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The Military Balance 1966

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THE MILITARY BALANCE 1966

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1966

   The Military Balance 1965
   The Military Balance 1967

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Foreword
Communist Powers:
  Warsaw Pact - Варшавский Договор: Soviet Union - Советский Союз, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Roumania
  China - Китай, Cuba, North Korea, North Vietnam
Western alliances: Treaties
   NATO - НАТО: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, UK, USA
   CENTO: Iran, Pakistan
   SEATO: Australia, New Zealand, Philippine, Thailand
   Protocol States: South Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
   US mutual defence treaties: Japan, South Korea, Taiwan
Non-Aligned Countries: India, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UAR, Yugoslavia
Tables

FOREWORD

   This is the eighth of the Institute's annual estimates of the nature and size of the military forces of the principal powers. It covers the Communist powers, those countries which have mutual defence treaties with the United States (excluding Latin America), and a number of important non-aligned countries.
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgements which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in most cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information, and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking the material.
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia, or reserve forces has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Naval strengths are those of active fleets and ships in commission only, except where otherwise stated. Vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have been excluded. Figures for defence budgets are exclusive of military aid.
   This document examines the military balance as it existed in August 1966, and reflects the changes that will, on present indications, occur during the ensuing year. No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1967 have been included.
   The material in this document should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the nature of the balance of strategic power: it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability, efficiency, etc., on either side. It may, however, be found useful in the context of discussions on strategy and disarmament.
   September 1966

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

   Это восьмой из ежегодных выпусков Института о характере и размере вооруженных сил главных держав. Он охватывает коммунистические державы, те страны, которые имеют договоры о взаимной защите с Соединенными Штатами (за исключением Латинской Америки) и ряд важных неприсоединившихся стран.
   Институт берет на себя полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Сотрудничество правительств было запрошено и в большинстве случаев было получено. Не все страны одинаково сотрудничают в области сбора информации, и поэтому некоторые данные оценочные. Институт благодарен ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые помогли собрать и проверить материал.
   Приводятся данные о численности регулярных вооруженных сил, однако в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, указана численность полувоенных сил, ополченцев или резервов. Силами военно-морского флота являются силы только активного флота и действующие корабли, за исключением случаев, когда указано иное. Были исключены суда с нормальным водоизмещением менее 100 тонн. Цифры оборонных бюджетов не включают военную помощь.
   В этом документе рассматривается военный баланс, на август 1966 года, и отражает изменения, которые по нынешним данным будут иметь место в течение следующего года. Никаких прогнозов уровней сил или вооружений на 1967 год нет.
   Материал в этом документе не следует рассматривать как всеобъемлющее руководство по характеру баланса стратегических сил: он не отражает факторов географии, уязвимости, эффективности и т.д. с обеих сторон. Однако он может быть полезен в контексте обсуждений по стратегии и разоружению.
   Сентябрь 1966 года
  

PART I. THE COMMUNIST POWERS

THE WARSAW PACT NATIONS

   The year 1965-66 was an un dramatic year as far as the announcement of new Soviet weapons was concerned. This was in contrast to 1964-65, which saw the unveiling by the Soviet military of weapons claimed to be solid-fuelled mobile Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) and Medium-Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBMs), the still untested 'global rocket', and an antiballistic missile (ABM). It was essentially a year of evolution, with continuing progress in the installation of hardened sites for the second generation ICBM, and the beginning of what may be a token operational deployment of antiballistic missiles around Moscow and Leningrad. The difficulties which brought the earlier ABM deployment programme to a halt had apparently been overcome.
   In the politico-strategic field, trends already apparent in 1964-65 intensified. The deeper United States involvement in Vietnam has predictably been met by Soviet denunciations, but material aid to North Vietnam has so far remained modest. Similarly, threats to dispatch Warsaw Pact 'volunteers' to Vietnam have as yet remained unfulfilled, and Chinese denunciations of Soviet 'weakness' in the face of US 'aggression' have not resulted in greater Soviet militancy except on the verbal plane. The Soviet political leaders became more confident that the Vietnam war would not escalate into a large scale nuclear conflict, and in his speech at the 23rd Party Congress the Minister of Defence, Marshal Malinovsky, stressed that the Soviet strategic offensive and defensive forces (the 'Blue Belt') could deter 'aggression'. This conviction can probably be explained by continued progress in the hardening of ICBM sites. Subordinate military spokesmen, on the other hand, indicated by the forcefulness of their pronouncements that some elements of the defence establishment were less confident than the political leadership.
   Soviet hostility towards Germany intensified during the year, and the military and foreign policy press have shown a strong predilection for the argument that an 'alliance within an alliance' has grown up within NATO, in the form of ah American-German 'special relationship' of a particularly aggressive kind. This argument, originally put forward in the early stages of the MLF proposal, has survived the apparent demise of the proposal. This has led to propagation of a concept of 'political proliferation', under which even a 'consultative' solution involving no German control of nuclear weapons, such as the McNamara Committee, is held to constitute nuclear prohferation and hence to impede a non proliferation treaty.
   During the year, the Soviet Union met with more difficulties than ever before in her relations with her Warsaw Pact partners. The Pact, originally little more than a paper agreement, had begun to develop into a genuine military alliance in the early 1960s, partly because the large reductions in the Soviet Army at that time enhanced the importance of the East European forces for theatre operations. To the extent that this made their participation in joint arrangements more necessary, it increased their bargaining power with the Soviet Union. Together with the partial detente in Europe and the emergence of more nationalist leaders within some of the Eastern European countries, this led to internal dissension within the Pact comparable to that within NATO, though less widely publicized. The First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, Leonid Brezhnev, admitted in late 1965 that East European leaders had raised the need for 'a permanent mechanism for considering urgent problems'. He did not elaborate on the nature of the 'urgent problems', but it is likely that they include such questions as cost-sharing, choices between alternative policies, consultation in major crises where use of nuclear weapons may have to be considered, and perhaps the nature of the Warsaw Pact response to any nuclear-sharing arrangements which may be made within NATO. The First Secretary of the Rumanian Communist Party, Nicolae Ceausescu, said in May 1966 that 'all military pacts, including the Warsaw Pact, are a contravention of national sovereignty and independence'.
   At the Warsaw Pact meeting in July 1966, a declaration calling for a meeting of all European states to discuss European security was issued. The main features of this were a denunciation of West Germany and the pointed exclusion of the United States from such a conference. This may well indicate that the intention is to exploit latent or overt anti-American and anti-German tendencies in Europe in order to promote the dissolution of NATO when the right of withdrawal becomes effective in 1969. Some Soviet newspapers have hinted at the existence of a feeling that the American presence in Europe can help to restrain the less responsible of her European allies, although the senior Soviet military leaders probably hold to the more 'traditional' view that the American presence is a threat to the Soviet Union. There are a number of political and economic factors which would predispose political leaders in both the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe to some form of European collective security arrangement. The continued maintenance of 26 Soviet divisions in Eastern Europe is expensive and politically disadvantageous for the USSR. To Poland, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany, however, a continued Soviet presence may be considered desirable in view of the unsolved question of the German borders. This presence need not necessarily continue at the present level. Though the disruption of NATO is likely to remain an important Soviet objective, it is unlikely that the Warsaw Pact's interest in European collective security derives solely from this. Coalition politics have come to play a larger part in the Warsaw Pact, and, barring a dramatic resolution of the Sino-Soviet dispute, East European support within the international Communist movement will continue to be sought by both the Soviet Union and China. This will increase Eastern Europe's bargaining power.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ВАРШАВСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   1965-66 год был драматическим в появлении нового советского оружия. В отличие от 1964-65 годов, когда было объявлено о советских вооружениях, которые, как утверждается, являются мобильными межконтинентальными баллистическими ракетами (МБР) и баллистическими ракетами средней дальности (БРСД) на твердом топливе. До сих пор не проверены сведения о "глобальной ракете" и противоракете (ПРО). Это был, по существу, год эволюции, с постоянным увеличением числа укрепленных шахт для МБР второго поколения и началом того, что может означать оперативное развертывание противоракет вокруг Москвы и Ленинграда. По-видимому, были преодолены трудности, которые привели к тому, что предыдущая программа развертывания ПРО была прервана.
   В политико-стратегической области тенденции, уже проявившиеся в 1964-1965 годах, усилились. Большее участие Соединенных Штатов во Вьетнаме предсказуемо было встречено советскими протестами, но материальная помощь Северному Вьетнаму до сих пор оставалась скромной. Аналогичным образом, угрозы отправки добровольцев Варшавского договора во Вьетнам до сих пор остались невыполненными, а китайские утверждения о советской "слабости" перед лицом агрессии США не привели к большей советской воинственности, кроме словесной. Советские политические лидеры стали более уверенными в том, что война во Вьетнаме не перерастет в крупномасштабный ядерный конфликт, и в своем выступлении на XXII съезде партии министр обороны маршал Малиновский подчеркнул, что советские стратегические наступательные и оборонительные силы ("Синий" Пояс") может сдерживать "агрессию ". Вероятно, это убеждение можно объяснить дальнейшим прогрессом в укреплении шахт МБР. С другой стороны, были заявления военных, которые показали, что некоторые деятели оборонного ведомства были менее уверены, чем политическое руководство.
   В течение года усиливалась советская враждебность по отношению к Германии, и военная и внешняя политическая пресса проявляла сильное пристрастие к аргументу о том, что "альянс внутри альянса" вырос внутри НАТО, в форме американо-немецких "особых отношений", особенно агрессивного характера. Этот аргумент, первоначально выдвинутый на ранних этапах, получил продолжение. Это привело к появлению концепции "распространения", в соответствии с которой даже "консультативное" решение, не связанное с германским контролем над ядерным оружием, например, Комитета Макнамары, считается распространением ядерного оружия и, следовательно, противоречит договору о нераспространении.
   В течение года Советский Союз столкнулся с большими трудностями, чем когда-либо прежде, в отношениях с партнерами из Варшавского договора. Договор, первоначально лишь немного больший, чем бумажное соглашение, начал развиваться в подлинный военный союз в начале 1960-х годов, отчасти потому, что большие сокращения Советской Армии в то время усилили важность восточноевропейских сил для операций на театре. В той степени, в которой это сделало их участие в совместных мероприятиях более необходимым, оно увеличило их переговорный потенциал с Советским Союзом. Вместе с частичной разрядкой в Европе и появлением более националистических лидеров в некоторых восточноевропейских странах это привело к внутренним разногласиям внутри Договора, сопоставимым с тем, что было в НАТО, хотя и менее широко освещалось. Первый секретарь Коммунистической партии Советского Союза Леонид Брежнев признал в конце 1965 года, что восточноевропейские лидеры проявили потребность в "постоянном механизме для рассмотрения насущных проблем". Он не уточнил характер "неотложных проблем", но вполне вероятно, что они включают в себя такие вопросы, как разделение затрат, выбор между альтернативной политикой, консультации в крупных кризисах, где, возможно, придется рассматривать использование ядерного оружия и, возможно, характер реакции Варшавского договора на любые соглашения о разделе ядерного оружия, которые могут быть приняты в рамках НАТО. Первый секретарь Коммунистической партии Румынии Николае Чаушеску в мае 1966 года заявил, что "все военные пакты, включая Варшавский договор, являются нарушением национального суверенитета и независимости".
   На встрече представителей Варшавского договора в июле 1966 года была выпущена декларация, призывающая к встрече всех европейских государств по вопросам европейской безопасности. Главными вопросами были денонсация Западной Германии и заочное исключение Соединенных Штатов из такой конференции. Это может указывать на то, что намерение заключается в том, чтобы использовать скрытые или открытые антиамериканские и антигерманские тенденции в Европе в целях содействия роспуску НАТО, когда право на выход вступит в силу в 1969 году. Некоторые советские газеты намекали на существование ощущение, что американское присутствие в Европе может помочь сдержать меньшую ответственность ее европейских союзников, хотя высокопоставленные советские военные лидеры, вероятно, придерживаются более "традиционного" мнения о том, что американское присутствие представляет собой угрозу для Советского Союза. Существует ряд политических и экономических факторов, которые предрасполагали бы политических лидеров как в Советском Союзе, так и в Восточной Европе к какой-то форме европейской системы коллективной безопасности. Продолжающееся содержание 26 советских дивизий в Восточной Европе является дорогостоящим и политически невыгодным для СССР. Однако в Польше, Чехословакии и Восточной Германии постоянное присутствие советских войск может считаться желательным ввиду нерешенного вопроса о границах Германии. Это присутствие необязательно должно продолжаться на нынешнем уровне. Хотя развал НАТО, вероятно, останется важной советской целью, маловероятно, что интерес Варшавского договора к европейской коллективной безопасности вытекает исключительно из этого. Политика коалиции стала играть более значительную роль в Варшавском договоре, и, не допуская драматического разрешения китайско-советского спора, восточноевропейская поддержка внутри международного коммунистического движения будет по-прежнему запрашиваться как Советским Союзом, так и Китаем. Это увеличит переговорную силу в Восточной Европе.
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
   Population: 232,000,000.
   Basic military service: Army 2-3 years, Air Force 3 years, and Navy 4 years.
Defence budget 1966: 13,400,000,000 roubles.
   This is a 5% increase on the 1965 figure, but as a proportion of the total State budget, of which it forms 12.9%, it is slightly less than in 1965. This figure represents the official defence vote, and almost certainly does not include space research costs or research and development expenditure on advanced weapons systems, which may account for as much as half of the official budget. At the official exchange rate, the defence budget would be approximately $14,900,000,000. If considered in terms of the purchasing power equivalent in US dollars, Soviet military expenditure, including items related to defence but not in the official defence budget, is probably nearer $35,000,000,000 a year.
Total regular forces are estimated at about 3,165,000 men, a very slight increase on last year's estimate.
   In addition, the para-military forces, including the security and border troops of the Ministry of the Interior, have about 230,000 men.
  
   Strategic Rocket Forces
   Operational ICBMs now total around 300, an increase of about 30 on the 1965 figure. Most of these are second-generation systems; the majority have storable liquid fuels and are easier to protect by means of hardened sites than first generation systems. Like the first, the second generation have powerful boosters and high yield warheads. A large three-stage rocket was put on show in Moscow in 1965; the Soviets have claimed that this could carry a 50-megaton warhead in a ballistic trajectory, or be targeted from orbital flight, but this claim remains untested.
   The chief protection for ICBM launchers is hardening of silos, and this process has been continuing. The scope for active defence measures, such as Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) systems, is less, although the Russians have claimed such a capability, and it is reported that a network of sites is being prepared around Leningrad and Moscow.
   The number of MRBMs and IRBMs still appears to be between 700 and 750. These can cover most strategic and semi-tactical targets such as fighter airfields in Western Europe and much of the Far East. The operational MRBM Sandal is a single-stage missile with a range of about 1,100 statute miles; it can be transported and serviced on lorries. The IRBM Skean is also a single-stage missile with storable liquid fuels; it has a range of more than 2,000 miles. Both systems are deployed near the western, southern, and eastern borders of the USSR, the majority being situated in the western Soviet Union.
   The operational personnel of the Strategic Rocket Forces, under the command of Marshal Krylov, now totals about 200,000.
  
   Air Forces
   The Air Forces are organized into five components:
   (1) the Long-Range Air Force (strategic bombers);
   (2) the tactical (or front-line) Air Force, which includes fighter sand light bombers;
   (3) the air element of the Air Defence Command (fighter-interceptors);
   (4) the Naval Air Force (entirely land-based); and
   (5) the Air Transport Force (including an independent force for the airborne divisions).
   There are about 10,000 aircraft in all, and the total personnel strength is about 500,000.
   The Long-Range Air Force is grouped in three main areas: Western Russia, the Central Ukraine, and the Far East, and in addition has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic. Its numbers of inter-continental bombers - not more than 250 at the very highest estimate - are less than half those of the Strategic Air Command's B-52 force; but there is still a very strong force of medium bombers for operations in the Eurasian theatre. The negotiations at the Geneva Disarmament Conference have indicated that the Soviet Union still considers that its medium bombers are important to its own security. The following gives some indication of Soviet air power:
   (i) Strategic Striking Power,
   (a) About 110 four-jet Bisons(M-4) and about 100 four-turboprop Bears (Tu-95). It is believed that half of the Bears can carry a large-winged air-to-surface missile,
   (b) About 900 twin-jet medium bombers, Badgers (Tu-16) and Blinders (Tu-22). The Blinder, which has a supersonic capability, is expected to replace the Badger at the rate of one Blinder for each three Badgers. A development of Blinder with an air-to-surface missile may also be introduced.
   (ii) Tactical Air Power. The strength of the Soviet Tactical Air Force has remained fairly constant for the last six years or so. Al together there are at present nearly 4,000 aircraft. These include light bombers, ground-attack and interceptor fighters, transport aircraft, helicopters, and reconnaissance units.
   The aircraft in service still contain a significant proportion of obsolescent types, such as the MiG-15 Fagot, the MiG-17 Fresco, the MiG-19 Farmer, and the I1-28 Beagle; but it appears from the continuing introduction of new aircraft in all the various tactical roles that the Soviet Government is still interested in maintaining a modern and efficient force for the European theatre. The most notable new aircraft in service are the ground-attack Fitter (Su-7), the interceptor fighter Fishbed (MiG-21), the supersonic light bomber Brewer (gradually replacing the Beagle), and the twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft Mangrove.
   (iii) Air Defence. The extensive early-warning and air-defence system of the Soviet Union continues to expand and improve in quality.
   The ground element of the separate Air Defence Command is estimated at 250,000 men. The defence weapons now in service include:
   Surface-to-Air Missiles.
   Guideline: A 2-stage boosted anti-aircraft missile with an impact range of about 31 statute miles, and effective to a height of over 80,000 feet.
   Griffon:A 2-stage boosted missile now used in the anti-aircraft role. Its impact range is greater than that of Guideline, and its altitude capability is somewhat greater. It was probably for this missile that Marshal Sudets, the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Air Defence, claimed a nuclear capability last year.
   Ganef:A mobile anti-aircraft missile with solid-fuel boosters. These are mounted on tracked carriers and may have been assigned to ground forces in the field.
   A new missile, Galosh, for which the Soviets have claimed a long-range ballistic missile defence capability, has been displayed at Moscow parades.
   Fighters. There are probably about 4,500 fighters in service, the majority of which are MiG-17 Fresco and MiG-19 Farmer. Newer aircraft include the Su-9 Fishpot B, the MiG-21 Fishbed, and the Yak-25 Firebar, all of which have a maximum speed of the order of 1,200 mph and operational ceilings of about 60,000 ft.
   The Firebar is now coming into service, and may be used in conjunction with the MiG-23 Fiddler at a later date. Both are long-range interceptors carrying two air-to-air missiles.
  
   Land Forces
   The total size of the Soviet Army (including the ground elements of the Air Defence Command) is now estimated at 2,000,000 men. It is thought to be organized into about 140 divisions.
   There are three degrees of combat readiness in the Soviet Army, and probably less than half the 140 divisions are at or near full combat strength. The remainder could be brought up to strength at short notice, although about a quarter of the total are at the lowest degree of readiness and would require major reinforcement.
   The location of divisional headquarters is roughly as follows: 75 divisions in European USSR, 22 divisions in Central USSR, 17 divisions in the Far East, and 26 divisions in Eastern Europe (20 in East Germany, 2 in Poland, and 4 in Hungary).
   The 26 divisions in Europe are among those maintained at combat strength. So are at least 12 of the divisions in the Far East. The other 5 divisions in the Far East are thought to be in the second category of readiness: below combat strength, but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war. The 75 divisions in European Russia are of varying degrees of strength, but the majority of the remaining combat-ready divisions are probably among them. The 22 divisions in Central USSR would require major reinforcement.
   By types of division, the distribution is approximately:
   (1) tank divisions (9,000 men and 375 medium and heavy tanks at full strength), about 43; and
   (2) motorized rifle divisions (11,000 men and 210 medium tanks at full strength), about 90.
   10 of the tank divisions are in East Germany, 1 in Poland, and 2 in Hungary. It has been estimated that the force of 26 divisions in Eastern Europe could be increased to 70 within a month if mobilization and movement were unimpeded by interdiction bombing.
   The airborne forces total some 100,000 men, organized into about 7 divisions. The transport fleet could lift two of these divisions and supporting elements simultaneously over short or medium ranges.
   There are also about 3,000 Soviet military personnel in Cuba. These are mainly instructors and advisers, but include some coastal defence missile units.
   The military doctrines of the Soviet Army still envisage a major offensive role for it in future war, and accordingly emphasize training for large-scale advance at high speed. Infantry formations contain covered Armoured Personnel Carriers, which would enable them to advance across radio-active terrain. But it may be questioned whether the logistics and command organization of the Soviet Army are so highly developed that it could accomplish the 60-mileper-day advance of official theory.
   Tactical nuclear missile units are now organic to Soviet formations, whether inside or outside the Soviet Union, and the conventional firepower of a Soviet division is as great as that of most divisions in NATO. The Soviet Army is also well equipped for offensive and defensive chemical warfare. Its equipment includes:
   (i) Tanks. Tanks in service include the T-54/55 medium tank with a 100mm gun, some T-34 medium tanks, the PT-76 amphibious reconnaissance tank, and the T-10 heavy tank with a 122mm gun. The new T-62 medium tank with a 115mm smooth-bore gun is now replacing some T-34s and T-54s in front-line units. Most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing by deep wading, and many carry infra-red night fighting equipment.
   (ii) Artillery. The main types are 122mm, 130mm, and 152mm. The main anti-tank equipment is 57mm, 85mm, and 100mm guns and the Snapper, Sagger, and Swatter missiles. Self propelled assault guns are becoming obsolete except in airborne divisions. The Soviet Army also has a considerable air defence capability, including surface-to-air missiles.
   (iii) Missiles. Tactical missiles in use by the ground forces include those of the Frog and Scud series, which are carried on modified tank chassis and wheeled launchers, and have ranges of up to 150 miles according to the type of warhead carried. There is also a larger cruise missile, Shaddock, with a range of up to 300 miles.
  
