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The Military Balance 1970

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    Военный баланс в 1970 году от Международного Института Стратегических Исследований. С русским переводом.


THE MILITARY BALANCE 1970

   The Military Balance 1969
   The Military Balance 1971

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Preface
USA and Soviet Union: USA, Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
NATO: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey
Europe: Albania, Austria, Finland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
Middle East: Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan , Lebanon, Libia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAR.
Africa: Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malagas, Nigeria, Rhodesia, Senegal, Somali, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, External.
China: China
Asia & Australia: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippine, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, South Vietnam.
Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican, Ecuador, Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Balance: NATO-WP, USSR-China.
Tables
Appendix: Fissile Material.
  

NOTES AND ABBREVIATIONS

   (A) National Currency Figures have been converted into dollars at the prevailing rate, generally as reported to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, defence expenditure has been converted into dollars for:
   (1) The USSR as explained in the Annex on pp. 10-12.
   (2) East European countries which are not members of the IMF at the rates described by Professor Benoit and Dr Lubell in Disarmament and World Economic Interdependence (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967).
   In all cases the conversion rates used are included in the country entry and may not always be applicable to commercial transactions. Because estimates for GNP and defence expenditure of certain countries have altered, figures will not in all cases be entirely comparable with those of last year. -
   (B) A table showing the average strength of military units will be found following the Preface. The term `combat aircraft', as used in the text, comprises bombers, fighter-bombers, interceptors, and reconnaissance, light-strike, counter-insurgency and armed trainer aircraft, but not other categories of military aircraft.
  
   AA - Anti-aircraft / Зенитная
   ABM - Anti-ballistic missile / Противобаллистическая ракета
   AEW - Airborne early warning / Воздушный дальнего обнаружения
   AFB - Air Force base / авиабаза
   AGM - Air-to-ground missile / Ракета воздух-поверхность
   ANZUS - Australia, New Zealand, and The United States Security Treaty / АНЗЮС
   APC - Armoured personnel carrier / Бронетранспортер
   ASW - Anti-submarine warfare / / Противолодочная оборона.
   AWX - All-weather interceptor / Всепогодный перехватчик
   BMD - Ballistic missile defence / Противоракетная оборна
   CENTO - Central Treaty Organization / СЕНТО
   FOBS - Fractional orbital bombardment system / Орбитальная бомбардировочная система.
   GNP - Gross national product / Валовый национальный продукт.
   ICBM - Inter-continental ballistic missile / Межконтинентальная баллистическая ракета.
   IRBM - Intermediate-range ballistic missile / Баллистическая ракета промежуточной дальности.
   LPH - Helicopter landing platform / Десантный вертолетоносец.
   MIRV - Multiple independently-targetable re-entry vehicle / Разделяющаяся ГЧ индивидуального наведения.
   MRBM - Medium-range ballistic missile / Баллистическая ракета средней дальности.
   MRV - Multiple re-entry vehicle / Разделяющаяся ГЧ.
   MTB - Motor torpedo boat / Торпедный катер.
   NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization
   NORAD - North American Air Defence / НАТО
   RCT - Regimental combat team / Полковая боевая группа.
   SAC - Strategic Air Command / Стратегическое Авиационное Командование
   SAM - Surface-to-air missile / ЗУР - Зенитная управляемая ракета.
   SEATO - South-East Asia Treaty Organization / СЕАТО
   SHAPE - Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers in Europe
   SLBM - Submarine-launched ballistic missile / Верховный штаб союзных сил в Европе.
   SP - Self-propelled / Самоходный
   SRBM - Short-range ballistic missile / Баллистическая ракета малой дальности.
   SSM - Surface-to-surface missile / Ракета поверхность-поверхность.
   S/VTOL - Short/vertical take-off and landing / Укороченного/вертикального взлета и посадки
   $- US dollars / Доллар США
   Mile - Statute mile / миля =1852 метра
   Million-000,000
   Billion-000,000,000
  

PREFACE

   The Military Balance is presented this year in a new format and considerably increased in size. Latin American countries are included for the first time and the coverage of African countries is now wider. There is a new section on regional military balances and information on international defence production projects and on fissile material has been introduced.
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which the document contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and in many cases received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative in producing information and some figures have been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have assisted in compiling and checking material.
   Manpower figures given are those of regular forces, although an indication of the size of para-military forces, militia, or reserve forces has been given in the sections dealing with individual countries. Except where otherwise stated, naval strengths are those of active fleets and vessels of less than 100 tons standard displacement have usually been excluded. Figures for defence budgets are the latest available and are generally exclusive of military aid.
   A glossary of the abbreviations and certain terms that have been used will be found overleaf, together with notes explaining the bases for the conversion of national currency figures into dollars. A special annex on the valuation of the Soviet gross national product and military expenditure appears on pp. 10-12.
   This study examines the facts of military power as they existed in July 1970. No projections of force levels or weapons beyond 1970 have been included, except where explicitly stated. The material should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the balance of strategic power; in particular it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability or efficiency, except where these are touched upon in the section on regional balances.
   The Military Balance is complemented by another annual .publication, Strategic Survey, published each spring, which reviews the most significant issues of international security and conflict in the previous calendar year and describes the major developments in weapons and strategic policy throughout the world.
   September 1970
  

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

   Военный баланс представлен в этом году в новом формате и значительно увеличен в размерах. Латиноамериканские страны включены впервые, и охват африканских стран шире. Появился новый раздел, посвященный региональным военным балансам и информации о международных оборонных проектах и расщепляющихся материалах.
   Институт несет полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в документе. Правительства стремились к сотрудничеству и во многих случаях получали его. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают в подготовке информации, и некоторые цифры оценочные. Институт в значительной степени благодарен ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые оказывали помощь в сборе и проверке материалов.
   Приводятся данные о численности личного состава регулярных сил, хотя в разделах, посвященных отдельным странам, приводится информация о численности воинских контингентов, ополченцев или резервных сил. За исключением случаев, когда указано иное, военно-морские силы - это силы действующих флотов и корабли водоизмещением менее 100 тонн, как правило, исключены. Данные по оборонным бюджетам являются самыми последними и, как правило, не включают военную помощь.
   Глоссарий сокращений и некоторых терминов, которые были использованы, на оборотной стороне, вместе с примечаниями, объясняющими основы для преобразования показателей национальной валюты в доллары. Специальное приложение по оценке советского валового национального продукта и военных расходов приводится на стр. 10-12.
   В настоящем исследовании рассматриваются факты военной мощи в том виде, в каком они существовали в июле 1970 года. Никаких прогнозов в отношении численности сил или вооружений после 1970 года не было включено, за исключением тех случаев, когда об этом прямо говорится. Этот материал не следует рассматривать в качестве всеобъемлющего руководства по балансу стратегических сил; в частности, в нем не отражены факты географии, уязвимости или эффективности, за исключением тех случаев, когда они затрагиваются в разделе, посвященном региональным балансам.
   Военный баланс дополняется еще одним ежегодником, каждую весну публикуется издание Strategic Survey, в котором рассматриваются наиболее важные вопросы международной безопасности и конфликтов за предыдущий календарный год и описываются основные события в области вооружений и стратегической политики во всем мире.
   Сентябрь 1970 года
  
    []
   NOTES. The above figures refer to the basic war establishments of the formation in question. They should be treated as very approximate since most military organization is flexible and units may be reinforced or run down for particular operations. Divisional strengths refer to organic units only and do not include support units or rear services outside the divisional structure. A dash indicates that the formation in question is not normally operated by that country.
   Warsaw Pact forces not included above have similar unit strengths to those of the Soviet Union.
   NATO forces not included in the table have similar of Germany, Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have tended to follow American military organization, while Australia, New Zeeland, Malaysia and Singapore generally follow British practice.
   a Army divisions only; a Marine Corps division has over 20,000 men.
   b Strength of a regiment, which is the equivalent formation in the Soviet and Chinese command structure.
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ. Приведенные выше цифры относятся к основным военным учреждениям рассматриваемых формирований. Их следует рассматривать как весьма приблизительные, поскольку большинство военных организаций являются гибкими и подразделения могут быть усилены или ослаблены для проведения конкретных операций. Силы дивизий относятся только к боевым единицам и не включают подразделения поддержки или тыловые службы вне дивизионной структуры. Тире указывает на то, что данного формирования нет в этой стране.
   Силы Варшавского договора, не включенные в таблицу, аналогичны силы войскам Советского Союза. Силы НАТО, не включенные в таблицу, имеют общие показатели, аналогичные показателям Германии. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань, как правило, следуют американской военной организации, в то время как Австралия, Малайзия, Новая Зеландия и Сингапур в целом следуют британской практике.
   a. Армейская дивизия; дивизия морской пехоты насчитывает более 20 000 человек.
   b. Силы полка, эквивалентная формация в советских и китайских структурах.
  

The United States and the Soviet Union

  
   THE UNITED STATES
  
   The United States has a series of multilateral and bilateral treaties and agreements with countries throughout the world.
   The principal multilateral organizations of which she is a full member are the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO) and the South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). She is associated with the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO). These commitments - with the exception of the agreement with Spain, renewed on 6 August 1970 and reported to cover security arrangements, bases and military aid - are described in the introductions to the above Alliances and to the various continents and regions.
  
   Соединенные Штаты имеют ряд многосторонних и двусторонних договоров и соглашений со странами всего мира. Основными многосторонними организациями, полноправным членом которых они является, Североатлантический альянс (NATO) и организация договора Юго-Восточной Азии (SEATO). Они связаны с Организацией Центрального Договора (CENTO). Эти обязательства - за исключением соглашения с Испанией, которое было продлено 6 августа 1970 года и в котором сообщалось о мерах безопасности, базах и военной помощи, - описаны во введении к вышеупомянутым альянсам и к различным континентам и регионам.
  
Population: 205,325,000.
Military service: selective service for two years. Total armed forces: 3,161,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $932 billion.
Defence estimates 1970-71: $71,791 million.
  
   Strategic Nuclear Forces
   The prime objective behind the deployment of American strategic nuclear forces has been the deterrence of a deliberate nuclear attack upon the United States and her allies by maintaining an assured destruction capability: `the ability to inflict at all times and under all foreseeable conditions an unacceptable degree of damage upon any single aggressor, or a combination of aggressors - even after absorbing a surprise attack'. In recent years there has, however, been increasing debate about the relative weight which should be given to a secondary objective, the limiting of damage to the population and industrial capacity of the United States. It has been accepted that on the basis of current technology there is no practical way of providing an adequate measure of `damage limitation' against the threat which Soviet ballistic missiles pose to the economy and people of the United States. Defence against the smaller strategic threat which China might present is thought feasible. In March 1969, President Nixon proposed the Safeguard anti-ballistic missile system, designed to provide some protection for American land-based retaliatory forces against a direct attack by the Soviet Union. In the first phase, two Minuteman fields in North Dakota and Montana are to be protected by Spartan area-defence missiles and Sprint point-defence missiles, and the system is also to be equipped with two Perimeter Acquisition Radars (PARs) and two Missile Site Radars (MSRs).
   The Administration has requested funds, during the 1970-71 Fiscal Year, for the beginning of the second phase of Safeguard. This part of Phase 2 would permit work to begin on the actual installation of Spartan/Sprint missiles at one further Minuteman field at Whiteman AFB in Missouri, work to be started at another field at Warren AFB, the acquisition of land for five more Spartan/Sprint sites and the construction of further PARs and MSRs. This expansion and the proposed subsequent expansion to 12 Spartan/ Sprint sites would provide a `light' area defence against Chinese ICBMs during the 1970s; a defence for an additional portion of the strategic retaliatory forces against Soviet attack and in particular of SAC bomber bases against SLBMs; and a defence for the National Command Authorities in Washington.
   A new anti-ballistic missile system called Hardsite is in an early concept stage. It is designed to avoid the vulnerability of dependence on a small number of MSRs, by replacing them with a large number of smaller and cheaper radars. It might require the development of improved point-defence missiles.
  
   Стратегические силы
   Главной целью развертывания американских стратегических ядерных сил было сдерживание преднамеренного ядерного нападения на Соединенные Штаты и их союзников путем поддержания гарантированного потенциала уничтожения, "способности нанести в любое время и при всех предсказуемых условиях неприемлемый уровень ущерба любому агрессору или комбинации агрессоров даже после внезапного нападения". В последние годы, однако, растут дебаты по поводу вторичной цели, ограничения ущерба для населения и промышленного потенциала США. Было признано, что на основе современных технологий не существует практического способа обеспечить адекватную меру "ограничения ущерба" от угрозы, которую советские баллистические ракеты представляют для экономики и населения Соединенных Штатов. Защита от небольшой стратегической угрозы, которую Китай может сейчас создать, возможно. В марте 1969 года президент Никсон предложил систему противоракетной обороны, предназначенную для обеспечения защиты американских наземных сил возмездия от прямого нападения Советского Союза. На первом этапе две ракетных базы в Северной Дакоте и Монтане должны быть защищены ракетами Spartan зональной обороны и ракетами Sprint точечной обороны, а система также должна быть оснащена двумя радарами для обнаружения (PARs) и двумя радарами перехвата (MSRs).
   В течение 1970-71 финансового года администрация запросила средства для начала второго этапа Safeguard. Эта часть этапа 2 разрешает работу по установке ракет Spartan/Sprint на одной базе Minuteman в Уайтман AFB в штате Миссури, работы должны быть начаты и в другой области в Уоррен AFB с приобретения земельного участка для пяти позиций Spartan/Sprint и строительства новых PAR и MSR. Это расширение и предлагаемое последующее расширение до 12 Spartan/Sprint позиций обеспечит "легкую" защиту территории от китайских МБР в 1970-х годах; оборона дополнительной части стратегических ответных сил против советского нападения и, в частности, баз бомбардировщиков SAC против ПЛАРБ; и оборона для национального командования властей в Вашингтоне.
   Новая система противоракетной обороны Hardsite находится на ранней стадии разработки. Она призван избежать уязвимости зависимости от небольшого числа MSR, заменив их большим количеством более мелких и дешевых РЛС. Это может потребовать разработки более совершенных точечных ракет.
  
STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE FORCES
Land-based missiles. At present 490 Minuteman 1 and 500 Minuteman 2 solid-fuel inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBM) are operational.
   It is planned eventually to replace all Minuteman 1 by the more powerful
   Minuteman 3, 10 of which, equipped with the Mk 12 3-warhead system, were scheduled to be operational by 1 July 1970.
   54 launchers (six squadrons of 9 missiles each) of the Titan 2 liquid-fuelled ICBM remain in service.
Seaborne missiles. The Navy has a total of 41 nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, each of which carries 16 Polaris missiles.
   8 vessels are now undergoing conversion so as to fire the Poseidon missile, which will be equipped with 10 MIRV warheads,
   and will eventually equip 31 submarines (the remaining ten will have the Polaris A-3).
   The first Poseidon submarine is scheduled to become operational in January 1971.
   25 of these submarines are normally deployed at any one time, 20 in the Arctic-North Atlantic-Mediterranean area, and 5 in the Pacific.
   Of the total 41, 13 are now equipped with the A-2 missile (1,750 statute mile range) and the remainder with the
   A-3 (2,880 statute mile range).
Aircraft. Strategic Air Command (SAC) has a total bomber strength of about 540. These comprise about
   35 (2 squadrons) of the supersonic variable-geometry FB-111, and about
   505 long-range B-52s (of which at least 100 are thought to be in active storage).
   The later G/H models of the B-52 carry the AGM-28B air-to-surface cruise missile with a range of up to 700 miles and
   a thermo-nuclear warhead. Development and testing of the supersonic AGM-69 short range attack missile (SRAM) is continuing.
   Of the 14 squadrons of earlier C/F model B-52s, 3 are stationed in South-East Asia.
   The B-58 Hustler supersonic medium bombers are no longer operational.
   SAC operates about 500 KC-135 tankers, of which an estimated 100 are stationed in South East Asia to assist B-52, F-4 and F-105 missions.
   There are also two strategic reconnaissance squadrons operating SR-71s.
STRATEGIC DEFENSIVE FORCES
   The North American Air Defence Command (NORAD), with its headquarters at Colorado Springs, Colorado, is a joint
   Canadian-American organization. The American forces under NORAD are known as the Aerospace Defence Command (ADC) and
   Army Air Defence Command (ARADCOM), with a total strength of about 85,000.
There are 15 regular interceptor squadrons in ADC, comprising
   11 squadrons with F-106A Delta Darts,
   3 squadrons with F-101B Voodoos and
   1 squadron with F-102 Delta Daggers (based in Iceland).
   Air-to-air missiles used by these aircraft include Sidewinder, and Genie.
   3 squadrons of airborne early- warning EC-121s are deployed in the United States.
   The regular units of the Aerospace Defence Command are supplemented by
   17 interceptor squadrons of the Air National Guard, equipped with F-101s and F-102s.
   The total number of interceptor aircraft in NORAD (including Canadian units) is about 700.
The regular surface-to-air missile force consists of three main systems: Nike, Hawk and Bomarc. There are some
   13 battalions of Nike-Hercules and
   2 battalions of Hawk missiles still in service; both these systems are operated by the Army elements of ADC.
   There are about 170 long-range surface-to-air Bomarc missiles, deployed in 5 squadrons.
   These are all Bomarc B, with a range of 440 miles and a ceiling of 100,000 feet, and are mostly stationed in the north-eastern states and in Canada.
   These regular units are supplemented by 38 batteries of Nike-Hercules, operated by the Army National Guard.
   Ground defence against missile or bomber attack is supported by a chain of radar and tracking stations, including the
Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS), with stations in Alaska, Greenland and England; the `forward scatter'
   Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radar system, which can detect ICBM launches at greater ranges than any other ground-based radar; the Pinetree line;
   and the 33 Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radars.
   Surveillance and tracking of objects in North American air space is coordinated by the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) System.
   14 locations are combined with Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIQ stations).
   A system (474N) of 7 radar stations on the east, west and Gulf Coasts of the United States is designed specifically for the detection
   of submarine-launched missiles.

Army
Total strength: 1,363,000. The ground forces are organized into

   16 operational divisions,
   5 independent infantry and airborne brigades,
   5 armoured cavalry regiments,
   7 Special Forces Groups,
   38 surface-to-surface missile battalions, and
   about 200 independent aviation units.
   The army operates about 11,000 aircraft, including about 9,000 helicopters.
DEPLOYMENT American ground forces, including the 3 divisions of the Marine Corps, were deployed as follows at the beginning of July 1970:
Continental United States. Strategic reserve: 82nd Airborne Division, 171st and 172nd Infantry Brigades, 194th Armoured Brigade,
   6th Armoured Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Marine Division, one brigade of the 3rd Marine Division.
   For reinforcing 7th Army in Europe: 1st Armoured Division, 2nd Armoured Division, 1st Mechanized Division (less 1 brigade),*
   * This division is dual-based and its heavy equipment is stored in West Germany.
   3rd Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   Training division for units being sent to Vietnam: 5th Mechanized Division.
Germany. Total strength: approximately 200,000.
   5th Corps: 3rd Armoured Division, 8th Mechanized Division and 14th Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   7th Corps: 4th Armoured Division, 3rd Mechanized Division, 1 brigade of the 1st Mechanized Division and 2nd Armoured Cavalry Regiment.
   In West Berlin; 1 infantry brigade.
Italy. Southern European Task Force (HQ elements) and 1 Sergeant surface-to-surface missile battalion.
South Vietnam. Total strength: 330,000.
   4th Infantry Division (less one brigade), 23rd Infantry (Americal) Division, 25th Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile),
   101st Airmobile Division, 1st Marine Division, 11th Armoured Cavalry Regiment, 199th Light Infantry Brigade, 173rd Airborne Brigade,
   5th Special Forces Group, 5 artillery groups, one aviation brigade and a Logistical Command.
South Korea. 2nd Infantry Division, 7th Infantry Division and 4th Missile Command.
Hawaii/Okinawa. 3rd Marine Division (less 1 brigade) and a Special Forces Group.
Panama Canal Zone. 193rd Infantry Brigade.
EQUIPMENT. The main operational equipments in service with the ground forces overseas include the
   M-48 (90mm gun) and M-60 (105mm gun) medium tanks, and the M-551 Sheridan light tank with Shillelagh;
   the M-107 175mm SP gun, and the M-109 155mm and M-110 203mm SP howitzers;
   the short-range Honest John, and Littlejohn and the longer-range Sergeant and Pershing surface-to-surface missiles;
   Hawk and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles, and the Chaparral/Vulcan low level air-defence system.
RESERVES. The Army National Guard consists of some 400,000 men capable, in about five weeks from mobilization, of providing
   8 full divisions,
   21 separate brigades, and some smaller units to round out regular Army formations and provide for air defence with
   38 Nike-Hercules batteries.
   The Army Reserves have an average paid training strength of 260,000, and act chiefly as a reinforcement pool.
   A further 48,000 undergo short tours of active duty for training.


Marine Corps Total strength: 294,000.

   In July 1970, the active Marine Corps consisted of 3 marine divisions and three air wings. A marine division is about 20.000 strong.
   It is supported by a tank battalion with M-48 and M-103 tanks, and a battalion of 24 Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   Tactical artillery with the divisions includes 105mm, 155mm howitzers and 105mm SP howitzers and 175mm guns.
The 3 marine air wings have about 1,200 combat and support aircraft. There are
   14 fighter squadrons of F-4 Phantom, armed with Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles. The air wings include
   12 attack squadrons, with the A-6 Intruder replacing the A-4 Skyhawk, and
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with the RF-4B Phantom replacing the RF-8A Crusader. There are
   3 squadrons of C-130 Hercules assault transports.
   Each wing (including the reserve one) contains 2 squadrons of CH-53A heavy helicopters, and 3 squadrons of CH-46A medium helicopters.
   There are also about 45 AH-1 Cobra gunship helicopters. (Harrier S/VTOL aircraft are being procured to form an operational squadron.)
RESERVES. The Marine Reserves have an average paid training strength of 47,700 plus paid training for about a further 560.
   They form a reserve division and an associated air wing.


Navy Total strength: 694,000. The total number of ships commissioned and in service is about 780.

   The General Purpose Forces Navy (excluding Polaris submarines) consists of approximately 740 ships.
   The fleets are the 1st in the Eastern Pacific, the 2nd in the Atlantic, the 6th in the Mediterranean and the 7th in the Western Pacific.
   The main components of the active fleets are:
   16 attack carriers: 1 nuclear-powered (USS Enterprise, 76,000 tons),
   8 Forrestal-class (60,000 tons), 3 Midway-class (52,000 tons) and 3 Hancock-class (33,000 tons), and 1 antisubmarine carrier acting as an attack carrier.
   The attack carriers no longer have a primary strategic nuclear mission, although they retain a nuclear strike capability.
   Attack carriers are assigned an air wing of between 70 and 100 aircraft consisting of
   2 fighter squadrons, 2 or 3 light attack squadrons, AEW, tanker and reconnaissance aircraft.
   The larger carriers have a medium attack squadron and their fighter squadrons have the F-4 Phantom,
   with the F-8 Crusader in the Hancock-class.
   The attack aircraft include the A-4 Skyhawk, the A-6 Intruder and the A-7 Corsair; Corsairs will eventually replace all the Skyhawks.
   The RA-5C Vigilante is used for reconnaissance in the larger carriers, and the RF-8G Crusader is used in this role in the Hancock-class.
   The E-2A Hawkeye is used for AEW, and a few KA-3B Skywarrior aircraft are retained as tankers.
   4 anti-submarine carriers, all Essex-class.
   They are equipped with S-2E Tracker long- range search aircraft, and SH-3 Sea King helicopters, and have A-4C Skyhawks for air defence;
   each carries about 52 aircraft and helicopters.
103 submarines (excluding Polaris vessels): 44 of these are nuclear-powered attack vessels, of which 34 have Subroc ASW missiles.
239 surface ships for anti-submarine warfare, fleet air defence and coastal bombardment. These consist of the following:
   8 guided-missile cruisers (1 nuclear-powered).
   2 gun cruisers.
   30 guided-missile frigates (2 nuclear-powered).
   29 guided-missile destroyers.
   123 gun/ASW destroyers.
   6 guided-missile destroyer escorts.
   36 destroyer escorts.
   5 radar-picket escorts.
   Guided-missile ships are armed with the Tartar, Talos and Terrier surface-to-air missiles and Asroc ASW missiles according to class.
   97 amphibious assault ships, including 7 helicopter landing platforms (LPH).
   42 landing craft.
   54 ocean minesweepers.
   185 logistics, operational support and small patrol ships.
   24 squadrons (about 216 aircraft) of shore- based ASW patrol P-3 Orions.
   5 transport/liaison squadrons with C-118s, C-130s, C-131s, C-1s and C-2s.
   The number of aircraft in the active inventory of the Navy is estimated at 8,000.
RESERVES. The Navy Reserves have an average paid training strength of 129,000 plus paid training tours for a further 3,350.
   Equipment includes:
   2 anti-submarine carriers.
   15 cruisers
   Over 300 escort ships.
   35 squadrons of fixed-wing aircraft and 4 squadrons of helicopters.


Air Force Total strength: 810,000

   (including Air Force personnel serving in
Strategic Air Command and Air Defence Command (for the organization of strategic and air defence forces, see above).
   About 6,500 first-line combat aircraft. The General Purpose Forces of the Air Force consist of the
   Tactical Air Command, United States Air Force in Europe, Pacific Air Forces and the Military Airlift Command. The present strength of
Tactical Air Command is 115,000 men and about 1,000 aircraft normally based in the United States. It includes the following units:
   19 F-4, 3 F-100, 3 F-105 and 3 F-111A tactical fighter squadrons;
   9 tactical reconnaissance squadrons with RF-4C;
   17 assault air-lift squadrons with C-130; two electronic warfare squadrons; and
   6 special operations squadrons including A-37, AC-119, C-123K and AC-130 aircraft.
US Air Force in Europe (USAFE), with a strength of about 50,000 men, controls the
   3rd Air Force in Britain, the
   16th Air Force in Spain, the
   17th Air Force in West Germany and a
   Logistics Group in Turkey, and includes
   21 tactical fighter squadrons and
   6 tactical reconnaissance squadrons.
   4 other tactical fighter squadrons are based in the United States but are `on call' to USAFE.
   The tactical fighters include about 375 F-100s and F-4C/D/Es, and the reconnaissance aircraft about 90 RF-4Cs.
   There are 2 C-130 transport squadrons in the Command.
   4 of the tactical fighter squadrons, equipped with F-4Es, for air defence, are based in Germany and the Netherlands.
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), with a strength of about 155,000 men and about 80 squadrons, with headquarters in Hawaii, control the
   5th Air Force with bases in Japan, Korea and Okinawa; the
   13th Air Force with headquarters in the Philippines; and the
   7th Air Force, which is the air component of the Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV). The
   5th Air Force operates squadrons of F-4, F-102, F-105, RF-4C and C-130 aircraft; the
   13th Air Force, with F-4, F-105, RF-4C and C-130 aircraft, is responsible for the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and all joint planning
   responsibilities under SEATO. About 160 F-4 and 80 F-105 fighter-bombers, as well as 40 RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft,
   fly from 13th Air Force bases in Thailand. The
   7th Air Force, with about 59,000 men in South Vietnam, consists of tactical fighter, reconnaissance, assault airlift and special operations squadrons.
   It also co-ordinates the operations of the Vietnamese Air Force. The approximate strength of the 7th Air Force is
   280 F-100, F-4C and A-37 fighter-bombers,
   40 RF-4 reconnaissance aircraft,
   150 A-1E, AC-47, AC-119, AC-130 and C-123 counterinsurgency aircraft,
   90 C-7A assault airlift aircraft and a large number of observation and liaison aircraft and helicopters.
The Military Airlift Command (MAC) numbers 90,000 men and operates
   18 heavy transport squadrons, equipped with about 45 C-133 Cargomasters and 270 C-141 Starlifters, and at least another
   25 squadrons in medical transport, weather reconnaissance and air-sea rescue roles. (The first C-5A Galaxy squadron is forming.)
RESERVES.
The Air National Guard General Purpose Forces have approximately 1,500 aircraft in
   18 fighter-interceptor squadrons,
   24 tactical fighter squadrons,
   12 tactical reconnaissance squadrons,
   3 tactical air support squadrons,
   4 special operations squadrons,
   7 tanker squadrons and
   22 air transport squadrons, mostly with older type transport aircraft.
   The strength of the Guard is 85,000 men.
The Air Force Reserve has an average paid training strength of 47,900 and a further 2,600 undergo paid training tours of active duty.
   The Air Force Reserve has about 400 aircraft in 36 operational squadrons, of which
   7 are equipped with C-119 Boxcar,
   16 have C-124 Globemaster, and
   2 have C-130 Hercules transports. The remainder serve in tactical support, special operations and air-sea rescue roles.

