear information between the United States and the other allies, and allied officers are now stationed at the headquarters of US Strategic Air Command. Consideration is being given to the establishment of a multilateral force of 25 surface ships with 200 missiles, jointly owned by eight allied countries under the planning control of the Supreme Commander Europe, but operationally released by a control group composed of representatives of the participating countries.

1. Allied Command Europe

   This has its headquarters near Paris and it covers the land area extending from the North Cape to the eastern border of Turkey excluding the United Kingdom, whose land defences are a national responsibility, and Portugal which falls under Allied Command Atlantic. It also includes Danish and Norwegian coastal waters.
   The Supreme Commander (SACEUR) has been an American officer since the inception of the command fourteen years ago, and he also commands the American forces in Western Europe. The Deputy SACEUR has been a British officer, and in addition there is a Belgian officer as Deputy for nuclear planning.
   The number of tactical nuclear weapons deployed in Western and Southern Europe has increased by 60 per cent in the last three years, and the units of delivery (missiles and tactical aircraft) now number about 2,500. The United States is the only ally which has produced nuclear warheads suitable for short range missiles. She retains control of these in her own forces in Europe and of nuclear bombs or warheads deployed in conjunction with the missiles and aircraft that are owned and operated by other national forces. Under this 'double-key' arrangement, which is being reinforced by a 'permissive link' or electronic lock for larger weapons, the nuclear warheads can only be fired by the Supreme Commander with the authority of the President of the United States and the agreement of the country owning the means of delivery.
   In the whole of NATO Europe there are some 60 'assigned' divisions which could be augmented by about another 30 if an emergency permitted adequate time for mobilization, reinforcement and deployment. Many of the assigned divisions (and in some cases brigades) have the Honest John nuclear missile (without nuclear warhead stocks in the case of Norway and Denmark) and the American and German forces have Sergeant and Pershing missiles at corps and army level. They are supported by some 5,500 tactical aircraft based on 220 standard NATO airfields, "backed up by an elaborate system of jointly financed fuel pipelines and signal communications. A number of the aircraft and weapons in use by national forces have been jointly developed or produced by different groups of allies.
   The following field commands are subordinate to Allied Command Europe:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe has its headquarters at Fontainebleau and its commander is a German general.
   Its ground defences consist of 27 assigned divisions provided by eight countries. All assigned forces, with the exception of some Dutch and Belgian units and some logistic units, are based in the Federal Republic of Germany and some have been gradually moved closer to the East German border over recent years.
   The tactical air forces available include some 3,500 aircraft of which 500 or more American fighter-bombers, a smaller number of British Canberras and Valiants, and the CF-104 of Canada and the F-104Gs of several other air forces have a nuclear capability and the range to cover Eastern Europe. An integrated early-warning and air defence system has been developed for Britain, West Germany, the Low Countries, and N.E. France. It is planned to deploy 22 battalions of the Hawk ground-to-air missile in the command.
   The command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group and Central Army Group. Northern Army Group is responsible for the defence of the sector north of the Gottingen-Liege axis. It includes the British and Benelux divisions, 4 of the German divisions, and the Canadian brigade. It is supported by 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force which is composed of British, Dutch, Belgian and German units. Other land forces - American, German and French - are under the Central Army Group, and other air forces under the corresponding air command - 4th ATAF, which includes American, German, French and Canadian formations.
   So far seven countries have committed one or more reinforced infantry battalions to form a mobile task force to serve as a mobile reserve for NATO as a whole, with particular relevance to an emergency in Northern or South-Western Europe.
   Allied Forces Central Europe includes the Heligoland Bight and would control the German North Seas fleet and part of the Dutch navy in the event of war.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe has its headquarters at Kolsaas in Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Norway, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic approaches. The Commander is a British general. All the Danish and Norwegian land, sea and tactical air forces are earmarked to it and most of their active reserves are assigned to it. Germany has assigned 1 division (stationed in Schleswig), 2 combat, air wings, and its Baltic Navy.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe has its headquarters in Naples and the commander is also the commander of the US Sixth Fleet. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece and Turkey. The forces assigned to it include 14 divisions from Turkey, 8 from Greece and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other divisions from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUT H as well as the United States Sixth Fleet which would become Striking Force South if NATO became involved in war. By reason of its geographical shape, the defence system is based on two separate regions, the Southern comprising Italy and the approaches to it, and the South-Eastern comprising Greece and Turkey, with an overall air command. Greco-Turkish cooperation has been impaired by the Cyprus crisis.
   (d) Allied Forces Mediterranean has its headquarters in Malta (now an independent country having a defence agreement with Britain which permits Britain and other NATO powers to use its facilities). AFMED is primarily responsible for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and territorial waters of the Black Sea and for protecting the Sixth Fleet. The national fleets and maritime air forces of Italy, Greece and Turkey together with the British Mediterranean Fleet, whose Commanderin-Chief acts as Commander AFMED , are assigned to or earmarked for this command.

2. Allied Command Atlantic

   This has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. The duties of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, who is an American Admiral with a British Deputy, are, in the event of war, (a) to participate in the strategic strike and (b) to protect sea communications from attack by submarines or aircraft. For these purposes seven of the eight NATO naval powers which border on the Atlantic have earmarked forces for exercises and, if need be, v for war. (The eighth, France, does not.) SACLANT is responsible for the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer including the northern North Sea. There are three subordinate commands-Western Atlantic Area, Eastern Atlantic Area and Striking Fleet Atlantic. The nucleus of the NATO striking force has been provided by the United States Second Fleet with 2 or 3 attack carriers, but this role will soon be abandoned.
   There are about 450 escort vessels serving in the navies of the nations concerned, of which a high proportion are wholly or partly designed for anti-submarine work. Most NATO navies are equipping and training their submarine forces primarily for ASW and well over 150 submarines are potentially available in the Atlantic for such duties. The 8 nations in Allied Command Atlantic also have about 375 long-range land-based maritime patrol planes in operation, a large majority of which are stationed on or near Atlantic coasts. Furthermore the United States Navy alone has over 1,000 carrierborne specialist anti-submarine fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters of which about half are embarked at any one time. Another 300 or so are serving in the other navies concerned. The overall total that could be quickly operational from carriers on Atlantic sea stations is probably around 400.
   (These estimates include units earmarked for Channel Command.)

3. The Channel Command

   The role of Channel Command is to exercise maritime control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are earmarked for this command as are some maritime aircraft. The Commander-in-Chief of the British Home Fleet acts as its commander, and control is exercised by a committee consisting of representatives of the Naval Chiefs-of-Staff of the four countries concerned.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СЕВЕРО-АТЛАНТИЧЕСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   В NATO есть две крупные и одно второстепенное военное командование, расположеные в Европе, Атлантике и Канале соответственно. Они получают указания от Военного комитета, который в июне 1964 года создал новый, более широко основанный на международном планировании орган под постоянной руководством группы американских, британских и французских представителей. Только союзное командование Европы имеет национальные силы, "назначенные" под оперативное управление в мирное время. Однако все три командования включают в себя другие силы, которые страны-члены согласились предоставить в распоряжение командований в случае войны.
   Стратегические ядерные силы Соединенных Штатов, Соединенного Королевства и Франции по-прежнему находятся под национальным контролем и контролем. Однако, что касается американского стратегического оружия, оба главных командований NATO участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования, с САК США в Омахе, штат Небраска. Кроме того, Соединенные Штаты в 1963 году передали три подлодки Polaris под управление Европейского командования (SHAPE), и Соединенное Королевство отдало командование бомбардировщиков RAF таким же образом. В июне 1964 года было подписано новое соглашение об обмене ядерной информацией между Соединенными Штатами и другими союзниками, а союзные офицеры теперь находятся в штаб-квартире САК США. Рассматривается вопрос о создании многосторонних сил из 25 надводных кораблей с 200 ракетами, совместно принадлежащих восьми союзным странам под управление Верховного главнокомандующего Европы, оперативной группы в составе представителей участвующих стран.
  