   Sea Power
   The strength of the Soviet Navy and Naval Air Force is 465,000 men. In total tonnage, it is the second biggest navy in the world, and its main strength lies in the submarine fleet. An unusually high proportion of the fleet is kept in commission. There are indications that the Naval Air Force and the missile-bearing submarines have an increasingly important role in Soviet strategy.
   (i) Submarines. There are now some 350 conventionally-powered and 50 nuclear-powered submarines. (Nuclear submarine production appears to be at the rate of at least five a year.)
   About 15 of the nuclear and 25 of the conventional submarines can fire ballistic missiles and carry an average of three missiles each; 12 of the nuclear and 28 of the conventionally powered submarines are equipped with cruise missiles which have a range of between 300 and 500 miles; they are thought to carry an average of four missiles each. The remainder are training vessels or attack submarines equipped with torpedoes. The four submarine fleets are distributed approximately as follows: 75 in the Baltic Fleet, 175 in the Arctic, 45 in the Black Sea, and about 100 in the Far East. The missile carrying submarines are mostly divided between the Arctic and Far East Fleets.
   (ii) Seaborne Missiles. It is now believed that the Soviets have successfully developed submerged firing of the Serb missile, which has been shown' on Moscow Parades. It is probably being gradually introduced into service, but its range may not be much greater than 650 miles.
   (iii) Tactical Missiles. Some ships and submarines are known to be fitted with cruise missiles which are intended primarily for antiship use. However, these might also be used against shore targets and, in the case of submarines, would be fired from the surface and from fairly long range.
   (iv) Naval Air Force. There are no aircraft carriers in the Soviet Navy. The land-based Naval Air Force comprises about 500 bomber and 350 other aircraft. Most of the bombers are based near the north-western and Black Sea coasts of the Soviet Union. They comprise:
   (a) The Tu-16 Badger with a range of 3,500 miles. The partial replacement of this aircraft with a version of the Blinder has begun.
   (b) A variant of the Tu-95 Bear for naval reconnaissance missions.
   (c) A small number of Il-28 Beagles with torpedoes.
   (d) In the ASW role, Madge flying boats and Hound helicopters are used. Madge will shortly be replaced by the turbo-prop flying boat Mail.
   (e) The Mallow twin-jet flying boat is also believed to be in service.
   (f) Miscellaneous transport aircraft.
   (v) Surface Ships. The surface ships of the Soviet Navy consist of the following:
   20 cruisers, of which one carries surface-to-air missiles.
   105 destroyers, of which 25 carry surface-to-air or surface-to-surface missiles.
   100 other ocean-going escorts.
   300 coastal escorts and submarine chasers.
   350 fast patrol boats, many with short-range surface-to-surface missiles.
   300 minesweepers.
   200 landing ships and landing craft.
   1,050 other vessels.
   Some adapted trawlers are used for electronic intelligence.
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
   The cruisers are of three different types.
   Sverdlov (one of which has been re-equipped with a medium-range surface-to-air missile launcher, perhaps as an experiment), Chapayev, and Kirov.
   Destroyers include: Kynda class, Kashin class, Krupny class, Kildin class, and Kotlin class.
   Recent Soviet comment has indicated a renewed interest in amphibious forces.
   There is a small Marine corps of perhaps 3,000 men, units of which are stationed with the Baltic, Black Sea, and Pacific Fleets.
   Para-military Forces
   The security and border troops number some 230,000. There are also perhaps about 1,5 million DOSAAF members, who participate actively in such activities as athletics, shooting, and parachuting, but reservist training and refresher courses seem to be haphazard and irregular.
  
   СОВЕТСКИЙ СОЮЗ
   Население: 232,000,000.
   Военная служба: армия 2-3 года, ВВС 3 года, флот 4 года.
   Оборонный бюджет 1966: 13,400,000,000 рублей.
   Это на 5% больше, чем в 1965 году, но в процентном отношении к общему объему государственного бюджета, который составляет 12,9%, это немного меньше, чем в 1965 году. Эта официальная цифра расходов на оборону и почти наверняка не включает расходы на космические исследования или исследования и разработки передовых систем вооружений, которые могут составлять до половины официального бюджета. По официальному курсу, бюджет обороны составит приблизительно 14,900,000,000$. Если рассматривать с точки зрения покупательной способности эквивалента в долларах США, советские военные расходы, включая статьи, связанные с обороной, но не в официальном оборонном бюджете, вероятно, ближе $35,000,000,000 в год.
   Всего регулярных войск примерно в 3,165,000 человек, очень небольшой рост на прошлогодней смете.
   Кроме того, в воинских контингентах, включая силы безопасности и пограничные войска Министерства внутренних дел, насчитывается около 230 000 человек.
  
   Ракетные Войска Стратегического Назначения
   Число развернутых МБР сейчас составляет около 300, рост примерно 30 на 1965 рис. Большая часть из этих систем второго поколения; большинство имеет хранимое жидкое топливо и их легче защитить посредством укрепления мест базирования, чем системы первого поколения. Как и первое, второе поколение имеет мощные ускорители и мощные боеголовки. Большая трехступенчатая ракета была показана в Москве в 1965 году; Советы утверждали, что она может нести 50-мегатонную боеголовку по баллистической траектории или быть нацелена с орбитального полета, но это утверждение остается непроверенным.
   Главной защитой пусковых установок МБР является упрочнение шахт, и этот процесс продолжается. Возможности для активных мер обороны, таких как системы противоракетной обороны (ПРО), меньше, хотя русские заявляли о такой возможности, и сообщалось, что готовится сеть объектов вокруг Ленинграда и Москвы.
   Число БРСД по-прежнему между 700 и 750. Они могут поражать большинство стратегических и тактических целей, таких как аэродромы в Западной Европе и на большей части Дальнего Востока. БРСД Sandal (Р-12 -ЕТ) представляет собой одноступенчатую ракету с дальностью около 1100 миль; она может транспортироваться и обслуживаться на грузовых автомобилях. БРПД Skean (Р-14 -ЕТ) также является одноступенчатой ракетой с долгохранящимся жидким топливом; она имеет дальность более 2000 миль. Обе системы развернуты вблизи западной, южной и восточной границ СССР, большинство расположено в западной части Советского Союза.
   Оперативный состав Ракетных войск стратегического назначения под командованием Маршала Крылова сейчас составляет около 200 тысяч человек.
  
   ВОЗДУШНЫЕ СИЛЫ
   Военно-Воздушные Силы состоят из пяти компонентов:
   (1) дальней авиации (стратегических бомбардировщиков);
   (2) тактические (или фронтовые) ВВС, в состав которых входят истребители и легкие бомбардировщики;
   (3) воздушный элемент командования ПВО (истребители-перехватчики);
   4) Военно-морская авиация (все наземного базирования); и
   (5) Военно-транспортная авиация (включая независимые силы для Воздушно-десантных дивизий).
   Существует около 10 000 самолетов, а общая численность персонала составляет около 500 000.
   Военно-Воздушные Силы дальнего радиуса действия сгруппированы по трем основным направлениям: Западная Россия, Центральная Украина и Дальний Восток, и, кроме того, имеют точки подскока и рассредоточения в Арктике. Число межконтинентальных бомбардировщиков - не более 250 по самым высоким оценкам - составляет менее половины от численности ВВС Стратегического воздушного командования В-52, однако на Евразийском театре действий по-прежнему имеются весьма мощные бомбардировщики среднего класса. Переговоры на Женевской конференции по разоружению показали, что Советский Союз по-прежнему считает, что его средние бомбардировщики важны для его собственной безопасности. Следующее дает некоторое представление о советской воздушной мощи:
   (i) Стратегические ударные силы ,
   (а) Около 110 четырех двигательных реактивных Bison (М-4) и около 100 четырех двигательных Bear (Ту-95). Считается, что половина Bears несут большие крылатые ракеты воздух-поверхность,
   (b) Около 900 двух двигательных реактивных средних бомбардировщиков, Badger (Ту-16) и Blinder (Ту-22). Предполагается, что Blinder, обладающий сверхзвуковой способностью, заменит Badger из расчета один Blinder на каждые три Badger. Также может быть в разработке Blinder с ракетой класса "воздух-поверхность".
   (ii) Тактическая авиация. Численность советских тактических Военно-Воздушных сил оставалась примерно неизменной в течение последних шести лет. В настоящее время насчитывается около 4000 самолетов. Это легкие бомбардировщики, истребители-перехватчики, транспортные самолеты, вертолеты, разведывательные части.
   На вооружении до сих пор содержится значительная доля устаревших типов, таких как МиГ-15 Fagot, МиГ-17 Fresco, МиГ-19 Farmer, и Ил-28 Beagle. Но, похоже, после периода длительного внедрения новой авиационной техники тактического назначения, что Советское правительство вновь заинтересовалось в сохранении современных и эффективных сил для европейского театра. Наиболее заметными новыми самолетами в эксплуатации являются штурмовик Fitter (Су-7), истребитель-перехватчик Fishbed (МиГ-21), сверхзвуковой легкий бомбардировщик Brewer (Як-28Б -ЕТ) (постепенно заменяющий Beagle) и двухдвигательный разведывательный самолет Mangrove (Як-25РВ -ЕТ).
   (iii) Противовоздушная оборона.
   Средства раннего обнаружения и систем противовоздушной обороны СССР продолжают расширяться и улучшать качественно.
   Наземный состав командования ПВО оценивается в 250 000 человек. В настоящее время на вооружении ПВО:
   Ракеты класса "земля-воздух".
   Guideline (С-75 -ЕТ): 2-ступенчатая большая зенитная ракета с дальностью около 31 мили и высотой более 80 000 футов.
   Griffon (Даль, на вооружение не принята, но показывалась на парадах -ЕТ): 2-ступенчатая ракета в настоящее время используется в противовоздушной роли. Дальность и высота больше у Guideline. Вероятно, именно об этой ракете маршал Судец, главнокомандующий противовоздушной обороны СССР, в прошлом году заявил, как об имеющей ядерный потенциал.
   Ganef (Круг -ЕТ): мобильная зенитная ракета с твердотопливными ускорителями. Они установлены на гусеничных транспортерах и, возможно, были назначены сухопутным войскам в полевых условиях.
   На московских парадах была продемонстрирована новая ракета "галош", которую советские власти заявили в качестве средства противоракетной обороны большой дальности.
   Истребители. На вооружении, вероятно, около 4500 истребителей, большинство из которых МиГ-17 Fresco и МиГ-19 Farmer. Новые самолеты, включая Су-9 Fishpot B, МиГ-21 Fishbed, и Як-25П Firebar обладают максимальной скоростью в 1200 км/ч и имеют потолки около 60 000 футов.
   Firebar is теперь вступает в эксплуатацию и может быть использован в сочетании с МиГ-23 Fiddler (Ту-128 -ЕТ) позже. Оба они дальние перехватчики несут по две ракеты воздух-воздух.
  
   Сухопутные Войска
   Общая численность советской армии (включая наземные подразделения ПВО) в настоящее время оценивается в 2 000 000 человек. Считается, что они имеют около 140 дивизий.
   В Советской армии есть три степени боевой готовности, и, вероятно, менее половины из 140 дивизий полную боевую мощь. Остальную часть можно было бы довести до уровня численности в кратчайшие сроки, хотя примерно четверть от общего числа находятся в самой низкой степени готовности и потребуют значительного укрепления.
   Расположение дивизий примерно следующее: 75 дивизий в Европейской части СССР, 22 дивизии в Центральной части СССР, 17 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке и 26 дивизий в Восточной Европе (20 в Восточной Германии, две в Польше и четыре в Венгрии).
   26 дивизий в Европе относятся к числу тех, которые содержатся в полном составе. Так это же и 12 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке. Остальные 5 дивизий на Дальнем Востоке, как полагают, относятся ко второй категории готовности: ниже боевой мощи, но не требуют серьезного усиления в случае войны. 75 дивизий в европейской части России имеют различную степень готовности. 22 дивизии в ЦИК СССР потребует серьезных подкреплений.
   По типам распределение приблизительно следующее:
   (1) танковые дивизии (9000 человек и 375 средних и тяжелые танки в полном составе), около 43; и
   (2) мотострелковые дивизии (11 000 человек и 210 средних танков в полном составе), около 90.
   10 танковых дивизий находятся в Восточной Германии, одна в Польше и две в Венгрии. Согласно оценкам, силы 26 дивизий в Восточной Европе могут быть увеличены до 70 в течение месяца, если мобилизации и передвижению не будут препятствовать бомбардировки.
   Воздушно-десантные силы насчитывают около 100 000 человек, объединенных в 7 дивизий. Транспортный флот мог бы одновременно поднимать две из этих дивизий с вспомогательными средствами на короткие или средние расстояния.
   На Кубе около 3000 советских военнослужащих. В основном это инструкторы и советники, но есть и некоторые подразделения береговой обороны.
   Военные доктрины Советской Армии по-прежнему предусматривают для армии наступательную роль в будущей войне и, соответственно, делают упор на подготовку к крупномасштабному наступлению с высокой скоростью. Пехотные формирования имеют закрытые бронетранспортеры, что позволит им продвигаться по радиоактивной местности. Но может возникнуть вопрос, настолько ли развиты материально-техническое обеспечение и командная организация Советской Армии, чтобы она могла достичь 60-дневного продвижения официальной теории.
   Тактические ядерные ракетные подразделения теперь органичны для советских соединений, будь то внутри или за пределами Советского Союза, а обычная огневая мощь советской дивизии так же велика, как и у большинства дивизий в НАТО. Советская армия также хорошо оснащена для наступательной и оборонительной химической войны. В его оснащение входит:
   (i) Танки. Танки на вооружении включают средний танк Т-54/55 со 100-мм пушкой, средний танк Т-34, танк-разведчик ПТ-76 и тяжелый танк Т-10 с 122-мм пушкой. Новый средний танк Т-62 с 115-мм гладкоствольной пушкой теперь заменяет Т-34 и Т-54 в фронтовых подразделениях. Большинство советских танков оборудованы для переправы под водой вброд, а многие имеют инфракрасную ночную боевую технику.
   (ii) Артиллерия. Основные калибры 122мм, 130мм и 152мм. Основными противотанковыми средствами являются 57мм, 85мм и 100мм пушки и Snapper, Sagger, и Swatter ракеты (Шмель, Малютка и Фаланга -ЕТ). Самоходные штурмовые орудия устарели, кроме разве что АСУ в Воздушно-десантных дивизиях. Советская армия тоже имеет сильную ПВО, включая зенитные ракеты.
   (iii) Ракеты. Тактические ракеты, используемые сухопутными войсками, включают ракеты серии Frog и Scud (Луна и Р-11 -ЕТ), которые перевозятся на модифицированном танковом шасси и имеют дальность до 150 миль в зависимости от типа боеголовки. Существует также большая крылатая ракета, Shaddock (ФКР-2 -ЕТ), с дальностью до 300 миль.
  
   Военно-Морской Флот
   Численность советского Военно-Морского Флота и морской авиации 465,000 человек. По общему тоннажу, это второй по величине флот в мире, и его основная сила заключается в подводном флоте. Необычно высокая часть флота сохраняется в боевом состоянии. Есть признаки того, что морская авиация и ракетоносные подводные лодки играют все более важную роль в советской стратегии.
   (i) Подводные лодки. В настоящее время насчитывается около 350 обычных и 50 атомных подводных лодок. (Производство атомных подводных лодок, как представляется, составляет не менее пяти единиц в год.)
   Около 15 атомных и 25 дизельных подводных лодок могут стрелять баллистическими ракетами и нести в среднем по три ракеты на каждой. 12 атомные и 28 дизельные подводные лодки оснащены крылатыми ракетами, которые имеют дальность от 300 до 500 км; считается, что они несут в среднем четыре ракеты на каждой. Остальные - учебные или ударные подводные лодки, оснащенные торпедами. Подводный флот распределен между четырьмя флотами примерно следующим образом: 75 на Балтийском, 175 на Северном, 45 на Черноморском и около 100 на Тихоокеанском флоте. Ракетоносцы в основном разделены между Северным и тихоокеанским флотами.
   (ii) Морские ракеты. Ныне считается, что Советы успешно освоили подводный старт ракеты Serb (Р-21 -ЕТ), которая была показана на московских парадах. Она, вероятно, постепенно вводится в эксплуатацию, но его дальность может быть не намного больше 650 миль.
   (iii) Тактические ракеты. Известно, что некоторые корабли и подводные лодки оснащены крылатыми ракетами, предназначенными в основном для противокорабельного применения. Однако они могут также использоваться против береговых целей и, в случае подводных лодок, могут запускаться с поверхности на довольно большую дальность.
   (iv) Морская авиация. В ВМФ СССР нет авианосцев. Морская авиация сухопутного базирования насчитывают около 500 бомбардировщиков и 350 других самолетов. Большинство бомбардировщиков базируются вблизи северо-западного и Черноморского побережий Советского Союза. Они включают:
   (а) Самолеты Ту-16 Badger с дальностью полета 3500 миль. Началась частичная замена этого самолета на Blinder (Ту-22 -ЕТ).
   (b) Ту-95 Bear модифицированные для военно-морских разведывательных миссий.
   (c) Небольшое число Ил-28 Beagle с торпедами.
   (d) В качестве противолодочных используются летающие лодки Madge и вертолеты Hound. (Бе-6 и Ми-4ПЛ -ЕТ). Madge может быть заменены на турбовинтовые Mail (Бе-12 -ЕТ).
   (e) Предполагается также, что в эксплуатации находится двухдвигательная реактивная летающая лодка Mallow (Б-10 -ЕТ)
   (f) Различные транспортные самолеты.
   (v) Надводные корабли. Надводный Военно-Морской Флот СССР состоит из:
   20 крейсеров, из которых один несет зенитные ракеты.
   105 эсминцев, из которых 25 несут ракеты класса "земля-воздух" или "земля-земля".
   100 других океанских эскортных кораблей.
   300 прибрежных эскортных кораблей и охотников за подводными лодками.
   350 быстроходных патрульных катеров, многие с ракетами малой дальности "земля-земля".
   300 тральщиков.
   200 десантных кораблей и десантных кораблей.
   1,050 других судов.
   Некоторые адаптированные траулеры используются для радиоэлектронной разведки.
   Часть эсминцев и небольших судов возможно не полностью укомплектованы.
   Крейсеры трех типов.
   Свердлов (один из которых был оснащен ракетной установкой средней дальности класса "земля-воздух", возможно, в качестве эксперимента), Чапаев, Киров.
   Новые эсминцы: Kynda (пр.58 -ЕТ), Kashin (пр.61 -ЕТ), Krupny (пр.57 -ЕТ), Kildin (пр.56М -ЕТ) и Kotlin (пр.56 -ЕТ).
   Недавний советский комментарий указывает на возобновление интереса к десантным силам.
   Существует небольшой корпус морской пехоты численностью около 3000 человек, подразделения которого дислоцированы на Балтийском, Черноморском и Тихоокеанском флотах.
   Военизированные силы
   Численность внутренних и пограничных войск составляет около 230 000 человек. Кроме того, около 1,5 миллиона членов ДОСААФ принимают активное участие в таких видах деятельности, как легкая атлетика, стрельба и парашютный спорт, однако подготовка резервистов и курсы повышения квалификации представляются случайными и нерегулярными.
  
   ALBANIA
   Albania does not collaborate in any way with the other members of the Warsaw Pact, although she still claims membership.
Population: 1,900,000.
Military service: Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy, and special units 3 years.
Total regular forces: 39,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 272,000,000 new leks ($27,500,000).
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   6 brigades, some armoured units with T-34 tanks.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   4 submarines.
   8 minesweepers.
   27 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 6,000.
   100 aircraft, including 2 squadrons of MiG-17s and some Il-14 and An-2 transports.
Para-military forces 12,500.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,250,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total regular forces: 156,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 240,000,000 leva ($119,500,000).
Army Total strength: 125,000.
   11 divisions: 3 armoured and 8 motorized infantry. They are at about 60% of combat strength.
   Over 2,500 tanks, mainly T-54s, with some T-34s and T-55s.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   Surface-to-air missile batteries.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   2 destroyers.
   3 submarines.
   80 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 24,000.
   About 400 aircraft: 200 MiG-17s, 120 MiG-19s, some MiG-21s, transports, and helicopters.
   3 interceptor groups and a reconnaissance group, each with MiG-17s and MiG-19s.
   MiG-21s are now entering service.
   A fighter-bomber group with MiG-17s.
Para-military forces 15,000 security and border troops.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,250,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total regular forces: 220,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 10,800,000,000 crowns ($754,000,000).
Army Total strength: 175,000.
   14 divisions: 4 tank and 10 motorized rifle.
   3,200 tanks, mainly T-54s with some T-55s. The army is at about 80% of combat strength.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline missiles.
Air Force Total strength: 45,000; 750 aircraft.
   30 Il-28 light bombers.
   200 MiG-15, MiG-17, and Su-7 Fitter ground attack aircraft.
   250 MiG-17 and MiG-19 interceptors.
   About 40 MiG-21 interceptors.
Para-military forces 35,000 security and border troops.
  