   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 244,000,000
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy and Border Guards, 3 years.
Estimated GNP 1969: $466 billion.
Defence appropriations 1970:17.9 billion roubles ($39.8 billion). 0.40-0.50 roubles = $1.*
   * See the Annex on pp. 10-12 for an explanation of the calculation of the figures used for the rate of exchange, GNP and defence expenditure.
   The rouble figure represents the declared budget of the Ministry of Defence and does not include certain expenditures such as the cost of nuclear warheads, research and development expenditure on advanced weapons systems, and the military elements of the space programme, which are believed to be included in the budget of other ministries. Total military expenditure could be of the order of about $51.7 billion.*
   Calculated at the median exchange rate of 0.45 roubles = $1.
   Рублевая цифра представляет собой объявленный бюджет Министерства обороны и не включает определенные расходы, такие, как расходы на ядерные боеголовки, расходы на исследования и разработки современных систем вооружений и военные элементы космической программы, которые, как предполагается, включены в бюджет других министерств. Общие военные расходы могут составить порядка 51,7 млрд. долл. dd>   Рассчитано по среднему курсу 0,45 рубля = $1
Total strength of the regular forces is estimated at 3,305,000 men.
   In addition, the para-military forces, including the security and border troops of the Ministry of the Interior, have about 230.000 men.
  
Strategic Rocket Forces Total strength: 350,000.
ICBMs Operational Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs): total about 1,300.
   LIQUID-FUELLED
   240 SS-9 (Scarp) (Р-36 -ЕТ) (further sites are being prepared for deployment of missiles). The operational missiles have one warhead.
   Testing of MRVs (multiple re-entry vehicles) has been in progress for 2 years, and it is thought that these may now be available for deployment.
   The SS-9 launcher has also been used to test another form of payload, for use as a depressed trajectory
   ICBM/fractional orbital bombardment system (FOBS).
   800 SS-11 (УР-100 ЕТ), whose deployment is continuing. Tests have recently been reported to have involved a revised re-entry system.
   220 SS-7 (Saddle) and SS-8 (Sasin) (Р-16 и Р-9 -ЕТ).
   SOLID-FUELLED
   40 SS-13 (Savage) (РТ-2 -ЕТ).
IRBMs and MRBMs
   Operational IRBM and MRBM: total about 700.
   The operational Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) and Medium-Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) force consists of about
   700 liquid-fuelled SS-5 (Skean) and SS-4 (Sandal) (Р-14 и Р-12 -ЕТ).
   Development continues of the solid-fuelled Scamp missile, and the SS-14 (РТ-15) mobile MRBM system, of which it forms part,
   could be used to replace some of the existing force.
   IRBMs and MRBMs are sited near the southern, eastern and western borders of the USSR:
   70 cover targets in China and Japan and 630 targets in Western Europe.
  
   Air Defence
   The Air Defence Command (PVO-Strany) is a separate command of anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air-missile units,
   using an early- warning system based on radar and fighter- interceptor squadrons for identification and, if necessary,
   interception of hostile targets.
Total personnel in the PVO is about 500,000, of which ground elements account for 250,000. Air defence weapons now in service include:
ANTI-AIRCRAFT ARTILLERY: 14.5mm, 23mm, 57mm guns and ZSU-57-2 twin barrelled and ZSU-23-4 four-barrelled SP guns on tank chassis.
SURFASE-TO-AIR MISSILES:
   SA-1 Guild (С-25 -ЕТ) remains in service and is deployed in large numbers for the defence of Moscow.
   SA-2 Guideline (С-75 -ЕТ): A two-stage boosted antiaircraft missile with a slant range of about 25 statute miles,
   effective at heights of between 3,000 and 80,000 ft. About 8,000 are thought to be in service.
   SA-3 Goa (С-125 -ЕТ): A two-stage missile, probably intended for short-range defence against low-flying aircraft, to supplement Guideline.
   It has a slant range (from launch to contact with target),
   SA-4 Ganef (Круг -ЕТ): An air-transportable, mobile anti-aircraft missile with solid-fuel boosters.
   These are twin mounted on tracked carriers and are assigned to ground forces in the field.
   SA-5 Griffon (Даль, не принималась -ЕТ): A two-stage boosted missile which has been developed in a long-range anti- aircraft role.
   SA-6 Gainful (Куб -ЕТ) A new triple-mounted missile on a tracked vehicle. It will soon enter-general service as a defence
   against low-flying aircraft and will supplement Ganef in the field forces.
ANTI-BALLISTIC MISSILES (ABM):
   Galosh (А-35 -ET): 67 launchers for these multi-stage mis- require major reinforcement, siles have been deployed around Moscow.
   The alignment of the associated radars suggests that their function is the, limited defence of the centre of government against
   Minuteman firings from North America or Polaris missiles from the Arctic Ocean.
   They are believed to have a range of over two hundred miles and to carry a nuclear warhead in the megaton range.
   They are therefore only suitable for interception outside the atmosphere and thus for area defence.
   Continuing development and testing have as their objective either an improved version of the present systems or a substantially more
   effective new missile.
   If the SA-5 were provided with the appropriate radar and data-processing equipment, it might in theory have a limited ABM capacity.
FIGHTERS:
   There are probably about 3,300 operational PVO fighters, the majority of which are the MiG-19 Farmer, MiG-21 Fishbed and Su-9 Fishpot.
   A few Mig-17 Fresco are still in service.
   Other aircraft include the Yak-28P Firebar and Tu-28 Fiddler, the latter of which has a maximum speed of the
   order of 900 mph and an operational ceiling of about 50,000 ft.
   The Su-11 Flagon-A (Су-15 -ЕТ) is in, and the MiG-23 Foxbat (МиГ-25 -ЕТ) is probably about to come into squadron service:
   they have a maximum speed of the order of Mach. 2-3 and Mach. 3 respectively.
   Many of these aircraft are equipped with air-to-air missiles.
EARLY-WARNING AIRCRAFT: The PVO operates some modified Tu-114 Cleats which, in this role of about 15 miles,
   have been given the designation Moss (Ту-126 -ЕТ).
  
Army The total size of the Soviet Army (including the ground elements of the Air Defence Command) is estimated at about 2,000,000 men.
   It is thought to be organized in 157 divisions.
   There are 3 degrees of combat-readiness in the Soviet Army, and probably about 2/3 of their divisions are at or near full combat-strength.
   The remain der could be brought up to strength at short notice, although about a quarter of the total are at the lowest degree of readiness and would
The location of divisional headquarters is roughly as follows:
   31 divisions in Central and Eastern Europe (20 in East Germany, 2 in Poland, 4 in Hungary, 5 in Czechoslovakia);
   60 divisions in European USSR (i.e. west of the Ural Mountains and north of the Caucasus);
   8 divisions in central USSR (i.e. between the Ural Mountains and Lake Baikal);
   28 divisions in southern USSR (Caucasus and West Turkestan); and
   30 divisions in the Sino-Soviet border area, of which three are in Mongolia.
   The 31 divisions in Eastern Europe are maintained at or near combat strength, as are about 15 of those in the Far East.
   The other divisions in the Far East are probably in the second category of readiness: below combat strength,
   but not requiring major reinforcement in the event of war.
   Most of the remaining combat- ready divisions are in European USSR, while the divisions in central USSR would mostly require major
   reinforcement, as would 10 of the divisions in southern USSR.
By types of division, the distribution is roughly as follows:
   Motorized rifle divisions (10,000 men and 175 medium tanks at full strength): about 100.
   Tank divisions (8,250 men and 325 medium tanks at full strength): about 50.
   Airborne divisions (7,000 men and 45 self-propelled guns at full strength): 7.
   10 of the tank divisions are in East Germany, 10 in the Far East, 2 in Hungary, and 2 in Poland.
   It has been estimated that the force of 31 divisions in Central Europe might be increased to 70 within less than a month
   if mobilization and movement were unimpeded.
   The 7 airborne divisions total approximately 50.000 men.
   The transport fleet could lift two of these divisions and supporting elements simultaneously over short or medium ranges.
   There are some numbers of Soviet military personnel stationed outside the Warsaw Pact area, mostly in the capacity of instructors and advisers.
   These include about 1,000 in Cuba, 10.000 in Egypt, 1,000 in Syria, 1,500 in Algeria, and 1,000 in North Vietnam.
   The military doctrines of the Soviet Army envisage a major offensive role for it in future war and accordingly emphasize training for large-scale
   advance at high speed. Infantry formations contain amphibious covered armoured personnel carriers which would enable them to advance
   rapidly across water obstacles and radio-active terrain.
   Tactical nuclear missile units are organic to Soviet formations inside and outside the Soviet Union,
   and the stockpile of warheads is estimated at some 3,500.
   The Soviet Army is well-equipped for offensive and defensive chemical warfare,
   but its long-standing logistic shortcomings for extended operations have been only partly remedied.
Its equipment includes:
TANKS. Tanks in service with armoured formations include the T-62 medium tank with a 115mm gun,
   the T-54/55 medium tank with a 100mm gun,
   the T-10 heavy tank with a 122mm gun, and the PT-76 amphibious reconnaissance tank with a 76 mm gun.
   The T-34 medium tank is no longer operational.
   Most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing by deep wading, and many carry infra-red night-fighting equipment.
ARTILLERY. The main types are 100mm, 122mm, 130mm and 152mm.
   Lorry-mounted multi-barrelled rocket-launchers play an important part in Soviet artillery operations.
   The main specialized anti-tank weapons are the 57mm, 85mm and 100mm guns,
   and the Snapper, Swatter and Sagger missiles (Шмель, Малютка и Фаланга -ЕТ), :
   the last is mounted on a tracked combined anti-tank (75mm gun) and armoured personnel carrier.
   Self-propelled assault guns are only used in airborne divisions.
   The Soviet Army also has a considerable air defence capability, including guns and surface- to-air missiles.
MISSILES. Tactical missiles in use by the ground forces include those of the Scud and air-portable Frog series (Р-11/Р-17 и Луна -ЕТ),
   mounted on modified T-10 tank chassis and wheeled launchers.
   These have ranges of up to 150 miles according to the type-high explosive, chemical or nuclear-of warhead fitted.
   The newer Scaleboard (Темп -ЕТ) has a maximum range of 500 miles.
   There are also two cruise missiles: Shaddock, with a range of up to 300 miles, and the shorter range Salish (ФКР-2 и ФКР-1 -ЕТ).
Navy Total strength: 475,000. (Navy 400,000: Naval Air Force 75,000).
   In total tonnage, it is the second biggest navy in the world. Its main strength lies in the submarine fleet.
   A high proportion of the fleet is kept in commission.
SURFACE SHIPSa. They include:
   2 ASW helicopter cruisers with a new surface- to-air missile system (SA-N-3) (пр.1123 Москва с ЗРК М-22 -ЕТ)
   5 Kresta-class and 4 Kynda-class (пр.58 и 1134 -ЕТ) cruisers with Shaddock surface-to-surface cruise and Goa surface-to-air missiles.
   11 Sverdlov-class cruisers (one with Guideline surface-to-air missiles).
   4 other cruisers (used as flagships and for training).
   5 Krupny-class destroyers with surface-to- surface cruise missiles (пр.57 с ПКР КСЩ -ЕТ).
   4 Kildin-class destroyers with surface-to- surface cruise missiles (пр.56М с ПКР КСЩ -ЕТ).
   15 Kashin-class destroyers with Goa surface- to-air missiles. (пр.61 -ЕТ)
   2 Kanin-class destroyers with Goa surface-to- air missiles. (пр.57А -ЕТ)
   27 Kotlin-class destroyers (two with Goa surface-to-air missiles) (пр.56 и 56К).
   45 Skory- and modified Skory-class destroyers (пр.30бис -ЕТ).
   100 other ocean-going escorts.
   275 coastal escorts and submarine chasers.
   100 Osa- and 30 Komar-class patrol boats with Styx short-range cruise missiles (пр.206 и 205Р с ПКР П-15 -ЕТ).
   300 fast patrol boats.
   165 fleet minesweepers.
   130 coastal minesweepers.
   80 landing ships and numerous landing craft.
   Some trawlers have been adapted for electronic intelligence.
   All submarines and the larger surface vessels not fitted with surface-to-surface missiles are capable of minelaying.
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
SUBMARINES. The fleet has some 290 conventionally-powered and 80 nuclear-powered submarines.
   About 10 of the Y-class nuclear- powered ballistic missile submarines (пр.667А -ЕТ), each equipped with 16 SS-N-6 missiles
   for submerged firing, are now in service. Production of Y-class submarines appears to be at the rate of 5-10 a year.
   About 15 other nuclear and 25 of the conventional submarines can fire ballistic missiles and carry 3 missiles each.
   About 33 of the nuclear and 16 of the conventionally-powered submarines are equipped with anti-shipping cruise missiles which
   have ranges of up to 300 miles; they are thought to carry from four to eight missiles each.
   The remainder are attack submarines, or training craft. The submarine force is distributed as follows:
   75 in the Baltic Fleet, 150 in the Arctic, 40 in the Black Sea and about 105 in the Far East.
   The missile-carrying submarines are mostly divided between the Arctic and the Far East fleets.
FLEET BALLISTIC MISSILES. Submarine-launched missiles currently in the Soviet inventory are Sark, Serb and the SS-N-6 (Р-13/-21/-27 -ЕТ).
   The Serb is similar in dimensions to Polaris, but has a much shorter range.
   The SS-N-6 and Serb can be fired from a submerged position but some older submarines can fire Sark only from the surface.
   Testing continues of a new submarine missile, which is thought to have a range of up to 2,000 nautical miles and which may be identical
   with the missile designated Sawfly.
FLEET CRUISE MISSILES. Some surface vessels and submarines are fitted with cruise missiles including the long-range
   Shaddock (П-5/-6/-35 -ЕТ), which are intended primarily for anti-ship use.
NAVAL AIR FORCE. There are no true aircraft carriers in the Soviet Navy,
   although 2 18,000 ton helicopter cruisers are now in service, each operating up to 20 Ka-25A Hormone helicopters.
   The land-based Naval Air Force comprises about 500 bombers, most of which are based near the north-western and Black Sea coasts
   of the Soviet Union, and 500 other aircraft and helicopters. It includes:
   300 Tu-16 Badgers with Kipper or Kelt air-to- surface missiles, and about 100 in the reconnaissance and tanker roles.
   (The partial replacement of this aircraft with a version of the Tu-22 Blinder has begun.)
   50 Tu-20 Bears for long-range naval reconnaissance missions.
   50 Il-28 Beagles, equipped with torpedoes.
   In the ASW role are:
   About 60 Be-6 Madge flying-boats and Be-12 Mail amphibians.
   100 Mi-4 Hound and Ka-25A Hormone helicopters.
   About 200 miscellaneous transport aircraft.
There is a small marine corps (Naval Infantry) numbering about 15,000 men.
   The number of Soviet warships in the Mediterranean varies between 15 and 25.
   The squadron has included tank landing vessels and helicopter cruisers and, in addition to warships, a large number of auxiliaries.
Air Force
Total strength: 480,000: 10,200 combat aircraft. Soviet air forces include the following five main categories;
   (1) the Long Range Air Force (long- and medium-range strategic bombers);
   (2) the Tactical (or front-line) Air Force, which includes fighters and light bombers;
   (3) the air element of the Air Defence Command (fighter-interceptors);
   (4) the Naval Air Force; and
   (5) the Air Transport Force (including an independent force for the airborne divisions).
THE LONG RANGE AIR FORCE.
   About 75 per cent is based in European USSR with most of the remainder in the Far East;
   in addition, it has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic.
   Its numbers of inter-continental bombers - estimated at
   140 aircraft - are under a third of those in the US Strategic Air Command's B-52 force;
   but there is still a very strong force of medium bombers for operations in the Eurasian theatre. Aircraft include:
   About 90 Mya-4 Bison and about 100 Tu-20 Bear turbo-prop long-range bombers.
   Some 50 out of the total are used in the tanker role. It is believed that two-thirds of the Bears carry the Kangaroo stand-off cruise missile.
   About 550 Tu-16 Badger and 175 Tu-22 Blinder twin-jet medium bombers.
   It is estimated that half the Badgers are equipped with the Kelt air-to-surface missile (carried in pairs) while about
   half the Blinders are equipped with the Kitchen air-to-surface missile. (The Blinder has a supersonic capability.)
TACTICAL AIR FORCE. The strength of the Soviet Tactical Air Force has risen slightly during the last year.
   Altogether there are over 4000 aircraft.
   These include light bombers, ground-attack and interceptor-fighters, helicopters, transports and reconnaissance aircraft.
   The aircraft in service still include some obsolescent types such as the MiG-17 Fresco and the MiG-19 Farmer.
   The most notable high performance aircraft in service are the interceptor- fighters MiG-21 Fishbed, and Yak-28P Firebar,
   the ground-attack Su-7 Fitter, the supersonic light bomber Yak-28 Brewer and the new reconnaissance MiG-21 Fishbed.
   Ground-attack aircraft are equipped with a range of tactical air-to-surface missiles.
   Of several fighter and fighter-bomber types, including a variable- geometry aircraft resembling the American F-111,
   displayed at the Moscow Air Show in July 1967, the supersonic strike version of the MiG-23 Foxbat may be operational,
   while the VTOL Freehand could come into service shortly.
FIGHTER-INTERCEPTOR UNITS and NAVAL AIR FORCE
   These are dealt with under Air Defence and Navy respectively (see above).
AIR TRANSPORT FORCE. About 1,700 short-, medium- and long-range transport aircraft, including twin-engined Il-14 Crate and An-24 Coke,
   some 800 four-engined An-12 Cub and Il-18 Coot.
   About 5 An-22 Cock heavy transports are also in operational service.
   There are in addition civil airliners belonging to Aeroflot, some of which could be adapted to military use in time of war;
   these include about 280 long- and medium-range aircraft (Tu-104 Camel, Tu-114 Cleat, Tu-124 Cookpot and Tu-134 Crusty).
   Helicopters in use with the ground forces number about 600 and include
   the troop carrying Mi-6 Hook and Mi-8 Hip, and the heavy load-carrier Mi-10 Harke.
   The smaller Mi-1 Hare and Mi-4 Hound are being withdrawn from service.
   The Mi-12 Homer, a very heavy load carrier, may be entering service. The total helicopter inventory is probably around 1,500.
Para-military Forces and Reserves Security and border troops number some 230,000.
   There are also approximately 1.5 million members of the part-time military training organization (DOSAAF),
   who take part in such recreational activities as athletics, shooting and parachuting, but reservist training and refresher courses seem to be
   haphazard and irregular.
   However, DOSAAF assists in premilitary training being given in schools, colleges and workers centres to those of 16 years and over.
   Trained reservists are estimated at about men out of a total of some 6,000,000.
  
