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The Military Balance 1965

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    Военный баланс в 1965 году от Международного Института Стратегических Исследований. С русским переводом.


THE MILITARY BALANCE 1965

   The Military Balance 1964
   The Military Balance 1966

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Foreword
Communist Powers:
  Warsaw Pact: Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Albania
  China, Cuba, North Korea, North Vietnam
Western alliances: Alliance systems
  NATO: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, UK, USA
  CENTO: Iran, Pakistan
   SEATO: Australia, New Zealand, Philippine, Thailand
  Protocol States: South Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
  US mutual defence treaties: Japan, South Korea, Taiwan
Non-Aligned Countries: India, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UAR, Yugoslavia
Tables
  

FOREWORD

   This is the seventh of the Institute's annual estimates of the nature and size of the military forces of the principal powers. It covers the Communist powers, those countries which have mutual defence treaties with the United States (excluding Latin America), and a number of important non-aligned countries. The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in most cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information, and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking the material.
   This document examines the military balance as it existed at the end of October 1965, and reflects the changes that will, on present indications, occur during the ensuing year. No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1966 have been included.
   The material in this document should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the nature of the balance of strategic power: it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability, efficiency, etc., on either side. It may, however, be found useful in the context of discussions on strategy and disarmament.
   November 1965
  
   Note on the Figures
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia, or reserve forces has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Naval strengths are those of active fleets and ships in commission only, except where otherwise stated. Vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have been excluded. Figures for defence budgets are exclusive of military aid.

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

   Это седьмая ежегодная оценка Института характера и численности Вооруженных сил основных держав. Она охватывает коммунистические державы, те страны, которые имеют договоры о взаимной обороне с Соединенными Штатами (за исключением Латинской Америки), и ряд важных неприсоединившихся стран. Институт несет полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Были запрошены и в большинстве случаев получены сведения от сотрудничающих правительств. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают в подготовке информации, и некоторые цифры оцененочные. Институт в значительной степени благодарен ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые оказывали помощь в сборе и проверке материалов.
   В настоящем документе анализируется военный баланс в том виде, в каком он существовал в конце октября 1965 года, и отражаются изменения, которые, по нынешним признакам, произойдут в течение последующего года. Никаких прогнозов уровней сил или вооружений за пределами 1966 не включены.
   Материал данного документа не следует рассматривать как исчерпывающее руководство по балансу стратегических сил: он не отражает факторов географии, уязвимости, эффективности и т. д., с обеих сторон. Вместе с тем он может оказаться полезным в контексте обсуждения стратегии и разоружения.
   Ноябрь 1965 года.
  
   Примечание к данным
   Приводятся данные о численности личного состава регулярных сил, хотя в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, приводится информация о численности военизированных формирований, ополченцев или резервных сил. Военно-морские силы приводятся только активных флотов и принятых судов, если не указано иное. Исключены суда водоизмещением менее 100 тонн стандартного водоизмещения. Данные по оборонным бюджетам не включают военную помощь.

PART I. THE COMMUNIST POWERS

THE WARSAW PACT NATIONS

   In Soviet strategic affairs, 1964-65 was dominated by two events : the overthrow of Mr Khrushchev, and the display of a number of new types of missile, indicating progress particularly in large solid-fuelled missiles and in the development of an anti-ballistic missile.
   The overthrow of Mr Khrushchev in October 1964 does not appear to have been primarily motivated by dissatisfaction with his military policies. The military establishment seems to have stood aloof from the proceedings, and in spite of the fact that most of the incumbent military leaders were Khrushchev appointees who had been associated with him in the war, there have not been major changes. They are almost all in their middle or late sixties, and of a cautious and conservative cast of mind. The retirement of many of them cannot be postponed for long, but only when this takes place will the future intentions of the political leadership become fully clear. Under the new leadership, political figures have made only minimal reference to matters of military strategy, and the military leaders, for their part, have avoided the public hints at disagreement with government policy which were such a marked feature of Khrushchev's period of office. There have been no apparent changes in defence policy, except that the token reduction in defence expenditure announced in December 1964 has probably been rescinded.
   The special circumstances of the year have meant that, for the first time since 1955, there is no single political figure competent (or permitted) to lay down the law on strategy. In 1953-55, the military seized the opportunity to revive strategic controversies which Stalin had previously dismissed by ex cathedra statement. This time the circumstances are different, in that the more relaxed atmosphere prevailing under Khrushchev made discussion of current strategic problems more feasible. There is no backlog of important matters awaiting ventilation, although there are several questions to which answers have not yet been found.
   The Soviet armed forces still constitute a heavy drain on the economy, and are still primarily geared to the worst but least likely casИ, that of a general nuclear war initiated by a Western surprise attack. The importance of each component of them in such a war (and therefore their peacetime size and shape) is still a subject for argument, as is the question of conflict limitation in Europe, and the desirability of developing a capacity for limited war outside Europe. That discussion has been muted since Khrushchev's departure does not mean that it has ceased; and it is worth noting that Soviet military suspicion of American intentions, as shown in the NATO nuclear force proposals and the escalation in Vietnam, is, if anything, more strongly voiced than last year. This is a strong indication of the pressures with which the political leaders, themselves former colleagues and, in general, supporters of Khrushchev, are having to contend in their efforts to maintain the detente and contain defence spending.
   The display of missiles at the VE-Day 20th anniversary parade on 9 May 1965 showed a number of interesting new features. Most important were two new missiles claimed to be a solid-fuel ICBM and a mobile MRBM, and a large cylindrical device claimed to be an antiballistic missile. A very large three-stage ICBM attracted much attention by its size, but militarily was of lesser importance than the others. It is not considered by Western experts that the solid-fuel ICBM, the mobile MRBM, or the ABM represent operational systems, but the first two indicate that the Soviet Union is progressing in a field in which they have so far lagged behind the United States, and may thus be able to deploy a hardened force at less cost than would be the case with the present liquid fuelled systems.
   No ABM system is at present capable of upsetting the strategic balance, but the appearance of the new ABM suggests that the Soviet Union is pursuing a programme similar to that of the United States. This new device corresponds to Nike-Zeus, and the previously shown aerodynamic vehicle (Griffon) provides some degree of point defence by terminal intercept, as does the American Sprint ABM.
   It is probable that the Soviet Union, like the United States, is concerned to provide a defence against the limited strategic forces of the small nuclear powers - Britain, France, and soon China. But in the public Soviet pronouncements on their ABM, the system is described as intended to provide protection against current American missiles, not against those which the other nuclear powers may develop. It has been the practice of the Soviet Union in post-war years to make major investments in defensive systems. In the case of ABMs, little thought seems to have been given to the possibility that the United States would regard them as destabilizing and would respond by an ABM deployment of its own, and possibly by increasing the numbers of its offensive missiles as well.
   Sino-Soviet relations have not been improved by differences of view over the handЭng of the Vietnam situation ; but they have not deteriorated to the point at which numbers of forces deployed along the Sino-Soviet border have increased, apart from minor readjustments and some increase in border guards. Rumania's decision to cut the term of military service from two years to one can hardly have been welcomed by the other Warsaw Pact members, although the Soviet Union has itself reduced to one year the term of service of those proceeding to higher education. In the Soviet case, the numbers affected annually will not be large in relation to the total armed forces, and the gesture may indicate no more than that the 'lean years' of the low wartime birthrate have passed, so that the already fairly generous system of exemptions can be further extended in the general interests of the economy. Marshal Sokolovski claimed in February 1965 that armed forces manpower had been reduced to the level of 2,423,000 laid down in 1960, but this is thought not to be the case.
   1965 marked the tenth anniversary of the signing of the Warsaw Pact, and there has been a continuing programme of high-level consultation and joint military exercises, which culminated in May 1965 at a ten-day meeting of Defence Ministers and military commanders when new weapons and tactics were demonstrated. A recent statement by Mr Brezhnev on the question of 'improving the organization' of the Pact probably referred to changes in command structure rather than an increase in military forces. The Soviet Union has given launchers for short-range tactical missiles to some of the Warsaw Pact countries, but there is no evidence that nuclear warheads have been handed over to these countries.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ВАРШАВСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   В советской стратегическии 1964-65 гг. доминировали два события: снятие Н.С.Хрущева и демонстрация ряда новых типов ракет, свидетельствующих о прогрессе, в создании крупных твердотопливных ракет и в разработке противоракет.
   Снятие Н.С.Хрущева в октябре 1964 года, по-видимому, не было в первую очередь мотивировано недовольством его военной политикой. Военное ведомство, похоже, стояло в стороне от дела, и, несмотря на то, что большинство нынешних военных руководителей были назначенцами Хрущева, которые были связаны с ним в войну, не произошло серьезных изменений. Почти все они находятся в возрасте более шестидесяти лет и имеют осторожный и консервативный склад ума. Отставка многих из них не может быть отложена надолго, но только тогда, когда это произойдет, будущие намерения политического руководства станут полностью ясными. При новом руководстве политические деятели делали лишь минимальные ссылки на вопросы военной стратегии, а военачальники, со своей стороны, избегали публичных намеков на несогласие с государственной политикой, которые были столь характерной чертой хрущевского периода правления. Никаких видимых изменений в оборонной политике не произошло, за исключением того, что объявленное в декабре 1964 года символическое сокращение расходов на оборону, вероятно, было отменено.
   Особые обстоятельства года привели к тому, что впервые с 1955 года не существует ни одного политического деятеля, который был бы компетентен (или уполномочен) принимать закон о стратегии. В 1953-55 годах военные воспользовались возможностью возродить стратегические дискуссии, которые Сталин ранее запрещал. На этот раз все обстоит иначе, поскольку более спокойная атмосфера, царившая при Хрущеве, сделала обсуждение текущих стратегических проблем более реальными. Важных вопросов, ожидающих пересмотра, не накопилось, хотя есть несколько вопросов, ответы на которые пока не найдены.
   Советские вооруженные силы по-прежнему представляют собой тяжелое бремя для экономики и по-прежнему в основном ориентированы на худший, но наименее вероятный случай, общей ядерной войны, инициированной внезапным нападением Запада. Значение каждого из их компонентов в такой войне (и, следовательно, их размер и форма в мирное время) по-прежнему является предметом споров, равно как и вопрос об ограничении конфликтов в Европе и желательности развития потенциала для ограниченных войн за пределами Европы. Что эта дискуссия была приглушена после ухода Хрущева, не означает, что она прекратилась; и стоит отметить, что советские военные подозрения в американских намерениях, как показали предложения НАТО по ядерным силам и эскалация во Вьетнаме, звучат, во всяком случае, сильнее, чем в прошлом году. Это является убедительным свидетельством давления, с которым политические лидеры, сами бывшие коллеги и в целом сторонники Хрущева, вынуждены бороться в своих усилиях по поддержанию разрядки и сдерживанию расходов на оборону.
   Показ ракет на параде 20-летия Победы 9 мая 1965 года показала ряд новых интересных фактов. Наиболее важными были две новые ракеты, заявленные как твердотопливная и мобильная МБР, и большое цилиндрическое устройство, заявленное как баллистическая противоракета. Очень большая трехступенчатая МБР привлекла большое внимание своими размерами, но в военном отношении она имела меньшее значение, чем другие. Западные эксперты не считают, что твердотопливные МБР, мобильные БРСД, или ПРО представляют развернутые системы, но первые два указывают, что Советский Союз развивается в той сфере, в которой он до сих пор отставал от США. Возможно, таким образом, можно будет развернуть мощные силы с меньшими затратами, чем в случае с жидкостными системами.
   В настоящее время ни одна система ПРО не способна нарушить стратегический баланс. Однако появление новой системы ПРО свидетельствует о том, что Советский Союз осуществляет программу, аналогичную программе Соединенных Штатов. Это новая ракета соответствует Nike-Zeus, а ранее показанная аэродинамическая ракета (Griffon) обеспечивает в некоторой степени точечную защиту, как и американская ракета Sprint.
   Вполне вероятно, что Советский Союз, как и США, заинтересован в обеспечении обороны от ограниченных стратегических сил малых ядерных держав - Великобритании, Франции, а вскоре и Китая. Но в публичных советских заявлениях о системе ПРО, она описывается как предназначенная для обеспечения защиты от нынешних американских ракет, а не от тех, которые могут быть разработаны другими ядерными державами. В послевоенные годы Советский Союз практиковал крупные инвестиции в оборонительные системы. Что касается ПРО, то, как представляется, мало внимания уделяется возможности того, что Соединенные Штаты сочтут их дестабилизирующими и отреагируют на них своим собственным развертыванием ПРО, а возможно, и увеличением числа своих наступательных ракет.
   Китайско-советские отношения не улучшились из-за разногласий во взглядах на ситуацию во Вьетнаме, но они не ухудшились до такой степени, что численность сил, развернутых вдоль китайско-советской границы, увеличилась, за исключением незначительных корректировок и некоторого увеличения численности пограничников. Решение Румынии сократить срок военной службы с двух лет до одного вряд ли могло быть одобрено другими членами Варшавского договора, хотя сам Советский Союз сократил до одного года срок службы тех, кто поступает в высшие учебные заведения. В Советском случае число служащих год не будет большим по отношению к общей численности Вооруженных сил, и этот жест может свидетельствовать не более чем о том, что прошли "худые годы" низкой рождаемости в военное время. Так же и без того довольно щедрая система отсрочек может быть еще больше расширена в интересах экономики. Маршал Соколовский утверждал в феврале 1965 года, что численность Вооруженных сил была сокращена до уровня 2 423 000 человек, установленного в 1960 году, но это, как полагают, не так.
   В 1965 году отмечалась десятая годовщина подписания Варшавского договора, и продолжалась программа консультаций высокого уровня и совместных военных учений, кульминацией которых стало проведение в мае 1965 года десятидневной встречи министров обороны и военных командиров, на которой были продемонстрированы новые виды оружия и тактика. Недавнее заявление господина Брежнева по вопросу "совершенствования организации" пакта, вероятно, касалось изменений в структуре командования, а не увеличения вооруженных сил. Советский Союз предоставил пусковые установки для тактических ракет малой дальности некоторым странам Варшавского договора, но нет никаких доказательств того, что ядерные боеголовки были переданы этим странам.
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 228 million.
Basic military service: Army 2 years, Air Force and Navy 4 years.
Defence budget 1965: 12,800m roubles. This reflects the reduction of 500 million roubles on last year's figures announced by Mr Kosygin in December 1964. The total represents the official defence vote, and almost certainly does not include space research costs or the research and development budget for advanced weapons systems. At the official exchange rate, this figure would be approximately $14,400 million. At a more realistic exchange rate, total Soviet military expenditure, including elements not in the official budget, is probably nearer the equivalent of $40,000 million a year.
   The total size of the Soviet regular forces is now estimated to be about 3,150,000 men, a reduction from last year's estimate, which reflects to some extent the lower figure announced by Marshal Sokolovski in February of this year. The paramilitary forces, including the security and border troops of the Ministry of the Interior, have about 230,000 men.
  
   Strategic Rocket Forces
   Operational ICBMs now total around 270, an increase of about 40% on the 1964 figure.
   At least half of these are second-generation ICBMs, which are somewhat easier to protect by means of hardened sites than the first-generation launcher. Like the first, the second-generation have powerful boosters and can carry very high-yield warheads. A large three-stage rocket was put on show in Moscow this year, but there is no evidence that this could carry a 50-megaton warhead in a ballistic trajectory, or be targeted from orbital flight as the Soviets have claimed.
   The chief protection of ICBM launchers is hardening of silos, and this process has been continuing. The scope for active defence measures, such as anti-ballistic missile systems, is limited, but the Soviets have made more ambitious claims for progress in this field than those made by the United States.
   The number of MRBM and IRBM launchers still appears to be between 700 and 750. These can cover most strategic and semi-tactical targets such as fighter airfields in Western Europe, Britain, and part of the Far East. There are two types of MRBM, with ranges of 700 and 1,100 statute miles respectively. The IRBM, with a two-stage liquid-fuelled engine has a range of 2,100 miles. Some of the MRBMs are mobile-based and can be transported on lorries. The majority of MRBMs and IRBMs are based near the western, southern, and eastern borders of the Soviet Union, the remainder being based on the Pacific coast.
   The operational personnel of the Strategic Rocket Forces, under the command of Marshal Krylov, now totals about 180,000, a substantial increase over last year's figure.
  
   Air Forces
   The Air Forces comprise about 10,500 operational aircraft. (There are in addition about 800 aircraft of the Naval Air Force.)
   The total strength of the Air Forces, excluding the Naval Air Force and the ground elements of the Air Defence Command, is 510,000 men.
   The Air Forces are organized into five major components :
   (1) the Long-Range Air Force (strategic bombers);
   (2) the Tactical or front-line Force, which includes fighters and tactical bombers;
   (3) the air element of the Air Defence Command (fighter interceptors) ;
   (4) the land-based Naval Air Force (including about 400 medium bombers); and
   (5) the Air Transport Force.
   There is also an independent transport force for the airborne divisions.
   The Long-Range Air Force has been less active in recent months than it was in the latter part of 1964. It is grouped in three main areas - Western Russia, the Central Ukraine, and the Far East - and in addition has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic. Its strength in inter-continental bombers is about one-third of that of the United States Strategic Air Command's B-52 force. There is still a very strong force of medium bombers for operations in the Eurasian theatres, and the negotiations in the Geneva Disarmament Conference on a 'bomber bonfire' have indicated that the Soviet Union still considers that its medium bombers are important to its own security.
   (i) Strategic Striking Power
   (a) About 120 4-jet Bisons (M-4).
   About 80 Turbo-prop Bears (Tu-95), with a large winged air-to-surface missile. It is believed that these latter are being phased out and converted to a naval reconnaissance role.
   (b) About 900 twin-jet medium-bomber Badgers (Tu-16). Badger is now being replaced by Blinder, a high performance twin-jet supersonic bomber, which seems mainly intended for the European theatre, in the proportion of about one Blinder to every three Badgers.
   A developed version of Blinder incorporating an air-to-surface nuclear missile may also be introduced into service.
   Some of the discarded Badgers may be modified and assigned to the Naval Air Force.
   (ii) Tactical Air Power
   The strength of the Soviet Tactical Air Force has remained fairly constant for the last five years or so.
   There are at present nearly 4,000 aircraft altogether.
   These include light bombers, ground-attack and interceptor fighters, transport aircraft, helicopters, and reconnaissance aircraft.
   The aircraft in service still contain a significant proportion of obsolescent aircraft, such as the MiG-15 Fagot, MiG-17 Fresco, and the I1-28 Beagle; but it appears from the continuing introduction of new aircraft in all the various tactical roles that the Soviet government is still interested in maintaining a modern and efficient force for the European theatre. The most notable new aircraft in service are the ground-attack Fitter (Su-7), the supersonic light bomber Brewer (gradually replacing the Beagle), and the twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft Mangrove.
   (iii) Air Defence
   The extensive early-warning and air-defence system of the Soviet Union continues to expand and improve in quality.
   The total personnel of the separate Air Defence Command is now estimated at 250,000 men.
   The defence weapons now in service include:
   Surface-to-Air Missiles
   Guideline A 2-stage boosted anti-aircraft missile with an impact range of about 31 statute miles, effective to a height of over 80,000 feet.
   Griffon. A 2-stage boosted anti-aircraft missile. Its impact range is greater than that of Guideline, and its altitude capability is somewhat greater.
   Ganef. A mobile anti-aircraft or surface-tosurface missile with solid-fuel boosters. These are mounted on tracked carriers and may have been assigned to ground forces in the field.
   A new missile Galosh has been displayed at Moscow parades, for which the Soviets have claimed a long-range anti-ballistic missile capability.
   Fighters
   There are probably over 6,000 fighters in service, the majority of which are MiG-17 Fresco and MiG-19 Farmer.
   Newer aircraft include the MiG-21 Fishbed, and the Sukhoi Su-7 Fitter and Su-9 Fishpot B, all of which have a maximum speed of the order of 1,200 mph and operational ceilings of about 60,000 ft.
   The Fiddler, a long-range interceptor carrying two air-to-air missiles, might become operational at some future date, but there are no indications that the short-endurance MiG-23 Flipper has entered service.
  