   EAST GERMANY
Population: 17,000,000.
Military service: normally 18 months.
Total regular forces: 122,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 3,300,000,000 Ostmarks ($785,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   6 divisions: 2 armoured and 4 motorized infantry.
   About 1,800 tanks, mainly T-34s and T-54s.
   Some 850 artillery pieces, including 122mm and 152mm and about 450 anti-aircraft guns.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline missiles (90 launchers).
Navy Total strength: 17,000.
   4 destroyers.
   22 coastal minesweepers.
   2 missile patrol boats.
   126 other vessels.
   Some landing craft under construction.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000.
   There are some 400 aircraft, organized into 2 air divisions of interceptors.
   Each division comprises 3 regiments of 3 squadrons, mainly MiG-17s and 21s, and about 50 MiG-19s.
   (The total numbers are about 200 MiG-17s, 100 MiG-21s, and 50 MiG-19s.)
   There are also light transports and helicopters.
Para-military forces 70,000 security and border troops.
   There is also an element of intensive military training among some units of the Kampfgruppen, an armedworkers' organization.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,250,000.
Military service: 3 years maximum.
Total regular forces: 109,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 5,219,000,000 forints ($223,000,000).
Army Total strength: 100,000.
   6 divisions: 1armoured and 5 motorized infantry.
   About 1,000 tanks, mainly T-34s and T-54s with some T-55s.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile batteries.
Navy There is a Danube flotilla of 15 patrol vessels and a training ship.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 150 aircraft.
   A few Il-28 light bombers.
   3 interceptor regiments, each of 3 squadrons, at least 2 of which are now equipped with MiG-21s.
   The rest of the interceptor force still has MiG-17s and MiG-19s.
Para-military forces 35,000 security and border guards, plus formations of civil defence troops.
  
   POLAND
Population: 31,700,000.
Military service: Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy, and special services 3 years; internal security
   forces 27 months.
Total regular forces: 260,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 25,300,000,000 zloty ($1,052,000,000).
Army Total strength: 185,000.
   15 divisions: 5 armoured, 9 motorized, 1 airborne.
   Nearly 3,000 tanks, mostly T-54s.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   200 SA-2 Guideline launchers.
Navy Total strength: 15,000.
   3 destroyers.
   8 submarines.
   110 other ships.
   50 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17s.
Air Force Total strength: 60,000; about 950 combat aircraft.
   40 Il-28 light bombers.
   250 MiG-15 fighter/ground-attack (5 regiments).
   600 MiG-17 fighters (9 regiments).
   60 MiG-19 and MiG-21 interceptors.
   Transport aircraft and helicopters.
Para-military forces 45,000 security and border troops, including armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force integrated with the regular forces.
  
   ROUMANIA
Population: 19,300,000.
Military service: 1 year.
Total regular forces: 201,000.
Defence estimates 1966: 4,800,000,000 lei ($265,000,000).
Army Total strength: 175,000.
   11 divisions: 1 tank and 10 motorized rifle.
   Some separate mountain brigades.
   T-34, T-54, and T-55 tanks.
   Some short-range surface-to-surface missiles have been displayed, but there is no evidence that warheads have been supplied.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile launchers.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   2 destroyers.
   1 submarine.
   60 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 18,000; 300 aircraft.
   20 Il-28 light bombers.
   250 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters and about 20 MiG-21s.
   Some transports and helicopters.
Para-military forces 50,000.
  

CHINA

   Population: 700,000,000 (Chinese press figure).
   Selective military service: Army 4-5 years, Air Force 5 years, and Navy 5-6 years.
Total regular forces: 2,486,000.
Defence expenditure: Chinese expenditure has been officially estimated by the US Secretary of Defense as 10% of the gross national product. Western calculations of the Chinese GNP vary between $50,000,000,000 and $70,000,000,000. A reasonable estimate of Chinese defence expenditure is therefore approximately $6,000,000,000.
  
   Chinese strategic policy has moved uncertainly in recent months. In part this is due to the unprecedented series of international set-backs which Peking has encountered, but it may also be due to the declining health of Mao Tse-tung. Should Mao leave the political scene, it is likely that a collective leadership will be formed from existing Party leaders under the Defence Minister, Lin Piao, who at 59 is the youngest member of the Politbureau. At least in the short term, this collective leadership can be expected to follow the cautious military line of Mao: despise the enemy strategically but take full account of him tactically.
   It is clear that the People's Liberation Army (PLA) will play a key role in maintaining internal security during this interim period. In the recent ideological campaign, the PLA was portrayed as the major defender of Maoist thought. It is possible, however, that the PLA may not be entirely united in its support of the Party. The unexplained absence since November 1965 of the Chief of the General Staff, Lo Jui-ching, coupled with the fact that an acting Chief of Staff has been appointed, strongly implies that Lo has been dismissed. If so, he would be the third successive CGS to suffer this fate since 1958.
   Possibly as a result of her foreign policy reverses, China has shown an unwillingness to disturb the status quo along her southern borders. Chinese threats to intervene in the Vietnam war have become less specific in the face of the American military build-up in Asia, although the Chinese Government has declared that an invasion of North Vietnam would be regarded as an invasion of China. The Chinese Premier has said that China will not provoke a war with the United States, but would certainly counter-attack if subjected to aggression. The initial Chinese reaction to the bombing of oil installations in Hanoi and Haiphong was comparatively restrained. Chinese military involvement in Vietnam seems limited to the presence of railway engineer troops and supporting antiaircraft artillery in the vicinity of Lang Son (a figure up to 40,000 has been reported), whose task is to maintain the railway line from the Chinese border to Hanoi. This line has been used for a considerable proportion of the Chinese and Soviet aid to North Vietnam. On the Indian frontier, the Chinese have been relatively quiet since the beginning of 1966, although the Indian Government has complained about some Chinese border patrol activities. During the same period, China has strengthened her relations with Pakistan and has signed a military aid agreement. The Chinese continue to maintain a sizable military establishment in Tibet (125,000 - 140,000 men), of which at least 6 divisions are stationed near the borders with India, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan. There are several airfields and airstrips, two of which are said to be capable of handling light bombers. A number of roads have been completed or improved, including one into Nepal which was constructed jointly by the two countries.
   It has been apparent in recent months that the Chinese are paying more attention to their borders with the Soviet Union and Mongolia. They have revived the charge that several thousand of their citizens were abducted by the Soviet authorities (a reference to the flight from Sinkiang in 1962 of Khazakh tribesmen) and have gone so far as to allege that Soviet forces have carried out manoeuvres, with China as the hypothetical enemy. In June the Chinese made the first public reference to frontier incidents on the Sino-Mongolian border (demarcated by treaty in 1962) and claimed that these had been occurring for some time. The blame was put on Mongolia. Mongolia, with a population little over a million but a land area half the size of Europe, has been independent of China since 1921. She maintains good relations with the Soviet Union: a joint defence treaty was renewed in early 1966. There are indications that this treaty has provisions for the presence in Mongolia of Soviet troops, ostensibly for training purposes. The Chinese border complaint is unlikely to have military implications, since the open Mongolian terrain would favour Soviet armoured units and airpower in any conceivable clash with Chinese forces.
   In the eastern sector of the Sino-Soviet border, tension also remains high. The Chinese Government has recently issued a stringent set of regulations governing the use of border rivers by foreign shipping; this will have particular reference to the Soviet use of the Amur and Ussuri rivers.
   Recent Soviet Government statements have asserted that their Far Eastern frontiers are inviolate. There have been no reports of any major troop movements by either side, although border patrolling has evidently been tightened up considerably.
   The basic problem for any new Chinese leadership will be whether or not to compose their quarrel with the Soviet Union. At present the Chinese are attacking all aspects of Soviet policy and accuse Moscow of working covertly with Washington throughout the world. The Chinese Government publicly refuses to cooperate fully with the Soviet Union on aid to North Vietnam.
   China is hampered in her desire to carry out an effective independent foreign policy by a comparatively weak industrial base, although progress is clearly being made in certain sectors to help offset the lack of Soviet military aid. The third Chinese nuclear test, in May 1966, contained thermonuclear material for the first time and had a yield of at least 200 kilotons (the lower end of the intermediate range). Production of weapons-grade uranium from the gaseous diffusion plant has presumably been proceeding for at least two years, and amounts adequate to a small stockpile of weapons must now be available. All evidence suggests that the main effort for the development of nuclear delivery systems is going into ballistic missiles. The expected activity on the rocket range in Sinkiang has not, however, been observed. At present the only obvious means of delivery is the small number of Tu-4 piston-engined bombers.
   The Chinese-built G-class submarine is reported to be operational at Dairen, but presumably lacks the three 400-mile range missiles sheis designed to carry.
   The supply by China to Pakistan of MiG-19 aircraft and T-59 tanks, plus earlier shipments to Cambodia of infantry weapons, indicates that China's armaments industry is recovering from the set-backs experienced in the early 1960s, when Soviet aid was withdrawn, and is progressively replacing its large quantities of obsolescent Soviet equipment. Many gaps still remain, especially in the field of heavy-armoured equipment and motorized transport.

КИТАЙ

   В последние месяцы китайская стратегическая политика несколько изменилась. Частично это связано с беспрецедентной серией международных отступлений, с которыми столкнулся Пекин, но это также может быть связано с ухудшением здоровья Мао Цзэ-дуна. Если Мао покинет политическую арену, вполне вероятно, что коллективное руководство будет сформировано из существующих партийных лидеров при министре обороны Линь Бяо, который в 59 лет является самым молодым членом Политбюро. По крайней мере, в краткосрочной перспективе от этого коллективного руководства можно ожидать, следования осторожной военной линии Мао: презирай врага стратегически, но в полной мере учитывайте его в тактическом плане.
   Понятно, что Народно-освободительная армия (НОАК) будет играть ключевую роль в поддержании внутренней безопасности в течение этого переходного периода. В недавней идеологической кампании НОАК изображалась как главный защитник маоистских идей. Возможно, однако, что НОАК не будет полностью объединена в своей поддержке партии. Необъяснимое отсутствие с ноября 1965 года начальника Генерального штаба Ло Жуй-цзина в сочетании с тем, что назначен исполняющий обязанности начальника штаба, означает, что Ло был уволен. Если это так, он будет третьим подряд начальником генерального штаба, который перенес эту участь с 1958 года.
   Вероятно, в результате изменения внешней политики, Китай отверг желание нарушать статус-кво вдоль своих южных границ. Китайские угрозы вмешаться во Вьетнамскую войну стали менее конкретными перед лицом американского военного присутствия в Азии, хотя китайское правительство заявило, что вторжение в Северный Вьетнам будет рассматриваться как вторжение в Китай. Китайский премьер сказал, что Китай не спровоцирует войну с Соединенными Штатами, но, безусловно, перейдёт в контрнаступление, если подвергнется агрессии. Первоначальная реакция Китая на бомбардировку нефтяных установок в Ханое и Хайфоне была сравнительно сдержанной. Китайское военное участие во Вьетнаме кажется ограниченным наличием железнодорожных инженерных войск и поддержки зенитной артиллерии в окрестностях Ланг-Сон (сообщалось о количестве до 40 000 человек), задачей которых является поддержание железнодорожной линии от китайской границы до Ханоя. Эта линия использовалась для китайской и советской помощи Северному Вьетнаму. На индийской границе, китайцы были относительно спокойны с самого начала 1966 года, хотя правительство Индии жаловалось на некоторые действия китайских патрулей на границе. В тот же период Китай укрепил свои отношения с Пакистаном и подписал соглашение о военной помощи. Китайцы продолжают держать на Тибете значительные военные силы (125 000 - 140 000 человек), из которых по крайней мере 6 дивизий находятся вблизи границ с Индией, Непалом, Сикхом и Бутаном. Есть несколько аэродромов и взлетно-посадочных полос, два из которых, как говорят, способны обслуживать легкие бомбардировщики. Был завершен или улучшен ряд дорог, в том числе одна в Непал, которая была построена совместно двумя странами.
   В последние месяцы стало очевидно, что китайцы уделяют больше внимания своим границам с Советским Союзом и Монголией. Они возродили обвинение в том, что несколько тысяч их граждан были похищены советскими властями (ссылка на переход из Синьцзяна в 1962 году казахских племен) и дошли до того, что утверждают, что советские войска выполняли маневры, а Китай гипотетический враг. В июне китайцы впервые публично ссылались на пограничные инциденты на китайско-монгольской границе (демаркированные договором в 1962 году) и утверждали, что это происходило в течение некоторого времени. Вина была возложена на Монголию. Монголия с населением немногим более миллиона человек, но с земельной площадью в два раза меньше, чем Европа, с 1921 года не зависит от Китая. У нее хорошие отношения с Советским Союзом: в начале 1966 года был возобновлен договор о совместной обороне. Имеются указания на то, что этот договор предусматривает положения о наличии в Монголии советских войск, якобы для учебных целей. Спор из-за китайской границы вряд ли будет иметь военные последствия, поскольку открытая монгольская местность будет способствовать советским бронетанковым подразделениям и воздушным силам в любом возможном столкновении с китайскими силами.
   В восточном секторе китайско-советской границы напряженность также остается высокой. Недавно китайское правительство издало строгий набор правил, регулирующих использование пограничных рек для иностранных судов; это будет иметь особое отношение к советскому использованию рек Амур и Уссури.
   Недавние заявления советского правительства утверждали, что их дальневосточные границы являются нерушимыми. С обеих сторон никаких сообщений о каких-либо крупных перемещениях войск не поступало, хотя пограничное патрулирование, очевидно, значительно ужесточилось.
   Основная проблема для любого нового китайского руководства будет заключаться в том, нужно ли ссориться с Советским Союзом. В настоящее время китайцы осуждают все аспекты советской политики и обвиняют Москву в том, что она тайно работает с Вашингтоном во всем мире. Правительство Китая открыто отказывается от сотрудничества с Советским Союзом по оказанию помощи Северному Вьетнаму.
   Китай испытывает затруднения в своем стремлении провести эффективную независимую внешнюю политику из-за сравнительно слабой промышленной базы, хотя в определенных секторах явно делается определенный прогресс, компенсирующий отсутствие советской военной помощи. Третий китайский ядерный взрыв в мае 1966 года впервые содержал термоядерный материал и имел мощность не менее 200 килотонн (нижний уровень промежуточного диапазона). Производство оружейного урана на газодиффузионной установке, по-видимому, продолжается уже не менее двух лет, и теперь должны быть доступны объемы, достаточные для небольшого запаса оружия. Все данные свидетельствуют о том, что основные усилия по разработке ядерных систем доставки приходятся на баллистические ракеты. Однако ожидаемой активности на ракетной области в Синьцзяне не наблюдалось. В настоящее время единственным очевидным средством доставки является небольшое количество бомбардировщиков с поршневыми двигателями Ту-4.
   Сообщается, что китайская подводная лодка типа G (советский пр.629 -ЕТ) введена в строй в Дайрене, но, по-видимому, не имеет трех 400-мильных ракет, предназначенных для неё.
   Поставки Китаем Пакистану самолетов МиГ-19 и танков Т-59, а также более ранние поставки в Камбоджу пехотного оружия свидетельствуют о том, что китайская оружейная промышленность восстанавливается после неудач, имевших место в начале 1960-х годов, когда советская помощь была прекращена, и постепенно заменяет большое количество устаревшей советской техники. По-прежнему сохраняется много проблем, особенно в области тяжелой бронетанковой техники и автотранспорта.
   Army Total strength: 2,250,000.
   The bulk of the manpower is divided among some 30 field armies, each consisting basically of three infantry divisions.
   The armies are distributed throughout 13 Military Regions.
   The senior officer of the region also commands regular air and naval forces assigned to it, together with the civilian militia.
   There are some 105 infantry, 4 armoured, 3 cavalry, and 2 airborne divisions;
   at full strength these divisions are thought to number about 12,000 men each.
   There are some artillery divisions, and also desert cavalry, mountain regiments, and support troops, including field engineers and railway engineers.
   Heavy equipment consists of items supplied earlier by the Soviet Union, such as artillery up to 203mm and the JS-2 heavy tank.
   Medium armour consists of the T-34 tank and the T-59 tank, the Chinese version of the Soviet T-54/55.
   Some 80 or more T-59s have been supplied to Pakistan.
   Heavy field-engineering equipment and heavy and self-propelled artillery, as well as motor transport, are all in short supply,
   while radar and electronic communications equipment is generally less sophisticated than modern Western or Soviet types.
   The ground forces are adequately equipped with a range of infantry weapons, light and medium mortars, rocket launchers, recoilless rifles,
   and light and medium artillery, all of which are produced in China.
   The Chinese airlift capability is probably limited to a few battalions.
Navy Total strength: 136,000 (including 15,000 Naval Air Force and 28,000 Marines).
   The ships of the Fleet are as follows:
   4 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   11 frigate escorts.
   1 G-class submarine.
   23 W-class submarines.
   7 other submarines (ex-Soviet).
   18 minesweepers.
   35 patrol vessels.
   2 missile patrol boats.
   150 motor torpedo boats.
   44 gunboats (including river gunboats).
   60 landing ships/landing craft.
   20 other vessels.
   There are about 500 naval aircraft, including up to 150 Il-28 Beagle torpedo-carrying light bombers and substantial numbers of MiG fighters.
   These fighters, though under Navy Command, are fully integrated into the air defence system of China.
Air Force Total strength: 100,000; 2,300 aircraft.
   There are up to 12 Tu-4 medium bombers (a copy of the B-29), and about 150 Il-28 Beagle light bombers.
   The remaining aircraft are chiefly early model MiG-15s and -17s, with a lesser number of MiG-19s and possibly MiG-21s.
   There is a small air transport fleet, which includes some Il-18s and Mi-4 helicopters.
   This fleet could be supplemented by aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau, numbering about 350.
   The serviceability of some aircraft types may be affected by shortage of spare parts.
   There is an Air Defence Force, based on an early-warning system and MiG interceptors, including possibly some MiG-21s.
Para-military forces Security and border troops number about 300,000.
   There is also a People's Armed Police Force, and a civilian militia claimed by the Chinese authorities to be 200,000,000 strong.
  

OTHER COUNTRIES

   CUBA
General
Population: 7,750,000.
Military service: 2їto 3 years.
Total armed forces: 121,000.
Defence estimates 1965: $213,200,000.
Army Total strength: 90,000.
   3 divisions, each consisting of 6-10 infantry battalions, which maybe formed into brigades
   for specific purposes.
   Artillery and motorized regiments.
   T-34 and T-54 tanks.
   Possibly some Frog short-range surface-to-surface missiles.
   10 battalions SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   4 frigates.
   12 submarine chasers (ex-Soviet).
   2 patrol escorts.
   12 fast patrol missile boats (ex-Soviet Komar type).
   24 motor torpedo boats (ex-Soviet P-4/6 type).
   Some Mi-4 Hound helicopters for anti-submarine duties.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 300combat aircraft.
   About 12 interceptor and ground-support squadrons with MiG-17, MiG-19, and MiG-21 aircraft.
   A squadron of Il-14 transports and about 24 Mi-4 troop-carrying helicopters.
   T-28, T-33, and MiG-15 trainers.
Reserves There is a well-trained militia of about 200,000 men and women.
  
  NORTH KOREA
General
Population: 12,350,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 368,000.
Army Total strength: 340,000.
   18 active divisions, with a mobile reserve of 5 brigades.
   About 430 tanks and 450 armoured vehicles.
   Some 3,000 artillery pieces above 80mm.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   80 patrol craft (including 21 MTBs).
   30 minesweepers and a number of smaller patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; about 500 aircraft.
   Up to 5 fighter divisions equipped mainly with
   MiG-15s and MiG-17s, with possibly a few MiG-21s.
   About 50 Il-28 light bombers.
   An-2 and Li-2 transports, with a fewMi-4 helicopters.
   Yak-9, Yak-11, Yak-18, MiG-15, and Il-28 trainers.
Para-military forces 25,000 security and border troops.
  
  NORTH VIETNAM
General
Population: 17,800,000.
Military service: 3 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 256,250.
Defence budget: equivalent $350,000,000.
Army Total strength: 250,000, of which at least 25,000 are serving in South Vietnam.
   40 infantry regiments.
   About 100 miscellaneous armoured vehicles, including PT-76 reconnaissance tanks.
   Some 3,000 anti-aircraft guns, including 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm; about half of these are radar-controlled.
   There were, in June 1966, some 50 surface-to-air missile sites for SA-2 Guideline missiles; there are usually 4-6 launchers to each site.
Navy Total strength: 2,750.
   4 ex-Soviet submarine chasers.
   22 ex-Chinese motor gunboats (67 tons).
   12 ex-Soviet motor torpedo boats (50 tons).
   A number of small auxiliary patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 3,500.
   8 Il-28 light bombers.
   66 MiG-15 and MiG-17 jet fighters. 15 MiG-21s.
   A few transports and trainers.
   There is a Soviet aid and training mission of about 800 men.
Para-military forces
   There is a regionally organized militia of about 200,000.
   The Frontier and Coastal Security troops and the People's Armed Security Force total another 30,000.
  