   THE VALUATION OF THE GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP) AND MILITARY EXPENDITURE OF THE SOVIET UNION
   I. Gross National Product
   The figure for the GNP of the USSR in 1969 has been obtained by extrapolating a 1955 comparison by Professor Abram Bergson of Soviet and United States GNP in the light of the growth of Soviet and US output from 1955 to 1969. Such extrapolation is not strictly a correct procedure in national income comparisons and can give only a rough idea of the relative size of US and Soviet GNP in 1969. Further, it expresses the average of two different comparisons. One is of the rouble purchasing power parity in terms of dollars assessed in terms of the Soviet pattern of output. The alternative comparison is of the two GNPs in roubles, using outputs assessed with US output weights. In dollars, Soviet GNP is assessed at about 62 per cent of US GNP; in roubles the order of magnitude is 37 per cent. 50 per cent is the average between the two. This method is necessarily crude but is the best that Milton Gilbert at the OEEC in 1958 and the Statistical Division of the Commission of the EEC have been able to achieve for comparisons between Western economies.
   II. Military Expenditure
   The exchange rate of 0-40-0-50 roubles = US $1 for Soviet defence spending is given as a range to take account of the fact that comparisons can only be approximate. There are two problems in evaluating the `defence rouble': lack of information and an ambiguity in methodology and concept.
   Information: The Soviet budget speech every year includes a figure for `defence expenditure' in the forthcoming year. The defence vote for 1969 was 17-7 billion roubles (in recent years the amount actually spent for this purpose, as distinct from the voted estimate, has not been published). However, the defence vote excludes at least two items of military expenditure. The first and most important of these is a significant part of military Research and Development, a large proportion of which is thought to be financed out of the vote for `Science'. The total voted for scientific research of all kinds in 1969 was 9 billion roubles including non-military research. We have no precise figures on the basis of which to judge how much of the above is devoted to military purposes. Very roughly, we believe that 4-5 billion roubles might well be. The second and smaller item covers frontier guards and other security troops not financed out of the defence vote. Taking these two items together, we would be justified in adding roughly 30 per cent of the overt defence vote, which would make the 1969 total 23 billion roubles.
   The next problem is what a `military rouble' is worth. No prices of military goods are published. The approximate manpower of the armed forces is known, and so (to within a reasonable degree of precision) is their pay and subsistence. But the value of the material procurements must be computed indirectly. This can be attempted `by analogy', i.e. by calculating rouble-dollar ratios for civilian equipment. However, these ratios vary a great deal, and some armaments bear no resemblance to any civilian machine, and in any case the arms industry is thought to be more efficient (and therefore lower-cost) than civilian industry. One alternative approach is to estimate the cost in dollars of producing military goods, i.e. the amount it would cost to make them in America. Here we face several uncertainties: we can only roughly estimate the composition of the arms delivered to the Soviet Ministry of Defence; Soviet weapons are different from American weapons; and finally Soviet costs may not be similar to American costs.
   Methodology and concept: The issue here is related to the aim of the comparison which is undertaken. If it is to compare the cost to the Soviet economy of its military effort, Soviet prices are appropriate. If it is to compare the Soviet military establishment with that of the United States, roubles must be converted as far as possible into dollars. This is the comparison most relevant to The Military Balance. From this point of view one can well regard a Soviet private soldier as equal to an American private soldier. One therefore values each Soviet soldier at American rates of pay, which are many times higher than the amount the Soviet soldier receives. Similarly Soviet guns, tanks and missiles should be converted into dollars in terms of the equivalent American prices, making them worth a good deal more than their rouble value at the official exchange rate. It should be added that because the Soviet arms industry is relatively more efficient than other sectors of the Soviet economy, the rouble-dollar ratio applicable to it is higher than for the civilian sector, i.e. a rouble expended on weapons is worth more than a rouble spent on textiles, butter or bicycles.
   In view of all this, the `defence rouble' quoted here must be regarded as very rough and is used only because the official exchange rate is particularly misleading. The 0x08 graphic
rouble-dollar ratios used are derived from `unclassified' calculations made largely by US official agencies, with the methodology counter checked by reputable scholars.* In the absence of information from Soviet sources, this is the best estimate available.
   * Basic studies, carried out by Professor Morris Bomstein in `A Comparison of Soviet and United States National Product' in 1959 and used by Professor Benoit and Dr. Lubell in their Disarmament and World Economic Interdependence (New York: Columbia University Press, 1967) came to broadly similar conclusions (0-42 defence roubles = 1 dollar).
  
   ОЦЕНКА ВАЛОВОГО НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ПРОДУКТА (ВНП) И ВОЕННЫХ РАСХОДОВ СОВЕТСКОГО СОЮЗА
   I. Валовой Национальный Продукт
   Показатель ВНП СССР в 1969 году был получен путем экстраполяции сравнения ВНП СССР и США в 1955 году профессором Абрамом Бергсоном в свете роста производства в СССР и США в период с 1955 по 1969 год. Такая экстраполяция не является строго правильной процедурой сравнения национальных доходов и может дать лишь приблизительное представление об относительном размере ВНП США и СССР в 1969 году. Кроме того, он выражает среднее значение двух различных сравнений. Один из них - паритет покупательной способности рубля в долларовом выражении, оцениваемый по советской структуре производства. Альтернативное сравнение двух ВНП в рублях, используют результаты сравнения с американским производством. В долларах советский ВНП оценивается примерно в 62% ВНП США, в рублях - порядка 37%. 50% - это среднее между двумя. Этот метод является грубым, но является лучшим из того, что Милтон Гилберт в OEEC в 1958 году и статистический отдел комиссии ЕЭК смогли достичь для сравнения между западными экономиками.
   II. Военные Расходы
   Обменный курс 0.40 - 0.50 рублей = 1 доллар США для расходов на оборону СССР приведен в виде диапазона, учитывающего тот факт, что сравнения могут быть только приблизительными. При оценке "оборонного рубля" существуют две проблемы: недостаток информации и неоднозначность методологии и концепции.
   Информация: в советском бюджете каждый год приводится цифра "оборонных расходов" на предстоящий год. Оборонные расходы за 1969 год составило 17,7 млрд рублей (в последние годы фактически потраченная на эти цели сумма, в отличие от планируемой оценки, не опубликована). Однако из оборонных расходов исключаются по меньшей мере две статьи. Первая и наиболее важная из них - это значительная часть военных исследований и разработок, значительная часть которых, как считается, финансируется за счет затрат на "науку". В 1969 году на все виды научных исследований потрачено 9 млрд рублей, в том числе и невоенные. У нас нет точных цифр, на основе которых можно было бы судить о том, сколько из вышеперечисленного посвящено военным целям. Очень грубо говоря, мы считаем, что 4-5 млрд рублей вполне может быть. Второй и более мелкий пункт касается пограничников и других сил безопасности, которые не финансируются за счет оборонного бюджета. Если взять эти два пункта вместе, то было бы оправданно добавить примерно 30 процентов на оборону, что в 1969 году составило бы 23 миллиарда рублей.
   Следующая проблема в том, сколько стоит "военный рубль". Цены на военные товары не публикуются. Приблизительная численность Вооруженных сил известна, и поэтому (в пределах разумной степени точности) является их оплатой и прожиточным минимумом. Но стоимость материальных закупок должна рассчитываться косвенно. Это может быть предпринято `по аналогии", т. е. путем расчета отношения рубля к гражданскому имуществу. Однако эти соотношения весьма различны, и некоторые виды вооружений не имеют никакого сходства ни с одной гражданской машиной, и в любом случае считается, что оружейная промышленность является более эффективной (и поэтому более дешевой), чем гражданская промышленность. Один из альтернативных подходов заключается в оценке затрат в долларах на производство военных товаров, т. е. той суммы, которую это стоило бы сделать в Америке. Здесь мы сталкиваемся с некоторыми неопределенностями: мы можем лишь приблизительно оценить состав оружия, поставляемого в советское министерство обороны; советское оружие отличается от американского; и, наконец, советские расходы могут быть не похожи на американские.
   Методология и концепция: данный вопрос связан с целью проводимого сопоставления. Если сравнивать затраты советской экономики на ее военные усилия, то советские цены вполне уместны. Если сравнивать советский военный истеблишмент с американским, то рубли нужно по возможности конвертировать в доллары. Это сравнение наиболее актуально для военного баланса. С этой точки зрения Советский рядовой вполне может считаться равным американскому рядовому. Поэтому каждый советский солдат ценится по американским ставкам оплаты, которые во много раз превышают сумму, которую получает советский солдат. Точно так же советские пушки, танки и ракеты должны быть конвертированы в доллары по эквивалентным американским ценам, что делает их намного дороже, чем их рублевая стоимость по официальному обменному курсу. Следует добавить, что поскольку советская оружейная промышленность относительно более эффективна, чем другие отрасли советской экономики, применимое к ней отношение рубля к доллару выше, чем к гражданскому сектору, т. е. рубль, потраченный на оружие, стоит больше, чем рубль, потраченный на текстиль, масло или велосипеды.
   В связи со всем этим "оборонный рубль", который здесь приводится, должен рассматриваться как очень грубый и используется только потому, что официальный обменный курс вводит в заблуждение. Используемые соотношения рубль-доллар являются производными от несекретных расчетов во многом за официальных учреждений США, с методологией проверенной авторитетными учеными.* В отсутствие информации из советских источников это наилучшая оценка.
   * Фундаментальные исследования, проведенные профессором Моррисом Бомштейном в 1959 году в "сравнении советского и американского национального продукта" и использованные профессором Бенуа и доктором Любеллом в исследованиях по разоружению и мировой экономической взаимозависимости (Нью-Йорк: Columbia University Press, 1967), пришли к схожим выводам (0-42 оборонных рубля = 1 доллар).
  