1. Союзное Командование в Европе

   Штаб-квартира находится недалеко от Парижа и охватывает территорию, простирающуюся от Нордкапа до восточной границы Турции, за исключением Соединенного Королевства, чья оборона является национальной ответственностью, а Португалия - под командованием союзного командования на Атлантике. Она также включает датские и норвежские прибрежные воды.
   Верховный главнокомандующий (ВГК ОВС НАТО) является американским офицером с момента его создания четырнадцать лет назад, он также командует американскими войсками в Западной Европе. Депутат ОВС NATO был британским офицером, а кроме того, в качестве заместителя по ядерному планированию был бельгийский офицер.
   Количество тактических ядерных вооружений, развернутых в Западной и Южной Европе, за последние три года увеличилось на 60 процентов, а единиц доставки (ракеты и тактические самолеты) теперь составляют около 2500. Соединенные Штаты являются единственным союзником, который создал ядерные боеголовки для ракет ближнего действия. Они сохраняют контроль над ними в своих собственных силах в Европе и в ядерных бомбах или боеголовках, развернутых на ракетах и самолетах, которые принадлежат и управляются другими национальными силами. В соответствии с этим "двойным ключом", которое подкрепляется "разрешительной связью" или электронным замком для более крупного оружия, ядерные боеголовки могут быть применены только Верховным Главнокомандующим с разрешения Президента Соединенных Штатов и согласия страны, владеющей средствами доставки.
   Во всем NATO Европа насчитывается около 60 "назначенных" дивизий, которые могут быть увеличены примерно на 30, если чрезвычайная ситуация позволит выделить достаточное время для мобилизации, усиления и развертывания. Многие из назначенных дивизий (а в некоторых случаях и бригад) имеют ядерные ракеты Honest John (без ядерных боеголовок в случае Норвегии и Дании), а американские и немецкие войска имеют ракеты Sergeant и Pershing на уровне корпусов и армий. Они поддерживаются примерно 5 500 тактическими самолетами на 220 аэродромах НАТО, обеспеченных продуманной системой совместно финансируемых топливных трубопроводов и связных коммуникаций. Ряд самолетов и оружия, используемых национальными силами, были совместно разработаны или произведены разными группами союзников.
   Следующие командные командования подчиняются Союзному Командованию в Европе:
   (a) Союзные силы в Центральной Европе имеют штаб-квартиру в Фонтенбло, а их командующий - немецкий генерал.
   Их сухопутные войска состоят из 27 назначенных дивизий, предоставленных восемью странами. Все назначенные силы, за исключением некоторых голландских и бельгийских дивизий и некоторых логистических подразделений, базируются в ФРГ, а некоторые из них приближены к границе с Восточной Германии в последние годы.
   Имеющиеся тактические военно-воздушные силы включают около 3500 самолетов, из которых 500 или более американских истребителей-бомбардировщиков, меньшее количество британских Canberras и Valiants, а также CF-104 Канады и F-104G нескольких других воздушных сил обладают ядерным потенциалом и диапазоном охвата Восточной Европы. Разработана комплексная система раннего предупреждения и противовоздушной обороны для Великобритании, Западной Германии, стран Запада и северо-востока Франции. В командовании планируется развернуть 22 батальона ракет земля-воздух Hawk.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную и Центральную группы армий. Северная группа армий отвечает за оборону сектора к северу от оси Гёттинген-Льеж. Он включает дивизии Британии и Бенилюкса, 4 немецких дивизии и канадскую бригаду. Она поддерживается 2-ми союзными тактическими военно-воздушными силами, которые состоят из британских, голландских, бельгийских и немецких подразделений. Другие сухопутные войска - американские, немецкие и французские - подчинены Центральной группе армий и воздушные силы под соответствующим воздушным командованием - 4-й ATAF, который включает в себя американские, немецкие, французские и канадские формирования.
   Семь стран создали по одному или по несколько усиленных пехотных батальонов, чтобы сформировать мобильную группу, которая будет служить мобильным резервом NATO в целом, что имеет особое значение для чрезвычайных ситуаций в Северной или Юго-Западной Европе.
   Командованию союзные войска Центральной Европы включает Гельголандскую бухту и поэтому управляет немецким флотом Северного моря и частью голландского флота в случае войны.
   (b) Союзные войска Северной Европы имеют штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе в Норвегии и отвечают за оборону Норвегии, Дании, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна и Балтийских проходов. Командующий - британский генерал. Все датские и норвежские сухопутные, морские и тактические воздушные силы предназначены для него, и большая часть их активных резервов назначается ему. Германия выделила 1 дивизию (размещена в Шлезвиге), 2 авиакрыла и Балтийский флот.
   (c) Союзные войска Южной Европы имеет штаб-квартиру в Неаполе, а командующим является командующий 6-го флота США. Они отвечают за защиту Италии, Греции и Турции. Назначенные силы включают 14 дивизий из Турции, 8 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические воздушные силы этих стран. Другие подразделения из этих трех стран были выделены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-й флот Соединенных Штатов, который станет ударной силой Юга, если NATO вступит в войну. По своей географической форме система обороны основана на двух отдельных регионах: южном - Италия и подходы к ней, а юго-восточном - Греции и Турции, с общим воздушным командованием. Кипрский кризис ухудшил греко-турецкое сотрудничество.
   (d) Союзные войска Средиземноморья имеют свою штаб-квартиру на Мальте (теперь это независимая страна, имеющая соглашение об обороне с Великобританией, которое разрешает Британии и другим державам NATO использовать свои объекты). AFMED, в первую очередь, отвечает за оборону сообщений Средиземного моря и территориальных вод Черного моря и для поддержки 6-го флота. Национальные флоты и морская авиация Италии, Греции и Турции вместе с Британским Средиземноморским флотом, командующий которого является командующим AFMED, назначаются для этой командования.

2. Союзное Командование на Атлантике

   Штаб-квартира в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. Обязанности Верховного Командующего NATO на Атлантике, который является американским адмиралом с британским заместителем, в случае войны: (а) участвовать в стратегических ударах и (б) защищать морские сообщения от нападений подводных лодок или самолетов. Для этих целей семь из восьми военно-морских сил NATO, которые граничат с Атлантикой, выделяют силы для учений и, если необходимо, для войны. (Восьмой, Франция, нет.) SACLANT отвечает за североатлантический район к северу от Тропика Рака, включая север Северного моря. Есть три подчиненных командования: Западно-Атлантический район, Восточная Атлантика и Ударный флот Атлантики. Ядро ударной силы NATO было предоставлено 2-м флотом Соединенных Штатов с 2 или 3 ударными авианосцами, но это скоро будет прекращено.
   На флотах соответствующих стран насчитывается около 450 эскортных судов, из которых значительная часть полностью или частично предназначена для противолодочной борьбы. Большинство военно-морских сил NATO оснащают и обучают свои подводные силы в первую очередь для ПЛО, и более 150 подводных лодок потенциально доступны в Атлантике для выполнения таких обязанностей. В 8 странах союзного командования Атлантики также имеется около 375 наземных морских патрульных самолетов наземного базирования, большая часть которых находится на побережье Атлантики. Кроме того, военно-морские силы Соединенных Штатов имеют более 1000 палубных противолодочных самолетов и вертолетов, из которых примерно половина готовы к вылету в любой момент. Еще 300 или около того служат в других соответствующих ВМС. Общая численность самолетов и вертолетов, которые могли бы действовать на коммуникациях с авианосцев и атлантических морских станций, вероятно, составляет около 400.
   (Эти оценки включают единицы, предназначенные для Channel Command.)
h4 align="center">3. Союзное Командование Канала
   Роль Командования Канала в осуществлении морского контроля над Ла-Маншем и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из небольших военных кораблей Бельгии, Франции, Нидерландов и Соединенного Королевства предназначены для этого командования, а также некоторые морские самолеты. Командующий британского флота метрополии выступает в качестве его командующего, а контроль осуществляется комитетом, состоящим из представителей начальников штабов военно-морских сил четырех стран.

NATIONAL FORCES

   BELGIUM
Population: 9,300,000.
Length of military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 110,000 (43% conscripts).
Defence estimates for calendar year 1965: BF25,200,000 million ($504,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   2 mechanized divisions with M-47 tanks.
   2 reserve divisions.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   2 Hawk battalions (under operational command of NATO air forces).
   The active divisions are NATO assigned and the reserve ones are earmarked for NATO.
Navy Total strength: 5,000.
   4 escorts.
   47 minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000.
   4 F-104G squadrons.
   1 F-84R reconnaissance squadron.
   2 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 transport wing, with C-119G, DC-6A and C-47 planes.
   2 Nike wings.
   All the air force and naval units are NATO assigned.
  
   CANADA
Population: 19,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 120,000.
Defence estimates (fiscal year 1964-65): SCan. 1,525,000,000 (US $1,413,300,000).
Army Total strength: 49,000.
   In Canada: 3 infantry brigade groups, 2 of which are earmarked for NATO.
   In Europe: 1 infantry brigade group of 6,500 men.
   46,000 militia.
   800 army and 80 RCAF personnel in UNE F Middle East.
   About 1,000 men in UNICYP.
Navy Total strength: 20,700.
   1 16,000 ton aircraft carrier with 1 squadron of Tracker aircraft and 1 squadron of helicopters.
   41 destroyers/frigates.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 50,600.
   In Europe: 8 strike/recce squadrons equipped with CF-104 Starfighters.
   North American Air Defence: 3 interceptor squadrons of CF-101B Voodoos, 2 Bomarc B squadrons.
   Coastal Aircraft: 3 Argus squadrons on the East Coast (NATO earmarked).
   1 Neptune squadron on the West Coast.
   4 transport squadrons.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,700,000.
Length of military service: AH three services, 14-16 months for privates and 18-24 months for NCOs.
Total armed forces: 52,000 (peacetime active strength). All Danish forces are NATO assigned or earmarked.
Defence estimates (financial year 1964-65): Dkr. 1,647,600,000 (=$238,000,000).
Army Total active strength: 34,000 (75 per cent conscripts).
   2 2/3 motorized infantry brigade groups each with about 5,000 men in 4 battalions including
   1 tank battalion with Centurions.
   2 Honest John battalions (with non-nuclear warheads only).
   4 reservist infantry brigade groups.
   15 infantry battalions and 15 artillery batteries are in local Defence Units (mainly as reservist units).
Volunteer Home Guard of 56,000 men and women.
Navy Total active strength: 8,000 (50 per cent conscripts).
   18 frigates or escort ships.
   3 submarines.
   8 minelayers.
   12 minesweepers.
   12 fast patrol boats.
   10 landing craft.
   30 other ships.
Air Force Total active strength: 10,000 (35 per cent conscripts).
   3 F-100D/F, 3 F-86D, 1 Hunter and 1 RF-84F squardons.
   1 transport squadron with C-47s and C-54s.
   1 air-sea rescue squadron with helicopters and amphibians.
   1 Nike Ajax/Hercules group (battalion) with
   4 squadrons (batteries) located around Copenhagen.
   In the autumn of 1964 replacement of the F-86s in 2 of the interceptor squadrons by F-104Gs was due to commence,
   and some Hawk units are expected to be established.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 48,250,000.
Length of military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 620,000 including 400,000 conscripts.
   The Government is proposing to halve the number of conscripts over the next few years by the introduction of a system of selective service.
Defence estimates (1965): NF 20,806,000,000 (=$4,270,000,000).
Army Total strength: 415,000.
   6 divisions stationed in Europe (forces de manoeuvre).
   These include 1 mechanized and 1 armour division assigned to NATO in Germany equipped with Honest John and Lacrosse launchers, and
   3 light divisions and 1 air transportable division under national command in France.
   The light divisions, which are now being equipped with'the AMX-30 medium tank, are held ready for national defence.
   The air transportable division, based on parachute troops, together with an amphibious group and supporting arms and services,
   makes up the permanent element of a French strategic reserve (force d'intervention).
   4,000 men are stationed at the naval base of Mers-el-Kebir (leased by the Algerian Government); all other troops nave been withdrawn from Algeria.
   About 7,000 troops continue to serve in various naval and air bases of the Community States of Africa
   (Madagascar, Central Africa Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Senegal, Mauritania,
   French Somalia, and Chad); these come under Army command.
   Some 2,000 officers, NCOs and troops come under command of the ex-Community States.
   The remaining troops are stationed in metropolitan France for local defence (forces du territoire).
   They include air defence units (under national command except for a small NATO sector in North-East France) and are organized into regiments
   and brigades on a regional basis.
   They can be supplemented by 1,000,000 reservists in time of emergency.
Navy Total strength: 72,500.
   2 22,000 ton aircraft carriers.
   1 14,000 ton aircraft carrier.
   1 10,000 ton helicopter carrier.
   2 anti-aircraft cruisers.
   1 experimental guided missile ship.
   60 destroyers, frigates, other escort ships.
   22 submarines, of which 6 are ocean-going.
   102 minesweepers.
   8 landing craft.
   225 other ships.
   Naval aviation comprises approximately 500 aircraft, including
   4 fighter squadrons with 80 Etendard IV aircraft,
   2 Alize ASW squadrons,
   5 Neptune maritime reconnaissance squadrons, and
   3 helicopter squadrons.
   Deliveries of 47 F-8E Crusaders are due to begin in October 1964.
Air Force Total strength: 125,000.
(a) The Strategic Air Command.
   In September 1964 this had 8 Mirage IVs in service; 3 undergoing trials and others scheduled to come off the assembly lines at a rate of 2 a month up
   to a total of 50. As a precaution against surprise attack these aircraft can be dispersed in flights of 3 to a selection of about 80 military and civilian
   airfields in metropolitan France.
   At present they carry 60 KT fission bombs.
   12 KC-135 tankers have been purchased from the USA to permit in-flight refuelling.
(b) Air Defence Command
   6 Super Mystere squadrons.
   3 Vautour squadrons.
(c) 1st Tactical Air Force (lst CATAC) has 450 combat aircraft assigned to the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force.
   12 Mirage III squadrons.
   6 F-100 squadrons.
   4 F-84F squadrons.
   1 RF-84F squadron.
   1 Mirage IIIR squadron.
   2 Nike Ajax/Hercules brigades.
(d) 2nd CAT AC controls:
   3 Mystere VI squadrons.
   2 AD4 squadrons.
   2 helicopter squadrons (H-34 and Alouette).
   Some T-28 reserve squadrons.
(e) COTAM (Transport Command)
   6 Noratlas squadrons.
   2 DC6 and Breguet Deux Ponts squadrons.
   4 miscellaneous squadrons.
   The 12 KC-135 tankers (see Strategic Air Command, above) may also be used for troop transport.
  