PART II. THE WESTERN ALLIANCES

THE TREATIES

   In the decade between 1949 and 1959, the Western powers entered into a wide range of formal security treaties in response to what was seen as a world-wide military threat from the Communist powers. All of these remain in effect, though their importance to some governments has diminished as fear of Communist aggression has receded.
   The most important Western powers are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which unites Western Europe and North America in a commitment to maintain their armed forces, to consult together if the security of any one member is threatened, and to consider an armed attack against one as an attack against all. If such an armed attack occurs, each of them promises to take forthwith 'such action asit deems necessary, in cluding the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area'.
   Britain, France, the Benelux countries, Italy, and the Federal Republic of Germany have, in addition, commitments under the revised Brussels Treaty of 1954 to give 'all the military and other aid and assistance in their power' to one another if they are subject to 'armed aggression in Europe'.
   The United States, Britain, France, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand agreed in the Manila Treaty of 1954to set up the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of attack on a party to the Treaty.
   Under the Baghdad Pact, which was signed in 1955, the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) was established. Since the withdrawal of Iraq, this has included Britain, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. The United States is associated. The United States has mutual defence undertakings with Australia and New Zealand in the ANZUS Pact and bilateral treaties with Spain, Iran, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. The term 'non-alignment' has generally been used by non-Communist states which are not parties to one of these treaties.
   The United States is also linked to 19 Latin American republics by the earlier Rio Pact, which makes provision for collective military action in the event of an armed attack on the Americas.
   Britain has commitments to assist in the defence of Malta, to consult and co-operate in the defence of Cyprus, to aid Libya if she is engaged in conflict, to give such assistance as may be needed for the defence of Malaysia and Singapore, and to support South Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Muscat and Oman, the Trucial States, and Kuwait if they should be subject to external attack.
   France has responsibilities towards the countries of the Union Africaine et Malagache, which includes all the African members of the former French Community except Mali.
  
   ДОГОВОРЫ
   В течение десятилетия между 1949 и 1959 годами западные державы заключили широкий спектр официальных соглашений о безопасности в ответ на то, что рассматривалось как всемирная военная угроза со стороны коммунистических держав. Все они остаются в силе, хотя их значение для некоторых правительств уменьшилось, так как страх перед коммунистической агрессией отступил.
   Наиболее важными западными державами являются члены Организации Североатлантического договора (NATO), которые объединяют Западную Европу и Северную Америку в обязательстве поддерживать свои вооруженные силы, консультироваться вместе, если угроза безопасности любому одному члену возникает, и рассматривает вооруженное нападение на одного как нападение на всех. Если такое вооруженное нападение произойдет, каждый из них обещает незамедлительно принять "такие меры, которые считаются необходимыми, включая использование вооруженной силы, для восстановления и поддержания безопасности в районе Северной Атлантики".
   Кроме того, Великобритания, Франция, страны Бенилюкса, Италия и Федеративная Республика Германия взяли на себя обязательства в соответствии с пересмотренным Брюссельским договором 1954 года о предоставлении "всей военной и другой помощи" друг другу, при условии "вооруженной агрессии в Европе".
   Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания, Франция, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Австралия и Новая Зеландия заключили Манильский договор 1954 года о создании Организации Договора Юго-Восточной Азии (SEATO) чтобы "действовать для обеспечения общей опасности" в случае нападения на страну Договора.
   В соответствии с Багдадским Пактом, который был подписан в 1955 году, была создана Организация Центрального договора (CENTO). После выхода Ирака в него входили Великобритания, Турция, Иран и Пакистан. Соединенные Штаты не входят, но участвуют. Соединенные Штаты осуществляют обязательства по взаимной защите с Австралией и Новой Зеландией в Пакте ANZUS и имеют двусторонние договоры с Испанией, Ираном, Японией, Тайванем и Южной Кореей. Термин "неприсоединившиеся" обычно применяется к некоммунистическими государствами, которые не являются участниками одного из этих договоров.
   Соединенные Штаты также связаны с 19 латиноамериканскими республиками Рио-Пактом, который предусматривает коллективные военные действия в случае вооруженного нападения на Америку.
   Великобритания обязана оказывать помощь в защите Мальты, консультироваться и сотрудничать в защиту Кипра, помогать Ливии, если она будет участвовать в конфликте, оказывать такую помощь для защиты Малайзии и Сингапура, поддерживать Юг Аравии, Бахрейн, Катар, Маскат и Оман, Объединенные Эмираты и Кувейт, если они подвергнутся внешнему нападению.
   Франция несет ответственность перед странами Союза Africaine et Malagache, в которую входят все африканские члены бывшего французского сообщества, кроме Мали.
  

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The signatories to the North Atlantic Treaty are Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Ambassadors representing each government form a Council in permanent session. The Council's military servants are the Military Committee, which has the direction of the NATO military commands.
   Under the original NATO system, which was in effect up to 1966, the Military Committee in Permanent Session was located in Washington with 13 permanent military representatives of all members except Iceland and Luxembourg (the latter being represented by Belgium). Its executive agent was the Standing Group, which was composed of representatives of the chiefs of staff of the United States, Britain, and France. As the body responsible for strategic guidance, the Standing Group was the authority to which NATO Supreme Commanders were responsible. It met in Washington and maintained close liaison with the Council in Paris.
   The decision of France to withdraw from the integrated military structure of NATO resulted in a Council decision in June 1966 to abolish the Standing Group and replace it by an integrated international military staff serving the Military Committee. It was also decided to move the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe (SHAPE) from France to one of the Benelux countries and the NATO Defence College from France to Italy. The question of the future location of the Council remained unsettled. The major military commands of NATO are the European, with its prospective new headquarters in the Benelux countries, and the Atlantic, with its headquarters in Norfolk, Virginia. There is also a third command, Allied Command Channel.
   There is no allied command organization covering strategic nuclear forces, but the European and Atlantic commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System, at Omaha, Nebraska, where the integrated planning of American bomber and missile forces, both Air Force and Navy, and British bomber forces is carried out. The United States has committed three Polaris submarines, and the United Kingdom its medium bomber force, to the planning control of the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR).
   The future of allied nuclear forces has been the subject of a number of initiatives. The United States has proposed a NATO Multilateral Force (MLF) of 25 surface ships, each carrying eight Polaris missiles to be jointly owned and manned by interested countries. This would be under the planning control of SACEUR and would be operationally released to him by a control group composed of representatives of the participating countries. The British Government has proposed an Atlantic Nuclear Force (ANF) to be composed of American, British, and (if possible) French nuclear forces, together with some kind of multilateral force in which the non-nuclear countries would participate. The proposal specifically laid down the principle that the United States, Britain, and others wanting it would have a permanent veto over the use of the force.
   Neither of these proposals has been found generally acceptable. The Council has, however, created a Special Committee of Defence Ministers, which has begun an exhaustive review of the main elements, of nuclear strategy and the relationship of this to present nuclear arrangements in NATO.

1. Allied Command Europe

   The European allied command is responsible for the defence of all NATO soil in Europe (plus Turkey) apart from Britain, France, and Portugal. It also has general responsibility for the air defence of Britain. The arrangements for the air defence of France are under negotiation. NATO responsibility for the defence of Portugal is undertaken by the Atlantic Command.
   Danish and Norwegian coastal waters are in the area of the European Command.
   The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, SACEUR, is also Commander-in-Chief of United States Forces in Europe. Deputy SACEUR is a British officer, and in addition there is an Italian deputy for nuclear affairs and an American air deputy.
   The command has several thousand tactical nuclear weapons in its area. It has been stated that the numbers have doubled since 1961, and the number of delivery vehicles (aircraft and missiles) is believed to be about 2,500, spread among a number of countries. The nuclear explosives themselves, however, are maintained in an exclusively American national chain of command. The average explosive yield of the bombs stockpiled in Europe for the use of NATO tactical aircraft is about 100 kilotons, and of the missile warheads about 20 kilotons. Forces trained and equipped for the defence of the NATO European area are assigned to SHAPE, which has about 58 such divisions. Another 30 could be brought forward if time allowed. The command has about 5,500 tactical aircraft, based on some 220 standard NATO airfields and backed by a system of jointly financed fuel pipelines and signal communications. Negotiations are taking place between NATO and the French Government about the tasks of French forces in Germany and their co-operation with NATO forces and commands; French co-operation in a joint defence system; the future of the basic infrastructure facilities in France; and the extent to which NATO forces can employ French facilities and air space.
   Permission for air forces of NATO countries to fly over France is given on request and on a monthly basis.
   So far seven countries have committed one or more reinforced infantry battalions or ground support fighter squadrons to form a task force (called ACE Mobile Force) to serve under certain circumstances as a mobile reserve for NATO as a whole, with particular reference to an emergency in northern or south-eastern Europe.
   The following field commands are subordinated to Allied Command Europe:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) has had its headquarters at Fontainebleau. This is being moved either to the Benelux countries or to Germany. It has in the past had a staff at the headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief, Central Europe, and additional staffs under the Commanders-in-Chief of the Land Forces and the Air Forces for Central Europe. These are now to be combined under one commander in one headquarters; a German general has been appointed to the post. The ground defences of the Central European Command consist of 25 assigned divisions provided by seven countries. All assigned forces, with the exception of some Dutch and Belgian units and some logistic units, are based in Germany, and troops have been gradually moved closer to the East German frontier over recent years.
   The tactical air forces available include about 3,250 aircraft, of which 500 or more are USAF fighter-bombers. There are also British Canberras, Canadian CF-104s, and the F-104Gs of the German and other air forces. American and German forces are equipped with Sergeant and Pershing missiles at corps and army level.
   Honest John missiles are deployed for nuclear bombardment at divisional level. An integrated early-warning and air-defence system has been developed for Britain, West Germany, the Low Countries, and North-East France. Twenty battalions of the Hawk surface-to-air missile have been deployed in the command.
   The command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group and Central Army Group. Northern Army Group is responsible for the defence of the sector north of the Gottingen Liege axis. It includes the British and Benelux divisions, four of the German divisions, and the Canadian brigade group. It is supported by the 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force, which is composed of British, Dutch, Belgian, and German units. The American forces and seven German divisions are under the Central Army Group, which is supported by the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force, consisting of American, German, and Canadian wings.
   Allied Forces Central Europe includes the Heligoland Bight, and would control the German North Sea Fleet and part of the Royal Netherlands Navy in the event of war.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe(AFNORTH) has its headquarters at Kolsaas in Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Norway, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein, and the Baltic approaches. The Commander is a British general. All the Danish and Norwegian land, sea, and tactical air forces are earmarked to it, and most of their active reserves are assigned to it. Neither country allows nuclear warheads on its soil. Germany has assigned one division (stationed in Schleswig), two combat air wings, and its Baltic Navy.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) has its headquarters in Naples, and the Commander is also the commander of the US 6th Fleet. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece, and Turkey. The forces assigned to it include 14 divisions from Turkey, 8 from Greece, and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other divisions from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as well as the US 6th Fleet, which would become Striking Force South in war. The defence system is based on two separate regions: the Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, and the South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey, with an overall air command.
   (d) Allied Forces Mediterranean (AFMED) has its headquarters in Malta (which permits Britain, under a defence agreement, and other NATO powers to use its facilities). AFMED is primarily responsible for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and territorial waters of the Black Sea. The national fleets and maritime air forces of Italy, Greece, and Turkey, together with the British Mediterranean Fleet (whose Commander-in-Chief acts as Commander AFMED), are earmarked to this command.

2. Allied Command Atlantic

   The Atlantic allied command has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. In the event of war, the duties of the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT), who is an American admiral with a British deputy, are (a) to participate in the strategic strike, and (b) to protect sea communications from attack by hostile forces. For these purposes, seven of the eight NATO naval powers which border on the Atlantic have earmarked forces for exercises and, if need be, for war. The eighth, France, does not, but there are arrangements for cooperation between French naval forces and those of SACLANT. SACLANT is responsible for the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer, including the northern North Sea.
   There are three subordinate commands: Western Atlantic Area, Eastern Atlantic Area, and Striking Fleet Atlantic. The nucleus of the NATO striking force has been provided by the US 2nd Fleet, with two or three attack carriers, but this role is being taken over by missile-firing submarines.
   There are about 450 escort vessels serving in the navies of the nations concerned, of which a high proportion are wholly or partly designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Most NATO navies are equipping and training their submarine forces primarily for ASW, and well over 150 submarines are potentially available in the Atlantic for such duties. The NATO powers also have about 375 long-range land-based maritime patrol aircraft in operation, a large majority of which are stationed on or near American coasts. The United States Navy has about 1,000 carrier borne anti-submarine aircraft and helicopters, of which about half are at sea at any one time. Another 300 are available from other NATO countries. The overall total that could be operational in emergency from carriers on Atlantic sea stations is probably around 400. (These estimates include units earmarked for Channel Command.)

3. The Channel Command

   The wartime r61e of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the warships of Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom are earmarked for this command, as are some maritime aircraft. The Commander-in Chief of the British Home Station acts as its commander, and control is exercised by a committee consisting of representatives of the Naval Chiefs-of-Staff of the three countries concerned.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СЕВЕРО-АТЛАНТИЧЕСКОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Подписавшими Североатлантический договор являются Бельгия, Канада, Дания, Франция, Федеративная Республика Германия, Греция, Исландия, Италия, Люксембург, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Португалия, Турция, Соединенное Королевство и Соединенные Штаты. Послы, представляющие каждое правительство, образуют Совет на постоянной сессии. Военные члены Совета - это Военный комитет, который управляет военными командованиями НАТО.
   В соответствии с первоначальной системой НАТО, которая действовала до 1966 года, Военный комитет на постоянной сессии находился в Вашингтоне с 13 постоянными военными представителями всех членов, за исключением Исландии и Люксембурга (последний был представлен Бельгией). Его исполнительным агентом была Постоянная группа, в которую вошли представители руководителей США, Великобритании и Франции. В качестве органа, ответственного за стратегическое руководство, Постоянная группа была органом, перед которым отвечали верховные главнокомандующие НАТО. Он был в Вашингтоне и поддерживал тесную связь с Советом в Париже.
   Решение Франции о выходе из интегрированной военной структуры НАТО привело к принятию Советом в июне 1966 года решения об упразднении Постоянной группы и замене ее на комплексный международный военный орган, обслуживающий Военный комитет. Было также принято решение о перемещении Верховного штаба в Европе (SHAPE) из Франции в одну из стран Бенилюкса и Колледжа обороны НАТО из Франции в Италию. Вопрос о будущем местонахождении Совета остался нерешенным. Главное военное командование НАТО в Европе, будет иметь новую штаб-квартиру в странах Бенилюкса, а на Атлантике штаб-квартира в Норфолке, штат Виржиния. Существует также третье союзное командование, в Канале.
   Нет союзной командной организации, охватывающей стратегические ядерные силы, но европейское и атлантическое командования участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования в Омахе, штат Небраска, где интегрировано планирование действий американских бомбардировщиков и ракетных войск, как военно-воздушных сил, так и флота, и британских бомбардировочных сил. Соединенные Штаты передали три подлодки Polaris, а Соединенное Королевство - средние бомбардировочные силы, под контроль над Верховного главнокомандующего союзными войсками в Европе (ВГК ОВС НАТО).
   Будущее союзных ядерных сил было предметом ряда инициатив. Соединенные Штаты предложили создать многосторонние силы НАТО (MLF) из 25 надводных кораблей, каждый из которых нес бы 8 ракет Polaris, которыми будут совместно владеть и комплектовать заинтересованные страны. Они были бы под контролем планирования SACEUR и оперативно управлялись бы контрольной группой в составе представителей стран-участниц. Британское правительство предложило Атлантические ядерные силы (ANF) состоявшие из американских, британских и (если возможно) французских ядерных сил вместе с многосторонними силами, в которых будут участвовать неядерные страны. В предложении конкретно изложен принцип, согласно которому Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания и другие, желающие этого, будут иметь постоянное вето в отношении использования силы.
   Ни одно из этих предложений не было признано приемлемым. Однако Совет создал специальный комитет министров обороны, который провел исчерпывающий обзор основных элементов, ядерной стратегии и взаимоотношений с нынешними ядерными соглашениями в НАТО.
  

1. Союзное Командование в Европе

   Европейское союзное командование отвечает за защиту всех территорий НАТО в Европе (плюс Турции), кроме Британии, Франции и Португалии. Оно также несет общую ответственность за противовоздушную оборону Британии. Вопросы противовоздушной обороны Франции находятся на стадии переговоров. Ответственность НАТО за оборону Португалии берет на себя Атлантическое командование.
   Датские и норвежские прибрежные воды находятся в районе Европейского командования.
   Верховный главнокомандующий объединенными вооруженными силами в Европе, ВГК ОВС НАТО, также является главнокомандующим Силами Соединенных Штатов в Европе. Депутат ОВС НАТО - британский офицер, а кроме того, есть депутат от Италии по ядерным вопросам и американский авиационный депутат.
   Командование имеет несколько тысяч тактических ядерных зарядов. Было заявлено, что с 1961 года эти цифры удвоились, а число средств-носителей (самолетов и ракет) составляет около 2500, распространенных среди ряда стран. Однако ядерные заряды контролируются исключительно в американцами. Средний тротиловый эквивалент бомб, накопленных в Европе для тактических самолетов НАТО, составляет около 100 килотонн, а ракетных боеголовок - около 20 килотонн. Силы, обученные и оснащенные для обороны европейского пространства НАТО, назначенные в SHAPE, насчитывают около 58 дивизий. Еще 30 могут быть переброшены, если позволит время. Командование имеет около 5 500 тактических самолетов, на 220 стандартных аэродромах НАТО, поддерживаемых системой совместно финансируемых топливных трубопроводов и связью. Между НАТО и французским правительством ведутся переговоры о задачах французских войск в Германии и их сотрудничестве с силами и командами НАТО; французском сотрудничестве в совместной системе обороны; будущем основных объектов инфраструктуры во Франции; и в какой степени силы НАТО могут использовать французские объекты и воздушное пространство.
   Разрешение для воздушных сил стран НАТО летать над Францией предоставляется по запросу ежемесячно.
   Семь стран создали по одному или по несколько усиленных пехотных батальонов или истребительных эскадрилий, чтобы сформировать целевую группу (так называемую ACE Mobile Force), которая служит при определенных обстоятельствах в качестве подвижного резерва для НАТО в целом, но с особым упором на чрезвычайную ситуацию в северной или юго-восточной Европы.
   Следующие командования подчиняются Союзному Командованию в Европе:
   (a) Союзные войска Центральной Европы (AFCENT) имеют штаб-квартиру в Фонтенбло. Будет перемещено либо в страны Бенилюкса, либо в Германию. В прошлом были штабы главнокомандующих Центральной Европы и штабы главнокомандующих сухопутными войсками и ВВС Центральной Европы в штабе командования главнокомандующего Центральной Европы. Теперь их объединяют под одним командующим в одной штаб-квартире; на этот пост был назначен немецкий генерал. В наземных войсках Центральноевропейского командования состоят из 25 назначенных дивизий, предоставленных семью странами. Все назначенные силы, за исключением некоторых голландских и бельгийских подразделений и некоторых логистических подразделений, базируются в Германии, и войска в последние годы постепенно приближаются к границе с Востоком Германии.
   Тактические воздушные силы включают около 3250 самолетов, из которых 500 или более являются истребителями-бомбардировщиками ВВС США. Есть также британские Canberra, канадские CF-104 и F-104G немецких и других военно-воздушных сил. Американские и немецкие войска оснащены ракетами Sergeant и Pershing на корпусах и уровне армии.
   Ракеты Honest John используются для атомных ударов на уровне дивизии. Для Великобритании, Западной Германии, стран Бенилюкс и Северо-Восточной Франции была разработана комплексная система раннего предупреждения и противовоздушной обороны. В командовании было развернуто 20 батальонов ракеты класса земля-воздух Hawk.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную и Центральную группы армию. Северная группа Армий отвечает за оборону сектора к северу от оси Гёттинген-Льеж. Она включает в себя подразделения Великобритании и Бенилюкса, 4 немецкие дивизии и канадскую бригаду. Она поддерживается 2-м ОТАК, состоящим из британских, голландских, бельгийских и немецких подразделений. Американские войска и 7 немецких дивизий находятся в Центральной группе армией, которая поддерживается 4-м ОТАК, состоящими из американских, немецких и канадских крыльев.
   Зона Центральной Европы включают в себя Гельголандскую бухту и будет контролироваться немецкий флотом Северного моря и частью флота Нидерландов в случае войны.
   (b) Союзные войска Северной Европы (AFNORTH) имеет штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе в Норвегии и отвечает за защиту Норвегии, Дании, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна и Балтийских проливов. Командир - британский генерал. Все датские и норвежские сухопутные, морские и тактические военно-воздушные силы включены в него, и большая часть их активных резервов предназначается ему. Ни одна страна не позволяет хранить ядерные боеголовки на своей земле. Германия назначила одну дивизию (дислоцирована в Шлезвиге), два боевых воздушных крыла и Балтийский флот.
   (c) Союзные войска Южной Европы (AFSOUTH) имеет штаб-квартиру в Неаполе, а командующий также является командующим 6-го флота США. Он отвечает за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции. Назначенные ему силы включают 14 дивизий из Турции, 8 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические воздушные силы этих стран. Другие подразделения из этих трех стран были выделены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-й флот США, который станет в войну Ударными силами Юга. Система обороны делится на два отдельных региона: Южный, включая Италию и подходы к ней, и Юго-Восточный, включая Грецию и Турцию, с общим воздушным командованием.
   (d) Союзные войска Средиземноморья (AFMED) имеют штаб-квартиру на Мальте (что позволяется Великобритании, по соглашению об обороне, и полномочиям НАТО использовать свои средства). AFMED несет ответственность за охрану коммуникаций на Средиземном море и в территориальных водах Черного моря. Национальные флоты и морские воздушные силы Италии, Греции и Турции вместе с Британским Средиземноморским флотом (чей главнокомандующий выступает в качестве Командующего AFMED) включаются в это командование.