The European Balance

THE WARSAW PACT

   The Warsaw Pact is a multilateral military alliance formed by a `Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Assistance and Co-operation', which was signed in Warsaw on 14 May 1955 by the Governments of the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Rumania. Albania denounced the Pact in September 1968, having played no part since 1960.
   In addition to the Warsaw Treaty, the Soviet Union is linked by bilateral mutual aid treaties with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and East Germany. Most present members of the Warsaw Pact also have bilateral treaties with each other and these have been recently renewed. The Soviet Union concluded status-of-forces agreements with Poland, East Germany, Rumania and Hungary between December 1956 and May 1957 and with Czechoslovakia in October 1968; all these remain in effect except the one with Rumania which lapsed in June 1958 when Soviet troops left Rumania. The essence of East European defence arrangements is not therefore dependent on the Warsaw Treaty as such.
   The Warsaw Treaty Organization consists of two main bodies, the Political Consultative Committee and the Joint High Command of the Warsaw Pact Forces, both of which have their offices in Moscow. The Political Consultative Committee consists of the First Secretaries of the Communist Party, Heads of Government and the Foreign and Defence Ministers of the member-countries. It met four times in the year up to July 1970, at which point there had been fifteen meetings in all. The Committee has established a Joint Secretariat, consisting of a specially appointed official from each country, and a Permanent Commission, whose task is to make recommendations on general questions of foreign policy for members of the Pact. Both these bodies are located in Moscow, with a majority of Russian officials.
   According to the Treaty, the Joint High Command is directed `to strengthen the defensive capability of the Warsaw Pact, to prepare military plans in case of war and to decide on the deployment of troops'. The Command consists of a Commander-in-Chief, a Defence Committee made up of the six Defence Ministers of the Pact, which acts as an advisory body, and a Main Staff which is being enlarged by additional non-Soviet senior officers. The post of Commander-in-Chief of the Joint High Command has always been held by Soviet officers; the Chief of Staff is always a member of the Soviet General Staff.
   The bulk of the ground forces of the Warsaw Pact is provided by the Soviet Union. They are organized as the Northern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Legnica in Poland; the Southern Group of Forces, with headquarters at Tokol, near Budapest; the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, with headquarters at Wiinsdorf, near East Berlin, and the Central Group of Forces, consisting of five divisions in Czechoslovakia, with headquarters at Milovice. These forces total 31 divisions, of which about half are tank divisions. Most East European countries have displayed short-range surface-to-surface missile launchers, but there is no evidence that nuclear warheads for these missiles have been supplied to the countries concerned.
   Soviet tactical air forces in the Warsaw Pact area are stationed in Poland, East Germany, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The air forces of the other Pact members, which consist partly of fighter-interceptors and partly of ground-support aircraft but do not include any medium- or long-range bombers, would be subordinate to High Command in the event of war. There is an air defence system including fighter aircraft, surface-to-air missiles and warning radars covering the whole Warsaw Pact area, whose command is centralized in Moscow and which is directed by the C-in-C of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Soviet MRBMs and other strategic weapons are based in the Soviet Union and remain under Soviet control.
  

ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   Варшавский договор - это многосторонний военный союз, образованный на основе "Договора о дружбе, взаимной помощи и сотрудничестве", который был подписан в Варшаве 14 мая 1955 года правительствами Советского Союза, Албании, Болгарии, Чехословакии, ГДР, Венгрии, Польши и Румынии. Албания денонсировала пакт в сентябре 1968 года, не играя никакой роли с 1960 года.
   Помимо Варшавского договора, Советский Союз связан двусторонними договорами о взаимопомощи с Болгарией, Чехословакией, Венгрией, Польшей, Румынией и ГДР. Большинство нынешних членов Варшавского договора также имеют двусторонние договоры друг с другом, которые недавно были возобновлены. Советский Союз заключил соглашения о статусе своих сил с Польшей, Восточной Германией, Румынией и Венгрией в период с декабря 1956 года по май 1957 года и с Чехословакией в октябре 1968 года; все они остаются в силе, за исключением соглашения с Румынией, которое истекло в июне 1958 года, когда советские войска покинули Румынию. Таким образом, суть восточноевропейских оборонных договоренностей не зависит от Варшавского договора как такового.
   Организации Варшавского Договора состоит из двух основных органов политического консультативного комитета и Объединенного командования войск Варшавского договора, оба из которых имеют свои представительства в Москве. В состав политического консультативного комитета входят первые секретари Коммунистической партии, главы правительств и министры иностранных дел и обороны стран-членов. До июля 1970 года она собиралась четыре раза, и на тот момент всего было проведено пятнадцать заседаний. Комитет учредил совместный Секретариат, состоящий из специально назначенного должностного лица от каждой страны, и постоянную комиссию, задача которой состоит в вынесении рекомендаций по общим вопросам внешней политики для членов договора. Оба эти органа находятся в Москве, где большинство российских чиновников.
   Согласно договору, Объединенному Верховному Командованию поручено `укрепить оборонительный потенциал Варшавского договора, подготовить военные планы на случай войны и принять решение о размещении войск". Командование состоит из главнокомандующего, Комитета Обороны в составе шести министров обороны пакта, который действует в качестве консультативного органа, и Главного штаба, который расширяется за счет дополнительных старших офицеров, не являющихся советскими. Должность главнокомандующего Объединенным Верховным Командованием всегда занимали советские офицеры, начальник штаба всегда член Советского Генерального штаба.
   Основную часть сухопутных войск Варшавского договора обеспечивает Советский Союз. Они состоят из Северной группы войск, со штаб-квартирой в городе Легница в Польше; Южной группы войск, со штаб-квартирой в Токоле, под Будапештом; группы советских войск в Германии, со штаб-квартирой в Винсдорф, возле Восточного Берлина, и Центральной группы войск в составе пяти дивизий в Чехословакии, со штаб-квартирой в Миловице. Эти силы насчитывают 31 дивизию, из которых около половины составляют танковые дивизии. В большинстве восточноевропейских стран имеются пусковые установки ракет малой дальности "земля-земля", однако нет никаких свидетельств того, что соответствующие страны получили ядерные боеголовки для этих ракет.
   Советские тактические военно-воздушные силы в районе Варшавского договора дислоцируются в Польше, ГДР, Венгрии и Чехословакии. Военно-воздушные силы других членов пакта, которые состоят частично из истребителей-перехватчиков и частично из самолетов наземной поддержки, но не включают бомбардировщиков средней или большой дальности, будут подчиняться высшему командованию в случае войны. Есть система ПВО, включая истребители, зенитные ракеты и радары предупреждения, охватывающая весь Варшавский договор, командование которой находится в Москве и которая управляется командующим советских сил противовоздушной обороны. Советские БРСД и другие стратегические вооружения в СССР и остаются под советским контролем.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,500,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Navy and Air Force, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 149,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $8.3 billion.
Estimated Defence expenditure 1970: 324 million leva ($279,000,000). 1.16 leva =$1.
Army Total strength: 130,000.
   5 tank divisions.
   8 motorized rifle divisions (of which 3 are in cadre form).
   Some JS-3 and T-10 heavy tanks.
   Over 2,000 medium tanks, mainly T-54s, with some T-34s and T-55s.
   PT-76 light tanks; BTR-40P amphibious scout cars, BTR-50, BTR-60 and BTR-152 APCs.
   Over 1,000 85mm, 122mm, 152mm and 203mm guns and howitzers.
   SU-100 and JSU 122mm SP guns.
   FROG surface-to-surface missiles.
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-tank guns.
   2 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile battalions.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   2 submarines.
   2 escorts.
   8 coastal escorts.
   2 minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers. `
   8 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   10 landing craft.
   A small Danube flotilla.
Air Force Total strength: 12,000; 290 combat aircraft.
   5 ground-support squadrons with MiG-17s.
   2 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21 s.
   6 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19s.
   4 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Il-28s.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-17Cs. (There are 12 aircraft in a Bulgarian combat squadron.)
   4 Li-2 Cab, 6 Il-12 and 20 Il-14 transports.
   About 30 Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
   1 parachute regiment.
Para-military forces 170.000 including border troops.
   A volunteer People's Militia of 150,000.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,475,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, 3 years. .
Total regular forces: 168,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $28.3 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 13,900 million crowns ($1,635,000,000). 8.5 crowns = $1.
Army Total strength: 150,000.
   5 tank divisions.
   8 motorized rifle divisions.
   2 airborne brigades.
   (With the exception of some cadre divisions at about 30 per cent strength, these units are at about 70 per cent of full strength.)
   About 500 JS-3 and T-10 heavy tanks.
   About 2,900 medium tanks, mostly T-55s with some T-62s. (T-54s and T-34s are being phased out.)
   PT-76 light tanks.
   OT-65 and FUG-1966 scout cars.
   BTR-50P, BTR-152, OT-62 and OT-64 APCs. SU-100, JSU-122, JSU-152 SP guns.
   82mm and 100mm mortars.
   FROG and SCUD surface-to-surface missiles.
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-tank guns.
   ZSU-57-2 SP anti-aircraft guns.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Air Force Total strength: 18,000; 620 combat aircraft.
   40 MiG-17, 60 Il-28, 150 Su-7 and 80 MiG-15 ground support aircraft.
   40 MiG-17, 100 MiG-19 and 150 MiG-21 interceptors.
   About 65 Li-2 Cab, An-12, Il-14 and Il-18 transport aircraft.
   About 100 Mi-1, Mi-4, Mi-6 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   Over 300 training aircraft, including 150 L-29s.
Para-military forces 35.000 including 15,000 border troops.
   There is also a part-time People's Militia of about 90,000, which it is planned to increase to at least 250,000.
  
   GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 17,150,000.
Military service: Army, 18 months; Navy and Air Force, 2 years.
Total regular forces: 129,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $32 billion.
Defence budget 1970 : 6,747 million ostmarks ($1,990,000,000). 3.39 ostmarks = $1.
Army Total strength: 92,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   4 motorized rifle divisions.
   About 100 T-10 and JS-3 heavy tanks.
   About 1,800 medium tanks, mostly T-54s and T-55s, with some T-34s.
   PT-76 light tanks; SK-1 armoured cars; BTR- 40P amphibious scout cars.
   BTR-50P, BTR-60P and BTR-152 APCs.
   85mm, 100mm, 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns.
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-tank guns. ZSU-57-2 SP anti-aircraft guns.
   57mm and 100mm anti-aircraft guns.
   FROG and SCUD surface-to-surface missiles.
Navy Total strength: 16,000.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   24 coastal escorts.
   12 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   70 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   14 minesweepers.
   38 inshore minesweepers.
   18 landing craft.
   A small number of Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 21,000; 275 combat aircraft.
   7 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s and MiG-19s.
   11 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21s.
   (There are up to 16 aircraft in an East German combat squadron.)
   20 transport aircraft, including An-2 and Il-14. 30 Mi-1 Hare and Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
   The Air Force includes an anti-aircraft division of 9,000 consisting of 5 regiments, equipped with approximately
   150 anti-aircraft guns (57mm and 100mm) and over 200 SA-2 Guideline surface-to- air missiles.
Para-military forces 52,500 border troops, including a Border Command separate from the regular army.
   21000 security troops.
   The Betriebskampfgruppen, an armed workers' organization, number about 350,000.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,325,000.
Military service: 3 years maximum.
Total regular forces: 101,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $13.5 billion.
Defence appropriations 1970: 8,900 million forints ($511,000,000). 17.4 forints = $1.
Army Total strength: 90,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   4 motorized rifle divisions.
   T-10 heavy tanks. About 750 medium tanks, mainly T-55s, with some T-54s. PT-76 light tanks.
   FUG-A armoured cars: OT-65 scout cars. OT-64, OT-66 and BTR-152 APCs.
   76mm, 85mm and 122mm guns, and 122mm howitzers.
   57mm anti-tank guns.
   FROG surface-to-surface missiles.
Navy Total strength: 1,500.
   There is a Danube flotilla of:
   4 gunboats.
   40 small minesweepers.
   30 small patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 10,000; 150 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber squadron with Il-28s.
   10 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19s and MiG-21s.
   About 20 An-2, Il-14 and Li-2 transport aircraft.
   About 10 Mi-1 Hare and Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
   5 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile battalions.
Para-military forces 35.000 security troops and border guards.
   A workers' militia of 125,000.
  
   POLAND
Population: 32,800,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special services, 3 years; Internal security forces, 27 months.
Total regular forces: 242,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $40.5 billion.
Defence appropriations 1970: 35,300 million zloty ($2,220,000,000). 15.9 zloty = $1.
Army Total strength: 195,000.
   5 tank divisions. .
   8 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 airborne division.
   1 amphibious assault division.
   (All divisions are maintained at 70 per cent of full strength, except those in the Warsaw military district which are at 30 to 50% strength).
   30 JS-3 and T-10 heavy tanks.
   2,800 medium tanks, mostly T-54s and T-55s with some T-34s.
   About 150 PT-76 light tanks.
   FUG-A armoured cars and BTR-40P amphibious scout cars.
   BTR-50P, BTR-152, OT-62 and OT-64 APCs. FROG and SCUD surface-to-surface missiles. 57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-tank guns.
   ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP anti-aircraft guns. 57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-aircraft guns.
   300 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 22,000.
   5 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   26 coastal escorts/submarine chasers.
   12 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   20 torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   24 fleet minesweepers.
   35 inshore minesweepers.
   24 landing ships.
   50 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17s, with a few Il-28 light bombers, and some helicopters.
   Samlet cruise missiles for coastal defence.
Air Force Total strength: 25,000; 750 combat aircraft. (There are from 8-12 aircraft in a Polish squadron.)
   6 light bomber squadrons with Il-28s.
   12 ground support squadrons with MiG-17s and Su-7s.
   45 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17s, MiG-19s and MiG-21s.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with MiG-15s and MiG-17s.
   About 40 An-2, An-12, Il-12, Il-14, Il-18 and Li-2 transport aircraft.
   40 helicopters, including Mi-1 Hares and Mi-4 Hounds.
   About 300 training aircraft.
Para-military forces 45,000 security and border troops, including the armoured brigades of the Frontier Defence Force,
   operating 20 small patrol boats.
  