   GERMANY
Population: 55,250,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Length of military service: 18 months plus 9 months full-time training liability up to the age of 45.
Total armed forces: 430,000 (210,000 conscripts). All except the Territorial Force (28,000) are NATO assigned.
Defence estimates 1965: DM 20,216,490,000 (=$5,054,000,000).
Army Total strength: 274,000 plus a Territorial Force of 28,000 held for rear area duties.
   The latter is being supplemented by a volunteer reserve organized for local defence.
   This at present numbers only 7,000 men but is scheduled to reach a strength of 50,000 by 1967.
   7 armoured infantry divisions.
   3 armoured divisions.
   1 mountain division.
   1 airborne division.
   The tank units are equipped with M-47 and M-48 tanks.
Navy Total strength: 30,000.
   10 destroyers.
   38 frigates and other escorts.
   64 minesweepers.
   63 patrol craft.
   11 landing ships.
   68 Sea Hawks and 15 Gannets.
Air Force Total strength: 92,000.
   4 F-104G interceptor squadrons.
   4 F-104G fighter-bomber squadrons.
   6 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   6 F-104G and Fiat G-91 reconnaissance squadrons.
   6 Noratlas transport squadrons.
   6 Nike/Hercules battalions.
   8 Hawk battalions.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,500,000.
Length of military service: 24 months.
Total armed forces: 162,000.
Defence Budget 1964 (excluding military expenditure in the civilian sector (roads, etc.) and military aid: 6,300,000,000 drachmae (=$210,000,000).
Army Total strength: 120,000.
   11 infantry divisions in 3 Corps.
   3 divisions are kept close to full strength in peacetime.
   1 armoured division with M47 tanks.
   Some Honest John and Nike Ajax/Hercules batteries are also in service.
   (The 8 divisions near the northern frontier are NATO assigned; the rest which are located in South Greece and Crete are under national command.)
Navy Total strength: 19,000.
   1 cruiser.
   8 destroyers.
   4 frigates, other escort vessels.
   2 submarines.
   19 minesweepers (including escort minesweepers).
   13 coastal patrol vessels, gunboats.
   23 landing craft (including 9 tank landing ships).
   43 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000.
   6 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   4 F-86 fighter squadrons.
   1 RF-84F photo reconnaissance squadrons.
   (10 of these squadrons are assigned to the 28th Allied Tactical Air Force).
   The first of 40 F-104G Starfighters will soon enter service.
   Procurement of 40 F-5As is due to start in 1965.
  
   ITALY
Population: 50,663,000.
Length of military service: 18 months for the army and air force, 24 months for the navy.
Total armed forces: 480,000.
Defence estimates (July-December 1964 only): lire 541,250,678,000 (=$870,300,000). Averaged for 1964-65: $1,741,000,000.
ArmyTotal strength: 380,000 (including 80,000 Carabinieri).
   5 infantry divisions with M-47 tanks.
   2 armoured divisions with M-47 tanks.
   5 Alpine brigades.
   5 independent infantry brigades.
   1 independent cavalry brigade with M-47 tanks.
   1 parachute brigade.
   (7 of the divisions and some, of the independent brigades are assigned to NATO.)
NavyTotal strength: 40,000.
   4 cruisers (including 2 guided missile escort cruisers).
   10 destroyers (including 2 guided missile destroyers).
   41 frigates, other escort ships.
   6 submarines.
   78 minesweepers.
   23 coastal patrol boats, gunboats.
   58 landing craft.
   92 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 60,000.
   (a) Assigned to 5th Allied Tactical Air Force:
   3 F-104G strike squadrons.
   2 F-86E day fighter squadrons.
   4 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   2 G-91 fighter-bomber squadrons.
   3 F-86K all-weather fighter squadrons.
   2 RF-84F photo reconnaissance squadrons.
   2 C-119 transport squadrons.
   3 Nike Ajax and Nike Hercules squadrons.
   (b) Under national command:
   3 F-86E day fighter squadrons.
   3 SA-16A air-sea rescue squadrons.
   3 Tracker anti-submarine squadrons.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 324,000.
Length of military service: 9 months.
Defence Budget (provisional estimate for calendar year 1965): BF 385,000,000 (=$7,700,000).
Army Total strength: 5,500.
   An infantry brigade would be available to NATO after mobilization.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 12,000,000.
Length of military service: Army 18-20 months, Navy and Air Force 21-24 months.
Total armed forces: 123,500.
Defence estimates 1965: fl. 2,667,000,000 (=$744,000,000).
Army Total strength: 80,000 (including 57,000 conscripts).
   2 mechanized divisions and some corps troops are assigned to NATO.
   1 infantry division, 3 infantry brigades and corps troops, to be formed by call-up of reservists, are earmarked for assignment to NATO.
   10 tank battalions, with a total of 600 Centurion tanks, are organic to the above formations.
Navy Total strength: 22,000, including 3,000 Marines.
   1 16,000 ton ASW carrier.
   2 cruisers (one fitted with Terrier guided missiles).
   12 anti-submarine destroyers.
   17 frigates, other escorts.
   68 minesweepers.
   5 submarines.
   1 depot ship.
   3 landing craft.
   3 survey vessels.
The Fleet Air Arm consists of
   1 squadron Seahawk fighters,
   4 ASW and reconnaissance squadrons equipped with P-24 Neptunes and S-2A Trackers and
   2 helicopter squadrons
   (squadrons for the aircraft carrier are included in these figures).
Air ForceTotal strength: 21,500 (all assigned to NATO):
(a) 1 F-104G fighter-bomber squadron.
   3 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 RF-104G photo-reconnaissance squadron.
(b) 2 F-104G interceptor squadrons.
   8 squadrons Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   8 squadrons Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
(c) 1 transport squadron (Fokker Friendship).
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,681,000.
Length of military service: Army 12 months, Navy and Air Force 15 months.
Total armed forces: 37,000.
Defence Budget 1965: Nkr. 1,931,000,000 (=$269,000,000).
Army Total strength: 18,000.
   1 active brigade in Arctic Norway.
   Units making up 1 reduced brigade are stationed in southern Norway.
   These brigades have M-24 light tanks, and some M-48s are expected to be in service shortly.
   Mobilization would produce 10 regimental combat teams plus supporting units.
   This force would total 75,000.
   Local Defence and Home Guard forces are 100,000 strong.
Navy Total strength: 6,300 plus 2,500 coastal artillery.
   3 destroyers.
   5 frigates, other escort ships.
   6 submarines.
   16 minesweepers and minelayers.
   24 motor torpedo boats, patrol vessels.
   12 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 10,000.
   1 squadron F104G Starfighters.
   2 F-86F day interceptor squadrons.
   2 F-86K all-weather fighter squadrons.
   1 RF-84F photo reconnaissance squadron.
   2 HU-16 Albatross maritime patrol squadrons.
   1 C-119 and C-47 transport squadrons.
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike Hercules sites are located around Oslo.
   (Deliveries of the first of 65 F-5s may take place in 1965.)
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,073,000.
Length of military service: Army 18-24 months, Air Force 36 months, Navy 48 months.
   Liability for active reserve up to 35 years. For home defence, local guard duties, etc., up to 45 years.
Total armed forces: 108,500 (excluding African troops). About 500,000 trained reservists could be mobilized in an emergency.
Defence Budget (1964): 2,088,100,000 escudos (=$72,100,000).
Army Strength: 80,000 plus 14,000 African troops.
   1 division of 18,000 men earmarked for NATO and stationed in Portugal (3 infantry regiments of approximately 3,000 men with supporting units).
   M-47 tanks are in service.
   The remaining troops (13 infantry regiments) are stationed in the Portuguese overseas territories.
   About 45,000 including 7,000 African troops, are in Angola, 16,000 in Mozambique and 5,000 in Portuguese Guinea.
Navy Strength: 14,500, including marines.
   3 destroyers.
   10 frigates (including 1 ASW frigate).
   3 submarines.
   18 minesweepers.
   27 gunboats and patrol vessels.
   17 other ships.
Air ForceStrength: 14,000, including 5,000 paratroops.
   350 aircraft including
   2 squadrons of F-86F Sabre interceptors,
   2 squadrons of F-84G Thunderjet fighter-bombers.
   1 ASW reconnaissance squadron of 12 P-2V-5 Neptunes.
   1 squadron of transport helicopters and various Noratlas C-47, C-54 and DC-6 transports.
   The F-86 and F-84 squadrons are NATO earmarked, the Neptune squadron is NATO assigned.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 31,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years for all three services.
Total armed forces: 480,100.
Defence estimates (March 1964-February 1965) (excluding defence expenditure of civilian sector and military aid)
   TL 2,907,803,300 (=$322,000,000).
Army Total strength: 400,000.
   16 divisions of which 14 are NATO assigned.
   4 armoured brigades with M-47 tanks.
   4 armoured cavalry regiments.
   2 independent parachute battalions.
   Some independent mountain and fortress regiments.
   There are nominally 2,500,000 reservists.
Navy Total strength: 37,000.
   9 destroyers.
   20 escort minesweepers and coastal escorts.
   10 submarines.
   14 coastal minesweepers.
   52 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 43,000.
   1 F-104G fighter bomber squadron.
   1 F-104G interceptor squadron.
   8 F-100 or F-84 fighter bomber squadrons.
   3 F-86 interceptor squadrons.
   4 RF-84F reconnaissance squadrons.
   3 transport squadrons (C-47 and C-54s).
   Some Nike anti-aircraft batteries.
   (Apart from the Nike batteries, and 1 or 2 of the interceptor squadrons the Turkish Air Force is NATO assigned).
  