2. Союзное Командование на Атлантике

   У Атлантического союзного командования штаб-квартира в Норфолке, штат Виржиния. В случае войны обязанности Верховного главнокомандующего ОВС НАТО на Атлантике (SACLANT), который является американским адмиралом с британским заместителем, заключаются в следующем: a) участвовать в стратегических ударах и (б) защищать морские сообщения от нападений вражеских сил. Для этих целей семь из восьми военно-морских сил НАТО, граничащих с Атлантикой, выделяют силы для учений и, если нужно, для войны. Восьмая, Франция, не участвует, но есть договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими ВМС и силами SACLANT. SACLANT отвечает за североатлантический район к северу от тропика Рака, включая север Северного моря.
   Есть три подчиненных командования: Западно-Атлантический район, Восточно-Атлантический район и Ударный Атлантический Флот. Ядро ударных сил НАТО было предоставлено 2-м флотом США с двумя или тремя ударными авианосцами, но эта роль будет передана ПЛАРБ.
   На флотах соответствующих стран около 450 эскортных кораблей, значительная часть которых полностью или частично предназначена для противолодочной обороны (ПЛО). Большинство военно-морских сил НАТО оснащают и обучают свои подводные силы в первую очередь для ПЛО, и более 150 подводных лодок потенциально доступны в Атлантике для выполнения таких обязанностей. У сил НАТО также имеется около 375 морских патрульных самолетов наземного базирования, большая часть которых находится на побережье или вблизи американских берегов. Военно-морской флот Соединенных Штатов насчитывает около 1000 авианосных самолётов и вертолетов, из которых примерно половина находится в море в любое время. Еще 300 таких из других стран НАТО. Общая сумма, которая может быть задействована в чрезвычайных ситуациях с авианосцев и баз Атлантического океана, вероятно, составляет около 400. (Эти оценки включают единицы, предназначенные для Командования каналов).

3. Союзное Командование Канала

   Военное командование Канала должно осуществлять контроль над Ла-Маншем и южной частью Северного морея. Многие из военных кораблей Бельгии, Нидерландов и Соединенного Королевства предназначены для этого командования, как и некоторые морские самолеты и вертолеты. Командующий британским флотом метрополии выступает в качестве его командующего, а контроль осуществляется комитетом, состоящим из представителей начальников штабов военно-морских сил трех заинтересованных стран.
  
  
   BELGIUM
Population: 9,400,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Total armed forces: 107,000.
Defence budget 1966: 26,000,000,000 Belgian francs ($520,000,000).
Army Total strength: 83,500.
   2 mechanized divisions.
   2 reserve divisions.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   M-41 and M-47 tanks; M-75 and AMX-13 weapon carriers.
   Honest John rockets; 105mm and 203mm howitzers.
   2 battalions of the Hawk surface-to-air missile.
   The mechanized divisions and one battalion of the paracommando regiment are assigned to NATO.
   The reserve divisions are earmarked to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 4,500.
   5 fleet minesweepers.
   4 coastal escorts.
   26 coastal minesweepers.
   2 support ships.
   The 5 fleet minesweepers are assigned to NATO.
Air Force Total strength: 19,000.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   1 transport wing with C-47, C-54, and C-119.
   2 wings of the Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile.
   All the Air Force, except the transport wing, are assigned to NATO.
  
   CANADA
Population: 20,000,000.
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 107,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 1,572,700,000 Canadian dollars ($US 1,461,000,000).
Army Total strength: 44,000.
   In Canada: 3 infantry brigade groups, 2 of which are earmarked for deployment in Europe under NATO.
   The other brigade contributes to North American ground defence, and also provides troops for special duties such as UN service.
   In Europe: 1 infantry brigade group of 6,500 men, with Centurion tanks and M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   The F-5 tactical fighter has been selected as a ground-support aircraft for the Army.
   720 Army and 80 RCAF personnel in UNEF (Middle East).
   About 1,000 men in UNFICYP (Cyprus).
   46,000 militia.
Navy Total strength: 18,100.
   1 light aircraft carrier.
   23 destroyer escorts.
   6 other escorts.
   3 submarines (including 1 British under Canadian operational control).
   2 support ships.
   CS2-F Tracker aircraft and Sea King helicopters are embarked in the aircraft carrier, and Sea King helicopters in some of the destroyers.
   Naval reserves total about 2,500.
Air Force Total strength: 45,000.
   In Europe: 7 strike-reconnaissance squadrons with CF-104 Starfighters.
   North American Air Defence: 3 interceptor squadrons of CF-101B Voodoos, and 2 squadrons with Bomarc B surface-to-air missiles.
   Maritime aircraft: 3 Argus squadrons on the East Coast (NATO-earmarked), and 1 Neptune squadron on the West Coast.
   5 transport squadrons with the C-130 Hercules, CC-109 Cosmopolitan, DHC-4 Caribou, and CL-44 Yukon.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,755,000.
Military service: 12-14 months.
Total armed forces: 50,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67:1,915,200,000 Danish kroner ($268,000,000).
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   2 1/3 armoured infantry brigades, including a tank battalion with Centurions.
   1 battalion group.
   2 artillery battalions (with the Honest John or 203mm howitzer).
   3f infantry brigades to be formed from reservists.
   Local defence reservist units form 15 infantry battalions and 15 artillery batteries.
   A volunteer Home Guard of 55,000.
Navy Total strength: 7,200.
   6 frigates and escort ships.
   4 submarines.
   12 minesweepers.
   16 fast patrol boats.
   9 seaward defence craft.
   10 landing craft.
   50 other ships.
   Volunteer Naval Home Guard of 3,600.
Air Force
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D/F.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron with Hunters.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F,
   1 transport squadron with C-47 and C-54.
   1 air-sea rescue squadron with Catalinas and S-55 helicopters.
Air Defence
   4 Nike-Ajqx and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air batteries located around Copenhagen.
   4 Hawk surface-to-air batteries.
   A Volunteer Air Force Home Guard of 11,500.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 49,130,000.
Military service: 18 months (selective).
Total armed forces: 522,500.
Defence estimates 1966: 22,016,000,000 francs ($4,465,000,000).
Army Total strength: 338,000.
   5 divisions stationed in Europe. These include
   1 mechanized and 1 armoured division in Germany, 1 brigade in West Berlin, and
   1 mechanized, 1 armoured, and 1 air transportable division in France.
   The mechanized and armoured divisions are equipped with M-47 and AMX-13 tanks.
   Honest John and Hawk launchers are in service with the divisions in Germany.
   The air transportable division combines parachute troops with an amphibious group and supporting arms, and makes up the permanent element of a
   strategic reserve (force d'intervention).
   Combat troops stationed overseas number about 15,000, including
   3 regiments in Algeria and 3 regiments in other African states, 3 battalions in French Somaliland, and 2 battalions in the Pacific territories.
   There are in addition 3,000 French officers and NCOs serving either on secondment or on contract with the armed forces of independent African countries.
   The remaining troops are stationed in metropolitan France for local defence (forces du territoire).
   Their peacetime strength is six brigades, including one mountain brigade.
   Mobilization would add one Alpine and seven territorial brigades, 100 infantry regiments and supporting units.
Navy Total strength: 84,000.
   2 27,000-ton aircraft carriers.
   1 14,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   1 10,000-ton helicopter carrier.
   2 anti-aircraft cruisers.
   19 destroyers (5 with guided missiles).
   31 frigates and other escort ships.
   21 submarines, of which 17 are ocean-going.
   15 patrol vessels.
   50 fleet and coastal minesweepers.
   9 landing ships.
   10 landing craft.
   142 other ships.
A Marine commando of 800 men.
   A Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine is being constructed.
The Naval Air Force, consisting of 12,000 men and about 275 aircraft, includes:
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with Etendard IV.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Etendard IV.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-8E Crusaders.
   3 ASW squadrons with Alizes.
   6 maritime reconnaissance squadrons with Neptunes.
   3 helicopter squadrons with S-58.
   2 light helicopter squadrons with Alouettes.
Air Force Total strength: 113,000; about 850 aircraft.
(a) The Strategic Air Command (FAS).
   3 bomber wings of 3 squadrons, each with 4 Mirage IVA. Each wing has 1 squadron of 4 C-135F tankers.
   A total of 62 Mirage IVA and 12 C-135 have been ordered.
   The force is designed for low-level penetration with atomic bombs which are being produced with a yield of up to 150 kilotons.
(b) Air Defence Command (CAFDA): 140 aircraft.
   6 squadrons with Super Mysteres.
   2 all-weather squadrons with Vautour UN.
   2 squadrons with Mirage IIIC.
(c) 1st Tactical Air Force (ler CATAC). 23,000 men; 250 aircraft.
   3 interceptor squadrons with Mirage IIIC.
   8 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D and Mirage IIIE.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with Mirage IIIR.
   2 brigades of Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
(d) 2ieme CATAC: 150 aircraft.
   4 squadrons with Mystere IV.
   2 squadrons with A-1D Skyraiders.
   6 squadrons with H-34 helicopters.
(e) COTAM (Transport Command): 150 aircraft.
   7 squadrons with Noratlas.
   1 squadron with DC-6 Deux Ponts.
   2 squadrons with C-47.
   The 12 C-135 tankers (see Strategic Air Command, above) may also be used for troop transport.
   5 helicopter squadrons with H-34 and Alouettes.
Reserves and para-military forces The regular forces could be supplemented by up to 400,000 reservists in time of emergency,
   plus the Gendarmerie and the CRS (Compagnies Republicaines de Security), who total 75,000.
  
   FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Population: 57,000,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 440,000.
Defence budget 1966: 17,363,000,000 Deutschmarks ($4,335,000,000).
Army Total strength: 307,000.
   7 armoured infantry divisions.
   3 armoured divisions.
   1 mountain division.
   1 airborne division.
   The armoured units are equipped with M-48A2 Patton and Leopard medium tanks.
   Tactical nuclear artillery with the ground forces includes Honest John, Sergeant, and the 203mm howitzer.
   SS-11 and Cobra anti-tank missiles are in service.
   These forces are all assigned to NATO.
A Territorial Force of 28,000 is held for rear area duties.
   It is being supplemented by a reserve organized for local defence, which numbers 7,000 men and is scheduled to reach a strength of 50,000 by 1968.
Navy Total strength: 33,000.
   10 destroyers.
   24 frigates and other escorts.
   8 submarines.
   57 minesweepers.
   45 patrol craft.
   6 landing craft.
The Naval Air Force has 6,000 men and 125 aircraft, consisting of
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G, and
   2 maritime reconnaissance squadrons with Br-1150 Atlantique.
   Two ASW squadrons with helicopters are planned.
   The Navy is assigned to NATO.
Air Force Total strength: 100,000; 650 aircraft.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-104G (some with Sidewinder air-to-air missiles).
   10 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with F-104G.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with G-91.
   6 transport squadrons with Noratlas.
   6 battalions Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   9 battalions Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 battalions Pershing surface-to-surface missiles.
   The Air Force is assigned to NATO.
Para-military forces About 30,000 Border Police and other security forces.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,575,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 24 months; Navy 18 months.
Total armed forces: 159,000.
Defence budget 1966: 6,175,000,000 drachmas ($206,000,000).
Army Total strength: 118,000.
   11 infantry divisions in 3 corps (2 divisions are kept close to full strength).
   1 armoured division with M-47 tanks.
   1 Commando brigade.
   (8 divisions are near the northern frontier and are assigned to NATO; the rest are located in Southern Greece and Crete.)
   1 battalion Honest John surface-to-surface missiles.
   About 10,000 men of the Greek Army are currently serving in Cyprus.
Navy Total strength: 18,000.
   8 destroyers.
   4 frigates.
   3 submarines.
   13 patrol vessels.
   5 transport ships.
   20 coastal minesweepers.
   9 tank landing ships.
   6 medium landing ships.
   20 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 day-fighter squadron with F-86D.
   2 tactical fighter squadrons with F-5A.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   About 30 C-47 and C-119G transport aircraft.
   OH-13 and H-19 helicopters.
   (7 squadrons and 1 transport squadron are assigned to the 6th Allied Tactical Air Force.)
   1 surface-to-air missile battalion with Hawk.
   1 surface-to-air missile battalion with Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
Para-military forces Total strength: 27,000.
  
   ITALY
Population: 52,900,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 15 months; Navy 24 months.
Total armed forces: 376,000 (excluding Carabinieri).
Defence estimates 1966: 1,239,000,000,000 lire ($1,982,000,000).
Army Total strength: 270,000.
   5 infantry divisions.
   2 armoured divisions with M-47 and M-60 tanks.
   5 Alpine brigades of 8,000 men each.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 rocket brigade (including 2 Honest John battalions).
   1 Hawk battalion.
   The 7 divisions, the 5 Alpine brigades, and the Hawk battalion are assigned to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 40,000.
   3 guided-missile light cruisers.
   9 destroyers (including 2 guided-missile destroyers).
   13 destroyer escorts.
   4 submarines.
   35 corvettes and submarine chasers.
   78 minesweepers.
   11 coastal patrol boats.
   25 landing craft.
   127 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 66,000; 330 aircraft.
(a) Assigned to 5th Allied Tactical Air Force:
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   3 all-weather fighter squadrons with F-84K.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   3 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F.
   2 transport squadrons with C-119.
   3 wings with Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules.
(b) Not assigned to NATO:
   1 light-strike and reconnaissance squadron with G-91.
   1 transport squadron with C-119.
   3 anti-submarine squadrons with S-2A Trackers.
Para-military forces The Carabinieri Corps (mainly security, Frontier Guard, and military police duties): 85,000.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 330,000.
Military service: 6 months.
Defence estimates 1966: 483,000,000 Luxembourg francs ($9,600,000).
Army Total strength: 1,545.
   An infantry brigade would be available to NATO after mobilization.
   An artillery battalion of 500 men is attached to the American 8th Infantry Division, with headquarters at Bad Kreuznach, West Germany.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 12,350,000.
Military service: Army 16-18 months; Navy and Air Force 21-24 months.
Total armed forces: 129,250.
Defence estimates 1966: 2,751,000,000 guilders ($750,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   2 mechanized divisions (1 with 3 brigades, and 1 with 2 brigades) and some corps troops are assigned to NATO.
   1 infantry division, 3 independent infantry brigades, and the remaining corps troops, including a 4th independent brigade,
   to be formed by call-up of reservists, are earmarked for NATO.
   10 tank battalions - with a total of 600
   Centurion tanks, some with 105mm guns-are included in these formations. In service are also: AMX 105mm tank destroyers.
   AMX, M-113, and DAF-YP armoured personnel carriers.
   Carl Gustav anti-tank missiles.
   105mm and 175mm self-propelled artillery.
   203mm nuclear artillery and Honest John launchers.
Navy Total strength: 21,250, including 3,000 marines.
   1 16,000-ton ASW carrier.
   2 cruisers (one fitted with Terrier guided missiles).
   1 fast combat support ship.
   12 anti-submarine destroyers.
   12 frigates and escorts.
   6 submarines.
   62 coastal and inshore minesweepers.
   5 patrol vessels.
   1 landing craft.
   41 other vessels.
The Fleet Air Arm consists of four ASW and reconnaissance squadrons, equipped with
   P-2H Neptunes and S-2A Trackers,
   two squadrons of SH-19 and SH-34 helicopters, and two training squadrons.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-104G.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 day-fighter squadron with Hunters.
   1 fighter squadron (USAF under Dutch Command) with F-102.
   6 surface-to-air missile squadrons with NikeHercules.
   12 surface-to-air missile squadrons with Hawk.
   1 transport squadron (Friendship).
   3 observation and communication squadrons of light aircraft and Alouette III helicopters (under operational command of the Army).
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,760,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Total armed forces: 34,000.
Defence budget 1966: 2,133,429,300 Norwegian kroner ($298,000,000).
Army Total strength: 17,000.
   The Army is organized into five regional commands, comprising all ground forces.
   The regional commands are again divided into a number of ground defence districts.
   Major units are mainly organized into Regimental Combat Teams.
   Peacetime establishment includes a brigade group with M-48 tanks, stationed in Arctic Norway,
   and a number of independent battalions and supporting elements as well as training units.
   Mobilization would produce 10 Regimental Combat Teams plus supporting units.
   This force would total 75,000.
   The three battalions of Honest John have been disbanded.
Navy Total strength: 6,000, plus 2,000 coastal artillery.
   2 frigates.
   10 submarines.
   4 gunboats.
   15 minesweepers and minelayers.
   2 patrol vessels.
   4 auxiliaries.
   About 30 torpedo boats of less than 100 tons.
   A number of coastal artillery battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G and F-5A.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-86F.
   1 all-weather fighter squadron with F-86K.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   2 maritime patrol squadrons with Albatross.
   1 transport squadron with C-119 and C-47.
   4 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules sites are located around Oslo.
Para-military forces There is a Home Guard with local defence responsibilities, totalling about 70,000 men.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,246,000.
Military service: Army 18-24 months, Air Force 18 months, and Navy 48 months.
Total armed forces: 148,000 (excluding African troops).
   About 500,000 trained reservists could be mobilized in an emergency.
Defence estimates 1966, including expenditure in overseas provinces: 6,523,000,000 escudos ($224,000,000).
Army Strength: 120,000, plus 14,000 enlisted in the African provinces.
   One division of 18,000 men earmarked to NATO and stationed in metropolitan Portugal.
   M-47 tanks are in service. This division may be only at 50% strength.
   The remaining troops (including about 20 infantry regiments) are stationed in the Portuguese provinces in Africa.
   About 50,000, including locally enlisted troops, are in Angola, 30,000 in Mozambique, and 20,000 in Portuguese Guinea.
Navy Strength: 14,500, including Marines.
   2 destroyers.
   10 frigates (including 1 ASW frigate).
   3 submarines.
   18 minesweepers.
   15 patrol vessels.
   4 landing craft.
   12 other ships.
Air Force Strength: 13,500; 250 aircraft.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-86F.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84G.
   2 light strike squadrons with G-91.
   1 ASW reconnaissance squadron with P-2 Neptune.
   1 transport group with Noratlas, C-47, C-54, and DC-6.
   Only the Neptune squadron is NATO-assigned.
   There is a paratroop regiment of 3,000, which comes under Air Force command.
   One battalion is serving in each of the three African provinces.
Para-military forces National Republican Guard: 10,000.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 32,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 450,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 3,378,000,000 Turkish lire ($377,000,000).
Army Total strength: 360,000.
   16 infantry divisions, of which 14 are NATO assigned.
   4 armoured brigades with M-47 Patton tanks.
   4 armoured cavalry regiments.
   2 parachute battalions.
   Honest John rockets.
   105mm, 155mm, and 203mm howitzers.
   There is a potential reserve of 2,500,000.
Navy Total strength: 37,000.
   9 destroyers.
   10 submarines.
   15 corvettes and submarine chasers.
   20 minesweepers.
   6 fast patrol boats.
   50 landing craft.
   There are 70,000 Naval reserves.
Air Force Total strength: 53,000; 900 aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   9 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F and F-100.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-86E.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F and F-84R.
   5 transport squadrons (C-47, C-54, and C-130).
   2 battalions of Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missiles (6 batteries).
   Apart from the temporary exclusion of one or two of the interceptor squadrons, the Turkish Air Force, including the Nike batteries, is NATO-assigned.
  