Land Forces
   The total size of the Soviet Army (including the ground elements of the Air Defence Command) is now estimated at 2,000,000 men.
   It is thought to be organized in 140 divisions. There are three degrees of combat-readiness in the Soviet Army, and probably less than half the 140 divisions are at, or near, full combat-strength. The remainder could be brought up to strength at short notice, although about a quarter of the total (i.e. some 35 divisions), at the lowest degree of readiness, would require major reinforcement.
   The location of divisional headquarters is roughly as follows (bearing in mind that not all formations are up to strength):
   75 divisions in European USSR.
   22 divisions in Central USSR.
   17 divisions in the Far East.
   26 divisions in Eastern Europe (20 in East Germany, 2 in Poland, 4 in Hungary).
   The 26 divisions in the Warsaw Pact area are among those maintained at combat strength. So are at least 12 of the divisions in the Far East; the other 5 divisions there are thought to be in the second category of readiness (below combat strength, but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war). The 75 divisions in European Russia are of varying degrees of strength, but the majority of the combat-ready divisions which are not in Eastern Europe and the Far East are probably among them. The 22 divisions in Central USSR would require major reinforcement.
   By types of division, the distribution is approximately:
   (l)Tank divisions: 50 (9,000 men, and 375 medium and heavy tanks at full strength).
   (2) Motorized rifle divisions: 90 (11,000 men, 210 medium tanks at full strength).
   10 of the tank divisions are in East Germany, 1 in Poland, and 2 in Hungary. It has been estimated that the total force of 26 divisions in Central Europe could be increased to 70 within a month if mobilization and movement were unimpeded by interdiction bombing.
   The airborne forces total some 60,000 men, organized in 7 divisions. The transport fleet could lift two of these divisions and supporting elements simultaneously over short or medium ranges.
   The military doctrines of the Soviet Army still envisage a major offensive role for it in future war, and accordingly emphasize training for large-scale advance at high speed. Infantry formations contain Armoured Personnel Carriers which would enable them to advance across radio-active terrain. But it may be questioned whether the logistics and command organization of the Soviet Army are so highly developed that it could accomplish the 60-mile-per-day advance of official theory.
   Tactical nuclear weapons units are now organic to Soviet formations whether inside or outside the Soviet Union, and the conventional firepower of a Soviet division is as great as that of most divisions in NATO. The Soviet Army is also well-equipped for chemical warfare.
   Its equipment includes:
   (i) Tanks
   Tanks in service include the T-34 medium, the T-54/55 medium with a 100mm gun, the PT-76 amphibious tank, and the T-10 heavy with a 122mm gun. The new T-62 medium, with a 115mm gun, is now replacing some of the T-54 in front line units. Most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing, and some carry infra-red fighting equipment.
   (ii) Artillery
   The main types are 122mm, 130mm, and 152mm. The main anti-tank equipment is 57mm, 85mm, and 100mm guns, and the Snapper, Sagger, and Swatter missiles. Self-propelled assault guns are becoming obsolete except in airborne divisions. The Soviet Army also has a considerable air defence capability, including surface-to-air missiles.
   (iii) Missiles
   Tactical missiles in use by the ground forces include those of the Frog and Scud series, which are carried on modified tank chassis and have ranges of up to 150 miles according to the type of warhead carried. There is also a larger cruise missile, Shaddock, with a range of up to 300 miles.
  
   Sea Power
   The total strength of the Soviet Navy and naval air force is 450,000 men. In total tonnage, it is the second largest navy in the world, and its main strength still lies in the submarine fleet. There are indications that the Naval Air Force and the missile-bearing submarines have an increasingly important role in Soviet strategy.
   (i) Submarines
   There are now some 370 conventionally powered and 40 nuclear-powered submarines. (Nuclear submarine production appears to have settled down to the rate of about ten a year.) At least 40 can fire ballistic missiles, and carry an average of three each. Over 300 are oceangoing. The four submarine fleets are distributed as follows: 70 in the Baltic fleet, 150 in the Arctic, 50 in the Black Sea, and about 120 in the Far East. The 40 missile-carrying submarines are divided between the Arctic and Far East fleets.
   (ii) Sea-to-ground Missiles
   It is now believed that the Soviets have successfully developed submerged firing of a missile which may equate to one known as Sark, which has been shown on Moscow Parades. It is probably being gradually introduced into service, but it is not yet thought to have achieved the range of the Polaris missiles. Some nuclear and conventionally powered submarines are equipped with a cruise missile which has a range of between 300 and 500 miles.
   (iii) Tactical Missiles
   Some ships and submarines are known to be fitted with cruise missiles, primarily for anti-ship use. However, these might be used against shore targets, and in the case of submarines, would be fired from the surface and from fairly long range.
   (iv) Naval Air Force
   There are no aircraft-carriers in the Soviet Navy. The land-based Naval Air Force comprises about 400 bomber and 400 other aircraft. Most of the bombers are based on the northwestern and south-western shores of the Soviet Union. They comprise:
   (a) The Tu-16 Badger with a range of 3,500 miles. The partial replacement of this aircraft with a version of the Blinder has begun.
   (b) The Tu-95 Bear is being adapted for naval reconnaissance missions.
   (c) A small number of I1-28 Beagles with torpedos.
   (d) In the ASW role, Madge flying boats and Hound helicopters are used. Madge may be replaced by the turbo-prop flying boat Mail.
   (e) The Mallow twin-jet flying boat is also believed to be in service.
   (v) Surface Ships
   The surface ships of the Soviet Navy consist of the following:
   Cruisers 20 (of which 2 carry surface-to-air missiles)
   Destroyers 80 (of which 10 carry surface-to-air missiles and 16 anti-ship cruise missiles)
   Other ocean-going escorts 140
   Coastal escorts and submarine chasers 170
   Fast patrol boats, many with shortrange surface-to-surface missiles 400
   Minesweepers 500
   Other vessels 1,200
   (A number-of adapted trawlers are used for radar and reconnaissance purposes.)
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
   The cruisers are of three different types:
   Sverdlov (one or two have been re-equipped with medium-range surface-to-air missile launchers, perhaps as an experiment);
   Chapayev; and Kirov.
   New destroyers include Kynda class, Kashin class, Krupny class, Kildin class, and Kotlin class.
   Recent Soviet comment has indicated a renewed interest in amphibious forces.
   There is a small marine corps of perhaps 3,000 men, units of which are stationed with the Baltic, Black Sea, and Pacific Fleets.
  
Para-military forces
   The security and border troops now number some 230,000. There are also perhaps about 1 1\2 million DOSAAF members, who participate in such activities as athletics, shooting, and parachuting, but reservist training and refresher courses seem to be haphazard and irregular.
  
   СОВЕТСКИЙ СОЮЗ
Население: 228 миллионов.
Военная служба: армия 2 года, ВВС и флот 4 года.
Оборонный бюджет 1965 года: 12 800 млн. рублей. Это отражает сокращение на 500 миллионов в прошлом году цифры, озвученной Косыгиным в декабре 1964 года. Общая сумма представляет собой официальное оборонные расходы и почти наверняка не включает расходы на космические исследования или бюджет на исследования и разработки передовых систем вооружений. По официальному курсу, то эта цифра будет примерно 14,400 млн. долл. При более реалистичном обменном курсе общие советские военные расходы, включая элементы, не включенные в официальный бюджет, вероятно, ближе к эквиваленту 40 000 млн. долл. США в год.
   Общая численность советских регулярных войск в настоящее время оценивается примерно в 3 150 000 человек, что меньше прошлогодней оценки, которая в некоторой степени отражает более низкий показатель, объявленный маршалом Соколовским в феврале этого года. Военизированные формирования, включая силы безопасности и пограничные войска Министерства внутренних дел, насчитывают около 230 000 человек.
  
   Ракетные Войска Стратегического Назначения
   Число развернутых МБР сейчас составляет около 270, увеличившись примерно на 40% в 1964 году.
   По крайней мере половина из них - МБР второго поколения, которые легче защитить в упрочненных объектах, чем пусковые установки первого поколения. Как и первое, второе поколение имеет мощные двигатели и может нести очень мощные боеголовки. Большая трехступенчатая ракета была показана в Москве в этом году, но нет никаких доказательств того, что она может нести 50-мегатонную боеголовку по баллистической траектории или быть нацелена с орбитальной траектории, как утверждали Советы.
   Главной защитой пусковых установок МБР является упрочнение шахт, и этот процесс продолжается. Масштабы активных мер защиты, таких как система противоракетной обороны, ограничены, но Советы сделали более амбициозные претензии на прогресс в этой области, чем США.
   Число пусковых установок БРСД по-прежнему от 700 до 750. Они могут охватывать большинство стратегических и тактических целей, таких как аэродромы в Западной Европе, Великобритании и части Дальнего Востока. Существует два типа БРСД, с дальностями в 700 и 1100 миль соответственно (Р-5 и Р-12 -ЕТ). БРСД с двухступенчатым жидкостным двигателем имеет дальность 2100 миль (Р-14 -ЕТ). Некоторые из них мобильны и могут перевозиться на грузовиках. Большинство БРСД базируются вблизи западных, южных и восточных границ Советского Союза, остальные на тихоокеанском побережье.
   Оперативный состав Ракетных войск стратегического назначения под командованием Маршала Крылова в настоящее время составляет около 180 тыс. человек, что значительно больше прошлогоднего показателя.
  
   Воздушные Силы
   Военно-воздушные силы насчитывают около 10 500 самолетов. (Имеется дополнительно около 800 самолетов ВМФ.)
   Общая численность военно-воздушных сил, без учета авиации ВМФ и наземных ПВО, 510,000 человек.
   Воздушные Силы организованы в пять основных компонентов :
   (1) дальняя авиация (стратегические бомбардировщики);
   (2) тактическая или фронтовая авиация, в состав которой входят истребители и тактические бомбардировщики;
   (3) воздушный элемент командования противовоздушной обороны (истребители-перехватчики) ;
   (4) морская авиация наземного базирования (в том числе около 400 средних бомбардировщиков); и
   5) Военно-транспортная авиация.
   Существуют также независимые транспортные силы для Воздушно-десантных дивизий.
   В последние месяцы ВВС дальнего действия были менее активны, чем во второй половине 1964 года. Они сгруппированы в трех основных областях - Западная Россия, Центральная Украина и Дальний Восток. Кроме того, имеют промежуточные аэродромы в Арктике. Число межконтинентальных бомбардировщиках составляет около одной трети от числа B-52 Стратегического воздушного командования Соединенных Штатов. По-прежнему существует очень сильная группировка средних бомбардировщиков для операций на евразийских театрах. Переговоры на Женевской конференции по разоружению в вопросе сокращения бомбардировщиков показали, что Советский Союз по-прежнему считает, что его средние бомбардировщики важны для его собственной безопасности.
   (i) Дальняя авиация
   а) около 120 4-реактивных Bison (М-4).
   Около 80 турбовинтовых Bear (Ту-95), с большой крылатой ракетой класса "воздух-земля". Считается, что эти последние постепенно выводятся из эксплуатации и переоборудуются в военно-морские разведчики.
   (b) около 900 двух двигательных бомбардировщиков среднего класса Badger (Ту-16). Badger в настоящее время заменяется на Blinder (Ту-22 -ЕТ), сверхзвуковой бомбардировщик с двумя реактивными двигателями, который предназначен для европейского театра, в пропорции около один Blinder на каждые три Badger.
   Возможно введен в эксплуатацию вариант Blinder с ядерной ракетой класса "воздух-поверхность".
   Некоторые из снятых Badger могут быть модифицированы и переданы военно-морским силам.
   (ii) Фронтовая авиация
   Численность советских тактических ВВС оставалась довольно постоянной в течение последних пяти лет или около того.
   В настоящее время насчитывается почти 4000 самолетов.
   Это легкие бомбардировщики, истребители-перехватчики, транспортные самолеты, вертолеты, разведывательные самолеты.
   Самолеты, находящиеся в эксплуатации, по-прежнему содержат значительную долю устаревших самолетов, таких как МиГ-15 Fagot, МиГ-17 Fresco и I1-28 Beagle; но, судя по продолжающемуся внедрению новых самолетов во всех тактических ролях, Советское правительство по-прежнему заинтересовано в сохранении современных и эффективных сил для европейского ТВД. Наиболее заметными новыми самолетами в эксплуатации являются штурмовик (Су-7), сверхзвуковой легкий бомбардировщик Brewer (Як-28Б - ЕТ) (постепенно заменяющий Beagle) и двухмоторный разведывательный самолет Mangrove (Як-25РВ).
   (III) ПВО
   Обширная система раннего предупреждения ПВО Советского Союза продолжает расширяться и улучшаться качественно.
   Численность личного состава командования ПВО оценивается в 250 000 человек.
   В настоящее время на вооружении:
   Ракеты класса "земля-воздух"
   Guideline A (С-75 -ЕТ) 2-ступенчатая зенитная ракета с дальностью около 31 миль, высотой более 80 000 футов.
   Griffon (Даль на вооружение не принята -ЕТ). 2-ступенчатая зенитная ракета. Больше предыдущей.
   Ganef (Круг). Мобильная зенитная ракета с твердотопливными ускорителями. На гусеничных шасси и, возможно, предназназначены для сухопутных войск.
   На московских парадах была продемонстрирована новая ракета Galosh, о которой Советы заявили как о ракете противоракетной обороны большой дальности.
   Истребители
   На вооружении, вероятно, находится более 6000 истребителей, большинство из которых МиГ-17 Fresco и МиГ-19 Farmer.
   Более новые самолеты включают в себя МиГ-21 Fishbed, Су-7 Fitter и Су-9 Fishpot-B, все имеют максимальную скорость порядка 1200 миль в час и эпотолок около 60 000 футов.
   Fiddler (Ту-128 -ЕТ), дальний перехватчик, несущий 2 ракеты воздух-воздух, может быть развернут в будущем. Нет никаких признаков, что ближний МиГ-23 Flipper был принят на вооружение (Е-152, на вооружение не принят -ЕТ).
  
   Сухопутные войска
   Общая численность советской армии (вкл. наземные силы ПВО) в настоящее время оценивается в 2 000 000 человек.
   Предполагается, что они сведены в 140 дивизий. Есть три степени боевой готовности в Советской Армии, и, вероятно, менее половины из 140 подразделений в полном боевом составе. Остальные могут быть усилены в кратчайшие сроки, хотя примерно четверть от общего числа (т. е. примерно 35 дивизий), в самой низкой степени готовности, потребует значительных подкреплений.
   Расположение дивизий примерно следующее (С учетом того, что не все формирования имеют достаточную численность):
   75 дивизий в Европейской части СССР.
   22 дивизии в Центральной части СССР.
   17 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке.
   26 дивизий в Восточной Европе (20 в Восточной Германии, 2 в Польше, 4 в Венгрии).
   26 дивизий в странах Варшавского договора относятся к числу тех, которые содержаться в полном боевом составе. Таковы же, по крайней мере, 12 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке; остальные 5 дивизий там, как полагают, во 2-й категории готовности (не требуют серьезного подкрепления в случае войны). 75 дивизий в европейской части России имеют разную силу, но большинство из них дивизий укомплектованы хуже чем в Восточной Европе и на Дальнем Востоке. 22 дивизии в центральной части СССР потребуют серьезного усиления.
   По типам деления распределение приблизительно:
   (l) Танковые дивизии: 50 (9 000 человек и 375 средних и тяжелых танков в полном составе).
   (2) Мотострелковые дивизии: 90 (11 000 человек, 210 средних танков в полном составе).
   10 танковых дивизий находятся в ГДР, 1 в Польше и 2 в Венгрии. Согласно оценкам, общая численность 26 дивизий в Центральной Европе может быть увеличена до 70 в течение месяца, если мобилизация и переброска не будут сдерживаться бомбардировками.
   Воздушно-десантные силы насчитывают около 60 000 человек, сведенных в 7 дивизий. Транспортный флот мог бы одновременно перебрасывать две дивизии со средствами поддержки на короткие или средние расстояния.
   Военная доктрина Советской Армии по-прежнему провозглашает главной наступательную роль армии в будущей войне и, соответственно, делает упор на подготовку к крупномасштабному наступлению с высокой скоростью. Пехотные формирования имеют бронетранспортеры, которые позволят им продвигаться по радиоактивной местности. Но может возникнуть вопрос, настолько ли развиты материально-техническое обеспечение и командная организация Советской Армии, чтобы она могла выполнять дневные 60-мильные продвижения официальной теории.
   Тактические ядерные подразделения теперь органичны для советских формирований как внутри, так и за пределами Советского Союза, а обычная огневая мощь советской дивизии столь же велика, как и у большинства дивизий в НАТО. Советская армия также хорошо оснащена для ведения химической войны.
   В их оснащение входят:
   (i) Танки
   В эксплуатации средний Т-34, средний Т-54/55 со 100-мм пушкой, амфибийный танк ПТ-76 и тяжелый Т-10 с 122-мм пушкой. Новый Т-62 средний, с 115мм пушкой, теперь заменит Т-54 в первой линии частей. Большинство советских танков оборудовано для переправ по дну, а некоторые несут инфракрасное оборудование.
   (ii) Артиллерия
   Основные калибры 122мм, 130мм и 152мм. Основным противотанковое вооружение 57мм, 85мм и 100мм пушки, и Snapper, Sagger, и Swatter ракеты (Шмель, Малютка и Фаланга -ЕТ). Самоходные штурмовые орудия устарели, кроме разве что АСУ в Воздушно-десантных дивизиях. Советская армия тоже имеет сильную ПВО, включая зенитные ракеты.
   (iii) Ракеты
   Тактические ракеты, используемые сухопутными войсками, включают ракеты серии Frog и Scud (Луна и Р-11 -ЕТ), которые перевозятся на модифицированном танковом шасси и имеют дальность до 150 миль в зависимости от типа боеголовки. Существует также большая крылатая ракета, Shaddock (ФКР-2 -ЕТ), с дальностью до 300 миль.
  
   Военно-морской флот
   Общая численность Военно-Морского Флота и морской авиации СССР составляет 450 тыс. человек. По общему тоннажу, это второй по величине флот в мире, и его основная сила по-прежнему в подводном флоте. Есть признаки того, что морская авиация и ракетоносные подводные лодки играют все более важную роль в советской стратегии.
   (i) Подводные лодки
   Сейчас насчитывается около 370 дизельных и 40 атомных подводных лодок. (Производство атомных подводных лодок, как представляется, составляет примерно до десяти в год.) По меньшей мере, 40 несут баллистические ракеты, по три ракеты каждая. Более 300 океанских лодок. Подводный флот распределен следующим образом: 70 на Балтийском, 150 на Северном, 50 на Черноморском и около 120 на Тихоокеанском флотах. 40 ракетоносцев разделены между Северным и Тихоокеанским флотами.
   (ii) ракеты класса море-земля
   В настоящее время считается, что Советы успешно разработали ракету подводного старта, известную как Sark (Serb/Р-21 -ЕТ), которая была показана на московских парадах. Они, вероятно, постепенно вводятся в эксплуатацию, но еще не считается достигнутым дальность ракет Polaris. Некоторые атомные и дизельные подводные лодки оснащены крылатыми ракетами с дальностью полета от 300 до 500 миль (П-5 -ЕТ).
   (iii) Тактические ракеты
   Известно, что некоторые корабли и подводные лодки оснащены крылатыми ракетами, в первую очередь противокорабельными. Однако они могут использоваться и против береговых целей, в случае подводных лодок пускаются с поверхности на достаточно большую дальность.
   (iv) Морская авиация
   В ВМФ СССР нет авианосцев. Морская авиация базирования насчитывают около 400 бомбардировщиков и 400 других самолетов. Большинство бомбардировщиков базируются на северо-западном и юго-западном побережьях Советского Союза. Они включают:
   (а) самолеты Ту-16 Badger с дальностью 3500 миль. Началась частичная замена этого самолета на Blinder (Ту-22 -ЕТ).
   (b) Ту-95 Bear адаптируется для военно-морских разведывательных миссий.
   (c) небольшое число Ил-28 Beagles с торпедами.
   (d) в качестве противолодочных используются летающие лодки Madge и вертолеты Hound (Бе-6 и Ми-4ПЛ -ЕТ.). Madge может быть заменены на турбовинтовые Mail (Бе-12 -ЕТ).
   (e) предполагается также, что в эксплуатации находится двухдвигательная реактивная летающая лодка Mallow (Б-10 -ЕТ)
   (v) Надводные корабли
   Надводные корабли ВМФ СССР состоят из следующих кораблей:
   20 крейсеров (2 из которых несут зенитные ракеты)
   Эсминцы 80 (из которых 10 несут ракеты класса "земля-воздух" и 16 противокорабельные крылатые ракеты)
   Другие океанские сторожевые корабли 140
   Береговое сторожевики и охотники 170
   Быстроходные патрульные катера, многие с ракетами класса "земля-земля" 400
   Тральщики 500
   Другие суда 1,200
   (Ряд приспособленных траулеров используется для целей радиолокации и разведки.)
   Часть эсминцев и небольших судов может быть не полностью укомплектована.
   Крейсеры трех типов:
   Свердлов (один или два были оснащены ракетными установками средней дальности "земля-воздух" в качестве эксперимента);
   Чапаев; и Киров.
   Новые эсминцы: Kynda (пр.58 -ЕТ), Kashin (пр.61 -ЕТ), Krupny (пр.57 -ЕТ), Kildin (пр.56М -ЕТ) и Ketlin (пр.56 -ЕТ).
   Недавний советский комментарий указывает на возобновление интереса к десантным силам.
   Существует небольшой корпус морской пехоты численностью около 3000 человек, подразделения которого дислоцированы с Балтийским, Черноморским и Тихоокеанским флотами.
  