   RUMANIA
Population: 20,000,000.
Military service: Army, 16 months; Navy and Air Force, 2 years.
Total regular forces: 181,000. .
Estimated GNP 1969: $20 billion.
Defence appropriations 1970: 7,000 million lei ($745,000,000). 9.4 lei = $1.
Army Total strength: 165,000.
   2 tank divisions.
   6 motorized rifle divisions.
   1 airborne regiment.
   A mountain corps, equivalent in strength to a division.
   (The Army is at about 90 per cent of full strength.)
   A few JS-3 and T-10 heavy tanks.
   1,450 T-34, T-54 and T-55 medium tanks.
   SU-100 SP guns.
   About 900 BTR-40, BTR-50P and BTR-152 APCs.
   76mm, 122mm and 152mm guns.
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-tank guns.
   37mm, 57mm and 100mm anti-aircraft guns.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   3 coastal escorts.
   4 minesweepers.
   22 inshore minesweepers.
   5 Osa-class missile patrol boats.
   12 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   8 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 8,000 ; 250 combat aircraft.
   18 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19s and MiG-21 s.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with Il-28s.
   2 transport squadrons with Il-12s, Il-14s and Li-2s.
   10 Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces 50,000, including border troops. A militia of about 75,000.
  

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

   Treaties
   In the decade following World War II, the Western powers entered into a number of security treaties for the defence of Europe. France and Britain signed the Treaty of Dunkirk in 1947; in 1948, a multilateral defence pact, the Brussels Treaty, was signed between Britain, France and the Benelux countries. The extension of Soviet influence and control in Eastern Europe led to the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty, in 1949, by Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States; Greece and Turkey joined in 1952 and West Germany in 1955. The Treaty unites Western Europe and North America in a commitment to consult together if the security of any one member is threatened, and to consider an armed attack against one as an attack against all, to be met by such action as each of them deems necessary, `including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area'.
   The Paris Agreements of 1954, which relate to the accession to the North Atlantic Treaty of West Germany, added a Protocol to the Treaty directed at strengthening the structure of NATO, and revised the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which now includes, in addition to its original members, Italy and West Germany. The parties to the Brussels Treaty are committed to give one another `all the military and other aid and assistance in their power' if they are the subject of `armed aggression in Europe'.
  
   North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
   The North Atlantic Council, which has its Headquarters in Brussels, consists of the Ministers of the fifteen member-countries who normally meet twice a year but, when in permanent session, consists of ambassadors representing each government. The 14-nation Defence Planning Committee, on which France does not sit, meets at the same levels and deals with questions related to NATO's integrated military planning and other matters in which France does not participate. The Secretary-General and an international staff advise on the politico- military, financial, economic and scientific aspects of defence planning.
   The Council's military advisers are the Military Committee, which gives policy direction to the NATO military commands. The Military Committee consists of the Chiefs of Staff of all member countries, except France and Iceland (France maintains a liaison staff with the Committee and Iceland is not represented); in permanent session the Chiefs of Staff are represented by Military Representatives who are located in Brussels together with the Council. The Military Committee has an independent Chairman and is served by an integrated, international military staff. The major NATO commanders are responsible to the Military Committee, although they also have direct access to the Council and heads of Governments.
   The principal military commands of NATO are the European, with its headquarters in Belgium, and the Atlantic, with its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. There is also a third major command, Allied Command Channel, with headquarters at Northwood, near London. The headquarters of the European Command, known as SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe), are at Casteau, near Mons, in south-west Belgium. Its Commander, SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander, Europe), has always been an American general. The Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT) has also always been American, and the Commander-in-Chief, Channel (CINCCHAN) has always been British.
   There is no allied command organization covering strategic nuclear forces as such, but the NATO European and Atlantic Commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System at Omaha, Nebraska, where the targeting of American bomber and missile forces is coordinated with NATO nuclear planning. The United States has committed a small number of Polaris submarines, and Britain her medium bomber force and Polaris submarines, to the planning control of SACEUR, and the United States a larger number of Polaris submarines to SACLANT. '
   Two permanent bodies for nuclear planning were established in 1966, the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC) and, subordinate to it, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG). Membership in the NDAC is open to all NATO members, but France, Iceland and Luxembourg do not take part. Its role is basically a meeting of Defence Ministers and it normally meets at ministerial level once or twice a year. A part of its intention is to associate nonnuclear members in the nuclear affairs of the alliance. The Secretary-General of NATO is Chairman of the NDAC.
   The Nuclear Planning Group has eight members, drawn from the NDAC, and is intended to go further into the details of topics raised in the NDAC. The members in June 1970 were Britain, Canada, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Turkey and the United States. The other countries which had participated earlier are Belgium, Denmark and Greece. Subjects under consideration have included levels of strategic nuclear forces, and the tactical uses of nuclear weapons, together with political guidelines for their initial defensive tactical use.
   The current strategic doctrine for NATO was adopted by the Defence Planning Committee (DPC) in December 1967. This envisaged that NATO would meet attacks on its territory with whatever force was required to defeat them, if need be including the use of nuclear weapons. There would be an emphasis, however, on having forces in being that would be able to meet these attacks at levels appropriate to them. Earlier, in May 1967, the DPC had given political and strategic guidance to NATO's military authorities; this included the concept of political warning time in a crisis and the possibility of distinguishing between an enemy's military capabilities and his political intentions.
   A NATO-wide communications system to facilitate political consultation both in planning and in crisis is being set up. A few of the ground terminals of the Skynet- type satellite network are due to come into operation during 1971. (The first satellite was launched in March 1970 and is now in position. New ways and means are being developed for collecting, evaluating and disseminating intelligence data.
  
   1. Allied Command Europe (ACE)
   Allied Command Europe is responsible for the defence of all NATO territory in Europe (including Turkey) except Britain, France, Iceland and Portugal. It also has general responsibility for the air defence of Britain. NATO responsibility for the defence of Iceland and Portuguese coastal-waters is undertaken by the Atlantic Command.
   The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR), is also Commander-in-Chief of United States Forces in Europe, whose headquarters are in Stuttgart. Deputy SACEUR is British; the posts of Deputy for Nuclear Affairs and Air Deputy are now defunct.
   The European Command has some 7,000 tactical nuclear warheads in its area, and the number of delivery vehicles (aircraft and missiles) is about 2,250, spread among a number of countries. The nuclear explosives themselves, however, are maintained in American custody. The average explosive yield of the bombs stockpiled in Europe for the use of NATO tactical aircraft is about 100 kilotons, and of the missile warheads, 20 kilotons.
   Forces trained and equipped for the defence of the NATO European area are available to SACEUR; there are about 58 division equivalents available to the Command in peacetime. Further reinforcement divisions could be brought forward if time allowed. The Command has some 3,100 tactical aircraft, based on about 150 standard NATO airfields and backed up by a system of jointly financed storage depots, fuel pipelines and signal communications.
   The 2nd French Corps of two divisions is stationed in Germany, and co-operation between them and NATO forces and commands has been agreed between the commanders concerned. Their presence in Germany is the subject of a status agreement reached between the French and German Governments. France is participating in the improved air defence and radar system being built by the NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE) consortium. All NATO military units and commands, including logistics units, have left French soil. Permission to fly over France is at present given to air forces of the members on a yearly basis.
   A task force, the ACE Mobile Force (AMF), has been formed to act under certain circumstances as a mobile force for NATO as a whole, with particular reference to the northern or south-eastern flanks of the NATO area. By the end of 1970 it will consist of 8 infantry battalion groups, an armoured reconnaissance squadron and ground-support fighter squadrons, and is found by eight countries.
   The following Commands are subordinate to Allied Command Europe:
  
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) has command of both the land forces and the air forces in the Central European Sector. Its headquarters are at Brunssum, in the Netherlands province of Limburg, and its Commander (CINCENT) is a German general.
   The ground defences of the Central European Command include 21 divisions assigned by six countries. All assigned forces with the exception of some Dutch, Belgian and British units and some logistic units, are based in Germany.
   The tactical air forces available consist of about 1,800 aircraft, of which about 375 are USAF fighter-bombers. These include British Canberras, Canadian CF-104s and the F-104Gs of the German and other air forces. American and German forces are equipped with Sergeant and Pershing surface-to-surface missiles at corps and army level, and a number of countries have Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles at divisional level. An integrated early-warning and air-defence system has been developed for Britain, West Germany, the Low Countries and north-eastern France. Hawk and Nike Hercules surface-to-air missile battalions have been deployed in the Command.
   The Command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) and Central Army Group (CENTAG). Northern Army Group is responsible for the defence of the sector north of the Gottingen-Liege axis. It includes the British, Belgian and Dutch divisions, four of the German divisions and the Canadian battle group. It is supported by Second Allied Tactical Air Force, which is composed of British, Dutch, Belgian and German units. The American forces and seven German divisions are under the Central Army Group, supported by the Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force which includes American, German and Canadian units, and an American Army Air Defence Command.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) has its headquarters at Kolsaas in Norway and is responsible for the defence of Norway, Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic Approaches. The Commander is a British general. Most of the Danish and Norwegian land, sea and tactical air forces are earmarked for it, and most of their active reserves are assigned to it. Germany has assigned one division (stationed in Schleswig), two combat air wings and her Baltic fleet.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) has its headquarters in Naples, and its Commander (CINCSOUTH) is an American admiral. It is responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece and Turkey, and for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and the Turkish territorial waters of the Black Sea. The land forces assigned to it include 14 divisions from Turkey, 12 from Greece and 7 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other formations from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as have the United States Sixth Fleet, which would become Strike Force South in the event of war, and certain naval and maritime forces of Greece, Italy, Turkey and Britain. For geographical reasons the ground-defence system is based on two separate commands: the Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, and the South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey. There is, however, an overall air command and a single naval command (NAVSOUTH), responsible to AFSOUTH: its headquarters are in Malta and its Commander is an Italian admiral.
   A special air surveillance unit, Maritime Air Forces Mediterranean (MARAIRMED), is now operating Italian, British and American patrol aircraft from bases in Greece, Turkey, Sicily, Malta and Italy. French aircraft are participating in these operations. It is designed to intensify aerial observation of Soviet fleets in the Mediterranean and Near East. Its Commander, an American rear-admiral, is immediately responsible to CINCSOUTH.
   The Allied On-Call Naval Force for the Mediterranean (NAVOCFORMED), when called together, has a force of at least three destroyers, contributed by Italy, Britain and the United States, and three smaller ships provided by other countries present in the Mediterranean, depending upon the area of operation.
  
   2. Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT)
   The Atlantic Allied Command has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia. In the event of war, the duties of Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT), who is an American admiral, with a British deputy, are (a) to participate in the strategic strike and (b) to protect sea communications from attack by hostile forces. With the exception of Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT), SACLANT has no forces permanently assigned to his command in peacetime; However, for training purposes and in the event of war, forces are earmarked by Britain, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal and the United States for assignment. Although these forces are predominantly naval, they also include ground forces and land-based air forces. (France no longer provides any forces, but there are arrangements for co-operation between French naval forces and those of SACLANT.) SACLANT is responsible for the North Atlantic area from the North Pole to the Tropic of Cancer, including Portuguese coastal waters. There are five subordinate commands: Western Atlantic Command, Eastern Atlantic Command, Iberian Atlantic Command, Striking Fleet Atlantic and Submarine Command. The nucleus of the Striking Fleet Atlantic has been provided by the American Second Fleet with up to six attack carriers, but their nuclear role is partly sHared with the missile-firing submarines.
   The multi-national naval squadron of escort ships known as STANAVFORLANT comes under the authority of SACLANT. It normally consists, at any one time, of four destroyer- type ships; by the middle of 1970, seven countries (Britain, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States) had at various times taken part.
   There are about 350 escort vessels serving in the navies that come under SACLANT, of which a high proportion are wholly or partly designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Most NATO navies are equipping and training their submarine forces primarily for ASW and over 100 submarines are potentially available in the Atlantic for such duties. The NATO powers also have about 300 long-range land-based maritime patrol planes in operation, a large majority of which are stationed on or near American coasts. The American Navy possesses about 800 carrier-borne specialist anti-submarine fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. The overall total that could be quickly operational from all carriers on Atlantic sea stations is probably around 350. (These figures include units earmarked for Channel Command.)
   3. Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN) The wartime role of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are earmarked for this Command, as are some maritime aircraft. France does not provide any forces, but there are arrangements for co-operation between French naval forces and those of ACCHAN. The Commander (CINCCHAN) is a British admiral who also acts as the major Subordinate Commander, Eastern Atlantic Area, under SACLANT and has his headquarters at Northwood, Middlesex. The Channel Committee, consisting of the naval Chiefs-of-Staff of the three countries concerned, acts as an advisory body to CINCCHAN.
  
   СЕВЕРОАТЛАНТИЧЕСКИЙ ДОГОВОР
   Договоры
   В течение десятилетия после Второй мировой войны западные державы заключили ряд договоров о безопасности в целях обороны Европы. Франция и Великобритания подписали Дюнкеркский договор в 1947 году; в 1948 году был подписан многосторонний оборонный пакт, Брюссельский договор, между Великобританией, Францией и странами Бенилюкса. Расширение советского влияния и контроля в Восточной Европе привело к подписанию Североатлантического договора в 1949 году Бельгией, Великобританией, Канадой, Данией, Францией, Исландией, Италией, Люксембургом, Нидерландами, Норвегией, Португалией и Соединенными Штатами; Греция и Турция присоединились в 1952 году, а Западная Германия-в 1955 году. Объединенные договором страны Западной Европы и Северной Америки взяли на себя обязательство консультироваться друг с другом, если один из участников находится под угрозой, и рассматривать вооруженное нападение на одну как нападение на всех, и должны быть выполнены такие действия, какие каждый из них сочтет необходимым, включая применение вооруженной силы с целью восстановления и последующего сохранения безопасности Североатлантического региона'
   Парижские соглашения 1954 года, которые касаются присоединения к Североатлантическому договору Западной Германии, добавили в договор протокол, направленный на укрепление структуры НАТО, и пересмотрели Брюссельский договор 1948 года, который теперь включает, помимо его первоначальных членов, Италию и Западную Германию. Стороны Брюссельского договора обязуются оказывать друг другу "всю военную и иную помощь и содействие в их силах", если они являются объектом "вооруженной агрессии в Европе".
  