   UNITED KINGDOM
Population: 53,812,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 425,000.
Defence Budget (1964-65): £1,998,540,000 (=$5,596,000,000).
Army Total strength: 190,000.
   The Army is organized into
   65 infantry battalions, of which 57 are British and 8 Gurkha;
   3 parachute battalions;
   22 tank and armoured car regiments;
   31 artillery regiments; and engineer and signal regiments.
The British Army of the Rhine, based in Germany, has 53,000 men in 18 battalions.
   It is organized into 3 divisions, each of two brigades, and reaches its full wartime establishment with the use of reserves from the
   Territorial Army and Army Emergency Reserve.
   About 14 battalions are normally maintained in the United Kingdom garrison, in addition to 6 battalions in the Strategic Reserve.
   The basic Middle East strength is 4-5 battalions and that in South-East Asia and Hong Kong 12-15 battalions, including the 8 Gurkha battalions.
   Other garrisons include 3,000 men in Berlin and troops in Libya, Malta, Gibraltar and the Caribbean.
   Re-equipment with the Chieftain battle tank is beginning.
   The self-propelled Abbot close support gun is in production and other new armaments reaching
   service include a general purpose machine gun, an 81 mm mortar and new anti-tank weapons.
   There are 131,482 men in the Territorial Army and 93,335 in the Army Emergency Reserve.
Navy Total strength: 100,000.
   4 aircraft carriers.
   2 Commando ships (carriers).
   2 Cruisers.
   4 guided missile destroyers.
   10 other destroyers.
   4 fleet pickets.
   14 general purpose frigates.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   3 aircraft direction frigates.
   33 anti-submarine frigates.
   1 nuclear submarine.
   38 conventional submarines.
   61 minesweepers.
   7 patrol and despatch vessels.
   8 landing vessels.
   93 fleet support ships.
The Fleet Air Arm has a nuclear and conventional strike capacity with the
   Buccaneer Mark I which, together with its Scimitar and Sea Vixen aircraft, can be fitted with Bullpup air-to-surface missiles.
   The Sea Vixen Mark II is now in service with the Red Top air-to-air guided missile.
   The Commando carriers carry troops in Wessex Mark I and Whirlwind 7 helicopters.
   Orders worth £200,000,000 have been placed in connection with the programme for 5 Polaris-firing nuclear submarines (80 missiles) for the 1970s.
   The Royal Marines are organized into 5 Commandos of 600 men each.
   There are 9,683 men in the naval and marine reserves.
Air ForceTotal strength: 134,000.
Bomber Command provides the United Kingdom strategic nuclear force and is also integrated into the war organization of the NATO European
   headquarters. It is equipped with about 180 medium bombers of which the central force is the Mark II Vulcan and Mark II Victor bombers,
   which will all be equipped with the Blue Steel air-to-ground strategic missile by the end of 1964.
   A force of Valiant air-refuelling tankers is also maintained and a substantial photographic reconnaissance force of Valiants, Victors and Canberras.
Fighter Command is equipped with Javelin and Lightning 1 and 2 interceptors and will soon be receiving
   Lightning 3s with the Red Top air-to-air guided weapon and a ferry range adequate to overseas reinforcement requirements.
   Bloodhound 1 surface-to-air guided weapons are being replaced by Bloodhound 2.
Coastal Command is equipped with Shackleton long-range reconnaissance and antisubmarine aircraft.
Transport Command has 23 Britannia and 11 Comet airliners for strategic airlift.
   In addition, it is acquiring 11 long-range jet VC-10s for passengers and freight and 10 long-range Belfasts for heavy equipment.
   56 medium-range Argosy freighters, 48 Hastings and 12 Valettas are now in service and a freighter version of the H.S.748 airliner
   will be acquired in 1965 for shortrange transport in addition to the present force of 28 Beverleys.
   Helicopter transport is provided by Belvederes, Whirlwinds, and Wessex Mark Us.
RAF Germany maintains Canberra strike squadrons in both the conventional and nuclear role.
   Both Canberras and Hunters are used for reconnaissance, Hunters for ground attack, and Javelins for all-weather interception.
Near East Air Force in Cyprus is equipped with Canberra strike squadrons with nuclear and conventional capacity,
   Javelin interceptors and Whirlwind 10 helicopters for search and rescue.
   Canberra and Shackleton reconnaissance aircraft are based in Malta.
Middle East Air Force in Aden has Shackletons and Hunter fighter ground attack aircraft.
Far East Air Force provides tactical air support to Borneo, particularly with helicopters and Pioneer aircraft.
   The command is equipped with Shackletons, Canberras, and Hunter FGAs.
   The RAF reserves total 22,457 men.
  
   UNITED STATES
Population: 192,070,000.
Length of military service: selective service for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 2,690,000.
Defence estimates (new expenditure authority) 1964-65: $50,450,000,000.
   Strategic Nuclear Forces
   The official objective of the United States Administration is that the strategic retaliatory forces should be 'large enough to ensure the destruction, singly or in combination, of the Soviet Union, Communist China, and the Communist satellites as national societies, under the worst possible circumstances of war outbreak that can reasonably be postulated, and, in addition, to destroy their war making capability so as to limit to the extent practicable, damage to this country and to our Allies'.
   Официальная цель администрации Соединенных Штатов состоит в том, что стратегические силы ответного удара должны быть "достаточно большими, чтобы обеспечить уничтожение, в одиночку или в совокупности, Советского Союза, коммунистического Китая и коммунистических сателлитов в как национальных обществ при самых худших обстоятельствах которые могут быть разумно постулированы и, кроме того, уничтожить их способность к восстановлению, с тем чтобы ограничить, насколько это практически возможно, ущерб этой стране и нашим союзникам".
  