   Военизированные силы
   В настоящее время численность сил безопасности и пограничных войск составляет около 230 000 человек.
   Имеются также около 1,5 миллиона членов ДОСААФ, которые участвуют в таких мероприятиях, как легкая атлетика, стрельба и парашютный спорт, но подготовка резервистов и курсы повышения квалификации кажутся случайными и нерегулярными.
  
  
   POLAND
Population: 31,500,000.
Length of military service: Army 18 months; Air Force, Navy, and special services 3 years. Internal security forces: 27 months.
Total regular forces: 277,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 23,459,000,000 zloty ($978,000,000).
Army Total strength: 215,000.
   14 divisions: 4 armoured, 9 motorized, 1 airborne.
   There are nearly 3,000 tanks, mostly T-54s.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   8 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   110 other ships, including 12 minesweepers and an amphibious squadron.
   70 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17.
Air Force Total strength: 45,000.
   There are 1,000 aircraft.
   5 fighter ground-attack regiments (mainly MiG-15s).
   15 fighter regiments (mainly MiG-17s).
   1 bomber regiment (I1-28).
   Surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 45,000 security and border troops, including armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force.
   It was announced in July 1965 that these would be integrated with the regular forces.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,000,000.
Length of military service : 2 years.
Total regular forces: 235,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 10,220,000,000 crowns ($715,000,000).
Army Total strength: 200,000.
   14 divisions: 4 tanks, 10 motorized.
   There are 3,000 tanks, of which a considerable proportion are now T-lOs and T-54s.
   The army is now at about 80 % of combat strength.
Air Force Total strength: 35,000.
   700 first-line aircraft, organized in
   5 interceptor regiments with MiG-17s, 19s, and 21s, and
   4 ground-attack regiments with MiG-17s, and a number of MiG-15s in a fighter-bomber role.
   Transport units are equipped with Il-14s, I1-18, and An-2.
   There are surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 35,000.
  
   EAST GERMANY
Population: 17,000,000.
Length of military service: normally 18 months.
Total regular forces: 112,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 2,800,000,000 Ostmarks ($665,000,000).
Army Total strength: 80,000.
   The army is organized in 2 army corps. There is a total of 6 divisions, 2 armoured and 4 motorized.
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   4 escorts.
   22 minesweepers.
   50 motor torpedo boats.
   80 other vessels.
   Some landing craft are under construction.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000.
   There are some 400 aircraft, organized in 2 air divisions of interceptors.
   Each division comprises 3 wings of 3 squadrons, mainly MiG-17s and 21s, and a few MiG-19s.
   There are surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 70,000 security and border troops.
   There is also intensive military training among some units of the Kampfgruppen.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,000,000.
Length of military service: a maximum of 3 years.
Total regular forces: 109,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 5,757,000,000 forints ($246,000,000).
Army Total strength: 100,000.
   6 divisions: 1 armoured, 5 motorized.
   There are about 1,000 tanks, mainly T-34s with some T-54s.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000. 150 aircraft.
   3 interceptor regiments, each of 2 groups of 3 squadrons. At least one squadron is now equipped with MiG-21s.
   The rest of the interceptor force still has MiG-17s.
   There are surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 35,000.
   There is a Danube flotilla of 15 patrol vessels and a training ship.
  
   ROUMANIA
Population: 19,000,000.
Length of military service : 1 year.
Total regular forces: 198,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 4,540,000,000 lei ($250,000,000).
Army Total strength: 175,000.
   11 divisions.
   1 tank division.
   10 motorized divisions.
   Some separate mountain brigades.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   1 submarine.
   2 destroyers.
   6 escort vessels.
   14 minesweepers.
   40 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000. 300 aircraft.
   3 fighter divisions, each possessing 2 regiments of 3 squadrons.
   Mainly MiG-17s, but MiG-21 s are now entering service.
   There is also 1 light bomber regiment with Il-28s.
   There are surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 60,000.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,100,000.
Length of military service : 2 years.
Total regular forces: 152,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 231,000,000 leva ($115,500,000)
Army Total strength: 125,000.
   11 divisions: 3 armoured, 8 motorized. They are now at about 60% of combat strength.
   There are over 2,000 tanks, mainly T-54s with some T-34s.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   3 submarines.
   2 destroyers.
   80 other vessels, including 20 minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000. 400 aircraft.
   3 interceptor groups and a reconnaissance group, each with MiG-17s and some MiG-21s.
   A fighter-bomber group has MiG-17s.
   Surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 15,000.
  
   ALBANIA
Population: 1,900,000.
Length of military service: Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy, and special units, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 38,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 2,875,000,000 leks ($29,000,000).
   Albania does not collaborate in any way with the other members of the Warsaw Pact, to which it still nominally adheres.
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   6 brigades, some armoured units with T-34 tanks.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   4 submarines.
   4 submarine chasers.
   8 minesweepers.
   14 motor torpedo boats.
   23 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 5,000.
   100 aircraft, including 2 squadrons of MiG-17s, and some 11-14 and An-2 transports.
   There are surface-to-air missiles.
Para-military forces 12,500.

CHINA

Population: 650,000,000 (Chen Yi's 1965 estimate).
Military service (selective): Army 4 years, Air Force 5 years, Navy 6 years.
Total regular forces: 2,486,000 plus.
  
   Certain changes have taken place in the Chinese armed forces over the past year. In January 1965, the length of military service in each arm of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was increased by one year. It is believed that the measure was motivated primarily by a need to raise technical standards, and that the selective annual intake of new recruits (thought to be about 700,000) will be scaled down so as tС maintain existing manpower levels. Some temporary rise may, however, have occurred. Logistics and organizational problems would seem to bar any large-scale rise in Chinese regular military manpower, which is adequate for defence needs at the present time.
   A second major change took place in June 1965, when ranks and insignia were abolished (a reversion to the situation prior to 1955), and the uniforms of the three services made similar in style. The move was officially said to be aimed at allowing fuller expression of revolutionary spirit and at improving solidarity among military personnel. But it is likely that the Chinese Communist Party had become apprehensive about the loyalty of the officer corps to the Party, and wished to enhance the influence of political commissars by obscuring their difference of function from military commanders. It is noteworthy that the new C-in-C of the Air Force, Wu Fa-hsien, was formerly its political commissar, and has been promoted over the heads of several officers previously senior to him. The Air Force is reported to have been more affected by the reduction in Soviet military aid than the other two services. There has been little other sign of potential dissidence within the armed forces, although Ho Lung, an important member of the government with military interests, alluded to the question in an article published for Army Day (1 August).
   Mao Tse-tung, entering his 73rd year, continues to exert a preponderant influence on the strategy and tactics of the PLA, as did Stalin on Soviet military doctrine. Mao stresses the importance of the People's War, from whose lessons, he claims, a politically conscious nation-in-arms can learn to defeat any invader. He argues that while modern weapons are important factors in warfare, man is the decisive one, and that even nuclear wars must be won on the ground, where the size of the Chinese population would be an impossible factor for an aggressor to cope with.
   Despite these bold estimates, Mao's actual strategy is based on caution : despise the enemy strategically but take full account of him tactically (i.e. in the short term). The military posture of the Chinese in Asia represents an implicit acceptance of their vulnerability, in the absence of assured Soviet support, to attack by United States forces. China has done little in the Indochina conflict to provoke American counter-action, and has kept propaganda on her nuclear explosions to a minimum, evidently seeking to avoid risking a strike against Chinese nuclear sites. By this policy, China appears to believe that she can support limited wars in Asia with a considerable degree of safety (although Chinese leaders have lately claimed that they have taken precautions against possible attack by the United States).
   China is thought to have up to 15 divisions in Tibet, of which at least six are stationed near the borders with India, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. They have constructed 25 airfields or air-strips in Tibet, of which at least two are capable of taking light bombers. They have completed two seven-ton roads leading from China through Tibet up to the Himalayas, and also the lateral road along the entire frontier from the N.E.F.A. to Kashmir, though probably not all the bridges involved.
   On 14 May 1965, China announced the explosion of a second nuclear device (the first had been in October 1964 and was estimated to have been about 20 kilotons), and said that she was conducting nuclear tests 'within defined limits'. The wording could be interpreted as meaning that the device was airborne and that further tests will follow. The fissile material was U-235 in both instances. It is believed that the material was not supplied by the Soviet Union, and that China has succeeded in constructing and is now operating a gaseous diffusion plant.
   The continued use of U-235 would mean that China has set her sights on acquiring thermonuclear weapons and that this aim might be achieved within the next few years. But until it becomes clear what form of delivery system the Chinese propose to develop, doubts must remain about her long-term objectives. Meanwhile, a small number of obsolescent Tu-4 medium bombers are the only strategic means of delivery she possesses, and she might choose to build up a stockpile of fission weapons for these.
   The Chinese have not commented on the state of their missile programme or on whether they intend developing a Chinese-designed bomber. China is unlikely to have her own advanced nuclear delivery system for some years to come, but may consider that less sophisticated means of delivery will still make the Chinese bomb credible, particularly in the Asian theatre. However, it has been reported that China is constructing a Soviet-type G-class submarine, i.e. conventionally-powered and able to fire three missiles with a range of about four hundred miles.
   Most of the PLA's equipment remains Soviet in origin, delivered before military supplies were curtailed in 1960. It is mainly of Second World War vintage; while it is obsolescent by Western standards, it is durable and is obviously adequate for such limited actions as occurred against India in 1962. It is clear from arms shipments to Cambodia that there is also a growing percentage of Chinese-manufactured equipment, chiefly of infantry type. Chinese industry is also known to have produced medium artillery and some tanks. There is a shortage of heavy armoured equipment and motor transport, the latter restricting strategic mobility in the absence of a fully developed railway system. Tactical mobility, on the other hand, is good, especially over difficult terrain, where the rigorous training and endurance of the Chinese infantryman enables small units to move rapidly.
   No reliable figures are available on China's defence expenditure, or on the burden on the economy which it represents.

КИТАЙ

Население: 650,000,000 (оценка Чэнь и 1965).
Военная служба (выборочно): армия 4 года, ВВС 5 лет, флот 6 лет.
Численность регулярных сил: 2,486,000+.
  
   За прошедший год в Вооруженных силах Китая произошли определенные изменения. В январе 1965 года продолжительность военной службы в подразделениях Народно-освободительной армии (НОАК) была увеличена на один год. Считается, что эта мера была продиктована прежде всего необходимостью повышения технических стандартов и что выборочный ежегодный набор новых солдат (предположительно около 700 000 человек) будет сокращен, с тем чтобы сохранить существующую численность. Однако, возможно, произошел некоторый временный подъем. Логистика и организационные проблемы черта любого масштабного роста китайских регулярных военных сил, являются достаточными для нужд обороны в настоящее время.
   Второе крупное изменение произошло в июне 1965 года, когда были упразднены звания и знаки отличия (возвращение к ситуации, существовавшей до 1955 года), а униформа трех видов вооруженных сил стала схожей по стилю. Официально было заявлено, что этот шаг направлен на обеспечение более полного выражения революционного духа и укрепление солидарности между военнослужащими. Но вполне вероятно, что Коммунистическая партия Китая стала опасаться нелояльности офицерского корпуса к партии и желала усилить влияние политических комиссаров, скрывая от военных командиров различия в их функциях. Примечательно, что новый командующий ВВС, Ву Фа Сянь, бывший политработник, и был возвышен над несколькими офицерами, которые ранее были старше его. Сообщается, что сокращение советской военной помощи в большей степени затронуло Военно-воздушные силы, чем два других вида. Других признаков потенциального диссидентства в Вооруженных силах было немного, хотя Хо Лунг, важный член правительства в военных вопросах, ссылался на это в статье, опубликованной к Дню Армии (1 августа).
   Мао Цзэдун, вступая в свой 73-й год, продолжает оказывать преимущественное влияние на стратегию и тактику НОАК, как и Сталин на советскую военную доктрину. Мао подчеркивает важность народной войны, уроками которой, по его словам, политически сознательная нация может научиться побеждать любого захватчика. Он утверждает, что, хотя современные вооружения являются важными факторами в войне, решающим является человек, и что даже ядерные войны должны быть выиграны на местах, где численность китайского населения была бы невозможным фактором для агрессора.
   Несмотря на эти смелые оценки, фактическая стратегия Мао основана на осторожности: стратегически презирать врага, но в полной мере учитывать его тактически (т. е. в краткосрочной перспективе). Военная позиция Китая в Азии представляет собой признание его уязвимости, в отсутствие гарантированной советской поддержки, к нападению со стороны Вооруженных сил Соединенных Штатов. Китай мало что сделал в Индокитайском конфликте, чтобы спровоцировать американские ответные действия, и сократил пропаганду о своих ядерных взрывах до минимума, очевидно, стремясь избежать риска удара по китайским ядерным объектам. С помощью этой политики Китай, по-видимому, считает, что она может поддерживать ограниченные войны в Азии со значительной степенью безопасности (хотя китайские лидеры в последнее время утверждают, что они приняли меры предосторожности против возможного нападения со стороны Соединенных Штатов).
   Считается, что Китай имеет до 15 дивизий в Тибете, из которых, по крайней мере 6 дислоцированы вблизи границ с Индией, Непалом, Сиккимом и Бутаном. Они построили в Тибете 25 аэродромов или взлетно-посадочных полос, из которых по меньшей мере два способны принимать легкие бомбардировщики. Они завершили строительство двух семитонных дорог, ведущих из Китая через Тибет до Гималаев, а также боковой дороги вдоль всей границы от N.E.F.A. до Кашмира, хотя, вероятно, не все мосты задействованы.
   14 мая 1965 года Китай объявил о взрыве второго ядерного устройства (первый произошел в октябре 1964 года и, по оценкам, составил около 20 килотонн) и заявил, что он проводит ядерные испытания "в определенных пределах". Эта формулировка может быть истолкована как означающая, что устройство находилось в воздухе и что будут проведены дальнейшие испытания. В обоих случаях расщепляющийся материал был U-235. Считается, что этот материал не поставлялся Советским Союзом и что Китай преуспел в строительстве и в настоящее время эксплуатирует газодиффузионную установку.
   Дальнейшее использование у-235 будет означать, что Китай нацелился на приобретение термоядерного оружия и что эта цель может быть достигнута в течение ближайших нескольких лет. Но пока не станет ясно, какую форму системы доставки китайцы предлагают развивать, сомнения будут остаться по поводу долгосрочных целей. Между тем, небольшое количество устаревших средних бомбардировщиков Ту-4 являются единственным стратегическим средством доставки, которым они обладают, и они могут решить создать для них запас ядерного оружия.
   Китайцы не прокомментировали состояние своей ракетной программы и то, намерены ли они разработать бомбардировщик китайского образца. Китай вряд ли будет иметь свою собственную современную систему доставки ядерного оружия в течение нескольких лет, но, возможно, сочтет, что менее сложные средства доставки все же сделают китайскую бомбу надежной, особенно на Азиатском театре действий. Тем не менее, сообщалось, что Китай строит подводную лодку советского типа G-класса, т. е. условно оснащенную и способную вести огонь тремя ракетами с дальностью около четырехсот миль.
   Большая часть вооружения НОАК остается советского производства, поставленного до прекращения военных поставок в 1960 году. Это в основном оснащение Второй мировой войны; в то время как он устарел по западным стандартам, он надежен и, очевидно, достаточен для таких ограниченных действий, как против Индии в 1962 году. Из поставок оружия в Камбоджу явствует, что растет и доля техники китайского производства, главным образом пехотного типа. Известно также, что китайская промышленность производила среднюю артиллерию и некоторые танки. Ощущается нехватка тяжелой бронетанковой техники и автомобильного транспорта, что ограничивает стратегическую мобильность в отсутствие полностью развитой железнодорожной системы. Тактическая мобильность, с другой стороны, хороша, особенно над сложной местности, где подготовка и выносливость китайского пехотинца позволяет небольшим подразделениям быстро перемещаться.
   Надежных данных о расходах Китая на оборону или о бремени для экономики, которое он представляет, не имеется.
  
Army Total strength: 2,250,000.
   The bulk of the manpower is divided among some 30 field armies, each consisting basically of three infantry divisions.
   The armies are distributed throughout 13 Military Regions.
   The senior officer of the region also commands regular air and naval forces assigned there, together with the civilian militia.
   There are believed to be 115 line divisions, plus a number of independent divisions.
   A Chinese infantry division is thought to number about 12,000 men.
   There are 4 armoured divisions, 1 or 2 airborne divisions, supporting troops, desert cavalry, and some well-equipped mountain
   divisions in Tibet.
   Heavy equipment includes items supplied earlier by the Soviet Union, such as 160mm mortars, artillery up to 155mm calibre,
   and the JS-2 heavy tank, and others produced by China herself.
   These include the T-34 tank, which is now probably being replaced by the later version T-54.
   There are serious shortages of heavy and self-propelled artillery as well as transport, while radar and electronic communications
   equipment is generally less sophisticated than modern Western or Soviet types.
   The ground forces are adequately equipped with a range of infantry weapons, light and medium mortars, rocket launchers,
   recoilless rifles, and light and medium artillery, all of which are produced in China.
   The Chinese airlift capability is probably limited to a few battalions.
Navy Total strength: 136,000 (including Naval Air Force and Marines). Ships as follows:
   4 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   12 frigate escorts.
   23 W-class submarines.
   7 other submarines (ex-Soviet).
   30 submarine chasers.
   150 MTB/FTB.
   70 motor gunboats.
   40 minesweepers.
   60 amphibious-type landing ships.
   There are about 500 naval aircraft, chiefly MiG fighters and I1-28 torpedo-carrying jet light bombers.
Air Force Total strength: 100,000. 2,300 aircraft.
   There are a few obsolescent Tu-4 medium bombers (a copy of the B-29) and possibly up to 300 I1-28 jet light bombers.
   The remaining aircraft are chiefly early model MiG-15s and -17s, with a lesser number of MiG-19s.
   Reports also speak of the presence of a small number of MiG-21s.
   There is a small air transport fleet which includes some Il-18s.
   This fleet could be supplemented by aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau, numbering about 350.
   The serviceability of aircraft may be affected by shortages of spare parts.
Air Defence Force
   This is based on an early-warning system and MiG interceptors, including possibly some MiG-21s.
Para-military forces Security and border troops number about 300,000.
   There is also a People's Armed Police force and a civilian militia of many millions.
  

OTHER COUNTRIES

   CUBA
Population: 7,630,000.
Military service : 2 i to 3 years (discretionary). Total armed forces: 116,000.
Defence estimates 1965: $213,200,000.
Army Total strength: 90,000.
   It is organized at battalion level, and is equipped with modern anti-tank missiles, T-54 tanks, SU-100 assault guns, and wheeled-APCs.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   5 frigates.
   6 Kronstadt-class coastal escorts.
   12 Komar-class missile-firing fast patrol boats.
   16 P6 P.T. boats and 40 associated small patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000.
   About 160 MiG-15s, 17s, and 19s, and 40 MiG-21s, possibly equipped with air-to-air missiles.
   Transports include 8 11-14 and about 24 Mi-4 troop-carrying helicopters.
   MiG-15 and T-33 jet trainers.
Reserves There is a well-trained militia of about 200,000 men and women.
The Soviet forces in Cuba, now mainly instructors and advisers, have been reduced to below 3,000 men.
   They are equipped with modern weapons, which include a surface-to-surface missile with a range of about 25 miles for use in the
   coastal defence organization. There are 24 surface-to-air missile sites.
   These were Soviet-manned, but are now believed to be under Cuban control.
  
  NORTH KOREA
Population: 12,000,000.
Military service: conscription.
Total armed forces: 353,000.
Army Total strength: 325,000 men.
   18 active divisions, with a mobile reserve of 5 brigades.
   About 600 tanks and 1,300 artillery pieces, of which 30-35 % are of nuclear capability.
Navy Total strength: 8,800.
   15 submarine chasers.
   1 submarine.
   10 minesweepers.
   21 motor torpedo boats.
   90 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000 men; about 500 aircraft.
   These include MiG-15s, MiG-17s, and Il-28s.
Para-military forces Total strength: 25,000.
  