   UNITED KINGDOM
Population: 54,500,000.
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 437,600 (including forces enlisted outside the United Kingdom).
Defence budget 1966-67: £2,172,110,000 ($6,081,000,000).
Army Total strength: 218,200 (including 29,400 enlisted outside the United Kingdom).
   The Army is organized into some 58 British and 8 Gurkha infantry battalions.
   There are three parachute battalions, 22 tank and armoured car regiments, 31 artillery regiments, and engineer and signal regiments.
   The British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), based in Germany, has a current strength of 51,500 against a commitment of 55,000.
   It is organized into three divisions, each of two brigades (two of the 6 are armoured).
   About 15 battalions are normally maintained in the United Kingdom garrison,
   in addition to two infantry brigades and a parachute brigade in the Strategic Reserve.
   The present strength in Aden and the Persian Gulf is 7 battalions.
   There are three battalions in Cyprus (including 1,000 men with the United Nations forces).
   Other garrisons include a brigade in Berlin, and troops in Libya, Malta, Gibraltar, Swaziland, and the Caribbean.
Total British land forces in the Far East (including Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong) number about 13 battalions, including the 8 Gurkha battalions.
   The approximate strength of British forces in Borneo in September 1966 was 8 battalions, including 6 Gurkha battalions.
   The normal strength of the Hong Kong garrison is 4 battalions, and there is 1 British infantry battalion with the Commonwealth Brigade in Malacca.
   The Centurion is the battle tank of the two armoured brigades in Germany.
   Its replacement, the Chieftain, is in production.
   Tactical nuclear artillery available to BAOR includes three regiments with Honest John and some 203mm howitzers.
   The Corporal nuclear-bombardment missiles were withdrawn in 1966.
   American 155mm and 175mm heavy self-propelled guns and the British 105mm Abbot gun will
   eventually replace all the 25-pounders and 5.5-inch guns in service.
   In mid-1966, there were 100,000 men in the Territorial Army and about 11,000 in the Army Emergency Reserve.
   The reorganization of these forces into a smaller Army Volunteer Reserve comes into operation in mid-1967.
Navy Total strength: 97,200. The strength of the operational fleet is as follows:
   4 aircraft carriers.
   2 commando ships.
   2 assault ships.
   1 cruiser.
   6 guided-missile destroyers.
   9 other destroyers.
   30 ASW frigates.
   26 other escort vessels.
   2 nuclear-powered hunter-killer submarines.
   33 other submarines.
   58 coastal minesweepers.
   43 inshore minesweepers.
   101 fleet support ships.
   9 tank landing craft.
   16 other landing vessels.
   (Ships in reserve or undergoing repairs and conversion include
   1 aircraft carrier, 4 cruisers, 25 escorts, 10 conventional submarines, and 33 coastal minesweepers.)
The Fleet Air Arm has a nuclear and conventional strike capacity with the Buccaneer Mark 1 and 2 and the Scimitar fighter-bomber.
   The Sea Vixen interceptor is equipped with the Red Top air-to-air guided missile.
   The commando ships carry troops in Wessex and Whirlwind helicopters.
   Wessex and Wasp helicopters are used for anti-submarine operations.
   The Royal Marines total about 8,500 men, and provide five Commandos of 800 men each.
   Two of these are normally stationed out of Britain.
   There are 8,526 men in the naval and marine reserves.
   Four Fleet Ballistic nuclear submarines are being constructed to carry 16 Polaris A-3 missiles each. They will enter service between 1968 and 1970.
Air Force Total strength: 122,200. The Air Force is organized as follows:
(1) Bomber Command provides a medium bomber force designed for strategic nuclear strikes and conventional bombing.
   Its nucleus consists of about 80 Victor 2 and Vulcan 2 jet bombers, which can carry either nuclear or conventional bombs
   or the Blue Steel air-to-surface nuclear missile.
   Some Victor 2 aircraft are equipped for strategic reconnaissance, and a number of Victor Is have been converted into tanker aircraft.
   Canberra PR-7s are also used for photo-reconnaissance. All Bomber Command's strategic bombers are assigned to NATO.
(2) Fighter Command is equipped with Lightning interceptors and is assigned to NATO.
   The Lightning is armed either with Firestreak or with the more advanced Red Top air-to-air missile.
   The Ballistic Missile Early-Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales has been in operation since the beginning of 1964,
   and has direct links with North American Air Defence in Colorado Springs as well as British defence headquarters.
   Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missile squadrons are operational in Singapore and the United Kingdom.
(3) Coastal Command is equipped with Shackleton long-range reconnaissance and antisubmarine aircraft.
   The HS-801 (derived from the Comet 4C) will enter service in 1968.
(4) Transport Command has 23 Britannia and 10 Comet aircraft and 14 VC-l0s are on order for strategic airlift.
   Four out of an eventual 10 Belfastlong-range freighters have been delivered.
   Other medium-range transports include Argosy, Hastings,and Valetta aircraft, and 30 Andovers are being introduced to supplement the
   short range Beverleys.
   Helicopter transport is provided by Belvederes, Whirlwinds, and WessexMark 2s.
   Two ground-attack squadrons of Hunters are included in the Command.
RAF Germany, whose present strength is 8,700 men, is equipped with Canberra strike and reconnaissance aircraft
   (the strike squadrons have both nuclear and conventional roles),
   Hunter ground-attack and reconnaissance aircraft, Lightning interceptors, and Wessex helicopters.
Near East Air Force in Cyprus includes 1 strike wing of Canberras (with nuclear capacity) and
   1 squadron of Javelins. Canberra and Shackleton reconnaissance aircraft are based in Malta and Gibraltar.
Middle East Air Force in Aden has Shackletons and Hunter ground-attack aircraft.
Far East Air Force includes Hunter, Javelin, Canberra,and Shackleton aircraft and detachments of V-bombers.
   There are eleven squadrons of the Royal Air Force Regiment, whose chief role is ground defence of airfields.
   The RAF reserves total some 85,000 men.
  
   UNITED STATES
Population: 196,000,000.
Military service: selective for two years.
Total armed forces: 3,093,960.
Defence estimates 1966-67: $58,300,000,000.
   (Expenditure between July 1966 and June 1967 is expected to rise to over $61,000,000,000).
  
   Strategic Nuclear Forces
   The strategic offensive and defensive deployment of American forces is based on two major objectives governing policy in the event of global war:
   (1) the 'assured destruction' of hostile strategic targets in the USSR, China, or the Communist satellites;
   (2) 'damage limitation' with respect to the strategic targets and urban areas of the United States and her allies.
   Extensive provision has been made for the control of these forces in the event of heavy nuclear attack on the US. An underground combat operation centre has been installed in the Cheyenne Mountain, in Colorado, and an airborne command post is maintained constantly in flight in KC-135 aircraft.
   As far as the air defence component of 'damage limitation' is concerned, Mr McNamara has again postponed any decision on procuring and deploying the Nike-X ABM defensive system. Various alternative postures for a BMD system are being considered in relation to their cost. It is estimated that the initial investment and five-year operating costs for a light BMD system at a small number of cities would be about $8-10,5 billion.
  
   Стратегические ядерные силы
   Стратегическое наступательное и оборонительное развертывание американских сил основано на двух основных целях, регулирующих политику в случае глобальной войны:
   (1) "гарантированное уничтожение" враждебных стратегических целей в СССР, Китае или коммунистических спутниках;
   (2) "ограничение ущерба" в отношении стратегических целей и городских районов Соединенных Штатов и их союзников.
   Значительные меры были предприняты для сохранения контроля над этими силами в случае крупного ядерного нападения на США. На горе Шайенн в штате Колорадо установлен подземный центр боевых действий, а в воздухе на самолете КС-135 постоянно содержится воздушный командный пункт.
   Что касается компонента противовоздушной обороны "ограничения ущерба", то г-н Макнамара вновь отложил принятие решения о закупке и развертывании оборонительной системы ПРО Nike-X. В связи с их стоимостью рассматриваются различные альтернативные варианты системы ПРО. Предполагается, что первоначальные инвестиции и пять лет эксплуатационные расходы на систему ПРО для небольшго число городов будет около 8-10$, 5 млрд.
  
1. Strategic Offensive Forces,
LAND-BASED MISSILES:
   At present, 800 Minuteman 1 and 50 Minuteman 2 solid-fuel intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) are operational.
   Minuteman 2 is gradually replacing Minuteman 1, and eventually all 6 wings will be equipped with the later missile.
   The Minuteman force should total 1,054 missiles in mid-1967.
   54 launchers (6 squadrons of 9 missiles each) of the Titan 2 liquid-fuel ICBM remain in service.
   These have greater range and payload than Minuteman.
SEABORNE MISSILES:
   The US Navy has in commission 37 nuclear-powered submarines, each of which carries 16 Polaris missiles. Four more have been launched.
   3 are assigned to the Mediterranean, 5 (eventually 7) are assigned to the Western Pacific,
   and most of the rest of those on patrol are thought to be in the Atlantic.
   13 submarines are equipped with the A-2 missile (1,700 mile range), and the remainder with the A-3 (2,850 mile range).
   Development is continuing on the Poseidon missile, which will have nearly twice the payload of the A-3 missile,
   and which is intended to replace the Polaris.
BOMBERS: The Strategic Air Command (SAC) has at present about 680 bombers.
   These include about 600 B-52s with the AGM-28B Hound Dog air-to-surface cruise missile and the Quail decoy.
   The Hound Dog has a range of up to 700 miles and carries a thermonuclear warhead.
   B-52s have also been used for heavy conventional bombing in Vietnam during the last year.
   There are two wings of B-58 Hustler medium bombers with a total of about 80 aircraft.
   The B-47s have been phased out of the strategic nuclear role.
   Some have been converted to the photo electronic reconnaissance (RB-47K) or weather reconnaissance (WB-47) roles.
   It is planned to procure 210 FB-111A supersonic bombers for entry into service in 1968-69.
   There are about 50 squadrons of KC-135 tankers in SAC.
   A wing of the supersonic SR-71 (formerly A-11) post-attack strategic reconnaissance aircraft is now being formed.
   It is expected that this aircraft will attain speeds of more than Mach 3 and altitudes greater than 80,000 ft.
2. Strategic Defensive Forces.
The North American Air Defence Command (NORAD), which is situated at Colorado Springs, Colorado, is a joint Canadian-American organization.
   The American forces under NORAD are known as the Air Defence Command (ADC) and currently number 125,000 men. There are
   30 interceptor squadrons in ADC, including the following:
   12 squadrons F-106A Delta Dart,
   14 squadrons F-101B Voodoo,
   2 squadrons F-102 Delta Dagger, and
   2 squadrons F-104A Starfighters.
   Air-to-air missiles used by these aircraft include Sidewinder, Falcon, and Genie.
   The regular units of Continental Air Defence Command are supplemented by
   21 interceptor squadrons of the Air National Guard, which include F-89J Scorpions, F-100 Supersabres, and F-102 Delta Darts.
   This gives a total number of interceptor aircraft in NORAD (including Canadian units) of 1,350.
   The missile force consists of three main systems: Nike, Hawk, and Bomarc.
   A force of over 100 Nike-Hercules batteries is being maintained, although 22 batteries have been phased out in the last year;
   there are also 2 Hawk battalions.
   Both these systems are operated by the Army elements of ADC.
   The present number of long-range surface-to-air Bomarc missiles is 188, deployed in 6 squadrons.
   These are all Bomarc B, with a range of 440 miles and a ceiling of 100,000 feet, and are mostly stationed in the north-eastern states.
Ground defence against bomber or missile attack is supported by a chain of radar and tracking stations, including the
   Ballistic Missile Early-Warning System (BMEWS), with stations in Alaska, Greenland, and England,
   the Pinetree line, and the Distant Early-Warning Line (DEW).
   Some seaward extensions of the DEW system and some of its smaller radar stations have been closed.
   Surveillance and tracking of objects in North American air space is co-ordinated by the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system,
   organized into 12 sectors.
   11 of the sectors are being combined with Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC) stations.
   Improvements are being carried out to the three existing BMEWS stations, and some of the air-defence radar stations
   now on the East, West, and Gulf Coasts of the United States are being adapted for detection of submarine launched missiles.
Army Total strength: 1,200,000.
   The regular Army is organized into 17 operational divisions,
   38 surface-to-surface missile battalions,
   7 Special Forces Groups,
   5 armoured cavalry regiments, and some independent infantry and airborne brigades.
   It possesses about 7,000 aircraft of all types.
   It is planned to create a second airmobile division following the successful performance of the 1st Air Cavalry Division in Vietnam.
   One of the existing airborne divisions will probably be chosen for conversion to this function.
   US ground forces, including the three divisions of the Marine Corps, were deployed as follows in July 1966:
Continental United States. Strategic reserve:
   2nd Marine Division, 82nd Airborne Division, and 5 independent infantry brigades.
   Training divisions for units being sent to Vietnam: 4th Infantry Division, 5th Mechanized Division, and 9th Infantry Division.
   For reinforcing 7th Army in Europe: 1st Armoured Division and 2nd Armoured Division.
South Korea. 2nd Infantry Division and 7th Infantry Division.
Hawaii/Okinawa. Part of 25th Infantry Division.
South Vietnam. 1st Infantry Division, 1st Air Cavalry Division, 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Division, 101st Airborne Division,
   part of 25th Infantry Division, and 173rd Airborne Brigade.
Germany. 5th Corps: 3rd Armoured Division and 8th Infantry Division.
   7th Corps: 4th Armoured Division, 3rd Infantry Division, 24th Infantry Division, and three armoured cavalry regiments.
   In West Berlin: one infantry brigade.
Forces in Germany (7th Army).
   The 7th Army is equipped with the M-60 battle tank, some of which have been fitted with the Shillelagh guided anti-tank missile, and includes
   3 battalions (12 launchers) of solid-fuel Pershing nuclear missiles.
   Self-propelled medium artillery includes the M-107 Long Tom 175mm gun and the M-110 203mm howitzer.
   The Lance guided missile, with a range of 30 miles, is now being procured to replace the unguided Honest John and Little John and some artillery.
   The 7th Army is also equipped with Sergeant surface-to-surface nuclear bombardment weapons with a maximum range of 75 miles,
   and, in the short-range category, Lacrosse rockets.
   The main anti-aircraft missiles are the Nike-Hercules and Hawk.
Forces in Vietnam.
   In July 1966, the total of American land forces in Vietnam (including units of the Marine Corps) was
   230,000; these included either the whole or elements of the six divisions listed above,
   and also individual detachments, including special aviation companies, on which the US command has placed great emphasis.
Army Reserves.
   Army reserves are still in a process of reorganization. It is now proposed that the Army National Guard should consist of
   580,000 men and should be capable of deploying
   8 division forces, 16 separate brigades, and some units to round out regular Army formations in about five weeks from mobilization.
   3 of the divisions and 6 of the brigades will form a Select Reserve and be capable of more rapid mobilization.
   The current strength of the Army National Guard is about 420,000.
   The former Army Reserves, now totalling 350,000, will be used as a reinforcement pool.
Navy Total strength: 745,000. The total number of commissioned ships is 927.
   The General Purpose Forces navy consists of approximately 890 ships.
   The Fleets are the 1st in the Eastern Pacific, the 2nd in the Atlantic, the 6th in the Mediterranean, and the 7th in the Western Pacific.
   A nuclear powered task force consisting of an aircraft carrier, a guided-missile cruiser, and one guided missile frigate was transferred
   from the Atlantic to the Pacific fleet in October 1965.
   The main units of the active fleets are as follows.
   16 attack carriers: 1 (USS Enterprise) nuclear-powered, 7 Forrestal-class, 3 Midway-class, and 5 Essex-class.
   1 Essex-class ship is being replaced by an additional Forrestal-class, and 2 Midway-class are being modernized to allow them to operate
   heavier aircraft such as the RA-5C Vigilante.
   The attack carriers no longer have a strategic alert nuclear mission, and lighter attack aircraft such as the A-4 Skyhawk and the A-6A Intruder
   are being used in place of the A-3 Skywarriors and the A-5 Vigilantes.
   The reconnaissance version of the Vigilante will be retained in the proportion of at least 6 to each of the Forrestal-class carriers,
   and the RF-8 Crusaders will continue to be used on Essex and Midway-class carriers.
   Air defence is provided by F-4B Phantoms, except in Essex-class carriers, which retain the F-8E Crusaders.
   The attack carrier aircraft number 12 wings, with about 85 aircraft to each wing.
   9 anti-submarine carriers, all of the Essex-class.
   They are equipped with S-2E long-range search aircraft and SH-3A helicopters, and have A-4C Skyhawks for air defence;
   each carries about 35 aircraft and helicopters.
   105 submarines (excluding Polaris vessels), including 24 nuclear-powered attack submarines.
   265 multi-purpose ships for anti-submarine warfare and fleet air defence.
   These include guided-missile cruisers and a few heavy cruisers.
   Improvements have been made to the Terrier, Tartar, and Talos surface-to-air missile systems.
   31 destroyer escorts.
   168 logistic and operational support ships.
   139 amphibious assault ships.
   In addition there are over 400 escorts and 15 cruisers in reserve.
   The active fleet and reserves also include about 200 minesweepers and over
   1,000 service patrol and other craft, but a large number of non-combatant vessels in the reserve have been designated obsolescent and will be scrapped.
   There are 27 squadrons of shore-based ASW patrol aircraft. They are mostly equipped with the SP-2 Neptune and P-3A Orion.
   Air units in the naval reserve include 19 squadrons of fixed-wing aircraft and four squadrons of helicopters.
   The number of aircraft in the active inventory of the navy is estimated at 9,500.
Marine Corps. Total strength: 261,660.
   The Marine Corps is organized into 3 divisions and 3 associated air wings.
   The Marine Corps Reserve has now been reorganized to provide a 4th division and wing,
   and additional personnel have been assigned to increase its readiness for quick deployment.
   The capability of the Hawk missile battalions with the divisions has been improved by activating the reserve battery in each battalion.
   Other tactical artillery with the divisions includes 105mm howitzers and Little John rockets, both helicopter-transportable.
   The 3 Marine Air Wings have about 1,200 combat and support aircraft, and the number of helicopters is being steadily increased, with
   particular emphasis on the CH-46A Sea Knight assault transport (carries 17 men) and the CH-53A all-weather cargo and troop heavy transport. In the
   15 fighter squadrons, the F-4 Phantom, armed with Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles, is replacing the F-8 Crusader. The Air Wings have
   12 attack squadrons, with the A-6A Intruder now replacing the A-4 Skyhawks, and
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with the RF-4B Phantom replacing the RF-8A Crusader. There are
   3 squadrons of C-130 Hercules assault transports and
   16 medium and heavy helicopter squadrons.
Air Force Total strength: 887,300.
   The General Purpose Forces of the Air Force consist of the Tactical Air Command,
   the Military Airlift Command (formerly Military Air Transport Service),
   and some interceptor squadrons assigned to US air forces in Europe and the Pacific.
The present strength of Tactical Air Command is 80,000 men and more than 2,200 aircraft.
   Of the wings based in the USA there are
   44 tactical fighter squadrons with F-100, F-104, F-105, and F-4C;
   5 tactical reconnaissance squadrons with RF-101, RB-66, and RF-4;
   14 assault air-lift squadrons (mostly with C-130 Hercules); and
   4 counter-insurgency squadrons with A-1E, B-26K, U-10B, C-123, and AC-47 aircraft.
US Air Forces Europe (USAFE), which controls the
   3rd Air Force in England, the
   16th Air Force in Spain, and the
   17th Air Force in West Germany, has more than 1,000 tactical aircraft, which include
   21 tactical fighter squadrons and
   9 tactical reconnaissance squadrons. There are
   6 squadrons of the Mace tactical missile, for which hardened sites have been completed.
   The tactical fighters include F-100, F-105, and F-4 Phantom, and the reconnaissance aircraft are RB-66, RF-101 Voodoo, and RF-4.
   There are some F-102 squadrons for air defence in Germany and the Netherlands.
   The 6 reconnaissance squadrons formerly at bases in eastern France will move to England, or be returned to the USA.
   Transport and logistic bases formerly in France will be moved to England and Germany.
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), with headquarters in Hawaii, controls the
   5th Air Force, with bases in Japan, Korea, and Okinawa; the
   13th Air Force, with headquarters in the Philippines; and the
   7th Air Force, which is the air component of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV). The
   5th Air Force operates squadrons of F-4, F-105, F-100, RF-101, and F-102 fighters; the
   13th Air Force, with similar aircraft, is responsible for the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand, plus all joint planning responsibilities under SEATO.
   The 7th Air Force, with over 50,000 men in South Vietnam, consists of light bomber, tactical fighter, reconnaissance, and assault aircraft squadrons.
   It also co-ordinates the operation of the Vietnamese Air Force (q.v.).
   The approximate strength of the 7th Air Force is
   2 light bomber squadrons,
   15 tactical fighter squadrons,
   4 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   6 counter-insurgency squadrons,
   6 assault airlift squadrons, and a large number of observation, liaison, and helicopter squadrons.
   The chief aircraft are F-4 Phantoms, F-100 Supersabres, A-1E Skyraiders, C-123 Providers, and C-130 Hercules.
   There are smaller numbers of B-57, F-5, F-102, F-104, AC-47, RF-101, and RB-57 aircraft.
   3 wings of F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers were transferred to the 13th Air Force in Thailand in July 1965.
The Military Airlift Command (MAC) numbers 90,000 men and operates about 1,200 aircraft in 58 squadrons.
   These include 320 C-124 Globemasters,96 C-130 Hercules, 39 C-133 Cargomasters, 30 C-135 Stratolifters, and 70 C-141 Starlifters for
   long-distance transport. A total of 224 C-141 have been ordered.
   Under a recent agreement, all transports formerly operated by the Army (mainly Caribous) are to be handed over to Air Force Command.
The Air National Guard General Purpose. Forces total
   21 interceptor squadrons,
   23 tactical fighter squadrons,
   12 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   4 air commando squadrons,
   5 tanker squadrons, and
   23 air transport squadrons, mostly with the older-type transports.
   The strength of the Guard is 80,000 men.
There is also an Air Force Reserve totalling over 200,000, of whom about 48,000 have paid drill status, i.e. are attached to specific units.
   The active inventory of the USAF is estimated at 15,250 aircraft and about 1,000 tactical bombardment missiles.
  

CENTRAL TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) are Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The United States is an associate member and is represented on the Council of Military Deputies and on the Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees. CENTO does not have an international command structure, nor are forces allocated to it. Air striking power is, however, maintained by Britain, with Canberra bombers based on Cyprus, and by the United States, with the 6th Fleet. The treaty is explicitly intended to provide a framework for collective action in the event of a threat from a Communist power, but not in the case of friction between member states and non-Communist powers.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО ДОГОВОРА

   Членами Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO) являются Иран, Пакистан, Турция и Соединенное Королевство. Соединенные Штаты являются ассоциированным членом и представлены в Совете военных депутатов, а также в комитетах по экономическим вопросам и борьбе с подрывной деятельностью. CENTO не имеет международной командной структуры и не выделяет ей силы. Тем не менее, поддерживается ударными воздушными силами Великобритании, с бомбардировщиками в Canberra на Кипре и 6-м флотом Соединенных Штатов. Договор явно призван обеспечить основу для коллективных действий в случае угрозы со стороны коммунистических держав, но не в случае трений между государствами-членами и некоммунистическими державами.
  