(1) Bombers : the American strategic bomber force now has about 1,100 aircraft.
   One half of these are maintained on a 15-minute ground alert and a very small number on airborne alert.
   The main element of the bomber force is 630 B-52s organized into 14 wings and based in the United States.
   Substantial numbers of these carry Hound Dog air-launched missiles with ranges up to 600 miles and thermo-nuclear warheads.
   The Command maintains 2 wings of B-58 Hustler supersonic medium bombers with about 90 aircraft.
   The balance of its 1,100 aircraft is made up of B-47 bombers which are due to be phased out during the coming year.
(2) Land-based Strategic Missiles:
   American land-based strategic missile forces have been growing rapidly for the last two years.
   The figure has risen from 400 to over 800 in the last year.
   Atlas, the first intercontinental ballistic missile to go into service, has completed its build-up with 126 organized into 13 squadrons at 11 bases.
   About 30 PGM-16D Atlas missiles are on soft bases and are due to be phased out by the middle of 1965.
   The 36 CGM-16E Atlas missiles in semi hard launchers will be phased out some time later.
   There is no plan to withdraw the 60 HGM-16F Atlas weapons which are mounted vertically in hard silos.
   The full planned force of 108 Titan intercontinental ballistic missiles was completed at the end of 1963.
   There are 6 squadrons of HGM-25B Titan I missiles and 6 squadrons of LGM-25C Titan II missiles. Each squadron has 9 missiles.
   It is planned to phase out the 54 Titan I though the date has not been announced. These weapons are stored in hard silos, but launched from the surface.
   The Titan II missiles are launched from underground.
   The build-up of the solid-fuel Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile is continuing.
   By the middle of 1964, about 600 had been mounted in hardened silos, and 800 are planned for the middle of 1965.
   Thereafter, however, the build-up will be slower than originally planned.
   As LGM-30F Minuteman 2 missiles are produced, they are in many cases replacing LGM-30A and B Minuteman 1 missiles rather than being
   given new silos.
   Minuteman 2 has either a longer range or a larger pay-load. It is also more accurate and can be launched by radio from an airborne command post.
(3) Seaborne Strategic Missiles: The United States Navy has now embarked fully on its programme for 41 submarines each carrying 16 Polaris missiles.
   This total of 656 weapons is due to be completed by the middle of 1967. 26 of the 41 submarines are now in service.
   The first 5 are equipped with the UGM-27A Polaris A-l missile of 1,200-mile range and the next 13 are equipped with the
   UGM-27B Polaris A-2 of 1,500-mile range.
   The remaining submarines will be equipped with the UGM-27C Polaris A-3 of 2,500-mile range.
   This weapon will also be fitted into the original 5 Polaris submarines, making a force of 28 boats equipped with A-3 missiles and 13 with
   A-2 missiles.
   The small force of 5 submarines with 17 Regulus missiles will be reduced to 2 submarines with a total of 9 Regulus by the middle of 1965.
North American Air Defence
   The air defence of North America is the responsibility of NORAD, a joint Canadian American Command at Colorado Springs.
   The American forces under this command are equipped with a wide variety of interceptor aircraft and missiles.
   The aircraft are the F-101B Voodoo,the F-102 Delta Dagger, the F-106 Delta Dart and a number of F-104A Starfighters.
   These aircraft are armed with a variety of missiles and guns, including the AIR-2A Genie nuclear air-to-air missile.
   The missile forces consists of three main systems: Nike, Hawk and Bomarc.
   The Nike Ajax missiles which have been operated by the Army National Guard were completely phased out by the middle of 1964.
   The force of Nike-Hercules missiles is, however, being maintained along with the Hawks which were deployed in Florida late in 1962.
   The long-range Bomarc anti-aircraft missile force consists of 195 Bomarc-As and 188 BomarcBs distributed on 8 bases.
   During the fiscal year 1965, the Bomarc-As will be scrapped and the number of bases cut from 8 to 6.
   The 188 Bomarc-B missiles will be deployed on the 6 bases.
   Surveillance of American air space is carried out by the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system organized into 5 air divisions
   governing 15 sectors.
   One air division, the 9th Aero-Space Defence Division, conducts space surveillance operations through the spacetrack system and operates the
   Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS).
   Because of the vulnerability of the SAGE system, a semi-automatic Backup Interceptor Control system is being constructed.
   Construction work on the NORAD underground combat operation centre in the Cheyenne Mountains near Colorado Springs is continuing
   and is to be completed in 1965.
   The annual budget for the Continental Air and Missile Forces now stands at $1.8 billion, a slight reduction over previous years.
Army
Total strength: 972,000.
   The regular Army is organized into 16 operational divisions.
   A 17th division is a provisional air-assault division being used to test new techniques of air mobility for troops and their equipment.
   The 16 operational divisions are divided into 6 Infantry, 4 Mechanized, 4 Armoured and 2 Airborne.
   All divisions have now been re-organized on the ROAD concept with considerably increased conventional firepower and tactical mobility.
   The 7th Army, stationed in Germany, was reduced in 1964 from 273,000 to 237,000 men. It is divided into
   V Corps, with the 8th Infantry and 3rd Armoured Divisions, and
   VII Corps, with the 3rd Infantry, 24th Infantry and 4th Armoured Divisions.
   The 6th division is composed of the 6,000 men in US Army, Berlin, four armoured cavalry regiments which are kept as reserve striking forces,
   and other supporting units.
   Re-equipment with the M-60 tank has been completed
   and the Pershing battalions now have their full complement of these 400-mile range nuclear missiles.
   The force is being made capable of quicker reaction by an increase in the number of launchers from the old scale of four to a battalion.
   It has been decided to increase the number of short-range Honest John missiles in the 7th Army by new production orders and also by the
   transfer of weapons from the Marine Corps.
   It is planned later to replace Honest John with Lance.
   The 7th Army is also equipped with Sergeant surface-tosurface bombardment weapons, with a maximum range of 75 miles,
   and in the short-range category - Davy Crockett mortars and Little John and Lacrosse missiles.
   The main anti-aircraft missiles are NikeHercules and Hawk.
   With the 3 divisions of the Marine Corps (see below), the United States maintains 3 divisions in the Western Pacific area and 10 divisions in the
   continent of the United States.
   Special forces committed in South Vietnam number 20,000.
   The 8h Army in South Korea has 2 divisions, the 1st Cavalry and 7th Infantry.
   A divisional headquarters, the 25th, is in Hawaii and an airborne brigade in Okinawa.
   The 8 army divisions in the United States are divided into III Corps and XVIII Airborne corps which together are known as the
   Strategic Army Corps (STRAC).
   III Corps has the 1st and 2nd Armoured, 4th Infantry and 5th Mechanized Divisions and
   XVIII Corps has the 1st and 2nd Infantry and 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions.
   The Army Reserve and Guard divisions are now also organized under the ROAD concept and have a total paid strength of 618,100.
   Stocks of weapons, equipment, ammunition and supplies are being acquired for a 22-division force, which includes 16 active and 6 reserve divisions.
Navy Total strength: 668,500.
   The General Purpose Forces navy consists of 840 ships.
   The fleets are the first in the Eastern Pacific, the second in the Atlantic, the sixth in the Mediterranean and the seventh in the Western Pacific.
   The main units of the active fleet are:
   15 attack carriers - one (US S Enterprise) nuclear-powered, six of the Forrestal class, three of the Midway class and five of the Essex class.
   One Essex class ship is being replaced by an additional Forrestal class ship.
   Heavy attack aircraft are being sharply reduced in the fleet as the end of the carriers' strategic alert nuclear mission approaches.
   All but a few A-5 Vigilantes will become RA-5C reconnaissance aircraft.
   A-3B Skywarriors are being kept only to provide long-range nuclear striking power for the Essex and Midway class carriers.
   New subsonic light attack aircraft are being procured - the A-4E Skyhawk and A-6A Intruder.
   A new aircraft, the VAL, is being developed to replace the Skyhawks.
   Interception is carried out by F-4B aircraft except in the Essex class carriers, which retain F-8E Crusaders.
   9 anti-submarine carriers: these are all of the Essex class.
   They are being equipped with S-2E long-range search aircraft and SH-3A helicopters.
   103 submarines (excluding Polaris and Regulus: see seaborne strategic missiles) of which 23 are nuclear-powered.
   23 destroyer escorts.
   195 other destroyer types, including multipurpose and anti-submarine ships.
   160 logistic and operational support ships.
   14 guided missile cruisers.
   6 light and heavy cruisers.
   In addition, there are over 400 escorts and about 16 cruisers in reserve.
   The active fleet and reserves include about 250 amphibious ships, 200 minesweepers and 850 service, patrol and other craft.
Marine Corps The Marine Corps maintains 190,000 men organized into 3 divisions and 3 air wings.
   A 4th division/wing can be provided on mobilization by the Organized Marine Corps Reserve.
   Honest John missiles have proved too unwieldy for the types of missions assigned to the Corps and the 3 batteries of them have been
   returned to the Army.
   The 3 Marine Air Wings have about 1,155 combat and support aircraft and the number of helicopters is being steadily increased with the
   acquisition of large numbers of CH-46A types which carry 17 men.
   The 15 fighter squadrons are being equipped entirely with F-4 Phantoms armed with Sidewinder and Sparrow missiles.
Air Force
Total strength: 840,000.
   (For strategic and continental air defence forces, see above.)
   The General Purpose Forces of the Air Force have been built up in recent years so that they could engage in a sustained nonnuclear conflict in
   support of the Army.
   The tactical fighter force is being increased from 21 wings to 24 wings with increasing emphasis on the ground attack role.
   It is equipped with F-100, F-102, F-104 and F-105 fighter-bombers and one wing is now equipped with F-4C Phantom aircraft.
   3 squadrons of F-102 interceptors are being withdrawn from Europe and Japan this year and the rest will follow.
   B-57 tactical bombers have now all been transferred to the Air National Guard.
Tactical air forces in the United States have been organized around the new Tactical Air Warfare Center at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.
   The 9th Air Force (Shaw AFB, South Carolina) and
   12th Air Force (Waco, Texas) are now kept ready for immediate deployment and action, in addition to the
   19th Air Force (Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina).
United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE), with headquarters in Wiesbaden, have an inventory of more than 1,000 tactical aircraft.
   Their strike aircraft are F-100 Supersabres, F-101 Voodoos and F-105 Thunderchiefs and reconnaissance RB-66s and RF-101s.
   They also have 5 squadrons of the Mace-A and one of the Mace-B tactical bombardment missiles.
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) with headquarters in Hawaii, control the
   5th Air Force in Japan, Korea and Okinawa (F-105 and F-100 tactical fighters, RF-101 reconnaissance and KB-50 aerial refuelling tankers and
   two Mace-B squadrons in Okinawa),
   the 13th Air Force in the Philippines (which has F-100s and F-102s in the Philippines) and task forces in Formosa and Vietnam.
   For the future, large orders have been placed for F-4 Phantoms and the first procurement of the F-111A is scheduled for 1965.
   Tactical reconnaissance forces are being increased substantially over the present 14 squadrons of RF-101s and RB-66s.
The Military Air Transport Service operates about 1,000 aircraft, about 500 of which are the airlift force of
   C-135 Jet Stratolifters, C-133 Cargomasters, C-130 Hercules, C-124 Globemasters and C-118 Liftmasters.
   First deliveries of the C-141 Starlifter, which will replace the piston-engined transports by 1970, began in 1964.
The Special Air Warfare Forces include a substantial number of B-26, T-28, A-1E, C-46 and U-10 aircraft.
The Air National Guard General Purpose Forces have
   19 fighter squadrons, 13 reconnaissance squadrons, 3 tactical bomber squadrons and 3 tanker squadrons.
   This is a total of about 700 aircraft.
The strength of the Guard is 75,000. The Air Force Reserve has 61,000 men.

CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of CENTO are Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and the United Kingdom. The United States is an associate member, but is represented on the co-ordinating Council of military deputies and on the economic and counter-subversion committees. CENTO does not have an international command structure nor are forces allocated to it. The air striking power is supplied by British Canberra bombers based on Cyprus, and the US 6th fleet.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Членами CENTO являются Пакистан, Иран, Турция и Соединенное Королевство. Соединенные Штаты являются ассоциированным членом, но представлены в координационном совете военных депутатов, а также в комитетах по экономическому и противодействию коррупции. CENTO не имеет международной командной структуры и не выделяет ей силы. Воздушная ударную мощь обеспечивается британскими бомбардировщиками Canberra на базе Кипра и 6-м флотом США.
  