   Организация Североатлантического договора (НАТО)
   Североатлантический совет, штаб-квартира которого находится в Брюсселе, состоит из министров пятнадцати стран-членов, которые обычно встречаются два раза в год, но на постоянной сессии состоят из послов, представляющих каждое правительство. Комитет по оборонному планированию в составе 14 государств, в котором Франция не заседает, заседает на тех же уровнях и занимается вопросами, связанными с комплексным военным планированием НАТО, и другими вопросами, в которых Франция не участвует. Генеральный секретарь и международный персонал консультируют по военно-политическим, финансовым, экономическим и научным аспектам оборонного планирования.
   Военные советники Совета являются военным комитетом, который осуществляет политическое руководство военным командованиям НАТО. Военный комитет состоит из начальников штабов всех государств-членов, за исключением Франции и Исландии (Франция поддерживает связь с комитетом, а Исландия не представлена); на постоянной сессии начальники штабов представлены военными представителями, которые находятся в Брюсселе вместе с Советом. Военный комитет имеет независимого председателя и обслуживается интегрированным международным военным персоналом. Главные командующие НАТО несут ответственность перед Военным комитетом, хотя они также имеют прямой доступ к Совету и главам правительств.
   Основными военными командованиями НАТО являются Европейское, со штаб-квартирой в Бельгии и Атлантическое, со штаб-квартирой в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. Существует также третье основное командование, Канала, со штаб-квартирой в Нортвуде, недалеко от Лондона. Штаб Европейского командования, известный как SHAPE (Верховный штаб союзных держав в Европе), находятся в Касто, недалеко от Монса, на юго-западе Бельгии. Его командующий, SACEUR (Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО в Европе), всегда был американским генералом. Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО на Атлантике (ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике) также всегда была американец, а командующий Каналом (CINCCHAN) всегда был англичан.
   Нет никакой организации Союзного Командования, занимающейся стратегическими ядерными силами как таковыми, но Европейское и Атлантическое командования НАТО участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования в Омахе, Небраска, где нацеливание американских бомбардировщиков и ракет координируется с ядерным планированием НАТО. Соединенные Штаты передали небольшое количество подводных лодок Polaris и Великобритания средне-бомбардировочную авиацию и подводные лодки Polaris, в управление планирования ВГК ОВС НАТО в Европе и Соединенных Штатах большого числа подводных лодок Polaris в ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике. "
   В 1966 году были учреждены два постоянных органа по ядерному планированию - Комитет по делам ядерной обороны (NDAC) и подчиненная ему группа ядерного планирования (NPG). Членство в NDAC открыто для всех членов НАТО, но Франция, Исландия и Люксембург не принимают участия. Его роль заключается в основном в проведении совещаний министров обороны, которые обычно проводятся на уровне министров один или два раза в год. Частью его намерения является вовлечение неядерных членов в ядерные дела Североатлантического союза. Генеральный секретарь НАТО является председателем NDAC.
   Группа по ядерному планированию состоит из восьми членов, представляющих NDAC, и намерена более подробно рассмотреть темы, поднятые в NDAC. Членами в июне 1970 года были Великобритания, Канада, Германия, Италия, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Турция и Соединенные Штаты. Другими странами, которые участвовали раньше, были Бельгия, Дания и Греция. Рассматриваемые темы включают уровни стратегических ядерных сил и тактическое применение ядерного оружия, а также политические руководящие принципы их первоначального оборонительного тактического применения.
   Новая стратегическая доктрина НАТО была принята комитетом оборонного планирования (DPC) в декабре 1967 года. Это предусматривало, что НАТО будет отвечать на нападения на своей территории с любой силой, необходимой для их поражения, в случае необходимости, включая применение ядерного оружия. Бы упор, однако, чтобы выполнить эти нападения на уровне, соответствующих ему. Ранее, в мае 1967 года, DPC дал политическое и стратегическое руководство военным властям НАТО; это включало концепцию времени политического предупреждения в условиях кризиса и возможность проведения различия между военным потенциалом противника и его политическими намерениями.
   Создается общесистемная система связи НАТО для содействия политическим консультациям как в процессе планирования, так и в кризисных ситуациях. Несколько наземных терминалов спутниковой сети типа Skynet должны быть введены в эксплуатацию в 1971 году. Первый спутник был запущен в марте 1970 года и в настоящее время находится на позиции. Разрабатываются новые пути и средства сбора, оценки и распространения разведывательных данных.
  
   1. Командование ОВС НАТО в Европе (ACE)
   Командование НАТО в Европе отвечает за оборону всей территории НАТО в Европе (включая Турцию), за исключением Великобритании, Франции, Исландии и Португалии. Он также несет общую ответственность за противовоздушную оборону Великобритании. Ответственность НАТО за оборону Исландии и португальских прибрежных вод несет Атлантическое командование.
   Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС НАТО в Европе (SACEUR) также является главнокомандующим силами Соединенных Штатов в Европе, штаб-квартира которых находится в Штутгарте. Заместитель ВГК ОВС НАТО в Европе британский; должности заместителя по ядерным вопросам и по воздушным перевозкам отменены.
   Европейское командование имеет около 7000 тактических ядерных боеголовок в своем районе, а количество средств доставки (самолетов и ракет) составляет около 2250, распределенных среди ряда стран. Однако сами ядерные заряды находятся под американским контролем. В среднем мощность бомб, складированных в Европе для тактической авиации НАТО, составляет около 100 килотонн, а ракетных боеголовок, 20 килотонн.
   Силы, подготовленные и оснащенные для обороны Европейского региона НАТО, доступны для SACEUR; насчитывают около 58 дивизий эквивалентных, доступных для командования в мирное время. Если позволит время, можно было бы добиться дальнейшего укрепления подразделений. Командование располагает 3100 тактическими самолетами, базирующимися примерно на 150 стандартных аэродромах НАТО и обеспеченных системой совместно финансируемых складов, топливопроводов и связью.
   2-й французский корпус из двух дивизий дислоцируется в Германии, и сотрудничество между ними и силами и командованием НАТО было согласовано между соответствующими командирами. Их присутствие в Германии является предметом соглашения о статусе достигнутой между правительствами Франции и Германии. Франция участвует в совершенствовании системы противовоздушной обороны и радиолокации, создаваемой консорциумом НАТО по наземной ПВО (NADGE). Все воинские части и командования НАТО, включая подразделения тылового обеспечения, покинули французскую территорию. Разрешение на полеты над Францией в настоящее время предоставляется военно-воздушным силам государств-членов на ежегодной основе.
   Была сформирована целевая группа Мобильные силы ACE (AMF), которая при определенных обстоятельствах будет действовать в качестве мобильных сил для НАТО в целом с уделением особого внимания северным или юго-восточным флангам района НАТО. К концу 1970 года она будет состоять из 8 пехотных батальонных групп, бронетанкового разведывательного эскадрона и эскадрилий истребителей наземной поддержки, и будет находиться в восьми странах.
   В подчинении командования ОВС НАТО в Европе находятся:
   (a) Силы союзников в Центральной Европе (AFCENT) командование как сухопутными, так и военно-воздушными силами в центральноевропейском секторе. Его штаб-квартира находится в Брунсуме, в нидерландской провинции Лимбург, а его командующий (CINCENT) - немецкий генерал.
   Наземная оборона Центральноевропейского командования включает 21 дивизию, назначенную шестью странами. Все назначенные силы, за исключением некоторых голландских, бельгийских и британских подразделений и некоторых подразделений тылового обеспечения, базируются в Германии.
   Тактические военно-воздушные силы состоят из около 1800 самолетов, из которых около 375 истребителей-бомбардировщиков ВВС США. Есть также британские Canberra, канадские CF-104 и F-104G немецких и других военно-воздушных сил. Американские и немецкие войска оснащены сержантскими и Pershing ракетами класса "земля-земля" на уровне корпуса и армии, а ряд стран имеют честные ракеты класса "земля-поверхность" John на дивизионном уровне. Американские и немецкие войска оснащены ракетами Sergeant и Pershing класса "земля-земля" на корпусном и армейском уровне, а в ряде стран имеются ракеты Honest John и ядерная артиллерия дивизионного уровня. Комплексная система раннего предупреждения и противовоздушной обороны была разработана для Великобритании, Западной Германии, низких стран и северо-восточной Франции. В составе Командования развернуты зенитные ракетные батальоны Hawk и Nike Hercules.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную группу армий (NORTHAG) и Центральную группы армий (CENTAG). Северная группа армий отвечает за оборону сектора к северу от оси Геттинген-Льеж. В нее входят британские, бельгийские и голландские дивизии, 4 немецкие дивизии и канадская бригада. Она поддерживается 2-ми союзных тактическими ВВС, которые состоят из британских, голландских, бельгийских и немецких подразделений. Американские войска и 7 германских дивизий в Центральной группе армий, поддерживаются 4-ми союзническими тактическими ВВС, которые включает американские, немецкие и канадские части, и американское командование ПВО.
   (b) Силы союзников в Северной Европе (AFNORTH) имеют штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе в Норвегии и отвечают за оборону Норвегии, Дании, Шлезвиг-Гольштейнского и Балтийского подходов. Командующий британский генерал. Большая часть сухопутных, морских и тактических военно-воздушных сил Дании и Норвегии предназначена для него, и большая часть их активных резервов закреплена за ним. Германия назначила одну дивизию (дислоцированную в Шлезвиге), два боевых воздушных крыла и свой Балтийский флот.
   (b) Силы союзников в Южной Европе (AFSOUTH) со штаб-квартирой в Неаполе, их командующий (CINCSOUTH) - американский адмирал. Она отвечает за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции, а также за охрану коммуникаций в Средиземном море и турецких территориальных водах Черного моря. В состав сухопутных войск входят 14 дивизий из Турции, 12 из Греции и 7 из Италии, а также тактические военно-воздушные силы этих стран. Другие формирования из этих трех стран, а также 6-ой флот Соединенных Штатов, который станет ударной силой на юге в случае войны, и некоторые военно-морские и морские силы Греции, Италии, Турции и Великобритании были предназначены для AFSOUTH. По географическим причинам система наземной обороны базируется на двух отдельных командованиях: Южном, включающем Италию и подходы к ней, и Юго-Восточном, включающем Грецию и Турцию. Существует, однако, общее воздушное командование и единое военно-морское командование (NAVSOUTH), ответственное перед AFSOUTH: его штаб-квартира находится на Мальте, а его командующий - итальянский адмирал.
   Специальное подразделение воздушного наблюдения Военно-Морских Сил Средиземноморья (MARAIRMED) в настоящее время использует итальянские, британские и американские патрульные самолеты с баз в Греции, Турции, Сицилии, Мальте и Италии. Французская авиация участвует в этих операциях. Они предназначены для интенсификации воздушного наблюдения за советским флотом в Средиземном море и на Ближнем Востоке. Его командир, американский контр-адмирал, несет ответственность перед CINCSOUTH.
   Союзные военно-морские силы по вызову для Средиземноморья (NAVOCFORMED), когда они вызываются вместе, имеют силу по крайней мере трех эсминцев, предоставленных Италией, Великобританией и Соединенными Штатами, и три небольших корабля, предоставленных другими странами, присутствующими в Средиземном море, в зависимости от района операции.
  
   2. Командование НАТО на Атлантике (ACLANT)
   Штаб Атлантического командования союзников находится в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния. В случае войны, обязанности Верховного Главнокомандующего союзниками на Атлантики (SACLANT), который является американским адмиралом, с британским заместителем, являются (а) для участия в стратегическом ударе и (b) защита морских коммуникаций от нападения враждебных сил. За исключением постоянных Военно-Морских Сил Атлантики (STANAVFORLANT), SACLANT не имеет сил, постоянно назначенных командованию в мирное время; Однако для целей подготовки и в случае войны силы выделяются Великобританией, Канадой, Данией, Нидерландами, Португалией и Соединенными Штатами. Хотя эти силы в основном морские, они также включают и сухопутные силы и ВВС. (Франция не предоставляет каких-либо сил, но есть договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими военно-морскими силами и ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике.) SACLANT отвечает за Североатлантический регион от Северного полюса до Тропика Рака, включая прибрежные воды Португалии. Есть пять подчиненных командований: Западно-Атлантическое командование, Восточно-Атлантическое командование, Иберийское Атлантическое командование, Ударный флот Атлантики и командование подводными силамии. Ядро ударного флота Атлантики было представлено американским 2-м флотом имеющим до 6 авианосцев, но их ядерная роль теперь частично делится с ракетными подводными лодками..
   Многонациональная военно-морские эскадра из эскортных кораблей, известная как STANAVFORLANT находится под руководством ВГК ОВС НАТО на Атлантике. Как правило, в каждый конкретный момент времени она состоит из четырех кораблей класса эсминец; к середине 1970 года в ней участвовали семь стран (Великобритания, Канада, Германия, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Португалия и Соединенные Штаты).
   В военно-морских флотах насчитывается около 350 эскортных кораблей, которые входят в SACLANT, из которых большая часть полностью или частично предназначена для противолодочной войны (ПЛО). Большинство военно-морских сил НАТО оснащают и обучают свои подводные силы главным образом для борьбы с ПЛ, и более 100 подводных лодок потенциально доступны в Атлантике для выполнения таких обязанностей. Кроме того, в распоряжении держав НАТО находится около 300 морских патрульных самолетов большой дальности наземного базирования, значительная часть которых базируется на американском побережье или вблизи него. Американский военно-морской флот располагает около 800 палубными специализированными противолодочными самолетами и вертолетами. Общая сумма, которая может быть быстро введена в действие всеми авианосцами на Атлантическом океане, вероятно, составляет около 350. (Эти цифры включают подразделения, предназначенные для командования каналом.)
  
   3. Союзное Командование Канала (ACCHAN) в военное время командование Канала должно осуществлять контроль над Ла-Маншем и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из малых военных кораблей Бельгии, Нидерландов и Соединенного Королевства, а также некоторые морские самолеты и вертолеты предназначены для этого командования. Франция не предоставляет никаких сил, но существуют договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими военно-морскими силами и силами ACCHAN. Командующий (CINCHAN) - британский адмирал, который также действует в качестве главного подчиненного командующего, Восточной Атлантики, в SACLANT, и имеет свою штаб-квартиру в Нортвуде, Миддлсекс. Комитет Канала, состоящий из начальников генеральных штабов ВМС трех стран, выступает в качестве консультативного органа CINCHAN.
  