   IRAN
Population: 25,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 180,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 19,350,000,000 rials ($255,000,000).
Army Total strength: 164,000.
   7 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured division.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   M-24 and M-47 tanks.
   1 battalion Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 army headquarters and most of the combat troops are stationed in Northern Iran.
Navy Total strength: 6,000.
   4 escort vessels.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   3 landing craft.
   5 other ships.
   24 patrol vessels of less than 200 tons.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000.
   2 tactical fighter squadrons with F-5.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-86F.
   1 tactical reconnaissance squadron with RT-33.
   Transport aircraft include C-45, C-47, and C-130B (1 squadron).
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of about 25,000 men.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 113,000,000.
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 278,350.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 2,250,000,000 Pakistani rupees ($473,000,000).
Army Total strength: 250,000 (including 25,000 Azad Kashmir troops).
   8 infantry divisions (one in East Pakistan).
   1 armoured division with M-4 Sherman ana M-48 Patton tanks.
   1 armoured division with M-47 Patton and Chinese T-59 tanks.
   Some of the infantry divisions have reconnaissance regiments with M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Bulldog light tanks.
   About 900 125mm, 150mm, and 175mm guns.
   An air defence brigade with anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 8,350.
   5 destroyers.
   2 ASW frigates.
   1 submarine.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   4 fast patrol boats (less than 200 tons).
   6 other ships.
   There is a coastguard force of 1,500 men.
   Naval aircraft include Albatross and some UH-19 helicopters for air-sea rescue.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 200 aircraft.
   3 light bomber squadrons with B-57B.
   1 tactical reconnaissance squadron with RT-33As.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104A Starfighters.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-86F Sabres and MiG-19 Farmers.
   3 transport squadrons with C-47, Bristol Mark 21/31, and C-130B Hercules.
   T-6, T-33, and T-37B trainers.
Para-military forces Total strength: 45,000.
   Frontier Corps: 25,000 (tribesmen).
   West Pakistan Rangers: 10,000.
   East Pakistan Rifles: 10,000.
  

SOUTH-EAST ASIA TREATY ORGANIZATION

   The members of the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) are Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. They are committed to build up collective economic and military strength and to consult with a view to joint defensive action in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member state or against the 'protocol states' of Cambodia, Laos, and South Vietnam. The treaty area is the South-West Pacific theatre south of 20R30' N.
   There is no central command structure, and forces remain under national control. American support for the treaty powers is exercised by the 7th Fleet, based on Taiwan and the Philippines, and American air and ground forces in Guam, Okinawa, Vietnam, and Thailand.
   The 28th Commonwealth Brigade (consisting of British, Australian, and New Zealand forces), plus supporting air units, is based in Malaysia. Commonwealth naval forces, which would operate in support of the treaty powers in the event of war, are based in Singapore. France maintains no forces in the area. Although the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines have sent troops to South Vietnam, this has not been done under SEATO.
  

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ДОГОВОРА ЮГО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ АЗИИ

   Членами Организации Договора Юго-Восточной Азии (SEATO) являются Австралия, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Соединенное Королевство и Соединенные Штаты. Они стремятся наращивать коллективную экономическую и военную мощь и консультироваться в целях совместных оборонительных действий в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против государств-членов или против "протокольных государств" Камбоджи, Лаоса и Южного Вьетнама. Договорная область - юго-западный тихоокеанский театр к югу от 20 R 30 'с.ш.
   Центральная командная структура отсутствует, и силы остаются под национальным контролем. Американская поддержка осуществляется 7-м флотом, базирующимся на Тайване и на Филиппинах, а также воздушными и сухопутными войсками США в Гуаме, Окинаве, Вьетнаме и Таиланде.
   В Малайзии базируется 28-я бригада Содружества (в состав которой входят силы Британии, Австралии и Новой Зеландии), а также вспомогательные авиационные подразделения. Военно-морские силы Содружества, которые будут действовать в поддержку договорных условий в случае войны, базируются в Сингапуре. Франция не имеет сил в этом районе. Хотя Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Филиппины отправили войска в Южный Вьетнам, это было сделано не в рамках SEATO.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 11,600,000.
   2 years selective military service.
Total armed forces: 69,100 (including women).
Defence estimates 1966-67: 960,714,000 Australian dollars ($US 1,090,413,000).
Army Total strength: 34,600.
   8 infantry battalions, including one battalion group in Malaysia and a Task Force in Vietnam.
   1 tank regiment with Centurions.
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment.
   1 Logistic Support Force.
   The Citizen Military Force of 32,000 is based on 20 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services, plus 2 Commandos.
Navy Total strength: 15,000.
   1 light fleet carrier (used for ASW).
   1 light fleet carrier (fast troop transport).
   5 destroyers.
   4 frigates.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   21 other ships.
   1 all-weather fighter squadron with Sea Venoms.
   1 ASW squadron with Gannets.
   1 helicopter squadron with Wessex Mark 31s.
Air Force Total strength: 19,500 (plus a Citizen Air Force of 850).
   3 light bomber squadrons with Australian Canberras.
   4 fighter squadrons with Australian Sabres (F-86).
   1 fighter squadron with Mirage III-Os.
   2 maritime reconnaissance squadrons with Neptunes.
   2 transport squadrons (one C-130 Hercules and one CV-2B Caribou).
   2 helicopter squadrons with Iroquois.
   1 surface-to-air missile squadron with Bloodhound Mark 1.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,677,000.
   Voluntary military service (supplemented by selective national service for the Army).
Total armed forces: 12,850 (including women).
Defence estimates 1966-67: 48,000,000 New Zealand £ ($138,000,000).
Army Total strength: 5,550 regulars, plus 10,500 territorials.
   1 infantry battalion and an SAS detachment in Malaysia.
   1 artillery battery in Vietnam.
   A specialist engineer team in Thailand.
   A Combat Brigade Group - regulars and territorials.
   A Logistic Support Force - regulars and territorials.
   A Combat Reserve Group - regulars and territorials.
   A Static Support Force - regulars.
Navy Total strength: 2,900.
   4 ASW frigates.
   4 escort minesweepers.
   1 support ship.
   6 patrol boats.
   6 other ships.
   3,400 naval reservists.
Air Force Total strength: 4,400.
   1 light bomber squadron with Canberra.
   1 day-fighter and ground-attack squadron with Vampires.
   1 maritime reconnaissance squadron with P-3 Orions.
   2 transport squadrons (C-130 Hercules and DC-6 Bristol freighter).
   1 transport squadron and the light bomber squadron are deployed in Singapore.
   1 battlefield support squadron with light aircraft and helicopters.
  
   PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
Population: 31,000,000.
   Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 37,500.
Defence budget 1965-66: 280,994,000 pesos ($70,250,000).
Army Total strength: 25,500.
   1 combat infantry division.
   4 training divisions.
   M-24 and M-41 tanks.
   There is a reserve of 120,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 5,000.
   2 command ships.
   12 escort patrol vessels.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   18 patrol boats.
   6 landing ships.
   27 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 7,000 men; 200 aircraft.
   1 all-weather fighter squadron with F-86D.
   2 day-fighter squadrons with F-86F.
   1 tactical fighter squadron with F-5.
   Transport, observation, air-sea rescue, and training units.
Para-military forces Philippine Constabulary of 15,500.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 31,888,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 126,330.
Defence expenditure 1965-66: 2,166,400,000 baht ($104,000,000).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   3 infantry divisions (including 3 tank battalions).
   1 independent unit (horse and motorized cavalry and motorized infantry).
   Armoured cars and light tanks.
Navy Total strength: 18,000, plus 3,330 Marines.
   4 frigates, other escort vessels.
   2 armoured gunboats.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   4 coastal minesweepers and minelayers.
   20 patrol vessels and patrol boats.
   15 landing craft and landing ships.
   17 other ships.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; about 250 combat aircraft.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-86.
   1 day-fighter squadron with F-84G.
   4 squadrons of F8F-1D Bearcat close-support aircraft.
   6 squadrons of T-6 Texan and T-28 Nomad light strike.
   Some RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 150 transport and training aircraft, including C-45, C-47, C-54, C-123B, T-6, T-30, T-33, and T-37.
Para-military forces Volunteer Defence Corps: 25,000. Border Police: 7,000.
  

THE PROTOCOL STATES

   CAMBODIA
General
Population: 6,275,000.
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 37,850.
Defence expenditure: equivalent $50,000,000.
Army Total strength: 34,000.
   30 infantry battalions.
   1 armoured reconnaissance regiment.
   2 parachute battalions.
   AMX-13 tanks and 105mm howitzers.
   Medium and light anti-aircraft guns and field guns have been supplied by Communist countries.
Navy Total strength: 1,350, including 150 Marines.
   2 patrol vessels.
   1 support gunboat.
   1 tank landing craft.
   2 utility landing craft.
   5 smaller vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 2,500; over 100 aircraft.
   5 MiG-17 jetfighters.
   10 A-1 Skyraiderlight bombers (ex-French).
   15 T-28 Trojan ground-attack aircraft.
   4 Magister jet trainers.
   12 C-47 and about 15 other miscellaneous transports.
   Morane Saulnier trainers and about 6 helicopters.
Para-military forces Armed police and Home Guard forces number about 60,000 men.
   In addition, a number of lightly-equipped frontier defence battalions have recently been raised.
  
   LAOS
General
Population: 2,600,000.
Military service: conscription.
Total armed forces: about 85,000.
Defence expenditure: approx. equivalent $20,000,000.
1. Royal Lao Forces Total strength: 60,000.
Army About 58,000 men, including the 10,000-strong army of General Kong Le, with whom they are now associated.
   24 infantry and 6 paratroop battalions, organized into 10 mobile groups.
   About 30 static infantry battalions.
   12 artillery batteries (gun or heavy mortar).
Navy About 500 men.
   4 river squadrons of small gunboats and landing craft.
Air Force About 1,000 men.
   About 50 T-28D light strike aircraft.
   Beaver liaison aircraft and C-47 transports.
   Some commercial transport planes are available.
2. Pathet-Lao Forces Total strength: about 25,000.
   These forces are believed to be supported by up to 8,000 regular North Vietnamese troops operating in the northern provinces.
   They have received a large supply of arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin, but no troops from these countries.
   The Pathet-Lao now control all the eastern half of Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the frontier with Vietnam.
  
   SOUTH VIETNAM General Population: 15,750,000.
Military service: minimum 3 years.
Total armed forces: 304,000 (regular); 313,000 (auxiliary).
Defence expenditure: equivalent $300,000,000.
Army Total strength: 275,000 (regular forces).
   10 infantry divisions.
   1 airborne division.
   3 independent infantry regiments.
   6 Marine battalions.
   6 Special Forces Groups (Rangers).
   (There are normally three regiments to a Vietnamese infantry division and four battalions to a regiment.
   A Ranger battalion may be attached at divisional level.
   There are thus about 150 infantry battalions in the Vietnamese regular army, but many units are well below establishment;
   the average strength of a battalion is 400 and of a regiment, 1,200.)
   Light armour, artillery, engineer, signals, training, and administrative units.
   M-41 and AMX-13 tanks.
   M-113 and V-100 armoured cars.
   Most light arms and equipment is American.
Navy Total strength: 15,000.
   5 escort vessels.
   4 patrol vessels.
   3 coastal minesweepers.
   19 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
   27 other ships.
   There is a force of about 500 motorized junks for coastal defence.
There is a Marine Brigade of 6 battalions (4 infantry, 1 artillery, and 1 support), which comes under Army command.
Air Force Total strength: 14,000 men; 350 aircraft.
   16 squadrons including:
   4 B-57 light bombers.
   150 A-1E/G/H Skyraider light bombers.
   Some RC-47 reconnaissance aircraft.
   C-47, C-123, and Beaver transports.
   Choctaw helicopters, Skywagon utility, and Bird Dog observation aircraft.
Para-military forces Regional Forces: 121,000.
   Organized into 700 rifle companies and at the disposal of the provincial governors.
   Popular Forces: 137,000.
   About 4,000 platoons, with light arms, acting as a militia.
   Civil Police: 55,000.
   These have light arms, and there are some special units with armoured vehicles and helicopters for internal security duties.
  

THE VIETNAM CONFLICT

   Regular and irregular armed forces of six countries (South Vietnam, North Vietnam, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States) are taking a direct part in the fighting in South Vietnam. Five other countries (China, the Soviet Union, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand) either supply arms and equipment or provide base facilities for the chief participants. No country involved has declared war on any other. All ground fighting has taken place within the borders of South Vietnam. American bombing raids have been conducted against targets in both South and North Vietnam.
   South Vietnam maintains regular and paramilitary armed forces of about 650,000 men.
   About two-thirds of these forces are employed in a static defence role and are equipped only with light arms. The mobile striking force of the South Vietnam Army (ARVN) is confined to the Airborne Division and the Marine Brigade (about 25,000 men). American, South Korean, Australian, and New Zealand forces operating in South Vietnam are employed both in the static defence and in the mobile retaliatory roles. The territory of South Vietnam is divided into four Corps areas; American forces share this Corps organization with the ARVN. American ground forces in South Vietnam in July 1966 totalled 230,000; there were, in addition, 50,000 Air Force personnel. It is expected that the total figure will reach 400,000 by the end of 1966 and may exceed it. There were also in July 1966 25,000 South Korean, 4,500 Australian, and 180 New Zealand ground and support forces. The Philippine Republic will send an engineers' task force of 2,000 men in October 1966.
   American air strikes on North Vietnam have been made from aircraft carriers stationed in the South China Sea, from air bases on Guam Island and in Thailand, and from South Vietnam itself; the Royal Laotian Air Force has made air strikes against suspected North Vietnamese concentrations inside Laotian territory. American forces at sea off the Vietnam coast total about 60,000. There are 30,000 American ground and air personnel in Thailand, and 3,500 in Laos. Coastal supply bases have been constructed by the Americans at Qui Nhon, Nha Trang, Cam Ranh, and Vung Tau in South Vietnam, and at Sattahip Bay in Thailand. A force of over 160 naval vessels is stationed off the Vietnamese coast, including four attack carriers. A total of 200 light bombers operate from these carriers. Communist regular and irregular forces in South Vietnam totalled about 250,000 in July 1966; these consisted of 90,000 organized by regiments and battalions, 105,000 in smaller guerilla units, 40,000 in technical and political cadres, and 15,000 in logistical support units.
   Of the 250,000, about 25,000 were North Vietnamese regular troops, the remainder having been recruited in South Vietnam. Troops and supplies from North Vietnam are brought in through parts of Laotian and Cambodian territory (the 'Ho Chi Minh Trail'), and by sea, as well as directly across the 17th parallel. Communist forces maintain no air forces in the territory of South Vietnam.
   South Vietnamese regular and irregular forces have had about 50,000 fatal casualties since 1962; in the same period over 9,000 civilians were killed, 23,000 wounded, and 30,000 reported missing as a result of insurgent action. American forces have had over 4,000 killed and 23,000 wounded in the same period. Communist fatal casualties in South Vietnam since 1962 are estimated at over 100,000.

ВЬЕТНАМСКИЙ КОНФЛИКТ

   Регулярные и нерегулярные вооруженные силы шести стран (Южный Вьетнам, Северный Вьетнам, Южная Корея, Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Соединенные Штаты) принимают непосредственное участие в боевых действиях в Южном Вьетнаме. Пять других стран (Китай, Советский Союз, Лаос, Камбоджа и Таиланд) либо поставляют оружие и оборудование, либо предоставляют базовые средства для главных участников. Ни одна страна не объявила войну никому другому. Все наземные бои проходили в границах Южного Вьетнама. Американские бомбардировки ведутся против целей как в Южном, так и в Северном Вьетнаме.
   Южный Вьетнам поддерживает регулярные и военизированные вооруженные силы около 650 000 человек.
   Около двух третей этих сил используются в статической защитной роли и оснащены только легкими вооружениями. Мобильная ударная сила армии Южного Вьетнама (АРВН) ограничена воздушно-десантной дивизией и морской бригадой (около 25 000 человек). Американские, южнокорейские, австралийские и новозеландские силы, действующие в Южном Вьетнаме, заняты как в позиционной обороне, так и в мобильных ответных ударах. Территория Южного Вьетнама разделена на четыре корпуса; Американские войска разделяют эту организацию Корпусов с АРВН. Американские сухопутные войска в Южном Вьетнаме в июле 1966 года составляли 230 000; кроме того, насчитывалось 50 000 военнослужащих ВВС. Ожидается, что общая цифра достигнет 400 000 к концу 1966 года и может превысить ее. В июле 1966 года насчитывалось 25 000 южнокорейских, 4500 австралийских и 180 новозеландских земель и сил поддержки. В октябре 1966 года Филиппинская республика отправит в состав рабочей группы инженеров 2000 человек.
   Американские воздушные удары по Северному Вьетнаму производятся с авианосцев, расположенных в Южно-Китайском море, с авиабаз на острове Гуам и в Таиланде и самого Южного Вьетнама; Королевские лаосские военно-воздушные силы совершили воздушные удары по подозреваемым в северно вьетнамским войскам внутри лаосской территории. Американские войска на море у побережья Вьетнама насчитывают около 60 000 человек. В Таиланде насчитывается 30 000 американских наземных и воздушных кадров, а в Лаосе - 3500 человек. Береговые базы снабжения были построены американцами в Куа Нхоне, Нячанге, Камранхе и Вунгтау в Южном Вьетнаме и в заливе Саттахип в Таиланде. Более 160 военно-морских судов размещена у вьетнамского побережья, в том числе 4 авианосца. С этих авианосцев действуют в общей сложности 200 легких бомбардировщиков. Коммунистические регулярные и нерегулярные силы в Южном Вьетнаме составили в июле 1966 года около 250 000 человек; они состояли из 90 000 человек, организованных в полки и батальоны, 105 000 в малых партизанских отрядах, 40 000 в технических и политических кадрах и 15 000 в подразделениях материально-технического обеспечения.
   Из 250 000, около 25 000 были северными вьетнамскими регулярными войсками, остальные были набраны в Южном Вьетнаме. Войска и поставки из Северного Вьетнама вводятся через части лаосской и камбоджийской территории ("тропа Хо Ши Мина"), а также морем, а также непосредственно через 17-ю параллель. Коммунистические силы не поддерживаются воздушными силами на территории Южного Вьетнама.
   Южно-вьетнамские регулярные и нерегулярные силы имели потери около 50 000 убитыми с 1962 года; за тот же период было убито более 9 000 мирных жителей, 23 000 ранено и 30 000 человек пропали без вести в результате повстанческих действий. За тот же период у американских войск было более 4000 убитых и 23 000 раненых. Коммунистические потери в Южном Вьетнаме с 1962 года оцениваются более чем в 100 000 человек убитыми.
  

US MUTUAL DEFENCE TREATIES

   JAPAN
Population: 98,300,000.
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 246,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 340,635,000,000 yen ($946,000,000).
Army Total strength: 171,500.
   12 infantry divisions (7,000-9,000 men each).
   1 mechanized division.
   1 airborne division.
   Artillery, signal, and engineer brigades.
   M-4, M-24, M-41, and type 61 tanks.
   Artillery up to 155mm guns.
   1 Hawk battalion (about 70 missiles).
   Reserves: 24,000.
Navy Total strength: 35,000 men; 205 ships.
   21 destroyers (one with Tartar guided missiles).
   18 frigates and other escorts.
   6 submarines.
   20 submarine chasers.
   10 motor torpedo boats.
   39 minesweepers and minelayers.
   52 landing craft and landing ships.
   39 other ships.
   The naval air component has about 240 aircraft, including Trackers, Neptunes, and ASW helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 39,500; 1,100 aircraft.
   7 interceptor squadrons with F-104J.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-86D.
   8 day-fighter squadrons with F-86F.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-86F.
   3 transport squadrons with C-46.
   H-19 and S-62 helicopters.
   About 400 trainers, including T-l, T-33, T-34, and F-104DJ.
   2 Nike-Ajax groups (36 launchers).
  
   SOUTH KOREA
Population: 28,750,000.
Military service: 2-3 years.
Total armed forces: 571,600.
Defence estimates 1966: equivalent $146,000,000.
Army Total strength: 500,000 (including 40,000 in South Vietnam).
   18 front-line infantry divisions.
   40 independent artillery battalions.
   10 independent tank battalions with M-47 Pattons.
   10 reserve infantry divisions.
   Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   Two infantry divisions and engineer units are in South Vietnam.
   About 10,000 Koreans are serving with the US Army in Korea.
Navy Total strength: 16,600.
   1 destroyer.
   16 frigates and other escorts.
   6 submarine chasers.
   11 minesweepers.
   2 motor torpedo boats.
   8 tank landing ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 30,000.
   One newly-formed division, plus a Marine brigade serving in South Vietnam.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; about 200 aircraft.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-86F.
   1 tactical fighter squadron with F-5.
   3 all-weather interceptor squadrons with F-86D.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-86F.
   C-46 and Aero Commander transport aircraft with a few Chickasaw helicopters.
   T-28 and T-33 trainers.
  