  NORTH VIETNAM
Population: 17,000,000.
   The North Vietnamese armed forces receive aid from both China and the Soviet Union.
   A few MiG-15s and 17s, and possibly some MiG-21s, have been delivered from the Soviet Union.
Army Total strength: about 240,000, equivalent to 11 divisions.
   There is also a regionally organized militia of about 200,000.
   The Frontier and Coastal Security troops and the People's Armed Security Force total another 30,000.
   The Regular Army is thought to have about 100 miscellaneous armoured vehicles, which probably include some Soviet PT-76 tanks,
   made available to the anti-government forces of Laos in 1961.
   There has been a significant increase in the army's anti-aircraft capability, and it appears to have Soviet 85mm guns and
   some recently delivered SA-2 Guideline surfaceto-air missiles.
   It has otherwise no heavy equipment, and meagre transport and logistic support.
Navy Total strength: about 2,500.
   About 80 ships, mainly patrol vessels.
   North Vietnam provides help to both the Pathet Lao (in Laos) and the Viet Cong (in South Vietnam) guerrillas.

PART II. THE WESTERN ALLIANCES

THE ALLIANCE SYSTEMS

   The Western system of alliances is complex and may be modified in the years immediately ahead. At the core of the system is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which unites the United States, Canada, and Iceland with Britain, France, Germany, and nine other European countries in a collective security agreement whereby 'an attack on one country is regarded as an attack on all', and under which a permanent system of political and military planning is at present maintained.
   The United States, Britain, and France are linked with five Asian and Australasian countries in the South-East Asia Treaty Organization, a collective security treaty which does not have the same automatic provision for collective action as NATO. Britain is allied to three countries of the northern Middle East by a similar type of treaty in the Central Treaty Organization, with which the United States is associated. The United States is also joined to Australia and New Zealand by the ANZUS Pact, under which the three countries would provide mutual defence in the event of an attack on any of them. She has bilateral mutual defence treaties with Iran, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea.
   The 23 countries belonging to one or more of these treaty arrangements are normally considered the 'aligned' states of the nonCommunist world, a phrase deriving from an earlier period of East-West relations. But they are not the only countries which have defence arrangements with the Western powers. The United States is linked to 19 countries of Latin America by the Rio Pact, which makes provision for collective military action in the event of armed attack on the Americas. She also has a mutual defence assistance treaty with Spain.
   Britain and most of the 21 other countries of the Commonwealth share various forms of military training or provide assistance to each other. But the Commonwealth relationship does not impose collective action in the event of war, except under the general provisions of the UN Charter, and it is not an alliance system. However, Britain is linked by an explicit treaty relationship to Canada in NATO, to Australia, New Zealand, and Pakistan in SEATO, and to Pakistan in CENTO. She also has mutual defence agreements with Malaysia and Malta. Australia and New Zealand provide military assistance to Malaysia.
   France has residual responsibilities towards the countries of l'Union Africaine et Malagache, which includes all the African members of the former French Community except Mali.

СИСТЕМЫ АЛЬЯНСОВ

   Западная система союзов сложна и может быть изменена в ближайшие годы. В основе системы Организация Североатлантического договора (NATO), которая объединяет США, Канаду и Исландию с Великобританией, Францией, Германией, и девять других европейских стран Договором о коллективной безопасности когда нападение на одну страну расценивается как нападение на всех. Постоянно действующая система политического и военного планирования, в настоящее время сохраняется.
   Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания и Франция связаны с пятью странами Азии и Австралии в Организации Договора Юго-Восточной Азии (SEATO), договора о коллективной безопасности, который не имеет той же автоматической установки коллективных действий как NATO. Великобритания является союзником трех стран Северного Ближнего Востока по аналогичному договору в Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO), с которым связаны США. США также заключили с Австралией и Новой Зеландией в ANZUS пакт, согласно которому три страны будут оказывать взаимную защиту в случае нападения на любое из них. Они имеют двусторонние договоры о взаимной обороне с Ираном, Японией, Тайванем и Южной Кореей.
   23 страны, принадлежащие к одному или нескольким из этих договорных соглашений, обычно считаются "союзными" государствами некоммунистического мира, фраза, вытекающая из более раннего периода отношений между Востоком и Западом. Но это не единственные страны, которые имеют оборонные договоренности с западными державами. Соединенные Штаты связаны с 19 странами Латинской Америки Рио-де-Жанейрским пактом, который предусматривает коллективные военные действия в случае вооруженного нападения на Америку. У нее также есть договор о взаимной оборонной помощи с Испанией.
   Великобритания и большинство из 21 другой страны Содружества имеют различные формы военного сотрудничества и оказывают друг другу помощь. Но отношения Содружества не навязывают коллективных действий в случае войны, за исключением общих положений Устава ООН, и это не союзническая система. Однако Великобритания связана четкими договорными отношениями с Канадой в НАТО, с Австралией, Новой Зеландией и Пакистаном в SEATO и с Пакистаном в CENTO. Она также имеет соглашения о взаимной обороне с Малайзией и Мальтой. Австралия и Новая Зеландия оказывают военную помощь Малайзии.
   Франция несет ответственность за страны L'Union Africaine et Malagache, в которую входят все африканские члены бывшего французского сообщества, кроме Мали.

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The political authority of NATO is the Council, which meets in permanent session at the Organization's headquarters in Paris, and at Ministerial level at least twice a year. The highest military authority subject to the Council is the Military Committee, composed of representatives of the defence establishments of all the national governments, three of whom - the United States, Britain, and France - nominally have a special status and authority as the Standing Group.
   Subordinate to the direction of the Military Committee and the Standing Group are two major military commands, Europe and the Atlantic, and one minor one, the Channel. Only Allied Command Europe has national forces 'assigned' to its operational control in peacetime. The President of France, in September 1965, officially declared his opposition to the indefinite continuance of such an integrated system, and indicated that it must be reorganized to reflect stronger national control of national forces by 1969, the year adherence to the Treaty will become optional.
   The strategic nuclear forces of the United States, the United Kingdom, and France remain under national command and control. However, as far as American and British strategic weapons are concerned, both the two major NATO commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System, based on the US Strategic Air Command at Omaha, Nebraska, and allied officers are now stationed at the headquarters of US Strategic Air Command. In addition the United States has, since 1963, committed three Polaris submarines to the planning control of the European Command (SHAPE), and the United Kingdom has committed RAF Bomber Command in the same manner. In June 1964 a new agreement was signed on the exchange of nuclear information between the United States and the other allies.
   Three proposals have been officially put forward for improving the central direction of strategic planning and control in NATO.
   (1) An American proposal of 1963 for a multilateral force of 25 ships with 200 Polaris missiles, to be jointly owned and manned by interested allied countries. It would be under the planning control of the Supreme Commander Europe, but operationally released to him by a control group composed of representatives of the participating countries.
   (2) A British proposal of 1964 for an Atlantic Nuclear Force consisting of three or four elements: the British nuclear retaliatory forces (less those required for deployment outside the NATO area); an American contribution of strategic forces pari passu; a multilateral element manned by the interested non-nuclear powers in NATO; and a contribution of French strategic forces at an appropriate time. The control provisions would be broadly similar, except that the nuclear powers would retain an indefinite veto on the operational use of the force, with no provision for an eventual system of majority control on either a European or an Atlantic basis. (3) In May 1965 the United States proposed the creation of a 'select committee' - to comprise the three allied nuclear powers, Germany, and other interested powers - to study the whole problem of allied participation in strategic command and control, and possibly to act as an executive for the alliance.

1. Allied Command Europe

   This has its headquarters near Paris, and it covers the land area extending from the North Cape to the eastern border of Turkey; it excludes the United Kingdom, whose land defences are a national responsibility, and Portugal, which falls under Allied Command Atlantic. It also includes Danish and Norwegian coastal waters.
   The Supreme Commander (SACEUR) has been an American officer since the inception of the command fifteen years ago, and he also commands the American forces in Western Europe. The Deputy SACEUR has been a British officer, and in addition there is a Belgian officer as Deputy for nuclear planning.
   By June 1966 the number of tactical nuclear warheads stored in Western and Southern Europe will have increased by 100% over the level of 1961, and the units of delivery (missiles and tactical aircraft) now number about 2,500. The United States is the only ally which has produced nuclear warheads suitable for shortrange missiles. She retains control of these in her own forces in Europe, and of nuclear bombs or warheads deployed in conjunction with the missiles and aircraft that are owned and operated by other national forces. Under this dual system of command, which has been reinforced by a 'permissive link' or electronic lock for larger weapons, the nuclear warheads can be fired only by the Supreme Commander with the authority of" the President of the United States and the agreement of the country owning the means of delivery.
   In the whole of NATO Europe, there are some 60 'assigned' divisions, which could be augmented by about another 30 if an emergency permitted adequate time for mobilization, reinforcement, and deployment. Many of the assigned divisions (and in some cases brigades) have the Honest John nuclear missile (without nuclear warhead stocks in the case of Norway and Denmark), and the American and German forces have Sergeant and Pershing missiles at corps and army level. They are supported by some 5,500 tactical aircraft based on 220 standard NATO airfields, backed up by an elaborate system of jointly financed fuel pipelines and signal communications. A number of the aircraft and weapons in use by national forces have been jointly developed or produced by different groups of allies.
   The following field commands are subordinate to Allied Command Europe:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe has its headquarters at Fontainebleau, and its commander is a French general.
   Its ground defences consist of 27 assigned divisions provided by eight countries. All assigned forces, with the exception of some Dutch and Belgian units and some logistic units, are based in the Federal Republic of Germany, and units have been gradually moved closer to the East German border over recent years.
   The tactical air forces available include about 3,500 aircraft, of which 500 or more are American fighter-bombers. There are also British Canberras, Canadian CF-104s, and the F-104Gs of the German and other air forces that have the range to cover Eastern Europe. An integrated early-warning and air-defence system has been developed for Britain, West Germany, the Low Countries, and N.E. France. Twenty battalions of the Hawk surface-to-air missile have been deployed in the command.
   The command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group and Central Army Group. Northern Army Group is responsible for the defence of the sector north of the GЖttingen-Liege axis. It includes the British and Benelux divisions, four of the German divisions, and the Canadian brigade. It is supported by 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force, which is composed of British, Dutch, Belgian, and German units. Other land forces - American, German, and French-are under the Central Army Group, and other air forces under the corresponding air command, 4th ATAF, which includes American, German, French, and Canadian formations.
   So far seven countries have committed one or more reinforced infantry battalions to form a mobile task force to serve as a mobile reserve for NATO as a whole, with particular relevance to an emergency in Northern or South-Eastern Europe.
   Allied Forces Central Europe includes the Heligoland Bight, and would control the German North Sea fleet and part of the Dutch navy in the event of war.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe has its headquarters at Kolsaas in Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Norway, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, and the Baltic approaches. The Commander is a British general. All the Danish and Norwegian land, sea, and tactical air forces are earmarked for it, and most of their active reserves are assigned to it. Germany has assigned one division (stationed in Schleswig), two combat air wings, and its Baltic Navy.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe has its headquarters in Naples, and the commander is also the commander of the US Sixth Fleet. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece, and Turkey. The forces assigned to it include 14 divisions from Turkey, 8 from Greece, and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other divisions from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as well as the United States Sixth Fleet, which would become Striking Force South if NATO became involved in war. By reason of its geographical shape, the defence system is based on two separate regions: the Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, and the South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey, with an overall air command.
   (d) Allied Forces Mediterranean has its headquarters in Malta (now an independent country having a defence agreement with Britain which permits Britain and other NATO powers to use its facilities). AFMED is primarily responsible for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and territorial waters of the Black Sea. The national fleets and maritime air forces of Italy, Greece, and Turkey, together with the British Mediterranean Fleet (whose Commanderin-Chief acts as Commander AFMED), are earmarked for this command.

2. Allied Command Atlantic

   This has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. In the event of war, the duties of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, who is an American Admiral with a British Deputy, are (a) to participate in the strategic strike, and (b) to protect sea communications from attack by hostile forces. For these purposes seven of the eight NATO naval powers which border on the Atlantic have earmarked forces for exercises and, if need be, for war. (The eighth, France, does not.) SACLANT is responsible for the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer, including the northern North Sea. There are three subordinate commands : Western Atlantic Area, Eastern Atlantic Area, and Striking Fleet Atlantic. The nucleus of the NATO striking force has been provided by the United States Second Fleet with two or three attack carriers, but this carrier role is being abandoned.
   There are about 450 escort vessels serving in the navies of the nations concerned, of which a high proportion are wholly or partly designed for anti-submarine work. Most NATO navies are equipping and training their submarine forces primarily for ASW, and well over 150 submarines are potentially available in the Atlantic for such duties. The 8 nations in Allied Command Atlantic also have about 375 longrange land-based maritime patrol planes in operation, a large majority of which are stationed on or near American coasts. Furthermore, the United States Navy alone has over 1,000 carrier-borne specialist anti-submarine fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, of which about half are embarked at any one time. Another 300 or so are available from the other countries concerned. The overall total that could be quickly operational from carriers on Atlantic sea stations is probably around 400.
   (These estimates include units earmarked for Channel Command.)

3. The Channel Command

   The wartime role of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are earmarked for this command, as are some maritime aircraft. The Commander-in-Chief of the British Home Station acts as its commander, and control is exercised by a committee consisting of representatives of the Naval Chiefs-of-Staff of the three countries concerned.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СЕВЕРО-АТЛАНТИЧЕСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Политическим органом НАТО является совет, который заседает на постоянной сессии в штаб-квартире организации в Париже и на уровне министров не реже двух раз в год. Высшим военным органом, подотчетным совету, является военный комитет, состоящий из представителей оборонных ведомств всех национальных правительств, три из которых - Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания и Франция - номинально имеют особый статус и полномочия в качестве постоянной группы.
   В подчинении руководства военного комитета и постоянной группы находятся два крупных военных командования - в Европе и на Атлантике и одно второстепенное - Канала. Только командование НАТО в Европе "назначило" национальные силы для оперативного управления в мирное время. В сентябре 1965 года президент Франции официально заявил о своем несогласии с бессрочным сохранением такой интегрированной системы и указал, что она должна быть реорганизована, с тем чтобы отразить усиление национального контроля над национальными силами к 1969 году, когда присоединение к Договору станет факультативным.
   Стратегические ядерные силы Соединенных Штатов, Соединенного Королевства и Франции остаются под национальным командованием и контролем. Однако, американские и британские стратегические вооружения, с двумя крупными натовскими командованиями участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования на базе стратегического авиационного командования в Омахе, штат Небраска, и союзные офицеры сейчас дислоцируются в штабе Стратегического Авиационного Командования. Кроме того, с 1963 года Соединенные Штаты передали три подводные лодки Polaris под управление Европейского командования (SHAPE), а Соединенное Королевство передало Бомбардировочное командование RAF таким же образом. В июне 1964 года было подписано новое соглашение об обмене ядерной информацией между Соединенными Штатами и другими союзниками.
   Официально выдвинуты три предложения по совершенствованию центрального направления стратегического планирования и контроля в НАТО.
   (1) Американское предложение 1963 года о создании многосторонних сил в составе 25 кораблей с 200 ракетами Polaris, которые будут находиться в совместном владении заинтересованных стран НАТО и комплектоваться ими. Они будут находиться под контролем Верховного Главнокомандующего в Европе, но оперативно управляться контрольной группой в составе представителей стран-участниц.
   (2) Британское предложение 1964 года для атлантических ядерных сил, состоящих из трех или четырех элементов: британских ядерных сил (меньше, чем требуется для развертывания за пределами зоны НАТО); американский вклад стратегических сил pari passu; многосторонний элемент укомплектованный заинтересованными неядерными державами в НАТО; и включение французских стратегических сил в соответствующее время. Положения о контроле были бы в целом аналогичными, за исключением того, что ядерные державы сохраняли бы бессрочное право вето на оперативное применение сил без какого-либо положения о возможной системе контроля большинства на европейской или Атлантической основе.
   (3) В мае 1965 года Соединенные Штаты предложили создать "специальный комитет" в составе трех союзных ядерных держав - Германии и других заинтересованных держав для изучения всей проблемы участия союзников в Стратегическом командовании и управлении и, возможно, для выполнения функций исполнительного органа Североатлантического союза.

1. Союзное Командование в Европе

   Штаб-квартира находится недалеко от Парижа и охватывает территорию, простирающуюся от Северного мыса до восточной границы Турции; исключая Соединенное Королевство, чья наземная оборона является национальной ответственностью, и Португалию, которая находится под командованием союзников на Атлантике. Он также включает датские и норвежские прибрежные воды.
   Верховный Главнокомандующий (SACEUR) американский офицер с момента создания командования пятнадцать лет назад, и он также командует американскими силами в Западной Европе. Заместитель верховного главнокомандующего британский офицер, а кроме того, есть бельгийский офицер в качестве заместителя по ядерному планированию.
   К июню 1966 года количество тактических ядерных боеголовок, хранящихся в Западной и Южной Европе, увеличится на 100% по сравнению с уровнем 1961 года, а средств доставки (ракет и тактических самолетов) в настоящее время насчитывается около 2500. Соединенные Штаты являются единственным союзником, который производит ядерные боеголовки для ракет малой дальности. Они сохраняют контроль над ними в своих собственных силах в Европе, а также над ядерными бомбами или боеголовками, развернутыми вместе с ракетами и самолетами, которые принадлежат другим национальным силам и эксплуатируются ими. В рамках этой двойной системы командования, подкрепленной" разрешительной связью "или электронным замком, ядерные боеголовки могут быть выпущены только Верховным Главнокомандующим с санкции" президента Соединенных Штатов и с согласия страны, владеющей средствами доставки.
   Во всей Европе НАТО насчитывается около 60 "назначенных" дивизий, которые могут быть увеличены еще примерно на 30, если чрезвычайная ситуация даст достаточно времени для мобилизации, усиления и развертывания. Многие из назначенных дивизий (а в некоторых случаях и бригад) имеют ядерные ракеты Honest John (без ядерных боеголовок в случае Норвегии и Дании), а американские и немецкие войска имеют ракеты Sergeant и Pershing на уровне корпуса и армии. Их поддерживают около 5500 тактических самолетов, базирующихся на 220 стандартных аэродромах НАТО, обслуживаемых сложной системой совместно финансируемых топливопроводов и связи. Ряд самолетов и вооружений, используемых национальными силами, были совместно разработаны или произведены различными группами союзников.
   В подчинении командования ОВС НАТО в Европе находятся следующие полевые командования:
   (a) Вооруженных Сил Союзников в Центральной Европе имеют штаб в Фонтенбло, а командующий ими - французский генерал.
   Сухопутные войска состоят из 27 дивизий, выделенных восемью странами. Все назначенные силы, за исключением некоторых голландских и бельгийских подразделений и некоторых подразделений материально-технического снабжения, базируются в Федеративной Республике Германии, и в последние годы подразделения постепенно перемещаются ближе к восточногерманской границе.
   Тактические воздушные силы включают в себя около 3500 самолетов, из которых 500 или больше американских истребителей-бомбардировщиков. Есть также Британские Canberras, канадские CF-104, и F-104G немецких и других военно-воздушных сил, которые имеют диапазон для покрытия Восточной Европы. Интегрированная система раннего предупреждения и противовоздушной обороны была создана для Великобритании, Западной Германии, стран Бенилюкс и Франции. В составе командования развернуто 20 батальонов зенитной ракеты Hawk.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную и Центральную группы армий. Северная группа армий отвечает за оборону сектора к северу от оси Геттинген-Льеж. Она включает британские и Бенилюкс дивизии, 4 немецкие дивизии и канадскую бригаду. Она поддерживается 2-ми союзными тактическими ВВС (2th ATAF), которые состоят из британских, голландских, бельгийских и немецких подразделений. Прочих сухопутные силы - американские, немецкие, французской - в Центральной группе армий. И прочие воздушные силы под соответствующую воздушным командованием, 4th ATAF, которое включает американские, немецкие, французские, и канадские подразделения.
   До настоящего времени семь стран обязались сформировать по одному или несколько усиленных пехотных батальонов в качестве мобильного резерва для НАТО в целом, с особым учетом чрезвычайной ситуации в Северной или Юго-Восточной Европе.
   Союзные силы Центральной Европы включают Гельголандскую бухту, и будут контролировать немецкий флот Северного моря и часть голландского флота в случае войны.
   (b) Союзных Сил в Северной Европе имеют штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе, Норвегия, и отвечают за оборону Норвегии, Дании, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна и балтийских проходов. Командующий британский генерал. В них выделяются все сухопутные, морские и тактические военно-воздушные силы Дании и Норвегии, а также большая часть их активных резервов. Германия назначила одну дивизию (дислоцированную в Шлезвиге), два боевых воздушных крыла и Балтийский флот.
   (с) Союзных Сил в Южной Европе имеют штаб-квартиру в Неаполе, а их командующий также является командующим 6-м флотом США. Он отвечает за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции. В их состав входят 14 дивизий из Турции, 8 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические военно-воздушные силы этих стран. Другие подразделения из этих трех стран были выделены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-ой флот Соединенных Штатов, который станет ударной силой на юге, если НАТО станет участвовать в войне. В силу своей географической формы система обороны состоит из двух отдельных регионов: Южном, включающем Италию и подходы к ней, и Юго-Восточном, включающем Грецию и Турцию, с общим воздушным командованием.
   (d) Союзных Сил на Средиземном море имеют штаб-квартиру на Мальте (в настоящее время это независимая страна, имеющая соглашение об обороне с Великобританией, которое позволяет Великобритании и другим державам НАТО использовать свои объекты). AFMED несет главную ответственность за обеспечение безопасности коммуникаций в Средиземном и территориальных водах Черного моря. Национальные флоты и военно-морские силы Италии, Греции и Турции вместе с британским Средиземноморским флотом (командующий которого выступает в качестве командующего AFMED) назначены для этого командования.
  