   IRAN
Population: 21,800,000.
Length of military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 208,000.
Defence estimates 1963-64: 14,770,000,000 rials (=$195,000,000).
Army Strength: 200,000 plus a gendarmerie of 30,000.
   12 infantry divisions and 6 independent brigades.
   M-47 tanks are supplemented by Shermans and T-34s.
Navy Total strength: 1,000.
   3 frigates, other escorts.
   4 minesweepers.
   6 patrol boats, seaward defence craft.
   2 landing craft.
   22 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 7,000.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons of 25 F-84G Thunderjets. In 1965 conversion to F-5s is due to begin.
   1 transport wing with 4 C-130 B Hercules and some C-47s.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 98,570,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 253,000.
Defence estimates (1964-65): 1,290,000,000 rupees (=$269,000,000).
Army Strength: 230,000.
   8 divisions organized on a triangular basis and equipped with M-47 tanks.
   250,000 lightly armed militia and about 30,000 Azad Kashmir troops.
Navy Total strength: 7,700.
   1 light cruiser (cadet training ship).
   5 destroyers.
   2 ASW frigates.
   8 minesweepers.
   10 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 17,000-25,000. 200 aircraft.
   These include 30 B-57 Canberras in two squadrons.
   1 F-104 A Starfighter squadron (a second is to be formed).
   4 F-86 F Sabre squadrons.
   RT-33As are used for tactical reconnaissance.
   The transport force includes 4 C-130B Hercules.

SOUTH-EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of SEATO are Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States. They are committed to build up collective economic and military strength and to consult with a view to joint defensive action in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member or against the 'protocol states' of Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam. The treaty area is the South-West Pacific theatre south of 21R 30' N. There is no central command structure and forces remain under national control. American support for the treaty powers is exercised by the 7th Fleet, based on Taiwan and the Philippines, and American air and ground forces based on Guam and Okinawa. The 28th Commonwealth Brigade (consisting of British, Australian and New Zealand forces) plus supporting air units is based in Malaysia as are Commonwealth naval forces which would operate in support of the treaty powers in the event of war. France maintains no forces in direct support of the alliance.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ДОГОВОРА ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ

   Членами SEATO являются Австралия, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Соединенное Королевство и Соединенные Штаты. Они намерены наращивать коллективную экономическую и военную мощь и консультироваться в целях совместных оборонительных действий в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против какого-либо члена или против "протокольных государств" Лаоса, Камбоджи и Южного Вьетнама. Договорная область является театром Юго-Западной части Тихого океана к югу от 21 R 30 'с.ш. Нет центральной структуры управления, и силы остаются под национальным контролем. Американская поддержка договора осуществляется 7-м флотом, с базами на Тайване и на Филиппинах, а также воздушными силами и сухопутными войсками Соединенных Штатов, на Гуаме и Окинаве. 28-я бригада Содружества (из сил Британии, Австралии и Новой Зеландии) плюс вспомогательные воздушные подразделения базируются в Малайзии, а также военно-морские силы Содружества, которые будут действовать в поддержку договорных условий в случае войны. Франция не имеет никаких сил для прямой поддержки альянса.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 11,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 52,000.
Defence estimates (1964-65): £A296,000,000 (=$660,000,000)
Army Total strength: 23,400 (plus 28,500 citizen military forces (CMF) with an authorized ceiling of 31,700).
   1 infantry battalion with artillery and engineer support in Malaya.
   1 Centurion tank regiment.
   2 battle groups (large infantry battalions reinforced with supporting arms).
   1 battle group (on restricted establishment).
   1 Pacific Island Regiment. Additional battalions will be raised over next five years.
   1 Logistic Support Force.
   8 CMF battle groups (similar to those of Regular Army).
Navy Total strength: 12,500.
   1 light fleet carrier (used for ASW).
   1 light fleet carrier (fast troop transport).
   4 destroyers (including 1 on loan).
   4 frigates.
   6 minesweepers.
   8 other ships.
   1 Sea Venom all-weather fighter squadron.
   1 Gannet ASW squadron.
   1 helicopter squadron with Wessex MK 31s.
Air ForceTotal strength: 16,100 (plus a Citizens' Air Force of 1,080).
   4 fighter squadrons of Australian Sabres (F-86). The Mirage III will enter service during 1964-65.
   3 Canberra bomber squadrons.
   2 Neptune maritime reconnaissance squadrons.
   2 transport squadrons (1 C-130 Hercules, 1 C-47 Dakota). (The Caribou is entering service).
   2 Iroquois helicopter squadrons.
   1 Bloodhound Mk 1 surface-to-air missile, squadron.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,550,000.
Voluntary military service (supplemented by Selective National Service for 2,100 recruits annually
   for the Army Territorial Force).
Total armed forces: 12,500.
Defence estimates (1964-65): £NZ36,400,000 (=$100,500,000).
Army Total strength: 5,600 regulars plus 6,000 Territorials and 34,000 in Army Reserve.
   The Army has recently been re-organized to include the following:
   (a) 1 infantry battalion to Commonwealth Strategic Reserve in Malaysia.
   (b) A Combat Brigade Group incorporating both Regulars and Territorials.
   (c) A Logistic Support Force - both Regulars and Territorials.
   (d) A Combat Reserve Group - both Regulars and Territorials.
   (e) A Static Support Force - Regulars.
Navy Total strength: 2,900 regulars plus 4,000 reservists.
   1 light cruiser.
   4 ASW frigates.
   4 escort minesweepers.
   1 Antarctic support ship.
   12 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 4,000.
   1 Canberra light bomber squadron.
   1 day fighter ground attack squadron with Vampire and Canberra trainers.
   1 Sunderland maritime reconnaissance squadron.
   3 transport squadrons {DC-6B, Hastings, Dakota, Bristol, Devon).
   1 transport squadron is based in Singapore as part of Commonwealth Strategic Reserve.
  
   PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
Population: 30,500,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 57,000 including 15,500 officers and men of the Philippine Constabulary.
Defence estimates (1964-65): 285,500,000 pesos (=$72,900,000).
Army Total strength: 25,500.
   1 combat division.
   4 training divisions.
There is a reserve of 120,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 6,500.
   6 escort patrol vessels.
   2 command ships.
   6 submarine chasers.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   9 landing craft.
   19 patrol boats.
   25 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 9,500.
   3 F-86F day fighter squadrons.
   1 F-86D all-weather fighter squadron.
   Transport, observation, air/sea rescue and training units.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 31,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years (plus 7 years in first reserve, 10 years in second reserve, 6 years in third reserve).
Total armed forces: 84,500.
Defence Budget (1964-65): 1,919,810,000 bahts (=$92,000,000).
Army Total strength: 50,000.
   3 infantry divisions (nominally with 3 brigades each).
   1 composite division with armour.
   There are about 3,000 US military personnel at present in Thailand, and supply dumps have been established for the accommodation of a force of
   5,000 men within 48 hours.
Navy Total strength: 18,000 plus 3,500 Marines.
   6 frigates, other escorts.
   6 minelayers and minesweepers.
   9 submarine chasers.
   13 armoured gunboats, patrol boats.
   13 landing craft, landing ships.
   16 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 13,000.
   1 wing of 40 F-86 F fighter-bombers.
   1 wing of 30 F-84 G Thunderjet fighter-bombers.
   1 wing of 30 T-6 and T-38 light close support aircraft.
   About 100 training and transport aircraft including C-54, C-47 and C-45.

THE PROTOCOL STATES

   SOUTH VIETNAM
Population: 15,000,000.
Length of military service : all men between ages 25-33 liable for mobilization.
Total armed forces : 500,000 including auxiliaries.
(US aid is $500,000,000 a year)
Army Total strength: 210,000 (regular), 186,000 (auxiliary forces - establishment strength).
   The regular army is organized on the basis of 4 Army Corps Areas : the
   1st Corps in the northern mountain region,
   2nd Corps in the central highlands region,
   3rd Corps in the northern Mekong area (including Saigon),
   4th Corps in the southern half of the delta.
   There are also two auxiliary forces, the Civil Guard and the Self-Defence Corps.
   These forces have establishments of 83,000 and 103,000 men respectively, but it is believed that effective strength is far below these levels,
   due to poor recruiting and desertions. In general, a static defence role (villages, bridges, supply dumps, etc.) is given to the auxiliary forces, and the
   regular troops are kept back for mobile, counter-guerilla operations.
   The building of 'strategic hamlets' is proceeding at a .slower rate than originally planned and these have been renamed 'new life hamlets'.
   The 6,000 Special Security Troops, formerly responsible for political security, have been reconstituted since the overthrow of the Diem regime.
   The Americans now plan to raise a force of Special Troops
   (a) for special operations against Viet-Cong in South Vietnam,
   (b) for guerilla warfare in North Vietnam.
   There are about 17,000 American military personnel, of which 3,000 take part in combat actions.
   Some American officers are in command of Vietnamese Rangers recruited from the ethnic minorities.
Navy Total strength: 15,350 including a Marine Brigade of about 5,000 men.
   5 escorts (including 1 submarine chaser).
   14 motor gunboats, coastal patrol vessels.
   5 coastal minesweepers.
   25 landing craft.
   500 other small vessels (including motorized junks).
Air ForceTotal strength: 20,000.
   (500 strike aircraft by end of 1964).
   30 A-1H Skyraider piston-engined aircraft.
   70 T-28 trainers in ground support role.
   32 C-47 transports, H-19 and H-34 helicopters.
   25 F-84 Bearcats.
   B-26 light bombers.
   1 squadron AD-6 fighter-bombers.
  
   CAMBODIA
General
Population: 6,000,000.
Total armed forces: 29,500.
Army Total strength: 27,300.
   The Cambodian Army is organized along two main lines: the static defence system of the villages, with a militia officered by small groups of officers
   and NCOs: and the mobile detachments where a popular militia is equally heavily represented.
   A considerable proportion of the Army is engaged on economic and social services.
   The country is divided into 5military regions.
   In command terms, it is organized into 28 infantry battalions, 2 parachute battalions and 1 armoured regiment.
   There are 6 batteries of 105 mm. artillery and a company of light tanks.
   24 pre-war AA guns have been supplied by the Soviet Union.
   There is a small French training mission, but all American military advisers have been withdrawn.
Navy Total strength: 1,200 plus Marine Corps of 150.
   4 patrol vessels.
   1 support gun-boat.
   3 seaward patrol craft.
   11 landing craft.
   50 small craft.
Air ForceTotal strength: 1,000.
   Chiefly concerned with internal police and transport duties.
   5 MiG-17 interceptors.
   2 Fouga Magister, some MS 733 Alcyon light attack aircraft.
   C-47 Beaver and 2 11-14 transport.
   Cessna L-19 observation and Alouette helicopters.
  