   TAIWAN
Population: 12,750,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 544,000.
Defence expenditure: equivalent $270,000,000.
Army Total strength: 400,000 (including 80,000 on Quemoy and Matsu).
   15 infantry divisions.
   2 armoured divisions.
   2 armoured cavalry regiments.
   6 light divisions.
   4 Special Forces Groups.
   1 parachute brigade.
   M-24, M-41, and M-48 tanks.
   Honest John rockets.
   2 battalions of Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   2 battalions of Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 35,000 men.
   4 destroyers.
   8 frigates and other escorts.
   27 submarine chasers.
   13 fleet and coastal minesweepers.
   27 tank landing ships.
   26 other landing ships.
   38 landing craft.
   19 other ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 27,000.
   One division.
   One brigade.
   2 amphibious battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 82,000 men; 500 combat aircraft.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100A.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   6 interceptor squadrons with F-86.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-5A.
   4 reconnaissance squadrons with RB-57, RF-104G, RF-101, and U-2.
   C-46, C-47, C-I19, and C-123 transports.
   T-6, T-33A, F-104F, and PT-17 trainers.
Reserves About 150,000 men.
  

PART III. NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES

   INDIA
Population: 495,000,000 (estimated).
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 879,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 8,780,000,000 Indian rupees ($1,171,000,000).*
Army Total strength: 807,000.
   9 infantry divisions.
   11 mountain divisions.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 armoured division with Centurions.
   1 armoured brigade with Shermans.
   There are tank regiments of Shermans with some of the infantry divisions,
   and about 6 reconnaissance regiments with AMX-13, Stuart, and PT-76 light tanks.
   About 2,500 artillery pieces mostly of British origin.
   A Territorial Army of approximately 41,000 and various para-military forces in the border regions.
Navy Total strength 17,000.
   1 16,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   2 cruisers.
   6 destroyers.
   5 anti-aircraft frigates.
   3 anti-submarine frigates.
   2 other escort vessels.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 landing craft.
   9 other ships.
   The naval air force includes two squadrons with Sea Hawk and one ASW squadron with Alize.
   10 Sea Hawk, 4 Alize, and 2 Alouette helicopters can be carried on the aircraft carrier at any one time.
Air Force Total strength: 55,000; 750 aircraft.
   3 light bomber squadrons with Canberra B (1).
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with Ouragans and Vampires.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with Canberra PR-57.
   2 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21.
   4 interceptor squadrons with Mystere IV.
   6 interceptor squadrons with Gnat Mark 1.
   6 fighter/ground-attack squadrons with Hunter F-56.
   1 maritime reconnaissance squadron with Liberators.
   13 transport squadrons with C-47, C-119, Otter, Heron, Caribou, 11-14, and An-12.
   4 observation/communication squadrons with Austers and Krishaks.
   6 helicopter squadrons with S-55, Mi-4 Hound, and Alouette 3.
   Some surface-to-air missile batteries with SA-2 Guideline missiles.
   6 anti-aircraft artillery regiments.
   There is an Auxiliary Air Force of seven squadrons with Harvard and Vampire trainers.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 105,000,000.
   Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 352,000.
Defence expenditure 1966: stated to be 60% of government expenditure for 1965-66.
   This would give a figure of 240,000,000,000 rupiah (approximately equivalent to $900,000,000).
Army Total strength: 290,000.
   Predominantly an infantry force, based on the 17 military areas into which Indonesia is divided.
   Higher formations include the elite Siliwangi and Diponegro divisions.
   Some brigades have been formed for specific operations including the 1st Paracommando Brigade (RPKAD).
   The KOSTRAD (Strategic Command) consists of approximately four brigades and is based on the paratroops and
   such infantry battalions as may be assigned to it.
   100 independent infantry battalions. These are stationed in the more outlying territorial regions, and their chief function is internal security
   and 'civic action.'
   Some artillery, engineer, and support units.
   4 armoured reconnaissance battalions with AMX-13 and Russian PT-76 light tanks, and Saladin armoured cars;
   some light reconnaissance vehicles have also been acquired from Eastern Europe.
   Various types of Soviet artillery.
   57mm Soviet anti-aircraft guns and associated radar.
   Small arms are of both Western and Warsaw Pact origin.
Navy Total strength: 40,000 (25,000 regular navy, plus naval air forces, and the 14,000-strong Marine Commando Corps KKO).
   1 heavy cruiser (ex-Soviet Sverdlov-class).
   8 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skoryi-class).
   10 frigates.
   12 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   18 submarine chasers.
   21 motor torpedo boats.
   33 motor gunboats (including 12 Komar-class with missiles).
   16 minesweepers.
   3 submarine support ships.
   7 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
   64 other vessels.
   A small naval air arm, including Il-28 Beagle and Mi-4 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000, including air defence units, plus 2,000 parachute troops.
   The Indonesian Air Force is organized into five main air areas; of a total strength of some 550 aircraft, comprising over 30 different types,
   less than 200 are available for squadron operational service.
   Over 60 MiG interceptors, including 18 MiG-21s.
   25 Tu-16 Badger, some with air-to-surface missiles.
   18 B-25 Mitchell and B-26 Invader bombers.
   20 F-51D Mustang ground support.
   About 60 transports, including Il-14, C-130B, C-47, and An-12.
   About 35 Soviet and American helicopters, including some Mi-6 Hook.
   There are at least three surface-to-air missile sites, which are claimed to be equipped with Guidelinemissiles.
Para-military forces
   The police force numbers about 110,000 and includes a para-military force (Mobile Brigade), numbering approximately 20,000.
   In addition, some 4,000 volunteers have been formed into para-military battalions.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 2,650,000.
Military service: men 26 months; women 20 months.
Total armed forces: 71,000 regular (can be raised to approximately 275,000 by mobilization of reserves within 48-72 hours).
Defence budget 1966-67: 1,340,000,000 Israeli £ ($447,000,000).
Army Total strength: 60,000 regulars, 204,000 reservists.
   Regular: four brigades (approx. 4,000 men each), one of which is paratroop/infantry.
   There is a separate armoured command of divisional strength.
   Reserve: approximately 24 brigades, for onethird of which armour is available on mobilization.
   Armour includes 200 M-48 Patton tanks, 250 Centurion Mark 5 and 7, 150 AMX-13, and about 200 M-4 Sherman.
   There are about 250 self-propelled guns, including 155mm howitzers on Sherman chassis and 105mm howitzers on AMX chassis.
   Anti-tank weapons include the 106mm recoilless rifle mounted on jeeps, and SS-10 and SS-11 missiles mounted on weapons carriers.
   There are separate regional defence units, which provide a permanent guard in the border regions.
   Most of these units are on a militia basis.
Navy Total strength: 3,000 (regular).
   2 destroyers.
   1 anti-aircraft frigate.
   4 submarines.
   1 patrol vessel.
   3 landing craft.
   14 patrol craft less than 100 tons.
Air Force Total strength: 8,000 men; 350 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber squadron with Vautour 2A.
   3 interceptor squadrons with 24 Mirage IIIC each (some with R-530 air-to-air missiles).
   1 interceptor squadron with 18 Super Mystere each.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 20 Mystere IVA each.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 20 Ouragan each.
   60 Magister jet trainers (can be used in ground strike role).
   2 transport squadrons with Noratlas and Stratocruiser.
   2 helicopter squadrons with S-55, S-58, and Super Frelon.
   Some light aircraft including Piper Cubs.
   2 battalions Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
  
   MALAYSIA (Excluding Singapore)
General Population: 9,400,000.
   Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 30,100.
Defence budget 1966-67: 387,674,000 Malaysian dollars ($126,000,000).
Army Total strength: 26,000.
   9 infantry battalions of the Royal Malay Regiment.
   4 Malaysian Ranger battalions (recruited in Sabah and Sarawak).
   2 reconnaissance regiments with Ferret armoured cars.
   2 artillery regiments with 105mm howitzers.
   These units form five brigade groups, two of which are stationed in Borneo.
   (The two battalions of the Singapore Infantry Regiment no longer form part of the Malaysian Armed Forces.)
   Signal, engineer, and administrative units.
A Territorial Army with a strength of about 7,000 and a local Defence Corps with an establishment of 27,000.
Navy Total strength: 2,100.
   1 frigate.
   6 coastal, 5 inshore minesweepers.
   10 patrol craft.
   1 tank landing craft.
   8 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 2,000; six squadrons.
   1 light strike squadron with CL-41 (planned).
   3 medium transport squadrons with Twin Pioneers, Heralds, and Caribous.
   2 helicopter squadrons with Alouette 3.
   Liaison flight with Doves, Herons, and Single Pioneers.
Para-military forces
   24 companies of para-military field police: 23,000 men.
  
   SOUTH AFRICA
Population: 18,300,000.
Military service: selective for whites.
Total armed forces: 22,200.
Defence expenditure 1966-67: 256,000,000 rand ($360,000,000).
Army Total strength: 16,200 (5,700 regulars, with 10,500 Citizen Force under training at any one time;
   the total Citizen Force available is about 55,000, i.e. personnel who have received training).
   Equipment includes Sherman and Centurion tanks, the French Panhard armoured car, and Cessna reconnaissance aircraft.
Navy Total strength: 3,000.
   2 destroyers, carrying Wasp ASW helicopters.
   6 frigates, including 5 recently modernized for ASW detection.
   1 survey ship.
   2 escort minesweepers.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 seaward defence boats.
   7 other vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000.
(a) 1 light bomber squadron with Buccaneers.
   1 light bomber squadron with Canberra B-12.
   1 interceptor squadron with 28 Sabre Mark 6.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 20-25 Mirage IIIC and IIIE, equipped with AS-30 air-to-surface missiles.
   8 Shackleton maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   120 helicopters, including Alouettes, Sikorskys, and Wasps.
   Transport aircraft include C-47s, C-130Bs, Viscounts, and Skymasters.
(b) The Citizen Force operates
   6-8 squadrons with about 100 Harvard aircraft, each able to carry 8 19-lb. fragmentation bombs.
   Approximately 150 Harvards are in storage or used for training.
Para-military forces Police: 28,600, plus 15,000 reservists; 430 riot trucks and 80 armoured cars.
   Kommandos (part-time rural militia): 51,500, organized in 210 units including infantry, armoured car, and air sections (250 aircraft).
   All South African regular forces are drawn from the white population.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 31,200,000. General Population: 31,600,000.
Military service: Army 16 months, Navy 24 months, and Air Force 18 months.
Total armed forces: 291,000.
Defence estimates 1966-67: 28,346,000,000 pesetas ($472,000,000).
Army Total strength: 212,000.
   2 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured division equipped with M-47 tanks.
   1 mountain division.
   10 independent infantry brigades.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   1 high mountain brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 airborne brigade.
   About 30,000 soldiers, including elements of three divisions, are serving in Spanish Africa, and a further 9,000 in the Canary Islands.
Navy Total strength: 42,000.
   1 cruiser.
   8 destroyers.
   4 anti-submarine frigates.
   15 other escort vessels.
   4 submarines.
   25 minesweepers.
   33 other vessels.
   3 flights of ASW helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 37,000.
(a) Air Defence
   5 interceptor squadrons with F-86F.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-104G.
(b) Tactical Air Force
   2 squadrons with F-86.
   2 squadrons with T-6 Texan.
   70 F-5 are on order from the US.
   1 aero-naval co-operation squadron.
   1 liaison flight with H-19B helicopters and L-19A aircraft.
(c) Transport Aviation
   2 medium transport squadrons with C-46, C-47, and DC-4.
   7 light transport squadrons.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 7,800,000.
Military service: from 10 months for privates to 18 months for officers. Reserve liabilities up to the age of 47.
Total armed forces: 750,000 (total mobilizable strength).
Defence estimates 1966-67: 4,410,000,000 Swedish kroner ($856,000,000).
Army Total strength: 12,000 regular officers and NCOs, 35,000 conscript trainees, and 75,000 reservists called up for 15-40 days training per year.
   On mobilization the total number would become about 600,000.
   The nucleus of the standing army is formed by about 6 armoured and infantry brigades, with a personnel strength of 5,000-6,000 men each.
   Centurion tanks, including some mounting a 105mm gun, are in service.
   The Swedish tank 'strv-S' (turretless) is to be assigned to armoured units.
   Anti-tank weapons include the SS-11, Bantam, and Carl Gustav.
   There is one battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 11,500 (4,300 regulars), including coastal artillery.
   1 cruiser.
   8 destroyers.
   12 fast anti-submarine frigates.
   21 submarines.
   13 heavy torpedo boats.
   25 motor torpedo boats.
   24 coastal minesweepers.
   24 inshore minesweepers.
   Naval helicopters include American Vertols and French Alouettes.
   Armament includes the Swedish ship-to-surface missile Rb-08 and the British ship-to-air missile Seacat.
Air Force Total strength: 23,700 (including 6,000 regulars); about 900 combat aircraft.
   12 attack squadrons with J-32A Lansen (with air-to-ship missiles).
   6 day-fighter squadrons with J-29F Tunnan.
   4 day-fighter squadrons with J-34 Hunter.
   11 all-weather fighter squadrons with J-35A Draken.
   6 all-weather fighter squadrons with J-32B Lansen.
   5 reconnaissance/day-fighter squadrons with S-29, S-32, and S-35.
   Armament includes the air-to-air missiles Sidewinder and Falcon and a Swedish air-to-surface missile Rb-304.
Air Defence
   A fully computerized and automatic control and air surveillance system, with which all components of the Swedish air defence are coordinated,
   is now operating.
   This is known as Stril 60 and is similar to the American SAGE.
   Six squadrons of Bloodhound Mark 2 surfaceto-air missiles have been ordered, of which two are now operational.
Para-military forces The voluntary defence organizations have about 1,000,000 members, of whom more than 350,000 are women.
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 5,888,000.
Military service: 4 months initial basic training, followed by reservist training for 12 years.
Total armed forces: 700,000 total mobilizable strength, including 6,000 regulars; reservists can be fully mobilized within 48 hours.
Defence budget 1966: 1,669,000,000 Swiss francs ($387,000,000).
Army Total strength: 1,000 regular, 20,000 conscript trainees, and about 629,000 reservists.
   The Army is organized into four corps.
   One corps, for the defence of the Alps, consists of three mountain divisions;
   the other three corps, for the defence of the plain, consist of an armoured division, a motorized division, and an infantry division each.
   There are also 9 frontier, fortress, and 'redoubt' brigades.
   The mechanized formations are equipped with 300 Centurion and 200 AMX-13 tanks and M113 armoured troop carriers.
Air Force (Swiss Air Force and anti-aircraft units are an integral part of the Army, but are listed here Separately)
Total strength: 5,000 regulars, 5,000 conscript trainees, and 40,000 reservists; approximately 400 fighter aircraft.
   Maintenance is carried out by civilian employees.
   5 interceptor squadrons with Hunters.
   16 close-support squadrons with Venoms and Vampires.
   1 transport squadron with Ju-52/53 and other aircraft.
   Some of the Vampire squadrons will be replaced by 57 Mirage III strike-interceptors and Mirage IIIRs.
   About 40 anti-aircraft batteries with Oerlikon twin 35mm cannon.
   Bloodhound Mark 2 surface-to-air missiles are operational, with 68 launchers built.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC
Population: 30,000,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: regular, 190,000; National Guard and organized reserve units, 120,000.
Defence budget 1966-67: 216,000,000 Egyptian £ ($494,000,000).
Army Total strength (regular): 160,000, of which more than 50,000 are in the Yemen.
   2 armoured divisions (a third is forming) of 11,200 men each.
   4 infantry divisions (in process of being mechanized) of 11,800 men each.
   6 area commands for static defence forces (not all up to strength).
   1 parachute brigade.
   12 artillery regiments.
   15 commando battalions.
   Probable current strength in armour: 1,200 tanks and assault guns, which include
   350 T-34, at least 450 T-54, a few T-55, 60 JS-3 with 122mm guns, 150 Su-100 with 100mm guns, 30 Mark 3 Centurions (with reserve units),
   and 20 AMX-13 (with reserve units).
   In the Yemen, the UAR has deployed the equivalent of three infantry divisions, the parachute brigade and two armoured task forces of brigade size.
Reserves The National Guard and organized reserve units total some 120,000 men.
   Of these, some 20,000 have been called up for active duty and are serving in the Yemen.
Navy Total strength: 11,000, including Coast Guards.
   4 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   2 destroyers (ex-British 'Z'-type).
   6 escort vessels.
   9 submarines (ex-Soviet 'W'-class).
   6 submarine chasers.
   14 minesweepers.
   10 missile patrol boats (ex-Soviet Komar-class).
   44 motor torpedo boats (36 ex-Soviet, 8 ex-Yugoslav) of less than 100 tons.
   10 utility landing craft.
   2 other vessels.
Naval reserves total about 5,000 men.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000, plus 3,000-4,000 reservists.
   About 550 operational aircraft, including 48 helicopters and some 70 transport aircraft, but excluding trainers.
   30 Tu-16 medium bombers (some with air-to-surface missiles).
   40 I1-28 light bombers.
   130 MiG-21 interceptors (with air-to-air missiles).
   80 MiG-19 all-weather fighters.
   150 MiG-15 and 17 fighter bombers.
   Transport aircraft include twin-engined Il-14 and four-engined An-12 transports, and, together with lighter liaison aircraft, total about 70.
   Training aircraft include MiG and Yak jet trainers.
Anti-aircraft Command Operated jointly by Army and Air Force.
   In addition to 85mm guns and a radar network, there are about 20 batteries of Soviet SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Missile Command
   This is separate from the Army and the Air Force, and consists of about 4,500 men, including civilian technicians.
   About 100 missiles have probably been built, although considerably higher claims have been made. These include
   the Al Zafir, which carries a 1,000-lb. warhead some 235 miles,
   the Al Kahir, which carries a rather larger warhead up to 375 miles, and
   the Al Ared, which carries a one-ton scientific probe some 440 miles.
   The first two of these can be launched from mobile platforms.
   There is no evidence that the Egyptians have developed a reliable guidance system for these missiles. No missiles are deployed as yet.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 19,525,000.
Military service: Army 18 months; Navy and Air Force 24 months.
Total armed forces: 264,000.
Defence budget 1966: 507,000,000,000 dinars ($406,000,000).
Army Total strength: 220,000.
   13 infantry divisions.
   3 armoured divisions.
   6 mountain divisions (about 6,000 men each).
   14 independent brigades, including an airborne and a marine infantry brigade.
   T-34, M-47, and T-54 medium tanks.
   PT-76 reconnaissance tanks.
   M-3 and BTR-50P armoured personnel carriers.
   M-8 armoured reconnaissance vehicles.
   105mm and 155mm howitzers. SU-57 anti-aircraft guns.
   Second-line army reserves (i.e. capable of mobilization within 10-14 days): 450,000.
Navy Total strength: 24,000.
   3 destroyers.
   3 frigates.
   3 submarines.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   18 ASW patrol boats.
   1 missile patrol boat.
   6 landing craft.
   24 other vessels.
   60-80 batteries of coastal artillery.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 400 aircraft.
   1 interceptor squadron with 20 MiG-21C.
   11 interceptor squadrons with CF-86 (160 aircraft).
   9 ground-attack squadrons with F-84G (140 aircraft).
   2 photo-reconnaissance squadrons with RT-33A.
   3 transport squadrons with C-47 and 11-14 aircraft, and Mi-4 and Whirlwind helicopters.
   Surface-to-air missile batteries with SA-2 Guideline.
Para-militaryforces
19,000 Frontier Guards.
  

TABLES

   Табл.1. Сравнение стратегических сил
    []

   Табл.2. Системы доставки ядерного оружия в 1966-67
    []
   ASM=ракета класса "воздух-поверхность".
   * Радиус действия максимальный без дозаправки в полете. Во многих случаях полная дальность или полная боевая нагрузка существенно уменьшают одна другую.
   t Несоответствие между числами Маха и скоростью в миль/ч объясняется различиями в эксплуатационных высотах.

    []

   Табл.3. Сравнение военных расходов стран НАТО.
    []
   Эта таблица основана на стандартном определении расходов на оборону, которое необязательно охватывает те же статьи, что и бюджеты национальной обороны. Например, такие статьи, как военные пенсии, военные исследования и разработки и расходы на создание стратегических запасов, включены в вышеуказанные цифры, но не могут быть включены в бюджеты национальной обороны, как показано в таблице 4.
   * Прогноз.

   Табл.4. Военные расходы как бремя для национальной экономики
    []
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ. Данные за 1965-1966 годы были выбраны в качестве последних данных за последний год, за который соответствующие страны располагали данными как о расходах на оборону, так и о ВНП. В некоторых случаях достоверные данные о ВНП имелись только за 1964-1965 годы; эти страны отмечены звездочкой, и весь набор данных относится к 1964-1965 годам. Цифра в скобках относится к последним запланированным оборонным расходам, т. е. за 1966-1967 годы, если она известна, и дает представление о текущих финансовых обязательствах. ВНП восточноевропейских стран оценивается в эквиваленте покупательной способности западных стран. Данные о расходах на оборону в этих странах публикуются официально и в основном пересчитываются по туристическим обменным курсам. Процентные показатели для стран НАТО могут несколько отличаться от показателей, приведенных в таблице 3, поскольку в этой таблице используется иная система определений (см. Примечание к Таблице 3).
  t с учетом валютных курсов 1966.
  J с поправкой на обменный курс после июля 1966 года.

   Табл.5. Сравнение оборонных бюджетов двух ядерных держав, 1965-66
    []

   Табл.6. Функциональная разбивка по людским ресурсам для четырех ядерных держав
    []
  
    []

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