2. Союзное Командование на Атлантике

   Штаб-квартира находится в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. В случае войны в обязанности верховного главнокомандующего ОВС НАТО в Атлантике, которым является американский адмирал с британским заместителем, входит (а) участие в стратегических ударах и (b) защита морских коммуникаций от нападения враждебных сил. Для этих целей семь из восьми военно-морских держав НАТО, граничащих с Атлантикой, выделили силы для учений и, если потребуется, для ведения войны. (Восьмой, Франция, не выделяет.) SACLANT отвечает за Североатлантический регион к северу от Тропика Рака, включая северную часть Северного моря. Есть три подчиненных командования: Западной Атлантики, Восточной Атлантики и ударный флот Атлантики. Ядро ударных сил НАТО это 2-й флот Соединенных Штатов с двумя или тремя ударными авианосцами, но от этой роли авианосцев ныне отказались.
   В военно-морских флотах соответствующих стран служат около 450 эскортных кораблей, значительная часть которых полностью или частично предназначена для противолодочной работы. Большинство военно-морских сил НАТО оснащают и обучают свои подводные силы главным образом для противолодочной борьбы. Более 150 подводных лодок потенциально доступны в Атлантике для выполнения таких обязанностей. Восемь стран в Командовании НАТО на Атлантике также имеют около 375 дальних наземных морских патрульных самолетов, значительное большинство из которых размещены на американском побережье или вблизи него. Кроме того, только в ВМС Соединенных Штатов имеет более 1000 палубный специалист противолодочных самолетов и вертолетов, из которых около половины приходится на одно время. Еще 300 из других стран. Общее число, которое может быть быстро введено в действие с авианосцев и аэродромов Атлантического океана, вероятно, составляет около 400. (Эти оценки включают подразделения, предназначенные для командования каналом.) h4 align="center">3. Союзное Командование Канала
   Роль командования канала в военное время заключается в осуществлении контроля над проливом Ла-Манш и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из малых военных кораблей Бельгии, Нидерландов и Соединенного Королевства предназначены для этого командования, как и некоторые морские самолеты. Главнокомандующий британским флотом метрополии действует в качестве ее командующего, а контроль осуществляется комитетом, состоящим из представителей начальников штабов ВМС трех соответствующих стран.

NATIONAL FORCES

   BELGIUM
Population: 9,400,000.
Length of military service: 12-15 months. Total armed forces: 107,000 (44% conscripts).
Defence estimates for calendar year 1966: FB 26,000,000,000 ($520,000,000).
Army Total strength: 83,500.
   2 mechanized divisions with M-41 and M-47 Patton tanks, and M-59 armoured personnel carriers.
   2 reserve divisions.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   2 Hawk battalions (under operational command of NATO).
   The active divisions are NATO-assigned, and the reserve ones are earmarked for NATO.
Navy Total strength: 4,500.
   3 escorts.
   47 minesweepers, of which 5 ocean-going types are earmarked for NATO.
Air Force Total strength: 19,000.
   2 F-104G fighter-bomber squadrons.
   2 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   2 F-104G all-weather fighter squadrons.
   1 RF-84F reconnaissance squadrons.
   1 transport wing, with C-119G, DC-6A, and C-47 planes.
   2 Nike wings.
   All the air force is earmarked for NATO.
  
   CANADA
Population: 19,250,000.
Voluntary military service. Total armed forces: 120,000.
Defence estimates (fiscal year 1965-66): Can. $1,550,000,000 (US $1,438,000,000).
Army Total strength: 49,000.
   In Canada: 3 infantry brigade groups, 2 of which are earmarked for deployment in Europe under NATO.
   The other brigade contributes to North American ground defence, and also provides troops for special duties such as UN service.
   In Europe: 1 armoured infantry brigade group of 6,500 men, with Centurion tanks and M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   The Norair F-5 tactical fighter has been selected as a ground support aircraft for the Army, and 125 planes have been ordered.
   46,000 militia.
   800 army and 80 RCAF personnel in UNEF (Middle East).
   About 1,000 men in UNFICYP (Cyprus).
Navy Total strength: 20,700.
   1 16,000-ton aircraft carrier, with 1 squadron of S-2A Tracker aircraft and 1 squadron of Sea King helicopters.
   41 destroyers/frigates.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
Air Force Total strength: 50,600.
   In Europe: 8 strike-recce squadrons equipped with CF-104 Starfighters.
   North American Air Defence: 3 interceptor squadrons of CF-101B Voodoos, 2 Bomarc B squadrons.
   Coastal aircraft: 3 Argus squadrons on the East Coast (NATO-earmarked).
   1 Neptune squadron on the West Coast.
   5 transport squadrons with the C-130 Hercules, DHC-4 Caribou, C-119 Packet, and CL-44 Yukon.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,725,000.
Length of military service: 14-16 months for privates, naval ratings, etc., 18-24 months for NCOs and officers. Total armed forces: 51,000.
   All Danish forces are NATO-assigned or NATO-earmarked (except for local defence units and Home Guard units).
Defence estimates (financial year 1965-66): Dkr. 1,709,000,000 ($239,000,000).
Army Total active strength: 33,000 (75% conscripts).
   2 2/3 motorized infantry brigade groups, each with about 5,000 men in 4 battalions, including
   1 tank battalion with Centurions and 1 infantry battalion with M113 armoured personnel carriers.
   The 2 full-scale brigades are now also equipped with M109 155-mm S.P. howitzers.
   1 Honest John battalion (with non-nuclear warheads only).
   4 reservist infantry brigade groups.
   15 infantry battalions and 15 artillery batteries are in local defence units (mainly as reservist units).
Volunteer Home Guard of 5,000 men and women.
Navy Total active strength: 8,000 (50% conscripts).
   9 frigates and escort ships.
   4 submarines.
   8 minelayers.
   12 minesweepers.
   13 fast patrol boats.
   9 seaward defence craft.
   10 landing craft.
   50 other ships.
Volunteer Naval Home Guard of 3,500 men and women.
Air Force Total active strength: 10,000 (35% conscripts).
   7 fighter squadrons (3 F-100D/F, 2 F-104G,
   1 F-86D, and 1 Hunter).
   1 recce squadron with RF-84F.
   1 transport squadron with C-47s and C-54s.
   1 air-sea rescue squadron with Catalinas and S-55 helicopters (S-61 are gradually replacing the S-55s).
Air Defence
   4 Nike-Ajax/Hercules batteries located around Copenhagen.
   4 semi-mobile Hawk batteries are under establishment to supplement the Nike batteries.
A Volunteer Air Force Home Guard of 10,500 men and women.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 48,750,000.
Length of military service: 18 months (selective service). Total armed forces: 557,000.
Defence estimates 1966: NF 22,015,000,000 ($4,465,000,000).
Army Total strength: 350,000.
5 divisions stationed in Europe. These include
   1 mechanized and 1 armoured division assigned to NATO in Germany,
   1 independent brigade in West Berlin, and
   1 mechanized, 1 armoured, and 1 air transportable division in France.
   The mechanized and armoured divisions are equipped with M47 and AMX-13 tanks and Honest John missiles.
   Hawk missiles are in service with the divisions in France.
   The air transportable division combines parachute troops with an amphibious group and supporting arms,
   and makes up the permanent element of a strategic reserve (force d'intervention).
4,000 men are stationed at the naval base of Mers-el-Kebir (leased by the Algerian Government); all other troops have been withdrawn from Algeria.
About 7,000 troops continue to serve in various naval and air bases of the Community States of Africa; these come under Army command.
Some 2,000 officers, NCOs, and troops come under command of the ex-Community States.
   The remaining troops are stationed in metropolitan France for local defence (forces du territoire).
   Their peacetime strength is six brigades, including 1 mountain brigade.
   They include the ground elements of air defence units (under national command
   except for a small NATO sector in North-East France) and are organized into regiments and brigades on a regional basis.
Reserves and Para-military forces
   The regular forces could be supplemented by up to 500,000 reservists in time of emergency,
   plus the Gendarmerie and the C.R.S. (Compagnies Republicaines de Securite), who total 65,000.
Navy Total strength: 72,500.
   2 27,000-ton aircraft carriers.
   1 14,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   1 10,000-ton helicopter carrier.
   2 anti-aircraft cruisers.
   1 experimental guided missile ship.
   60 destroyers, frigates, other escort ships.
   22 submarines, of which 18 are ocean-going.
   102 minesweepers.
   8 landing ships.
   225 other ships.
A Marine Commando of 800 men.
Naval Air Force Strength: 12,000 men, about 275 aircraft.
   4 squadrons Etendard IV fighters.
   2 squadrons F-8E Crusader interceptors.
   3 squadrons Alize ASW.
   6 squadrons Neptune maritime reconnaissance.
   3 squadrons S-55 helicopters.
   3 squadrons Alouette II/III light helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 122,500.
(a) The Strategic Air Command. This has 2 mixed bomber wings.
   A wing consists of 3 squadrons with 4 Mirage IVA each, and 1 squadron with 4 C-135F tankers.
   The Command will be completed in 1966 with the addition of a third wing.
   A total of 62 Mirage IVA and 12 C-135F have been ordered.
   The Mirage IVs at present carry free-falling atomic bombs.
(b) Air Defence Command:
   6 squadrons Super Mystere.
   2 squadrons Vautour UN, all-weather.
   2 squadrons Mystere IV.
   Some squadrons may be re-equipped with the Mirage III series.
(c) 1st Tactical Air Force (1st CATAC).
   This has 450 combat aircraft assigned to the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force.
   4 squadrons Mirage III C/E interceptors.
   6 squadrons F-100 fighter bombers (with nuclear capability).
   6 squadrons F-84F fighter bombers.
   2 squadrons Mirage IIIR reconnaissance.
   2 squadrons RF-84F reconnaissance.
   2 brigades Nike-Ajaxj/Hercules.
(d) 2nd CATAC. This controls the following:
   2 squadrons Mystere IV.
   2 squadrons AD-4 Skyraiders.
   2 squadrons H-34 helicopters.
(e) COTAM (Transport Command):
   7 squadrons Noratlas.
   1 squadron DC-6 Deux Ponts.
   2 squadrons C-47s.
   The 12 C-135 tankers (See Strategic Air Command, above) may also be used for troop transport.
  
   GERMANY
Population: 56,300,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Length of military service: 18 months. Total armed forces : 438,000 (210,000 conscripts). All except the Territorial Force are NATO assigned.
Defence estimates 1966: DM 17,500,000,000 ($4,372,000,000).
Army Total strength: 278,000, plus a Territorial Force of 28,000 held for rear-area duties.
   The latter is being supplemented by a reserve organized for local defence.
   This at present numbers only 7,000 men, but is scheduled to reach a strength of 50,000 by 1968.
   7 armoured infantry divisions.
   3 armoured divisions.
   1 mountain division.
   1 airborne division.
   The armoured units are at present equipped with M47 and M48 Patton tanks, but some of these are due to be replaced by the
   Leopard medium tank in the near future.
   Tactical nuclear artillery with the ground force includes Honest John, Sergeant, and the 203mm howitzer.
   SS-11 and Cobra anti-tank missiles are in service.
Navy Total strength: 35,000.
   10 destroyers.
   38 frigates and other escorts.
   64 minesweepers.
   63 patrol craft.
   11 landing craft.
   There are 2 naval air wings.
   F-104G Starfighters are now replacing the Sea Hawks, and the
   Atlantique is scheduled to replace the Gannets during 1966.
Air Force Total strength: 97,000 (650 combat aircraft in operation and in reserve).
   4 F-104G interceptor squadrons (some with Sidewinder air-to-air missiles).
   10 F-104G fighter-bomber squadrons (some under conversion from F-86F).
   6 G-91 light-strike squadrons.
   4 F-104G reconnaissance squadrons (some under conversion from RF-84F).
   2 G-91 reconnaissance squadrons.
   6 Noratlas transport squadrons.
   6 Nike Hercules battalions.
   9 Hawk battalions.
   2 Pershing battalions.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,500,000.
Length of military service: 24 months. Total armed forces: 160,000.
Defence budget 1965: 5,422,000,000 drachmae ($181,000,000).
Army Total strength: 119,000.
   11 infantry divisions in 3 corps. 2 divisions are kept close to full strength.
   1 armoured division with M-47 tanks.
   Some Honest John and Nike Ajax/Hercules batteries are also in service.
   (The 8 divisions near the northern frontier are NATO-assigned; the rest, which are located in southern
   Greece and Crete, are under national command.)
Navy Total strength: 17,500.
   8 destroyers.
   4 frigates and escort vessels.
   3 submarines.
   25 minesweepers (including escort minesweepers).
   13 coastal patrol vessels.
   23 landing craft (including 9 tank landing ships).
   38 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 23,500.
   2 F-104G interceptor squadrons.
   1 F-5 tactical fighter squadron.
   4 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   2 F-86 fighter squadrons.
   1 RF-84F photo-reconnaissance squadron.
   (10 of these squadrons and 1 transport squadron are assigned to the 6th Allied Tactical Air Force.)
  
   ITALY
Population: 51,000,000.
Length of military service: 15 months for the Army and Air Force, 24 months for the Navy. Total armed forces: 390,000 (excluding Carabinieri).
Defence estimates (calendar year 1965): 1,239,753,000,000 lire ($1,983,605,000).
Army Total strength: 292,000.
   6 infantry divisions.
   2 armoured divisions with M-47 Patton tanks.
   5 Alpine brigades of 8,000 men each.
   3 independent infantry brigades.
   1 independent cavalry brigade with M-47 Patton tanks.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 rocket brigade (including 2 Honest John battalions).
   1 Hawk battalion.
   7 of the divisions, the 5 Alpine brigades, and the Hawk battalion are assigned to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 38,000.
   3 guided-missile light cruisers.
   9 destroyers (including 2 guided-missile destroyers).
   13 destroyer escorts.
   35 corvettes and submarine chasers.
   5 submarines.
   78 minesweepers.
   13 coastal patrol boats, gunboats.
   25 landing craft.
   127 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 60,000 (350 aircraft).
(a) Assigned to 5th Allied Tactical Air Force:
   3 F-104G strike squadrons.
   1 F-86E day-fighter squadron.
   2 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 G-91 light-strike squadron.
   3 F-86K all-weather fighter squadrons.
   3 F-104G interceptor squadrons.
   1 G-91 reconnaissance squadron.
   3 RF-84F reconnaissance squadrons.
   2 C-119 transport squadrons.
   3 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules wings.
(b) Under national command:
   1 G-91 light-strike squadron.
   2 F-86E day-fighter squadrons.
   1 C-119 transport squadron.
   3 anti-submarine squadrons with S-2A Trackers, and air-sea rescue squadrons with H-19 and AB-204 helicopters and HU-16A Albatross.
Para-military forces The Carabinieri Corps (mainly security, Frontier Guard, and military police duties): 80,000.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 324,000.
Length of military service: 9 months.
Defence estimates 1966: BF 289,000,000 (55,780,000).
Army Total strength: 5,500.
   An infantry brigade would be available to NATO after mobilization.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 12,150,000.
Length of military service: Army 18-20 months, Navy and Air Force 21-24 months. Total armed forces: 135,000.
Defence estimates 1966: fl. 2,751,000,000 ($750,000,000).
Army Total strength: 92,000 (including conscripts).
   2 armoured infantry divisions (minus 1 brigade) and some corps troops are assigned to NATO.
   1 infantry division, 3 independent infantry brigades, and some corps troops, to be formed by call-up of reservists,
   are earmarked for NATO.
   10 tank battalions - with a total of 600 Centurion tanks, now with 105mm guns - are included in the above formations,
   and the Carl Gustav antitank missile is in service.
   AMX 105mm S.P. guns and the DAF-YP armoured personnel carrier are also in service.
Navy Total strength: 22,000, including 3,000 marines.
   1 16,000-ton ASW carrier.
   2 cruisers (one fitted with Terrier guided missiles).
   12 anti-submarine destroyers.
   12 frigates and escorts.
   68 minesweepers.
   5 submarines.
   5 patrol vessels.
   7 landing craft.
   39 other vessels.
The Fleet Air Arm consists of
   1 squadron Sea Hawk fighters,
   4 ASW reconnaissance squadrons equipped with P-2H Neptunes and S-2A Trackers, and
   2 helicopter squadrons (squadrons for the aircraft carrier are included in these figures).
Air Force Total strength: 21,500 (all assigned to NATO).
(a) 2 F-104G fighter-bomber squadrons.
   2 F-84F fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 RF-104G photo-reconnaissance squadron.
(b) 2 F-104G interceptor squadrons.
   1 Hunter day-fighter squadron.
   1 F-102 fighter squadron (USAF under Dutch command).
   12 squadrons Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   6 squadrons Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
(c) 1 transport squadron (Friendship).
   3 observation and communication squadrons of light aircraft and Alouette III helicopters (under operational command of Army).
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,800,000.
Length of military service: 15 months. Total armed forces: 32,200.
Defence estimates 1966: Nkr. 2,198,000,000 (S307,800,000).
Army Total strength: 16,000.
   1 active brigade in Arctic Norway supported by M-48 Patton tanks.
   Units making up 1 reduced brigade are stationed in southern Norway.
   Mobilization would produce 10 Regimental Combat Teams plus supporting units. This force would total 75,000.
   Local Defence and Home Guard forces are 100,000 strong.
Navy Total strength: 5,400, plus 2,000 coastal artillery.
   1 destroyer.
   3 frigates and escort ships.
   13 submarines.
   13 minesweepers and minelayers.
   37 motor torpedo boats, patrol boats, and gun boats.
   4 auxiliaries.
Air Force Total strength: 8,800.
   1 squadron F-104G Starfighters.
   2 F-86F interceptor/fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 F-86K all-weather fighter squadron.
   1 RF-84F photo-reconnaissance squadron.
   2 HU-16 Albatross maritime patrol squadrons.
   1 C-119 and C-47 transport squadron.
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules sites are located around Oslo.
   Delivery of the first squadron of F-5 tactical fighters (out of an eventual three squadrons) is scheduled for early 1966.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,125,000.
Length of military service: Army 18-24 months, Air Force 18 months, Navy 48 months. Liability for active reserve up to 35 years.
   For home defence, local guard duties, etc., up to 45 years. Total armed forces: 148,000 (excluding African troops). About 500,000 trained reservists could be mobilized in an emergency.
Defence estimates 1965, including expenditure in overseas territories: 5,885,000,000 escudos ($205,000,000).
Army Strength: 120,000, plus 14,000 African troops.
   1 division of 18,000 men earmarked for NATO and stationed in Portugal
   (3 infantry regiments of approximately 3,000 men with supporting arms).
   M47 tanks are in service. This division may be only 50% up to strength at the present time.
   The remaining troops (including about 20 infantry regiments) are stationed in the Portuguese overseas territories.
   About 50,000, including 7,000 African troops, are in Angola, 30,000 in Mozambique, and 20,000 in Portuguese Guinea.
Navy Strength: 14,500, including marines.
   3 destroyers.
   II frigates (including 1 ASW frigate).
   3 submarines.
   16 minesweepers.
   43 gunboats and patrol vessels.
   20 other ships.
Air Force Strength: 13,500, 250 aircraft.
   2 F-86F Sabre interceptor squadrons.
   2 F-84G Thunderjet fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 P-2 Neptune ASW reconnaissance squadron.
   1 transport squadron with Noratlas, C-47, C-54, and DC-6.
   Only the Neptune squadron is NATO-assigned.
   There is a paratroop force of 2,000, which comes under air force command.
Para-military forces National Republican Guard: 10,000.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 31,000,000.
Military service : 2 years. Total armed forces: 442,000.
Defence estimates 1965-66: TL 3,590,000,000 ($399,000,000).
Army Total strength: 360,000.
   16 divisions, of which 14 are NATO-assigned.
   4 armoured brigades with M-47 Patton tanks.
   4 armoured cavalry regiments.
   2 independent mountain and fortress regiments.
   There are nominally 2,500,000 reservists.
Navy Total strength: 37,000.
   9 destroyers.
   12 corvettes and submarine chasers.
   10 submarines.
   25 minesweepers.
   30 patrol vessels.
   19 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 45,000.
   1 F-104G fighter-bomber squadron.
   1 F-104G interceptor squadron.
   7 F-100/F-84 fighter-bomber squadrons.
   2 F-5A interceptor squadrons.
   1 F-86 interceptor squadron.
   4 RF-84F reconnaissance squadrons.
   3 transport squadrons (C-47, C-54, and C-130).
   2 battalions Nike anti-aircraft missiles (8 batteries).
   Apart from the temporary exclusion of 1 or 2 of the interceptor squadrons,
   the Turkish Air Force, including the Nike batteries, is NATO-assigned.
  