   LAOS
General
Population: 2,500,000.
(1) Royal Lao forces Total: 50,000-70,000.
Army About 50,000 men, including the 3,000 to 5,000 strong neutralist army of General Kong Le with whom they are now allied.
   The neutralist forces suffered severe casualties in the Pathet-Lao advance of May 1964 which gained control of the whole Plain of Jars.
Navy
   4 river squadrons small gunboats.
Air Force
   7 T-28 and some Texan piston-engined trainers in ground-support role.
   C-47 transports.
   The Government are supported by about 5,000 Meo tribesmen harrassing the PathetLao in the mountains around the Plain of Jars.
(2) Pathet-Lao forces Strength: about 26,000 men.
   These are now believed to be supported by up to 3,000 regular North Vietnamese forces operating in the northern provinces.
   They have received a large supply of arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin but no troops from these countries.
   The Pathet-Lao now control all the eastern half of Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the complete frontier with Vietnam.

US MUTUAL DEFENCE TREATIES

   JAPAN
Population: 97,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 244,000.
Defence estimates (1964-65): 278,500,000 million yen (=$764,000,000).
Army Total strength: 171,500 (planned expansion to 180,000 with 30,000 reserves by 1965).
   13 divisions of 7,000-9,000 men, each organized into 3-4 battle groups.
   1 division, based on Hokaido, is mechanized.
   The Army has 296 light aircraft and helicopters and 870 American-built tanks.
   By 1964 40 of 100 Japanese type-61 tanks will be in service.
   1 Hawk battery.
Navy Total strength: 35,000.
   19 destroyers (including 1 guided missile type due for completion early 1965).
   28 frigates, other escorts.
   6 submarines.
   17 submarine chasers.
   44 minesweepers and minelayers.
   52 landing craft.
   52 other ships.
   140 anti-submarine aircraft.
   The naval air component has about 233 aircraft including helicopters.
Air ForceTotal strength: 39,000.
   1 tactical squadron.
   7 fighter-interceptor wings.
   The first of 80 F-104Js have been accepted, they will partially replace 90 F-86Ds and 245 F-86Fs in service.
   The F-104Js and some of the F-68Fs are to have Sidewinders.
   1 wing of 72 Nike-Ajax missiles.
  
   TAIWAN
Population: 12,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years and reserve liability.
Total armed forces: 600,000.
Defence Budget: 5,875,000,000 Taiwan $. (=$147,250,000).
Army Total strength: 400,000 including 80,000 on Quemoy and Matsu.
   21 infantry divisions.
   2 armoured divisions.
   1 Nike-Hercules battalion.
Navy Total strength: 35,000 plus 27,000 marines.
   5 destroyers.
   11 frigates, other escorts.
   27 submarine chasers.
   20 minesweepers and minelayers.
   57 gunboats, coastal craft.
   71 landing craft.
   83 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 82,000.
   3 F-86 and F-104 interceptor wings.
   1 F-100 fighter-bomber wing.
  
   SOUTH KOREA
Population: 28,000,000.
Military service: voluntary and conscript.
Total armed forces: 600,000.
Defence estimates (calendar year 1965): 19,350,000,000 Won (=$149,000,000).
Army Total strength: 540,000 plus 10,000 Koreans serving in the US Army in Korea.
   The First Army has 18 divisions plus 50 independent artillery and 7 independent tank battalions.
   The Second Army has 10 divisions.
   It is planned to reduce the overall order of battle by 5 divisions.
Navy Total strength: 17,000 plus 27,000 marines.
   1 destroyer.
   17 frigates, other escorts.
   12 minesweepers.
   21 landing craft.
   24 other ships.
Air ForceTotal strength: 15,000.
   8 F-86 interceptor squadrons.
   1 photo reconnaissance squadron with 12 RF-86F
   18 C-46 and C-47 transports.
   90 miscellaneous aircraft.