   UNITED KINGDOM
Population: 54,000,000.
Voluntary military service. Total armed forces: 440,000 (inc. 14,000 Gurkhas).
Defence budget 1965-66: £2,120,500,000 ($5,937,400,000).
Army Total strength: 208,000 (including Gurkhas).
   The Army is organized into some 57 British and 8 Gurkha infantry battalions.
   There are 3 parachute battalions, 22 tank and armoured car regiments, 31 artillery regiments, and engineer and signal regiments.
The British Army of the Rhine, based in Germany, has a current strength of 51,000, against a commitment of 55,000.
   It is organized into 3 divisions, each of 2 brigade groups (2 of the 6 are armoured).
About 14 battalions are normally maintained in the United Kingdom garrison, in addition to 5-6 battalions in the Strategic Reserve.
   The present strength in Aden and the Persian Gulf is 5 battalions,
   and in the Far East area (including Hong Kong) 18 battalions, including the 8 Gurkha battalions.
   There are 3 battalions in Cyprus (including 1,200 men with the United Nations forces).
   Other garrisons include a reinforced infantry battalion in Berlin and troops in Libya, Malta, Gibraltar, Swaziland, and the Caribbean.
   The Chieftain has not yet replaced the Centurion as the battle tank of the two armoured brigades in Germany,
   but it is believed that it will do so during 1966.
   Nuclear tactical artillery available to BAOR includes 3 regiments with Honest John and some 8-inch howitzers.
   The Corporal missiles at present in Germany will be retired during 1966, and will be replaced by American
   155mm and 175mm heavy self-propelled guns, which will increase the non-nuclear capability of the artillery elements.
   Other equipment currently in use by BAOR, or shortly to arrive, includes the Abbot 105mm self-propelled gun,
   the FV-432 multi-purpose tracked vehicle, and the Stalwart load carrier.
   There are 107,700 men in the Territorial Army, and 13,000 in the Army Emergency Reserve.
   Total British land forces in the Far East (including Malaya, Borneo, Singapore, and Hong Kong) number about 18 battalions, including 8 Gurkha battalions.
   These normally rotate between the front-line in Borneo and the resttraining areas in Malaya and Hong Kong.
   The approximate strength of British forces in Borneo in mid-1965 was 10 battalions, including 6 Gurkha battalions, and at least
   1 Royal Marine Commando.
   The normal strength of the Hong Kong garrison is 4 battalions,
   and there is 1 British infantry battalion with the Commonwealth Brigade in Malacca.
Navy Total strength: 100,000.
   The strength of the operational fleet during 1965 was as follows (this includes naval forces mentioned above) :
   4 aircraft carriers.
   2 commando ships.
   2 cruisers.
   4 guided-missile destroyers.
   7 other destroyers.
   34 ASW frigates.
   26 other escort vessels.
   1 nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarine.
   34 other submarines.
   36 coastal minesweepers.
   98 fleet support ships.
   18 landing ships.
   11 landing craft.
   Ships in reserve or undergoing repairs and conversion included
   1 aircraft carrier, 3 cruisers, 35 escorts, 9 conventional submarines, 37 coastal minesweepers, and 45 inshore minesweepers.
The Fleet Air Arm has a nuclear and conventional strike capacity with the
   Buccaneer I and II, which, together with its Scimitar and Sea Vixen aircraft, can be fitted with Bullpup air-to-surface missiles.
   The Sea Vixen Mark II is equipped with the Red Top air-to-air guided missile.
   The Commando carriers carry troops in Wessex Mark V and Whirlwind 7 helicopters.
   Wessex Mark I and Wasp Mark I are used for antisubmarine operations.
   The planned fleet ballistic missile submarine programme has been cut from five boats to four.
   Each will be nuclear-powered and will carry 16 Polaris missiles.
   Ships due to be completed during 1965-66 include a second nuclear submarine, two new assault ships, four Leanderclass frigates,
   and a fifth guided-missile destroyer.
   British naval strength in the Indian Ocean area is estimated at about 80 warships, including 2 aircraft carriers, 1 commando carrier,
   and at least 2 guided-missile destroyers.
The Royal Marines total about 8,000 men, and provide five Commandos of 600 men each.
   Two of these are normally stationed out of Britain.
   There are 8,860 men in the naval and marine reserves.
Air Force Total strength: 132,000.
(1) Bomber Command provides a medium bombing force designed for strategic nuclear strikes and conventional bombing.
   Its nucleus consists of about 80 Mark II Victor and Mark II Vulcan four-engined jet bombers,
   which can carry either free-fall nuclear weapons or the Blue Steel stand-off bomb.
   The Mark I Victors have been converted to refuelling or reconnaissance roles, and the Mark I Vulcans have been put into reserve.
   The Valiant has been withdrawn from service.
   It is hoped to equip Canberras with the AS-30 air-to-surface missile.
   Canberras also provide photo-reconnaissance support to the strategic bombers.
   All Bomber Command's strategic bombers are assigned to NATO, but some have been stationed in the Far East during the past year.
   The V-bomber force would form a part of the Atlantic Nuclear Force proposed by the British Government.
(2) Fighter Command is equipped with Javelins and Mark II and Mark III Lightnings, and is also assigned to NATO.
   The Lightning is equipped either with Firestreak or the more advanced Red Top air-to-air missile, and has a ferry range adequate to
   requirements for overseas reinforcements.
   The BMEWS station at Fylingdales has been in operation since the beginning of 1964,
   and has direct links with NORAD in Colarado Springs as well as British defence headquarters.
   Mark II Bloodhound surface-to-air missile squadrons are operational in Cyprus and Singapore,
   and 1 will be established in Norfolk during 1965.
(3) Coastal Command is equipped with Shackleton long-range reconnaissance and antisubmarine aircraft,
   which are to be replaced by the Comet C-4 during 1966.
(4) Transport Command has 23 Britannia and 11 Comet airliners for strategic airlift.
   During 1965 it will also receive the first of 10 longrange Belfast freighters,
   and the first of 14 VC-10s for passengers and freight will come into service at the end of 1966.
   Other medium-range transports include Argosy, Hastings, and Valetta, and
   30 Andover Mark I are being introduced to supplement the short-range Beverleys.
   20 Basset communication aircraft will also be introduced.
   Helicopter transport is provided by Belvederes, Whirlwinds, and Wessex Mark IIs.
   2 ground-attack squadrons of Hunter Mark IX are included in the Command.
RAF Germany, whose present strength is 8,700 men, is equipped with Canberra strike and recce aircraft
   (the strike squadrons have both nuclear and conventional roles),
   Hunter ground-attack and recce aircraft, Javelin all-weather interceptors, and Wessex II helicopters.
   The Javelins are gradually being replaced by Lightning IIIs and the Hunters will be eventually replaced with a mixed force of
   F-4 Phantoms and P-1127 Kestrels.
Near East Air Force in Cyprus includes 1 strike wing of Canberras (with a nuclear capacity), 1 squadron of Javelins, and
   1 squadron of Bloodhound Mark II surface-to-air missiles.
   Canberra and Shackleton reconnaissance aircraft are based in Malta and Gibraltar.
Middle East Air Force in Aden has Shackleton and Hunter ground-attack aircraft.
Far East Air Force includes Hunter, Javelin, Canberra, and Shackleton aircraft, a small force of V-bombers in the conventional role,
   and a squadron of Bloodhound Mark II anti-aircraft missiles stationed around Singapore.
   There is also considerable tactical and logistical air support provided in Borneo by Hastings and Valetta transports,
   helicopters, and light aircraft such as Pioneers.
   The RAF reserves total 12,963 men.
  
   UNITED STATES
Population: 194,000,000.
Military service: selective service for two years. Total armed forces: 2,660,000 (to be increased to about 3,000,000).
Defence estimates 1965-66: $52,200,000,000.
  
Strategic Nuclear Forces
   There have been no basic changes in American strategic policy or deployment in the last year.
   The strategic offensive and defensive deployment of US forces is decided in the light of the two major objectives governing policy in the event of global war:
   (1) the 'assured destruction' of hostile strategic targets in the USSR, China, or the Communist satellites;
   (2) 'damage limitation' with respect to the strategic targets and urban areas of the USA and its allies.
   For the first objective, the US Government has deployed three complementary weapons systems:
   (1) Minuteman and Titan Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles;
   (2) Polaris Seaborne Strategic Missiles; and
   (3) B-47, B-52, and B-58 bombers, some with stand-off missiles.
   The United States continues to rely chiefly on the Minuteman and Polaris systems. A substantial force of nuclear bombers is, however, being maintained and improved; it is possible that a strategic version of the F-111 with a short-range attack missile may be developed as a strategic bombing system.
   As far as the air defence component of 'damage limitation' is concerned, Mr McNamara has decided to postpone any decision on procuring and deploying the Nike-X anti-ICBM defensive system. However, development work on it will continue.
   Work is also proceeding on the new advanced manned interceptor, the YF-12A. But it has not been decided whether this aircraft should have preference over either surface-to-air missiles such as Nike or the proposed interceptor version of the F-111B.
  
Стратегические силы
   За последний год не произошло никаких принципиальных изменений в американской стратегической политике или развертывании сил. Стратегическое наступательное и оборонительное развертывание сил США определяется в свете двух основных целей, регулирующих политику в случае глобальной войны:
   (1) "гарантированное уничтожение" враждебных стратегических целей в СССР, Китае и коммунистических сателлитах;
   (2) "ограничение ущерба" в отношении стратегических целей и городских районов США и их союзников.
   Для первой цели правительство США развернуло три взаимодополняющие системы вооружений:
   (1) межконтинентальные баллистические ракеты Minuteman и Titan;
   (2) стратегические ракеты морского базирования Polaris; и
   (3) бомбардировщики B-47, B-52 и B-58, некоторые с автономными ракетами.
   Соединенные Штаты по-прежнему полагаются главным образом на системы Minuteman и Polaris. Однако значительная часть ядерных бомбардировщиков поддерживается и совершенствуется; не исключено, что стратегический вариант F-111 с ракетой малой дальности может быть разработан в качестве стратегического бомбардировщика.
   Что касается компонента противовоздушной обороны "ограничения ущерба", то Г-н Макнамара решил отложить принятие решения о развертывании системы ПРО Nike-X. Однако работа по его развитию будет продолжена.
   Продолжаются также работы над новым усовершенствованным пилотируемым перехватчиком YF-12A. Но пока не решено, должен ли этот самолет иметь предпочтение перед ракетами класса "земля-воздух", такими как Nike, или предложенной версией перехватчика F-111B.
  
1. Land-based Strategic Missiles
   At present, 800 Minuteman Is in hardened silos are operational.
   As the improved Minuteman II is produced, it will replace the Minuteman I, and it is hoped to instal the
   first Minuteman II missiles by late 1966.
   The Minuteman II will have either a longer range or a larger payload; it is more accurate, and can be launched by radio
   from an airborne command post.
   All Atlas missiles have now been phased out of the USAF;
   some are continuing in service as first-stage boosters for military or scientific space shots.
   The 6 squadrons of Titan Is have similarly been withdrawn;
   the 54 launchers (6 squadrons of nine missiles each) of the Titan II remain in service.
   These have greater thrust, range and payload than the Minuteman.
2. Seaborne Strategic Missiles
   The United States Navy now has in commission 31 submarines equipped for carrying Polaris missiles,
   and 5 more in various stages of construction.
   Of the 31,
   18 are patrolling the Atlantic with bases in Scotland and Spain,
   3 are in the Mediterranean, and
   4 (out of an eventual 7) are in the Western Pacific.
   5 submarines are equipped with the A-l missile (1,200-mile range),
   13 with the A-2 (1,500-mile range),
   and the remainder with the A-3 (2,500-mile range).
   Development will shortly start on the Poseidon missile, which will have nearly twice the payload of the A-3 missile,
   and which will eventually replace the Polaris.
3. Bombers
   Strategic Air Command at present numbers about 935 bombers.
   These include about 630 B-52s with the AGM-28B Hound Dog stand-off missiles and Quail decoys.
   The Hound Dog has a range of up to 700 miles and carries a thermonuclear warhead.
   B-52s have also been used in a conventional role to drop free-fall high explosive bombs and leaflets in Vietnam during the last year.
   There are 2 wings of B-58 Hustler medium bombers with about 80 aircraft.
   The B-47s are being gradually phased out, and only 225 remain in service. Some of those phased out have been converted to the
   photo-electronic reconnaissance (RB-47K) or weather reconnaissance (WB-47) roles.
   There are also about 50 squadrons of KC-135 tankers in SAC, and they are also used as airborne command posts.
   It is planned to introduce a squadron of the supersonic SR-71 (formerly A-11) post-attack strategic reconnaissance aircraft
   during the coming year. It is expected that this aircraft will attain speeds of more than Mach 3 and altitudes greater than 80,000 ft.
4. North American Air Defence
   The air defence of North America is the responsibility of NORAD, a joint Canadian-American command
   at Colorado Springs, Colorado. A new underground combat operation centre is being built deep down in the
   Cheyenne Mountain, and the first units of the command are already installed there.
   The American forces under NORAD are known as the Air Defence Command (ADC), and currently number 110,000 men.
   Fighter interceptor units operating under ADC number 38 squadrons, and include the following:
   16 squadrons F-101B Voodoo,
   12 squadrons F-106A Delta Dart,
   8 squadrons F-102 Delta Dagger, and
   2 squadrons F-104A Starfighters.
   These aircraft have operational speeds of 1,200 mph and over (except for the F-102, which operates at 825 mph),
   and attain ceilings of 50,000 feet.
   Air-to-air missiles used by these aircraft include Sidewinder, Falcon, and Genie.
   The regular units of Continental Air Defence Command are supplemented by 23 fighter-interceptor squadrons of
   the Air National Guard, which include F-86 Sabres and F-89J Scorpions.
   This gives a total number of interceptor aircraft in NORAD (including Canadian units) of 1,600.
   The missile force consists of three main systems: Nike, Hawk, and Bomarc.
   A force of over 80 Nike-Hercules batteries is being maintained, together with the Hawks which were deployed in Florida late in
   1962; both these systems are operated by the Army elements of ADC.
   The present number of long-range surface-to-air Bomarc missiles is 188, deployed in 6 squadrons.
   These are all Bomarc B, with a range of 440 miles and a ceiling of 100,000 feet.
   Ground defence against bomber or missile attack is supported by a chain of radar and tracking stations, including
   the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) with stations in Alaska, Greenland, and Yorkshire,
   the Pinetree line, and the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW).
   However, because these systems have to some extent been outflanked by Soviet deployment of ICBMs,
   some seaward extensions of the DEW system have become obsolete and will be dismantled.
   Surveillance and tracking of objects in American air space is co-ordinated by the obsolescent
   Semi-Automatic Ground Environment System (SAGE) organized into 5 air divisions governing 15 sectors.
   Four of the SAGE Direction Centres will be replaced by Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC) stations.
   Improvements are being carried out to the 3 existing BMEWS stations, and some of the air-defence radar stations now
   on the East, West, and Gulf Coasts of the United States are being adapted for detection of submarine launched missiles.
Army Total strength: 963,000.
   The regular Army is organized into
   16 operational divisions,
   38 surface-to-surface missile battalions,
   7 Special Forces Groups, and some independent brigades.
   It possesses about 7,000 aircraft of all types.
   A new air assault division has been formed out of the existing 1 Cavalry Division and has been re-designated the
   1st Air Cavalry Division. This division, units of which are already serving in Vietnam, will have nearly
   16,000 men, 1,600 ground vehicles, and over 450 aircraft, most of which will be helicopters.
   One of its brigades may be equipped for parachute operations.
   US ground forces, including the three divisions of the Marine Corps, were deployed as follows in September 1965:
USA (strategic reserve) 4th Infantry Division, 5th Mechanized Division, 2nd Marine Division,
   Half of 82nd Airborne Division (for reinforcing 7th Army in Europe), 1st Armoured Division, 2nd Armoured Division
Dominican Republic Half of 82nd Airborne Division
Korea 2nd Infantry Division, 7th Infantry Division
Hawaiil Okinawa 25th Infantry Division, 1st Marine Division, An airborne brigade
South Vietnam 1st Infantry Division, 101st Airborne Division, 3rd Marine Division, 1st Air Cavalry Division
Germany
   (5th Corps) 3rd Armoured Division, 8th Infantry Division
   (7th Corps) 4th Armoured Division, 3rd Infantry Division, 24th Infantry Division, 3 armoured cavalry regiments
   (in West Berlin) 1 infantry brigade
The 7th Army in Germany is equipped with the M-60 battle tank, and includes
   3 battalions (12 launchers) of solid-fuel Pershing nuclear missiles.
   Self-propelled medium artillery includes the M-107 Long Tom 175mm gun and the M-110 8-inch howitzer.
   No decision has yet been taken to replace the existing Honest John and Little John short-range missiles.
   The 7th Army is also equipped with Sergeant surface-to surface bombardment weapons with a maximum range of 75 miles,
   and, in the short-range category, Davy Crockett mortars and Lacrosse rockets.
   The main anti-aircraft missiles are Nike-Hercules and Hawk.
US Forces in Vietnam
   President Johnson announced in July 1965 that the total American military forces in Vietnam would be increased to 125,000
   by the autumn. These will include either the whole or elements of the four divisions listed above, and also individual detachments,
   including special helicopter companies on which the US command is placing great emphasis. It is possible that the number of
   American troops in Vietnam will rise to 250,000 during the coming year.
Army reserves
   It had been decided earlier this year to merge the Army Reserve and Army National Guard,
   which previously totalled 700,000 men, so as to form a more compact force of 550,000. This would provide
   6 divisions,
   2 Special Purpose Forces of divisional strength, and
   16 brigades, as well as various units to round out regular army formations.
   However, because of the Vietnam situation, it is unlikely that these reductions will be made immediately.
  
Navy Total strength: 674,000.
   The total number of commissioned ships is about 900.
   The General Purpose Forces navy consists of approximately 865 ships.
   The fleets are the 1st in the Eastern Pacific, the 2nd in the Atlantic, the 6th in the Mediterranean, and the 7th in the Western Pacific.
   A nuclear-powered task force consisting of an aircraft carrier, a guided-missile cruiser, and 2 guided-missile frigates
   was transferred from the Atlantic to the Pacific fleet in October 1965.
   The main units of the active fleets are:
   15 attack carriers - 1 (USS Enterprise) nuclear-powered, 6 of the Forrestal class, 3 of the Midway class, and
   5 of the Essex class.
   1 Essex-class ship is being replaced by an additional Forrestal class, and
   2 of the Midway class are being modernized to allow them to operate heavier aircraft such as the RA-5C Vigilante.
   Mr McNamara has confirmed that the attack carriers will lose their strategic alert nuclear mission,
   and that the lighter attack aircraft such as the A-6A Intruder and the A-7A VAL will replace the A-5 Vigilantes.
   The reconnaissance version of the Vigilante will be retained in the proportion of at least 6 to each of the Forrestalclass carriers.
   The attack carrier aircraft number 15 air groups, with 2 in reserve.
   (With the development of the F-111B/Phoenix system, it is thought that only one squadron of the F-111s per carrier will be required
   for the interception role, instead of the mix of 1 F-111 and 1 F-4B Phantom squadron that was previously proposed.
   At present this role is carried out by Phantoms, except in the Essex-class carriers, which retain the F-8E Crusaders.)
   9 anti-submarine carriers, all of the Essex class.
   They are being equipped with S-2E long-range search aircraft and SH-3A helicopters.
   They have also been given some A-4C Skyhawks for limited interception and air defence duties.
   103 submarines (excluding missile firing), including 23 nuclear-powered attack submarines.
   263 multi-purpose ships for anti-submarine warfare and fleet defence.
   These include guided-missile cruisers and a few heavy cruisers.
   Improvements have been made to the Terrier, Tartar, and Talos surface-to-air missile systems.
   23 destroyer escorts.
   160 logistic and operational support ships.
   135 amphibious assault ships.
   In addition there are over 400 escorts and 15 cruisers in reserve.
   The active fleet and reserves also include about 200 minesweepers and over 1,000 service patrol and other craft.
   There are 30 squadrons of shore-based ASW patrol aircraft.
   They are mostly equipped with the SP-2 Neptune and P-3A Orion.
   Air units in the naval reserve include 12 squadrons of fixed-wing aircraft and 4 squadrons of helicopters.
   The number of aircraft in the active inventory of the navy is estimated at 8,250.
Marine Corps Total strength: 193,000.
   The Marine Corps is organized into 3 divisions and 3 associated air wings.
   The Marine Corps Reserve has now been reorganized to provide a 4th division and wing, and it is likely that
   This formation will be mobilized following the military build-up in Vietnam.
   The capability of the Hawk missile battalions with the divisions has been improved by activating the reserve battery in each battalion.
   Other tactical artillery with the divisions includes 105mm howitzers and Little John rockets - both helicopter-transportable.
   The Ontos anti-tank device - 6 106mm recoilless rifles mounted on a tracked vehicle - is now in service in Vietnam.
The 3 Marine Air Wings have about 1,130 combat and support aircraft, and the number of helicopters is being steadily increased,
   with particular emphasis on the CH-46A Sea Knight assault transport (carries 17 men), and the CH-53A all-weather cargo and troop
   heavy transport.
   In the 15 fighter squadrons, the F-4 Phantom, armed with Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles, is gradually replacing the F-8 Crusader.
   The Air Wings also have
   attack squadrons, with the A-6A Intruder now being delivered to give all-weather, close support and interdiction capability,
   and reconnaissance squadrons with the reconnaissance version of the Phantom (RF-4B) replacing the RF-8A Crusader.
Air Force Total strength: 829,000; 14,400 aircraft. (For strategic and continental air defence forces see above.)
   The General Purpose Forces of the air force consist of the Tactical Air Command, the Military Airlift Command
   (formerly Military Air Transport Service), and some fighter interceptor squadrons assigned to US air forces in Europe and the Pacific.
The present strength of Tactical Air Command is 75,000 and 130 squadrons.
   Of the wings based in the USA there are:
   56 tactical fighter squadrons with F100, F-102, F-104, F-105, and F-4C.
   4 tactical reconnaissance squadrons.
   24 assault air-lift squadrons (mostly with C-130 Hercules).
   6 counter-insurgency squadrons with A-IE, B-26, T-28B, U-10B, and C-123 aircraft.
US Air Forces Europe (USAFE) has an inventory of more than 1,000 tactical aircraft, which include
   18 tactical fighter squadrons,
   8 tactical reconnaissance squadrons.
   There are 6 squadrons of the Mace tactical missile, for which hardened sites have now been completed.
   The tactical fighters include F-100, F-105, and F-4 Phantom, and the reconnaissance aircraft are RB-66 and RF-101 Voodoo.
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), with headquarters in Hawaii, controls the
   5th Air Force with bases in Japan, Korea, and Okinawa, the
   13th Air Force in the Philippines, and the task forces operating in Formosa and Vietnam.
   Their total strength (excluding the special build-up in Vietnam) is
   8 tactical fighter squadrons,
   2 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   2 tactical bomber squadrons (with B-57B),
   7 troop-carrier squadrons (with Hercules and Provider aircraft), and
   2 Mace~B squadrons.
   The tactical fighters include F-100, F-102, and F-105, and the first squadron of Phantoms has been delivered this year.
The Military Air Lift Command operates about 1,000 aircraft in 37 squadrons.
   These include C-135 jet Stratolifters, C-133 Cargomasters, C-130 Hercules, C-124 Globemasters, C-118 Liftmasters,
   and C-141 Starlifters.
The Air National Guard General Purpose Forces total
   23 fighter interceptor squadrons,
   30 tactical fighter squadrons,
   12 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   3 tactical bomber squadrons,
   4 air commando squadrons,
   5 tanker squadrons, and
   25 air transport squadrons, mostly with the older type transports.
   These units are normally assigned to support the various commands to which they are relevant.
   The strength of the Guard is 75,000 men.
There is also an Air Force Reserve of 68,000 men and 50 squadrons, of which 45 are troop carriers with C-119, C-123, and C-124 aircraft.
   There were plans to absorb the Reserve into the Air National Guard so as to form a combined Air National Guard of about 72,000,
   but it is likely that, as with the Army Reserves, these plans will be shelved in the light of the Vietnam situation.
   The active inventory of the USAF is estimated at 14,400 aircraft and about 1,000 tactical bombardment missiles.
  

CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of CENTO are Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The United States is an associate member and is represented on the co-ordinating Council of military deputies and on the economic and counter subversion committees. CENTO does not have an international command structure, nor are forces allocated to it. The air striking power is supplied by British Canberra bombers based on Cyprus, and the US 6th Fleet. The treaty is explicitly intended to provide a framework for collective action in the event of a threat from a communist power, but not in the case of friction between member states and non-communist powers. During the Indo-Pakistan conflict of September 1965, Iran and Turkey offered support to Pakistan, but the United Kingdom did not.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Членами CENTO являются Пакистан, Иран, Турция и Соединенное Королевство. Соединенные Штаты являются ассоциированным членом и представлены в Координационном совете военных депутатов и в комитетах по экономическим вопросам и борьбе с подрывной деятельностью. CENTO не имеет ни международные структуры, ни сил, выделенных ему. Авиационная ударная мощь обеспечивается британскими бомбардировщиками Canberra на базе Кипра и 6-м флотом США. Договор призван обеспечить коллективные действия в случае угрозы со стороны коммунистической державы, но не в случае трений между государствами-членами и некоммунистическими державами. Во время индо-пакистанского конфликта в сентябре 1965 года Иран и Турция предложили поддержку Пакистану, но Соединенное Королевство этого не сделало.
  
   IRAN
Population: 22,182,000.
Military service : 2 years. Total armed forces: 180,000 (excluding Gendarmerie).
Defence estimates 1964-65: 16,435,000,000 rials ($217,000,000).
Army Total strength: 164,000.
   7 infantry divisions (approx. 12,000 men to each).
   1 armoured division.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   Armoured units are equipped with M-47 Patton tanks.
   2 army headquarters and most of the combat troops are stationed in Northern Iran.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   4 escort vessels.
   6 minesweepers.
   24 small patrol craft.
   2 landing craft.
   5 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000; 130 American aircraft.
   4 fighter squadrons with F-86F Sabres.
   1 fighter squadron with F-5 Norair tactical fighters.
   1 tactical reconnaissance squadron with RT-33 aircraft.
   2 transport squadrons with C-130B Hercules.
Para-military forces The Gendarmerie has a strength of nearly 26,000 all ranks.
  
   PAKISTAN (before the Indo-Pakistan conflict of September 1965)
Population: 101,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 188,000-208,000 (exc. para-military forces).
Defence estimates 1965-66: 1,382,000,000 rupees ($289,000,000).
Army Strength: 160,000-180,000.
   6 infantry divisions (1 in East Pakistan).
   1 air defence brigade.
   The armoured forces (before the Indo-Pakistan conflict) included about
   10 regiments with M-47/48 Patton and M-4 Sherman medium tanks, and
   2 to 3 regiments with M-24 Chaffee light tanks.
   These probably formed 1 armoured division of 2 brigades and a separate independent armoured brigade.
   Casualties: men, 3,000-5,000; tanks, over 250.
Para-military forces Total strength: 70,000.
   Frontier Corps : 25,000 (tribesmen).
   West Pakistan Rangers: 10,000.
   East Pakistan Rifles: 10,000.
   Azad Kashmir troops: 25,000.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   1 light cruiser (cadet training ship).
   5 destroyers.
   2 ASW frigates.
   1 submarine.
   8 minesweepers.
   4 motor launches.
   8 other ships.
   There is a coastguard force of 1,500 men.
   Naval aircraft include Albatross and some UH-19 helicopters for air-sea rescue.
   Casualties: nil.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 200 aircraft.
   2 B-57B Canberra squadrons.
   4 F-86F Sabre squadrons.
   1 F-104A Starfighter squadron (a second is to be formed).
   RT-33As are used for tactical reconnaissance purposes.
   The transport force includes 4 C-130B Hercules and 10 Bristol Mark 21 and Mark 31 tactical freighters.
   Some T-6, T-33, and T-37B jet trainers.
   Casualties: up to 50 aircraft.
  

SOUTH-EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of SEATO are Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. They are committed to build up collective economic and military strength and to consult with a view to joint defensive action in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member or against the 'protocol states' of Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam. The treaty area is the South-West Pacific theatre south of 20R 30' N. There is no central command structure, and forces remain under national control. American support for the treaty powers is exercised by the 7th Fleet, based on Taiwan and the Philippines, and American air and ground forces based on Guam and Okinawa. Although the United States, Australia, and New Zealand have sent troops to South Vietnam, this has not been done under SEATO. The 28th Commonwealth Brigade (consisting of British, Australian, and New Zealand forces), plus supporting air units, is based in Malaysia, as are Commonwealth naval forces which would operate in support of the treaty powers in the event of war. France maintains no forces in the area.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ДОГОВОРА ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ

   Членами SEATO являются Австралия, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Соединенное Королевство и Соединенные Штаты. Они полны решимости наращивать коллективную экономическую и военную мощь и консультироваться с целью совместных оборонительных действий в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против члена или против "протокольных государств" Лаоса, Камбоджи и Южного Вьетнама. Зона договора на юго-западном Тихом океане к югу от 20R 30' н. Нет центрального командования, и силы остаются под национальным контролем. Американская поддержка договорных держав осуществляется 7-м флотом, базирующимся на Тайване и Филиппинах, и американскими воздушными и наземными силами, базирующимися на Гуаме и Окинаве. Хотя Соединенные Штаты, Австралия и Новая Зеландия направили войска в Южный Вьетнам, это не было сделано под руководством SEATO. 28-я бригада Содружества (состоящая из британских, австралийских и новозеландских сил), а также вспомогательные воздушные подразделения базируются в Малайзии, как и военно-морские силы Содружества, которые будут действовать в поддержку договорных держав в случае войны. Франция не имеет сил в этом районе.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 11,000,000.
2 years selective service. Total armed forces : 69,220.
Defence estimates 1965-66: A£386,000,000 ($864,000,000).
Army Total planned strength: 37,500.
   1 infantry division (about 9 battalions, including one battalion group now in Malaysia, and a second battalion group in Vietnam).
   1 Centurion tank regiment.
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment.
   1 Logistic Support Force.
   The Citizens' Military Force of 29,000 is based on 20 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services, plus 2 Commandos.
Navy Total strength: 14,000.
   1 light fleet carrier (used for ASW).
   1 light fleet carrier (fast troop transport).
   5 destroyers.
   4 frigates.
   6 minesweepers.
   22 other ships.
   1 Sea Venom all-weather fighter squadron.
   1 Gannet ASW squadron.
   1 helicopter squadron with Wessex Mark 31s.
Air Force Total strength: 17,720 (plus a Citizen Air Force of 1,080).
   4 fighter squadrons of Australian Sabres (F-86) with Sidewinder missiles.
   1 fighter squadron of Mirage III-Os (with Matra air-to-air missile).
   3 bomber squadrons of Australian Canberras.
   2 Neptune maritime reconnaissance squadrons.
   2 transport squadrons (1 C-130 Hercules, 1 CV-2B Caribou).
   2 Iroquois UH-1 3 helicopter squadrons.
   1 Bloodhound Mark I surface-to-air missile squadron.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,550,000.
Voluntary military service (supplemented by selective national service for the Army). Total armed forces: 12,900.
Defence estimates 1965-66: NZ £40,000,000 ($115,000,000).
Army Total strength: 5,400 regulars, plus 9,000 territorials.
   1 infantry battalion in Malaysia.
   A Combat Brigade Group - regulars and territorials.
   A Logistic Support Force - regulars and territorials.
   A Combat Reserve Group--regulars and territorials.
   A Static Support Force - regulars.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   1 light cruiser.
   3 ASW frigates.
   4 escort minesweepers.
   1 support ship.
   12 other ships.
   3,800 naval reservists.
Air Force Total strength: 4,500.
   1 Canberra light bomber squadron.
   1 day-fighter ground-attack squadron with Vampires.
   1 Sunderland maritime reconnaissance squadron.
   3 transport squadrons (DC-6B, C-130 Hercules, Dakota, Bristol, Devon).
   1 transport squadron and the light bomber squadron are deployed in Singapore.
   Some transport helicopters have been ordered.
  
   PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
Population: 30,500,000.
Selective service. Total armed forces: 36,500.
Defence estimates 1965-66: 281,000,000 pesos ($72,000,000).
Army Total strength: 25,500.
   1 combat division.
   4 training divisions.
   There is a reserve of 120,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 4,000.
   7 escort patrol vessels.
   2 command ships.
   6 submarine chasers.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   6 landing craft.
   33 patrol boats.
   13 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 7,000; 200 aircraft.
   3 F-86F day-fighter squadrons.
   1 F-86D all-weather fighter squadron.
   Transport, observation, air-sea rescue and training units.
   F-5 tactical fighters are expected to replace the F-86F in the near future.
Para-military forces Philippine Constabulary of 15,500.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 31,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years. Total armed forces: 131,500.
Defence budget 1965-66: 1,930,000,000 bahts ($92,700,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   3 infantry divisions (making a total of 11 regimental combat teams).
   1 cavalry division (horse and motorized cavalry and motorized infantry).
Navy Total strength: 23,000, plus 3,500 Marines.
   5 frigates and other escorts.
   7 minelayers and minesweepers.
   2 armoured gunboats.
   14 patrol vessels.
   13 landing craft and landing ships.
   23 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 250 aircraft.
   3 squadrons F-86F fighter-bombers.
   1 wing F8F-1D Bearcat close support aircraft.
   1 wing of 30 T-6 and T-28D light close-support aircraft.
   Some RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 100 training and transport aircraft, including C-45, C-47, C-54, and C-123.
Reserves Volunteer Defence Corps : 25,000.
   Border Police: 7,000.

THE PROTOCOL STATES

   SOUTH VIETNAM
Population: 15,000,000.
Length of military service: all men between ages 25-33 liable for mobilization.
Total armed forces: 565,350, including auxiliaries.
Army Total strength: 280,000 (regular), 260,000 (auxiliary forces - establishment strength).
   The regular army is organized on the basis of 4 Army Corps areas:
   1st Corps in the northern mountain region,
   2nd Corps in the central highlands region,
   3d Corps in the northern Mekong delta (including Saigon),
   4th Corps in the southern half of the delta.
   There are also 2 auxiliary forces: the Regional Forces and the Popular Forces.
   These forces have establishments of 120,000 and 140,000 men respectively, but it is believed that effective strength is
   below these levels, owing to poor recruiting and desertions.
   In general, a static defence role (villages, bridges, supply dumps, etc.) is given to the auxiliary forces,
   and the regular troops are kept back for mobile, counter-guerrilla operations.
   At the end of September 1965, there were
   132,000 American, 15,000 South Korean, 1,500 Australian, and 350 New Zealand troops in South Vietnam.
Navy Total strength: 15,350, including a Marine Brigade of about 5,000 men.
   5 escorts (including 1 submarine chaser).
   14 motor gunboats, coastal patrol vessels.
   5 coastal minesweepers.
   25 landing craft.
   500 other small vessels (including motorized junks).
Air Force Total strength: 10,000.
   About 400 propeller-driven aircraft, including:
   90 A-1E and A-1H Skyraiders.
   70 T-28 armed trainers.
   32 C-47 transports.
   The United States has promised to deliver 4 B-57 light jet bombers.
  
   CAMBODIA
Population: 6,000,000.
Total armed forces: 31,350.
Army Total strength: 28,500.
   The Cambodian Army is organized along two main lines:
   the static defence system of the villages, with a militia officered by small groups of officers and NCOs ; and
   the mobile detachments, in which a popular militia is equally heavily represented.
   A considerable proportion of the Army is engaged on economic and social services.
   The country is divided into 5 military regions.
   In command terms, the Army is organized into
   30 infantry battalions, 2 parachute battalions, and 1 armoured reconnaissance regiment.
   There are 6 batteries of 105mm artillery, and a company of light tanks.
   60 AA-guns and 12 field guns have been supplied by the Soviet Union.
   There is a small French training mission, but all American military advisers have been withdrawn.
Navy Total strength: 1,200, plus Marine Corps of 150.
   2 patrol vessels.
   1 support gunboat.
   3 seaward patrol craft.
   4 landing craft.
   50 small craft.
Air Force Total strength: 1,500.
   Chiefly concerned with internal police and transport duties.
   5 MiG-1 7 interceptors.
   10 A-1 Skyraider (supplied by France).
   4 Magister, some MS-733 Alcyon light attack aircraft.
   C-47, Beaver, T-28 Trojan, and 211-14 transports.
   O-1E Bird Dog observation and Alouette helicopters.
  
   LAOS
Population: 2,500,000.
Military service : conscription.
(1) Royal Lao Forces Total: 55,000.
Army About 50,000 men, including the 10,000-strong neutralist army of General Kong Le with whom they are
   now associated.
Navy 4 river squadrons small gunboats.
Air Force 20 T-28 and some Texan piston-engined trainers in ground-support role.
   C-47 and some commercial light transport aircraft.
Para-military forces The Government also has para-military forces (totalling some 8,000 and including about 5,000 Meo tribesmen)
   harrassing the Pathet-Lao in the mountains around the Plain of Jars.
(2) Pathet-Lao Forces Strength: about 21,000 men.
   These are now believed to be supported by up to 6,000 regular North Vietnamese troops operating in the northern provinces.
   They have received a large supply of arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin, but no troops from these countries.
   The Pathet-Lao now control all the eastern half of Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the frontier with Vietnam.
  

US MUTUAL DEFENCE TREATIES

   JAPAN
Population: 97,000,000.
Voluntary military service. Total armed forces: 246,000.
Defence estimates 1965-66: 343,400,000,000 yen ($953,900,000).
Army Total strength: 172,000.
   13 divisions of 7,000-9,000 men, each organized into 3-4 battle groups.
   One division, based in Hokkaido, is mechanized.
   The Army has 255 light aircraft and helicopters, and 900 American and Japanese tanks.
   2-3 Hawk battalions (about 140 missiles).
   Reserves: 24,000.
Navy Total strength: 35,000 men.
   19 destroyers (including 1 with guided missiles).
   28 frigates, other escorts.
   6 submarines.
   18 submarine chasers.
   10 motor torpedo boats.
   46 minesweepers and minelayers.
   10 landing craft.
   196 other ships.
   The naval air component has about 250 aircraft, including S-2A Trackers, P-2H Neptunes, and helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 39,000; 500 combat aircraft.
   7 squadrons F-104J interceptors (with the Sidewinder missile).
   10 squadrons F-86D and F-86F interceptors.
   3 squadrons C-46 transports.
   1 squadron RF-86F reconnaissance fighters.
   About 400 T-33, T-1A, and T-34 trainers.
   1 wing of 72 Nike-Ajax missiles.
  
   SOUTH KOREA
Population: 28,000,000.
Military service : conscription. Total armed forces: 604,000.
Defence estimates: 23,800,000,000 won (5183,000,000).
Army Total strength: 540,000, plus 10,000 Koreans serving in the US Army in Korea.
   The 1st Army has 18 divisions, plus 50 independent artillery and 7 independent tank battalions.
   The 2nd Army (in reserve) has 10 divisions.
   It is planned to reduce the overall order of battle by 5 divisions.
   15,000 South Korean troops are now serving in South Vietnam.
Navy Total strength: 17,000, plus 27,000 Marines.
   1 destroyer.
   16 frigates and other escorts.
   6 submarine chasers.
   11 minesweepers.
   2 motor torpedo boats.
   20 landing craft.
   20 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000.
   1 squadron F-5 tactical fighters.
   3 squadrons F-86D all-weather interceptors.
   4 squadrons F-86F fighter bombers.
   1 squadron RF-86F reconnaissance fighters.
   19 C-46 and C-47 transports.
   90 miscellaneous aircraft.
  