PART III. NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

   INDIA
Population: 470,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 867,000.
Defence estimates (1964-65): 8,937,700,000 rupees (=$1,970,000,000).
Army Total sanctioned strength: 825,000 plus 47,000 in a volunteer reserve Territorial Army organized on a battalion and technical unit basis.
   16 divisions including 9 recently formed mountain divisions.
   In addition 4 infantry divisions on a reduced establishment have been sanctioned.
   It will take 3 years to bring the army up to its full strength. Ready forces include:
   1 armoured division equipped with Centurions.
   1 armoured brigade with Shermans.
   2 light tank regiments with AMX-13.
   2 light tank regiments with Stuarts.
Navy Total strength: 16,000.
   1 16,000 ton carrier.
   2 cruisers.
   3 destroyers.
   5 anti-submarine frigates.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   5 other escort ships.
   6 minesweepers.
   13 light coastal vessels.
   2 amphibious warfare ships.
   5 survey vessels, training ships.
   Naval aircraft include 24 Sea Hawk strike/interceptor planes and 15 AlizИ ASW planes.
Air ForceTotal strength: 28,000 (strength sanctioned - 45 squadrons).
   4 HF-24 Marut fighter-bombers.
   4 interceptor squadrons with 25 Mystere IVs each.
   4 interceptor squadrons with 25 Gnats each.
   4 bomber squadrons with 20 Canberraseach.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with 25 Hunters each.
   Several Ouraganand Vampire fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 8 Canberras.
   The transport force includes 80 C-119s, 24 Antonov 12s, and about 50 C-47s.
   2 Il-14, some DH Otters and Viscounts 723 and 730.
   Avro 748s and Caribous are being acquired.
   The Auxiliary Air Force squadrons chiefly fly Harvard and Vampire trainers.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 101,000,000.
Total armed forces: 412,000.
Defence Budget: equivalent $980,000,000 (latest estimate available).
Army Total strength: 350,000 (regular 200,000) (reservists 150,000).
   The Army is basically organized into sixteen territorial regions, but detailed organization only exists at the battalion level and above,
   including the provision of artillery, engineer and technical support.
   The emphasis in training and combat experience alike has been on guerilla and anti-guerilla fighting.
   The infantry battalions are equipped with American and some Russian small arms.
   The Army also has 57 mm. Soviet AA guns and associated radar equipment, and at least one battery of Soviet 105 mm. howitzers.
   There are very few armoured formations.
   There is a paratroop force of about 30,000 men.
   Para-military forces and police number about 130,000.
Navy Total strength: 35,000 (25,000 regular navy plus naval air forces, a commando corps and a 3,550 strong Marine Corps).
   2 heavy cruisers (ex-Soviet Sverdlov class).
   4 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory class).
   6 frigates.
   18 submarine chasers.
   6 submarines (plus 3 submarine parent ships).
   19 motor torpedo boats.
   30 motor gunboats (including 12 Komar class with guided missiles).
   21 minesweepers.
   17 landing ships, landing craft.
   25 seaward defence craft.
   66 other vessels.
   Naval aircraft includes 1 ASW squadron equipped with Gannets and helicopters.
Air ForceTotal strength: 27,000 plus 30,000 parachute troops.
   The Indonesian Air Force is organized into 7 main air areas, each with one main base, and some auxiliary bases and combining the separate commands.
   There are about 450 aircraft.
   Interceptor
   Over 100 MiG, including 18 MiG-21s.
   Strike
   30 Tu-16 Badger, some with an air-to-air guided missile.
   25 Il-28 Beagle.
   18 B-25 Mitchell.
   Transport
   About 60 II 4 and C-130B Hercules.
   About 25 Soviet and Japanese helicopters.
   There are up to 125 light aircraft, trainers, etc.
   There is at least 1 surface-to-air missile unit, which is claimed to be equipped with an advanced missile.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 2,500,000.
Length of military service: 26 months (men), 20 months (women).
Total armed forces : 250,000 (wartime strength, including reserves which can be mobilized within 48 hours).
Defence Budget (1963-64): I£545,000,000 (=$182,000,000).
   All arms come under one General Staff.
Army
   (Regular) 3 brigades (equivalent to British brigade group) of which one is armoured, one mechanized and one paratroop/infantry.
   (Reserve) approximately 20 brigades, of which one-third are armoured.
   There are approximately 400 tanks, including Centurion, Sherman, AMX-13.
   1 battalion Hawk ground-to-air missiles in service 1965.
Navy
   2 destroyers.
   1 frigate.
   2 submarines.
   12 MTBs.
   3 flotillas landing craft.
Air Force
Total strength: 14,000 with 450 aircraft.
   4 squadrons Mirage IIIC fighters (some equipped with Matra air-to-air missiles).
   1 squadron Super Mystere interceptors.
   3 squadrons Mystere IVA fighter-bombers.
   1 squadron Vautour tactical bombers/reconnaissance.
   2 squadrons Noratlas, Stratocruiser and C-47 transports.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 10,810,000.
Military service: all persons between 21 and 29 are liable for conscription into armed forces or civil defence work.
Total armed forces (regular): 22,000; (Volunteer): 27,700.
Defence Budget (1964): £10,700,000 (=$92,000,000) of which one-third for expenditure on ships and naval bases.
Army Total Strength: 19,000 (regular).
   8 infantry battalions.
   1 reconnaissance battalion,
   Artillery, engineer and administrative units.
   These will later be brought up to 20 battalions, with supporting arms, so as to form 5 mobile brigade groups.
   Of these 2 brigades will be used in the Borneo territories.
   (Reserve) Territorial Army which it is planned to increase up to 27,000 men. The first reservists were mobilized during March 1964.
   (Police) 24 companies para-military field police (23,000 men).
Navy Total strength: 2,100.
   1 frigate.
   1 coastal, 6 inshore minesweepers.
   6 seaward patrol vessels (2 squadrons).
   A landing craft and 16 Vosper patrol craft are on order from Britain.
Air Force Total 57 aircraft.
   Tactical transport planes only.
   14 Twin Pioneer, 5 Pioneer.
   8 Dart Heralds.
   Some Alouette helicopters.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 7,670,000.
Length of military service: 10 months for privates and ratings and up to 22 months for officers and NCOs. Reserve service up to the age of 47.
Total armed forces: 80,000 including 60,000 conscripts. On mobilization the total would become 780,000.
Defence estimates (1964-5): Skr 3,806,000,000 (=$731,000,000).
Army Total strength: 10,000 regular and 45,000 conscripts becoming 655,000 after mobilization.
   The Home Guard numbers over 100,000 men.
   The Army comprises in wartime field units, local defence units and Home Guard units.
   The lowest field units capable of more serious independent engagement are the armoured and infantry brigades with a personnel
   strength of 4,000 to 5,000 men.
   The local Army units or 'local defence' forces are intended for the prompt defence of smaller coastal areas, bridges and airfields.
   The primary task of the Home Guard is to guard bridges, factories and other vital points.
   British Centurion tanks including some mounting a 105 mm gun are in service in armoured and infantry divisions.
   The new Swedish 'S' type turretless tank is to be assigned to armoured units.
   Anti-tank weapons include the SS.11, and the Swedish-manufactured Carl Gustaf recoilless 8.4 cm anti-tank gun.
   Hawk surface-to-air units are being introduced.
Navy Total strength: 12,000 including 7,000 conscripts.
   2 cruisers.
   12 destroyers.
   9 anti-submarine frigates.
   45 minesweepers.
   26 submarines.
   14 light coastal vessels.
   8 landing craft.
   36 other ships.
   A Commando corps has been trained for counter-attacks against enemy infiltration in the coastal belt.
   Naval helicopters include US Vertols and French Alouettes.
Air ForceTotal strength: 5,500 regular, 7,500 conscripts.
   4 air divisions (1 attack, 2 fighter and 1 combined fighter-reconnaissance division).
   These 4 air divisions comprise a total of 46 squadrons,
   divided into 4 day fighter wings, 5 all-weather wings, 4 attack wings and 5 reconnaissance squadrons.
   9 SAAB-29 F day fighter squadrons.
   3 SAAB-35 Draken day fighter squadrons.
   6 SAAB-32a Lansen and 9 Draken allweather fighter squadrons.
   6 squadrons of Bloodhound 2 anti-aircraft missiles.
   12 SAAB-32a Lansen attack squadrons.
   5 SAAB-29c and SAAB-32c reconnaissance squadrons.
   (A combat squadron normally contains 12 aircraft.)
   Armament includes the air-to-air missiles Sidewinder and Falcon and a Swedish air-tosurface missile, Rb 304.
   A large-scale, fully automatic battle control system, with which all components of the Swedish air defence are co-ordinated, is being built up.
   This is known as Stril 60 and is similar to the American Sage.
   The outlines of a new air-defence weapon system centering on a multipurpose aircraft, Viggen, were made public in 1962.
   The project is expected to cost at least Skr.3,000 million ($600 million).
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 5,810,000.
Length of military service: About 4 months initial basic training followed by 12 years in the first reserve and 18 in second and third line reserves.
Total armed forces: 700,000 (including reservists who can be fully mobilized within 48 hours)
   also 150,000 auxiliary reservists (local defence forces).
Defence Budget 1964: SF1,491,000,000 (=$347,000,000).
Army Total strength: (Permanent instructors) 500 officers and NCOs, (serving conscripts) 35,000, (militia reserve) 550,000.
   The Army is organized into 4 corps. One corps, for the defence of the Alps, consists of 3 mountain divisions.
   The other three corps, for the defence of the Plain, each consists of 1 mechanized division, 1 frontier division and 1 infantry division.
   Also 9 frontier, fortress and 'redoubt' brigades. (Total Army forces are equivalent to 20 divisions.)
   The mechanized divisions are equipped with 30 Centurion and 200 AMX tanks, and M113 armoured troop carriers.
   The infantry field divisions are shortly to be given 150 P2 61 light tanks.
Air ForceTotal strength: (Regular, including instructors and alert squadrons) 6,000, (serving conscripts) 6,000, (militia reserve) 50,000.
   The Air Defence and Anti-Aircraft force are grouped under one command.
   Air Defence
   1 brigade of 3 regiments (approximately 400 fighter aircraft).
   5 Hunter interceptor squadrons.
   11 Venom close-support squadrons.
   5 Vampire close-support squadrons.
   1 Ju 52/53 transport squadron.
   It is planned to re-equip some units with Mirage Ills and IIIRs.
   Anti-Aircraft
   1 anti-aircraft brigade of 8 regiments.
   36 batteries Oerlikon twin 35 mm. cannon.
   Bloodhound Mk. 2 rockets are being introduced, with 68 launchers built.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC
Population: 26,000,000.
Total armed forces: 130,000.
Defence Budget: $320,000,000.
Army Strength: 100,000 of which 35,000 are in the Yemen.
   3 infantry and 1 armoured division.
   Another armoured and another infantry division are being formed.
   50 JS-3s. 400 T-34/85s and 200 T-54s have been delivered.
   It is probable that most of them are operational.
   There is, in addition, a National Guard of 50,000 men.
Air ForceStrength: 20,000.
   25 Tu-16 Badger medium bombers.
   100 Il-28 light bombers.
   50 MiG-21 fighters.
   110 MiG-19 fighters.
   150 MiG-17 fighters.
   c. 10 batteries of Soviet-built SA-1 Guideline ground-to-air missiles.
   The aircraft inventory is based on deliveries.
   It does not take account of the fact that some of the planes received have crashed, that others have been cannibalized to obtain spare parts,
   and that some have been withdrawn from service on grounds of obsolescence.
   It is likely that the number of Il-28s still in service is significantly lower than the number quoted.
   Approximately half the MiG-17s are operational.
Navy Strength: 10,000.
   4 Skory class destroyers of 2,600 tons built in the USSR 1950-52.
   6 escort vessels of 700 to 1,700 tons displacement built in Britain 1940-44.
   8 ex-Soviet W-class submarines of 1,000 tons.
   14 minesweepers.
   Smaller craft include 5 75-ton fast patrol boats with surface-to-surface guided missiles of 10 to 15 miles and c. 40 motor torpedo boats.
   c. 250 mobile single stage ground-to-ground missiles have been built.
   They include the Al Zafar which carries a 1,000-lb warhead some 235 miles and the Al Kahar which carries a rather larger warhead up to 375 miles.
   There is no evidence that they have a modern guidance system.
Police Strength: 150,000.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 19,350.
Length of military service: 18 months (Army and Air Force), 24 months (Navy).
Total armed forces: 296,000 (including Frontier Guards).
Defence estimates: 316,900 million dinars ($422,000,000).
Army Strength: 230,000 plus 19,000 Frontier Guards.
   17 infantry divisions.
   8 mountain divisions with some 7,000 men each.
   2 armoured divisions with T-54 tanks.
   1 armoured division with M-47 and T-34/85 tanks.
   About 18 independent brigades including a parachute brigade.
   Effective reserves number about 450,000.
Navy Total strength: 27,000.
   3 destroyers (including two primarily for training purposes).
   3 frigates.
   2 submarines.
   18 patrol vessels (of which 16 are submarine chasers).
   90 motor torpedo boats.
   45 minesweepers, including inshore and river minesweepers.
   7 landing craft.
   28 other ships.
   Coastal defence numbers from 60-80 batteries.
Air ForceTotal strength: 20,000 (approximately 650 aircraft).
   1 squadron MiG-21C interceptors.
   230 F-84G Thunderjet interceptors.
   250 F-86D Sabre interceptors.
   Yugoslav-Soviet consultation has continued during 1964 and it is believed that in addition to the MiG-21s,
   some SA-2 Guideline surfaceto-air missiles may have been delivered.
  

TABLES

   Табл.1. Сравнение стратегических сил в начале 1965 г.
   Цифры в скобках-это оценки на начало 1964 года
    []
   1. Действующие флоты или суда в эксплуатации
   2. Не все из них полностью укомплектованы.

   Табл.2. Основные носители ядерного оружия в 1963-4 гг.
    []
   * Радиус и боевая нагрузка - максимальные, без подкрыльевых баков. Во многих случаях полная дальность или полная боевая нагрузка существенно уменьшает одна другую.

    []

   Табл.3. Сравнение военных расходов стран НАТО.
    []
   1. На основе стандартного определения расходов на оборону, которое необязательно охватывает те же статьи, что и бюджеты национальной обороны.
   2. Исключая военную помощь США, которая в случае включения увеличила бы эти цифры в 1963 году примерно до 9,4% (Греция) и 10,7% (Турция).
   3. Это самые последние оценки расходов на оборону, полученные от соответствующих стран: они составлены на иной основе, чем данные о расходах на оборону, приведенные в колонках 1-4, и могут быть не совсем сопоставимыми по странам. В большинстве случаев эти цифры охватывают 1964-1965 бюджетные годы, точные даты которых варьируются в зависимости от страны. Если эти цифры помечены знаком *, то они являются предварительными оценками на 1965 календарный год и подлежат пересмотру и утверждению парламентом.
   4. Если цифры в колонке 6 относятся к 1964-5 бюджетному году, то цифры в колонке 7 относятся к 1963-4 бюджетному году; если цифры в колонке 6 помечены знаком *, то цифры в колонке 7 относятся к 1964 календарному году.
   5. Средний показатель за 1964-5 годы. В связи с изменением дат финансового года последние имеющиеся оценки относятся только ко второй половине 1964 года.
   6. т. е. общие сметные новые расходы на 1964-65 финансовый год в США, включая военную помощь, военное строительство и Гражданскую Оборону.

   Табл.4. Расходы на оборону и национальный доход.
    []
   * Эти цифры являются оценками национального дохода Организации Объединенных Наций за 1963 год (в некоторых случаях последними имеющиеся данные за 1962 год). Расчеты, основанные на этих цифрах, являются наилучшим средством сравнения оборонного бремени западных и неприсоединившихся держав. Из-за искусственных обменных курсов, это невозможно провести точное сравнение с коммунистическими державами.

   Табл.5. Анализ оборонных бюджетов в 1964-5
    []
   Что касается Франции и Соединенного Королевства, то расходы на исследования и разработки в области стратегического ядерного оружия относятся к категории центральных расходов; в случае Соединенных Штатов они распределяются между различными бюджетами на обслуживание.

   Табл.6. Некоторые стратегические показатели.
    []
   * Из-за искусственных обменных курсов оказалось невозможным представить точные данные по этим странам
   t Включая городские конгломераты, принадлежащие этому городу

   Последнее редактирование 6.5.2019

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