   TAIWAN
Population: 12,000,000.
Length of military service: 2 years. Total armed forces: 524,000.
Defence budget: Taiwan $5,875,000,000 (5147,250,000).
Army Total strength: 380,000, including 80,000 on Quemoy and Matsu.
   15 infantry divisions.
   2 armoured divisions.
   6 light divisions.
   1 parachute brigade.
   Soms Hawk and Honest John missiles.
Navy Total strength: 35,000, plus 27,000 Marines.
   5 destroyers.
   8 frigates and other escorts.
   25 submarine chasers.
   14 minesweepers and minlayers.
   50 motor torpedo boats.
   83 landing craft.
   46 small patrol craft.
   81 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 82,000; 900 aircraft.
   1 squadron F-104A interceptor.
   7 squadrons F-86D and F-86F fighters.
   3 squadrons F-100 fighter bombers.
   Reconnaissance squadrons are equipped with RB-57, U-2, RF-101 , and RF-84F.
   Transport aircraft include C-119, C-47, C-46D.
   1 Nike-Hercules battalion.
   (Some of the F-86F may be replaced by F-5 in the near future.)

PART III. NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

   INDIA (before the IndoPakistan conflict of September 1965)
Population: 470,000,000.
Voluntary military service. Total armed forces: 869,000.
Defence estimates 1965-66: 9,952,000,000 rupees ($2,100,000,000).
Army Total sanctioned strength: 825,000.
   16 full-strength divisions, including 9 mountain divisions and the armoured division.
   In addition, 4 infantry divisions on a reduced establishment have been sanctioned.
   It will take about eighteen months to bring the army up to its full strength.
   Armoured forces, before the fighting with Pakistan, included:
   1 armoured division equipped with Centurions.
   1 armoured brigade with Shermans.
   2 light tank regiments with AMX-13.
   2 light tank regiments with Stuarts.
   Territorial Army of 47,000.
   Casualties: men, 4,000-6,000; tanks, up to 300.
Navy Total strength: 16,000.
   1 16,000-ton carrier.
   2 cruisers.
   3 destroyers.
   5 anti-submarine frigates.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   6 other escort ships.
   6 minesweepers.
   13 light coastal vessels.
   2 amphibious warfare ships.
   5 survey vessels, training ships.
   Naval aircraft include 24 Sea Hawk strike/interceptors and 15 AlizИ ASW aircraft.
   Casualties: nil.
Air Force Total strength: 28,000 (sanctioned strength 45 squadrons).
   12 MiG-21 jet fighters.
   4 HF-24 Marut fighter-bombers.
   4 interceptor squadrons with 25 MystХre IVs each.
   4 interceptor squadrons with 25 Gnats each.
   4 bomber squadrons with 20 Canberras each.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with 25 Hunters each.
   Several Ouragan and Vampire fighter-bomber squadrons.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 8 Canberras.
   The transport force includes 80 C-119s, 24 An-12s and about 50 C-47s.
   2 II-14s, some Otters and Viscounts 723 and 730.
   Avro 748s and Caribous are being acquired.
   The Auxiliary Air Force squadrons chiefly fly Harvard and Vampire trainers.
   Casualties: about 50 aircraft.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 101,000,000. Total armed forces: 412,000.
Defence budget: equivalent $980,000,000 (latest estimate available).
Army Total strength: 350,000 (regular 200,000; reservists 150,000).
   The Army is basically organized into 17 territorial regions, but detailed organization only exists at the battalion level and above,
   including the provision of artillery, engineer, and technical support.
   The emphasis in training and combat experience alike has been on guerrilla and anti-guerrilla fighting.
   The infantry battalions are equipped with American and some Russian small arms.
   The Army also has 57mm Soviet AA-guns and associated radar equipment, and various types of Soviet bloc artillery.
   There are very few armoured formations.
   There is a paratroop force of about 13,000 men.
   Para-military forces and police number about 130,000.
Navy Total strength: 40,000
   (25,000 regular navy, plus naval air forces, a commando corps, and a 10,000-strong Marine Corps).
   1 heavy cruiser (ex-Soviet Sverdlov class).
   5 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skoryi class).
   6 frigates.
   12 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   3 submarine parent ships.
   23 motor torpedo boats.
   33 motor gunboats (including 12 Komar class with missiles).
   19 minesweepers.
   7 landing ships and landing craft.
   25 seaward defence craft.
   70 other vessels.
   A small naval air arm.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000, plus 2,000 parachute troops.
   The Indonesian Air Force is organized into 8 main air areas, each with one main base, and some auxiliary bases.
   There are about 600 aircraft.
   Over 60 MiG interceptors, including 18 MiG-21s.
   25 Tu-16 Badger, some with air-to-surface missiles.
   25 Il-28 Beagle.
   18 B-25 Mitchell/B-26 Invader.
   Some F51 Mustang ground support.
   About 60 transports, including 11-14, C-130B, C-47, Otter, An-10, and An-12.
   About 25 Soviet and American helicopters, including some Mi-6 Hook.
   There are up to 125 light aircraft, trainers, etc.
   There are at least 3 surface-to-air missile sites, which are claimed to be equipped with Guideline missiles.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 2,500,000.
Length of military service: men, 26 months; women, 20 months. Total armed forces: up to 250,000 (including reserves which can be mobilized within 48-72 hours).
Defence budget 1964-65: I£813,000,000 ($271,000,000).
Army Regular: 4 brigades (approximately 4,000 men each), 1 of which is paratroop infantry.
   There is a separate armoured command of divisional strength.
   Reserve: Approximately 24 brigades, for one third of which armour is available on mobilization.
   There are approximately 600 tanks, including Centurions, M-4 Shermans with 105mm guns and AMX-13.
   Some M-48 Pattons have been delivered under an abandoned arms agreement with West Germany.
   SS-10 and SS-11 anti-tank missiles are in operational use.
Navy Strength: 3,000 men.
   2 destroyers.
   1 frigate.
   2 submarines (2 more ordered from Britain).
   9 MTBs.
   2 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 8,000; 450 aircraft.
   3 squadrons Mirage IIIC interceptor ground-attack (some equipped with Matra air-to-air missiles) of 24 aircraft each.
   1 squadron Super MystХre interceptor ground-attack.
   2 squadrons MystХre IVA fighter-bomber.
   1 squadron Vautour tactical bombers/reconnaissance.
   55 Ouragan fighter-bombers.
   Some AOP light aircraft.
   2 squadrons helicopters - S-58, Alouette, and Bell 47.
   60 Magister jet trainers (can be used in strike role).
   1 squadron Noratlas transport.
   1 battalion Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 10,810,000.
Military service : conscription. Total armed forces: 28,600.
Defence budget 1965-66: MS207,641,000 (US$148,000,000).
Army Total strength: 25,000.
   12 infantry battalions (about 800 men each).
   These will later be brought up to 15 battalions, with supporting arms, so as to form 5 mobile brigade groups.
   1 brigade is now operating in Borneo.
   2 reconnaissance regiments with Ferret armoured cars.
   2 artillery regiments with 105mm howitzers.
   Supply, engineer, and administrative units.
   Territorial Army: planned strength is 27,000.
   24 companies para-military field police: 23,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 2,100.
   1 frigate.
   4 coastal, 4 inshore minesweepers.
   10 patrol craft.
   6 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 1,500.
   14 Twin Pioneer.
   5 Pioneer.
   8 Dart Heralds.
   3 Doves.
   2 Heron.
   12 Alouette III helicopters.
   12 piston-engine Provosts.
   It is hoped to acquire 20 strike-trainer aircraft.
  
   SOUTH AFRICA
Population: 16,500,000.
Military service : selective service for whites. Total armed forces: 26,500.
Defence estimates 1965-66: R230,000,000 ($322,000,000).
Army Total strength: 19,000 (5,500 regulars, and 13,500 Citizen Force-i.e. conscripts on 9 months service).
   Equipment includes Sherman and Centurion tanks, the French Panhard armoured car, and Cessna reconnaissance aircraft.
Navy Total strength: 3,500.
   2 destroyers, carrying Wasp ASW helicopters.
   6 frigates, including 5 recently modernized for
   ASW detection.
   1 training ship.
   2 escort minesweepers.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 seaward defence boats.
   8 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 4,000.
(a) 1 squadron with 18 Sabre Mark VI interceptors (another 20 Sabres are held in reserve).
   1 squadron of 16 Mirage IIIC fighterbombers equipped with AS-30 air-to-surface missiles.
   1 squadron Canberra B-12 light bombers.
   7 Shackleton maritime reconnaissance.
   1 squadron Buccaneer light bombers.
   60 helicopters including Alouette and Sikorsky.
   Transport aircraft include C-47, C-130B, and Viscount.
(b) The Citizen Force operates 6-8 squadrons with about 200 Harvard aircraft, each able to carry 8 19-lb. fragmentation bombs.
   Approximately 300 Harvards are in storage.
   2 other squadrons, each with 15 Vampires, are operated by the Citizen Force.
Para-military forces Police: 29,600, plus 6,000 reservists.
   430 riot trucks and 80 armoured cars.
   Commandos: 51,500, organized in 210 units, including infantry, armoured cars, and air sections (250 aircraft).
   Almost all South African forces are drawn from the white population.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 31,200,000.
Military service : Army 16 months, Navy 24 months, and Air Force 18 months. Total armed forces: 330,000.
Defence estimates 1965-66: 19,920,000,000 pesetas ($332,000,000).
Army Strength: 248,000.
   2 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured division equipped with M-47 tanks.
   1 mountain division.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   1 high mountain brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 airborne brigade.
   11 infantry brigades.
Navy Strength: 44,000.
   1 cruiser.
   10 destroyers.
   4 anti-submarine frigates.
   22 other escorts.
   8 submarines.
   4 minelayers.
   33 other vessels.
   3 flights of ASW helicopters.
   1 special group of Marines with 1 landing battalion and 3 companies, and
   1 group of logistic and flight support, with landing craft, self-propelled guns, amphibious vehicles, etc.
Air Force Strength: 38,000.
(a) Air Defence
   3 squadrons F-86 fighters.
   1 squadron F-104 interceptors.
(b) Tactical Air Force
   2 squadrons of F-86.
   2 squadrons of Texan T-60.
   1 aero-naval co-operation squadron.
   1 liaison flight with H-19B helicopters and
   L-19A aircraft.
(c) Transport Aviation
   2 squadrons of DC-3.
   2 squadrons of DC-4.
   1 squadron of CASA-207.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 7,700,000.
Military service : from 10 months for privates to 26 months for officers.
   Reserve liabilities up to the age of 47. Total armed forces: 181,000, including 138,600 conscripts, of whom 87,000 serve only 15-40 days of the year.
Defence estimates 1965-66: Skr. 4,488,000,000 ($865,000,000).
Army Total armed strength: 138,200 (of whom 76,000 serve only 15-40 days of the year).
   On mobilization the total number would become about 650,000.
   The nucleus of the standing army is formed by about
   6 armoured and infantry brigades, with a personnel strength of 4,000-5,000 men each.
   Centurion tanks, including some mounting a 105mm gun, are in service.
   The Swedish tank 'strv-S' (turretless) is to be assigned to armoured units.
   Anti-tank weapons include the SS-11, Bantam, Carl Gustav.
   One battalion Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   The Home Guard numbers over 100,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 19,100 (including 5,200 regulars).
   2 cruisers.
   8 destroyers.
   12 fast anti-submarine frigates.
   24 submarines.
   12 heavy torpedo boats.
   25 motor torpedo boats.
   20 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers.
   Naval helicopters include American Vertols and French Alouettes.
   Armament includes the Swedish ship-to-surface missile Rb-08 and the ship-to-air missile Seacat.
Air Force Total strength: 23,700 (including 5,900 regular); about 900 combat aircraft.
   6 squadrons J-29F Tunnan day-fighters.
   4 squadrons J-34 Hunter day-fighters.
   3 squadrons J-35A Draken day-fighters.
   6 squadrons J-32B Lansen and 9 squadrons Draken all-weather fighters.
   12 squadrons J-32A Lansen attack (with air-toship missiles).
   5 squadrons S-29, S-32, and S-35 reconnaissance.
   Armament includes the air-to-air missiles Sidewinder and Falcon, and a Swedish air-to-surface missile, Rb-304.
Air Defence
   A large-scale, fully automatic battle control system, with which all components of the Swedish air defence are coordinated,
   is being built up. This is known as Stril 60 and is similar to the American Sage.
   The outlines of a new air-defence weapon system, centering on a multipurpose aircraft, Viggen, were made public in 1962.
   Six squadrons Bloodhound Mark II anti-aircraft missiles have been ordered, of which 2 are now operational.
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 5,810,000.
Length of military service: about 4 months initial basic training, followed by 12 years in the first reserve and
   18 in second- and third-line reserves. Total armed forces : 700,000 (including reservists who can be fully mobilized within 48 hours);
   also 150,000 auxiliary reservists (local defence forces).
Defence budget 1966: SF 1,769,000,000 ($410,000,000).
Army Total strength: 500 regulars and 35,000 serving conscripts; 550,000 reserves.
   The Army is organized into 4 corps.
   1 corps, for the defence of the Alps, consists of 3 mountain divisions.
   The other 3 corps, for the defence of the plain, consist of 1 mechanized division, 1 frontier division, and 1 infantry division each.
   Also 9 frontier, fortress, and 'redoubt' brigades. (Total Army forces are equivalent to 20 divisions.)
   The mechanized formations are equipped with 300 Centurion and 200 AMX-13 tanks, and M113 armoured troop carriers.
   The infantry field divisions are shortly to be given 150 P2-61 light tanks.
Air Force Total strength: 6,000 regulars, 6,000 serving conscripts, 50,000 reserves; approximately 400 fighter aircraft.
   5 squadrons Hunter interceptor.
   11 squadrons Venom close-support.
   5 squadrons Vampire close-support.
   1 squadron Ju-52/53 transport.
   Some of the Vampire and Venom squadrons will be replaced by 2 squadrons Mirage III interceptors and 1 squadron Mirage IIIRs.
   36 batteries Oerlikon twin 35mm cannon.
   Bloodhound Mark II missiles are now operational, with 68 launchers built.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC
Population: 29,000,000. Total armed forces (regular): 180,000 (National Guard and organized reserve units, 120,000).
Military service: 3 years.
Defence estimates 1965-66: E£210,000,000 ($437,000,000).
Army Strength (regulars): 150,000, of which up to 70,000 are in the Yemen, and some 2,500 in Iraq.
   2 armoured divisions (one still forming) of 11,200 men each.
   4 infantry divisions in process of being modernized of 11,800 men each.
   6 area commands for static defence forces (not all up to strength).
   1 parachute brigade (three battalions).
   12 artillery regiments.
   Probable current tank strength (allowing for deficiencies in establishment): 1,200 tanks and assault guns.
   This includes the following: 400 T-34, at least 350 T-54, 60 JS-3 with 122mm guns,
   150 SU-100 with 100mm guns, 30 Mark III Centurions (with reserve units), and 20 AMX-13 (with reserve units).
   In the Yemen, the UAR deployed the equivalent of 3 of the infantry divisions, the parachute brigade, and
   2 armoured task forces of brigade size.
   It has been announced that their evacuation is to be completed between December 1965 and June 1966.
Navy Total strength: 11,000, including Coast Guards.
   4 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory class).
   2 destroyers (ex-British 'Z' type).
   6 submarine chasers (ex-Soviet).
   3 other escort vessels.
   6 minesweepers (4 ex-Soviet, 2 ex-British).
   9 submarines (ex-Soviet ' W class).
   14 fast patrol boats (10 ex-Soviet Komar class, with missiles of 20 miles range).
   44 motor torpedo boats (36 ex-Soviet, 8 exYugoslav).
   10 other vessels.
   Some landing craft.
   Naval reserves total about 5,000 men.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000-15,000, plus 3,000-4,000 reservists.
   About 500 operational aircraft, including 40 helicopters and some 60 transport aircraft, but excluding trainers.
   25-30 Tu-16 medium bombers (2 understrength squadrons).
   4 squadrons Il-28 light bombers, 18 planes each.
   2 squadrons MiG-21 interceptors, 26 planes each (probably armed with air-to-air missiles).
   4 squadrons MiG-19 all-weather fighters (some 80 planes in all).
   4 squadrons MiG-17 fighter bombers (80-100 planes).
   2 squadrons of MiG-15s (about 50 planes).
   Transport aircraft include twin-engined I1-14 and four-engined An-12 transports, and, together with lighter liaison aircraft, total about 60 planes.
   Helicopters are entirely of Soviet and Czech origin.
   Training aircraft include MiG and Yak jet trainers, some of which were used in a ground attack role in the Yemen.
Anti-aircraft Command Operated jointly by Army and Air Force.
   In addition to 85mm guns and a radar network, contains about 10 batteries of Soviet SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Missile Command
   This is separate from the Army and Air Force, and consists of about 4,500 men, including civilian technicians.
   About 100 missiles have probably been built, although considerably higher claims have been made.
   These include the
   Al Zafir, which carries a 1,000-lb. warhead some 235 miles, the
   Al Kahir, which carries a rather larger warhead up to 375 miles, and the
   Al Ared, which carries a one-ton warhead some 440 miles.
   The first two of these can be launched from mobile platforms.
   There is no evidence that the Egyptians have either developed a reliable guidance system for these missiles or decided what
   kind of warheads to use.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 19,350,000.
Length of military service: Army 18 months, Navy and Air Force 24 months.
Total armed forces: 247,000.
Defence estimates 1965: 381,750,000,000 dinars ($305,000,000).
Army Strength: 200,000.
   20 infantry divisions.
   3 armoured divisions with T-34, T-54, Sherman, and M-47 Patton (all divisions may not be up to strength).
   About 40 independent brigades, including an airborne and a marine infantry brigade.
   Effective reserves number about 450,000.
Navy Total strength: 27,000.
   3 destroyers (including two primarily for training purposes).
   3 frigates.
   2 submarines.
   18 patrol vessels (of which 16 are submarine chasers).
   90 motor torpedo boats.
   45 minesweepers, including inshore and river minesweepers.
   7 landing craft.
   28 other ships.
   Coastal defences include from 60-80 batteries.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000 (approx. 650 aircraft)..
   1 squadron MмG-21 C interceptors.
   11 squadrons CF-86D/E Sabre interceptors.
   9 squadrons F-84G Thunderjet fighter bombers.
   Some 11-14 and C-47 transports.
   Some T-33A and Yugoslav Galeb jet trainers.
   There are surface-to-air missile batteries.
Para-military forces 19,000 Frontier Guards.
  

TABLES

   Табл.1. Сравнение стратегических сил на начало 1966
   В скобках оценка IISS на начало 1965 г.
    []
   * Действующие флоты или корабли в строю
   t Сейчас считается, что эта цифра была занижена.

   Табл.2. Основные системы доставки ядерного оружия 1964-65
    []
   ASM=ракета класса "воздух-поверхность".
   Несоответствие между числами Маха и скоростью в миль/ч объясняется различиями в эксплуатационных высотах.
   * Радиус и боевая нагрузка - максимальные, без подкрыльевых баков. Во многих случаях полная дальность или полная боевая нагрузка существенно уменьшает одна другую.

    []
  
   Табл.3. Сравнение военных расходов стран НАТО.
    []
   Эта таблица основана на стандартном определении расходов на оборону, которое необязательно охватывает те же статьи, что и бюджеты национальной обороны. Например, такие статьи, как военные пенсии, военные исследования и разработки и расходы на создание стратегических запасов, включены в вышеуказанные цифры, но не могут быть включены в бюджеты национальной обороны, как показано в таблице 4.

   Табл.4. Военные расходы как бремя для национальной экономики
    []
   * См. также для Советского Союза, c.2. По оценкам, 40 000 000 будет составлять 14,8% ВНП.
   t Динар был переоценен в пересчете на доллар в июле 1965 года.
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ. Данные за 1963-1964 годы были выбраны в качестве последних лет, за которые имеются данные как о расходах на оборону, так и о ВНП по всем рассматриваемым странам. Цифры в скобках представляют собой последние данные о расходах на оборону соответствующей страны и указывают на то, как это бремя могло измениться за прошедшие годы.
   ВНП стран Варшавского договора оценивается в эквиваленте покупательной способности западных стран. Данные о расходах на оборону в этих странах в основном пересчитаны по туристическим обменным курсам.
   Процентные показатели для стран НАТО могут несколько отличаться от показателей, приведенных в таблице 3, поскольку в этой таблице используется иная система определений (см. сноску к Таблице 3).

   Табл.5. Сравнение оборонных бюджетов двух ядерных держав, 1965-66
    []

   Табл.6. Функциональная разбивка по людским ресурсам для четырех ядерных держав
    []
  
    []
  
   Табл.7. Исследовательские и энергетические реакторы в неядерных странах
    []
   t Важно отметить, что реакторы, использующие обогащенный уран, в настоящее время зависят от топлива от одной из ядерных держав. Напротив, те, которые основаны на природном уране, могут быть заправлены из широкого спектра источников, а во многих случаях и самой страны.
   ** Плутоний из этих реакторов будет незначительным.
    []

   Последнее редактирование 6.5.2019

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