   BELGIUM
Population: 9,700,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Total armed forces: 94,900.
Estimated GNP 1969: $22.0 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 33,861 million francs ($677,000,000). 50 francs = $1.
Army Total strength: 70,000.
   2 mechanized divisions of two brigades each.
   1 paracommando regiment.
   330 Leopard and 175 M-47 medium tanks.
   135 M-41 light tanks.
   M-75 and AMX-VTT armoured personnel carriers.
   M-108 105mm, M-44 and M-109 155mm and M-55 203mm SP howitzers.
   203mm howitzers.
   2 battalions and 4 batteries of Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles.
   2 battalions of Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   4 squadrons of helicopters and Dornier light aircraft.
   The mechanized divisions are assigned to NATO.
   1 parachute battalion of the paracommando regiment is earmarked for assignment to NATO.
Reserves: 1 mechanized reserve brigade, earmarked for assignment to NATO, and 1 motorized reserve brigade.
Navy Total strength: 4,400.
   5 fleet minesweepers/minehunters.
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   2 coastal minehunters.
   12 inshore minesweepers.
   2 support ships.
   2 S-58 helicopters.
Reserves: 3,000 trained.
Air Force Total strength: 20,500; 208 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   (The F-84 and RF-84F are to be replaced by Mirage 5B - deliveries of which are scheduled to begin in September 1970.)
   (There are 18-25 aircraft in a Belgian combat squadron).
   33 C-119 and 23 C-47, C-54, Pembroke and DC-6 transport aircraft.
   11 HSS-1 helicopters.
   8 Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missile squadrons.
   All aircraft and missile squadrons, are assigned to NATO, except for one transport squadron which is under national command.
Reserves: 13,300 trained.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of 13,500.
  
   BRITAIN
Population: 55,775,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 390,000 (including forces enlisted outside Britain).
Estimated GNP 1969: $109 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: £2,380 million. ($5,712,000,000)*. £1=$2.40.
   *Includes an estimated £100 million as the extra cost of the new military salaries.
Army Total strength: 190,000 (including 17,000 enlisted outside Britain).
   Major units:
   19 armoured, armoured car and armoured reconnaissance regiments,
   52 infantry battalions,
   3 parachute regiments and
   6 Gurkha battalions,
   28 artillery battalions and
   13 engineer regiments.
   Of these units, 59 are organized in two armoured, twelve infantry, one parachute and one Gurkha brigade.
Deployment:
The British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), based in Germany, has a current strength of about 53,500.
   It includes 2 armoured and 4 infantry brigades, organized in 3 divisions, and 2 artillery brigades.
   Except for its armoured regiment one of the infantry brigades is stationed in the United Kingdom but remains part of BAOR*.
   *This brigade is to return to German
   In West Berlin there is 1 brigade with a strength of 3000.
In the United Kingdom there are-in addition to the BAOR part-brigade -
   the army element of the United Kingdom Mobile Force (UKMF) whose primary role is the support of NATO, and which consists of an
   air-portable division - 3 infantry brigades, a parachute brigade and supporting units.
In Hong Kong there is 1 British and 1 Gurkha brigade; in Malaysia 2 Gurkha battalions; in Brunei 1 Gurkha battalion;
   in the Persian Gulf 2 battalions; in Cyprus 2 battalions (1 with the United Nations force); in Malta 2 battalions; in Gibraltar 1 battalion.
   There are also small garrisons in the Caribbean.
Equipment: The Chieftain medium tank with a 120mm gun has now replaced the Centurion in eight armoured regiments in Germany.
   Tactical nuclear artillery in BAOR includes three regiments with Honest John surface-to-surface missiles and 203mm howitzers.
   Conventional artillery includes the 105mm SP Abbot, and the American M-109 155mm SP howitzer and M-107 175mm SP gun.
   The Swingfire SP anti-tank guided missile is coming into service.
Reserves: The Territorial and Army Volunteer Reserve numbers approximately 48,000 and the Regular Army Reserves 60,000.
  
Navy Total strength: 87,000 (including marines).
Strength of the operational fleet during 1970:
   2 nuclear-powered Polaris submarines each with 16 A-3 missiles (a third is due to become operational during 1970).
   2 nuclear-powered fleet submarines (a third is due to become operational during 1970).
   21 diesel-powered submarines.
   2 aircraft carriers.
   2 commando ships.
   2 assault ships.
   1 cruiser.
   3 guided-missile destroyers equipped with Seacat and Seaslug surface-to-air missiles (2 more are due to join the fleet during 1970).
   2 other destroyers.
   27 general purpose frigates.
   21 anti-submarine frigates.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   4 aircraft direction frigates.
   44 mine counter-measures vessels.
Ships in reserve or undergoing refit or conversion include:
   1 aircraft carrier, 1 Polaris submarine, 1 nuclear- powered fleet submarine, 6 other submarines,
   2 cruisers, 3 guided missile destroyers, 5 other destroyers, 2 general purpose frigates, 6 antisubmarine frigates, 1 anti-aircraft frigate,
   10 mine counter-measures vessels.
The FLEET AIR ARMS has a
   nuclear and conventional strike capability with Buccaneer Mark 2 strike aircraft.
   Air defence is provided by Phantom Mark 1 and Sea Vixen Mark 2 all weather fighters.
   The commando ships have Wessex and Wasp helicopters for troop carrying.
   Wessex and Wasp helicopters are also used for anti-submarine warfare, in which role they are being joined by Sea King helicopters.
The ROYAL MARINES total about 8,000 men, and include 4 Commandos of 800 men each, one of which is stationed in Singapore.
Reserves: There are about 8,300 men and women in the volunteer naval and marine reserves and some 3,500 regular reserves.
  
Air Force Total strength: 113,000; about 720 combat aircraft.
   The Royal Air Force consists of four Home commands:
   Strike Command, Air Support Command, Training Command, and Maintenance Command and four smaller overseas commands:
   Near East Command, Far East Command, RAF Germany and RAF Gulf.
   The majority of aircraft in Britain, and those in RAF Germany, are committed to NATO.
STRIKE COMMAND consists of:
   Vulcan bombers in a tactical role, with a nuclear capability; Victor aircraft, mainly used in an air refuelling capacity; and a
   fighter-interceptor force of Lightnings, responsible chiefly for the defence of British airspace.
   Other aircraft include Canberras for photo-reconnaissance,
   Phantom FG-1s for air defence and Buccaneer 2 strike aircraft in a primary maritime role.
   Approximate numbers of operational aircraft are:
   50 Vulcan (with bombs or Blue Steel air-to- surface nuclear missiles).
   35 Buccaneer strike aircraft. .
   160 F-4 Phantom in interceptor and strike roles (total figure for all commands).
   100 Lightning interceptors.
   12 Victor 2 reconnaissance aircraft.
   30 Canberra PR-7 photo-reconnaissance aircraft.
   24 Victor 1 tankers.
   45 Shackleton and 6 Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft.
AIR SUPPORT COMMAND has
   10 Belfast, 22 Britannia, 5 Comet and 14 VC-10 aircraft for long-range airlift.
   Medium-range transports include 15 Argosies, and about 50 C-130E Hercules.
   10 short-range Andovers are in service with the command.
   Helicopter transport is provided by Whirlwinds and Wessex Mark 2s.
   Hunter Mark 9s in the ground-attack role have been replaced by V/STOL Harriers and Phantom FGR-2 aircraft.
RAF GERMANY, whose present strength is about 6,500 men, is equipped with
   64 Canberra strike and reconnaissance aircraft (the strike squadrons have both nuclear and conventional roles),
   18 Hunter reconnaissance aircraft, and 30 Lightning interceptors.
   2 squadrons of Phantom FGR-2s and Harriers are now operational,
   and together with Buccaneers, will eventually replace the remaining Hunters and Canberras.
   Bloodhound surface-to-air missiles are being deployed.
NEAR EAST AIR FORCE in Cyprus includes about
   20 Vulcan bombers (with nuclear capacity and declared to CENTO) and 1 squadron of Lightning interceptors.
   1 squadron of Shackleton and two of Canberra reconnaissance aircraft are based in Malta.
RAF GULF in Bahrein has Hunter ground-attack and some Shackleton reconnaissance aircraft.
FAR EAST AIR FORCE, based on Singapore, includes 1 squadron of Lightning interceptors; Shackleton reconnaissance aircraft;
   Hercules and Andover transports; and Whirlwind helicopters, of which a squadron is stationed in Hong Kong.
There are 11 squadrons of the Royal Air Force Regiment, whose chief role is the defence of airfields.
   The Tigercat surface-to-air missile is in service with these units.
   The Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales provides early warning of missile threats to the
   United Kingdom and other NATO countries.
Reserves: The volunteer reserves number about 500 and the regular reserves about 10,000.
  
   CANADA
Population: 21,400,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 93,325.
Estimated GNP 1969: $US 67.4 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: $Can. 1,814,100,000 ($US 1,740,600,000). $Can. 1.08 = $US1 (up to 31 May 1970). $Can. 1.035 = $US1 (since 1 June 1970).
Army (Land)* Total strength: 35,350.
   * The Canadian Armed Services have been unified since February 1968 but, for purpose of comparison with other countries, are presented here in traditional form.
In Europe: 1 mechanized battle group of about 3,100 men, with
   32 Centurion tanks, 375 M-113 armoured personnel carriers and 18 M-109 155mm SP howitzers.
   It is assigned to the Commander of Canadian Forces Europe, for operational deployment by SACEUR.
In Canada: The Mobile Command land units have been reorganized into 3 combat groups and 1 airborne regiment.
   Each group will comprise 3 full infantry battalions, a reconnaissance regiment, 1 reduced light artillery regiment (of 2 batteries) and support units.
   1 group will be earmarked for assignment to SACEUR, while part of it,
   1 air transportable battalion group, is assigned to Allied Command Europe (ACE) Mobile Force.
   The other groups at present contribute to North American ground defence, and UN commitments.
   All Canadian operational land forces and tactical aviation units are assigned to the Mobile Command.
   In UNFICYP (Cyprus): 460 men.
Reserves: Army reserves total 19,200.
Navy (Maritime)* Total strength: 16,975.
   4 submarines.
   9 helicopter destroyer escorts.
   11 destroyer escorts (ASW).
   6 coastal minesweepers. .
   1 anti-submarine hydrofoil.
   4 operational support ships.
The Maritime Air Element consists of:
   4 long-range maritime patrol squadrons of CL-28 Argus.
   1 squadron of CS2F-3 Tracker aircraft.
   1 squadron of CHSS-3 Sea King ASW helicopters (in service on the destroyer escorts).
Reserves: Naval ready reserves: about 2,900 men and women.
Air Force (Air)* Total strength: 41,000: 280 combat aircraft.
In Europe: 2 strike-attack and one reconnaissance/attack squadrons, equipped with CF- 104 Starfighters.
In Canada:
Air Defence Command:
   3 CF-101 Voodoo interceptor squadrons.
   2 Bomarc B surface-to-air missile squadrons. 27 surveillance and control radar squadrons. (The above are assigned to NORAD.)
   1 CF-100 electronic warfare training squadron.
Mobile Command:
   2 CF-5 tactical fighter squadrons.
   2 helicopter squadrons.
Air Transport Command:
   4 Boeing 707-320C transport tanker aircraft.
   1 DHC-5 Buffalo squadron.
   2 squadrons with C-130 Hercules.
   1 squadron with CC-106 Yukon.
   1 squadron with CC-109 Cosmopolitan and Falcon.
   Other transport aircraft include C-47 and DHC-4 Caribou.
   (Canadian squadrons consist of from 6 to 18 aircraft.)
Reserves: Air Force reserves: 800 personnel, and six squadrons with DHC-3 Otters (30 aircraft).
  
   DENMARK
Population: 4,950,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 44,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $13.5 billion.
Defence estimates 1970-71: 2,738,800,000 kroner ($365,200,000). 7.5 kroner = $1.
Army Total strength: 27,000.
   4 armoured infantry brigades.
   1 battalion group.
   3 artillery battalions.
   Centurion medium tanks. M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   M-113 APCs.
   M-109 SP 155mm howitzers.
   203mm howitzers.
   Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles
Reserves: 2 armoured infantry brigades and support units to be formed from reservists within 72 hours.
   Local defence reservist units form 15 infantry battalion groups and 15 artillery batteries.
   A volunteer Army Home Guard of 54,000.
Navy Total strength: 7,000.
   6 submarines.
   2 fast frigates.
   4 helicopter frigates (for fishery protection).
   4 coastal escorts.
   16 fast torpedo boats.
   8 patrol boats (5 less than 100 tons).
   4 fleet minelayers.
   4 coastal minelayers.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   9 seaward defence craft.
   8 Alouette III helicopters.
Reserves: The Volunteer Naval Home Guard of 4,000 operates some small patrol boats.
Air Force Total strength: 10,500; 112 combat aircraft. (There are 16 aircraft in a Danish combat squadron).
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons (2 with F-100D/F; the third is converting to F-35 Draken, of which 23 are on order.)
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron with Hunters.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   1 transport squadron with C-47, C-54 and Catalinas.
   1 search and rescue squadron with S-61 helicopters.
   (The RF-84F are to be replaced by RF-35 Draken, of which 23 are on order.)
   4 Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missile squadrons located around Copenhagen.
   4 semi-mobile Hawk surface-to-air missile squadrons.
Reserves: A volunteer Air Force Home Guard of 11,500.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 50,725,000.
Military service: 12-15 months (selective).
Total armed forces: 506,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $140 billion. *Before 10 August 1969 the exchange rate used was 4.9 francs - $1.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 32,600 million francs ($5,874,000,000). 5.55 francs = $1.
Army Total strength: 328,000. There are
   2 mechanized divisions in Germany, 2,000 men in West Berlin, and
   3 mechanized divisions, 1 air-portable division, and an Alpine division in France.
   The air-portable division contains 2 parachute brigades, 1 motorized brigade and supporting arms, and makes up the permanent element
   of a strategic reserve.
   The AMX-30 medium tank-some 435 are now in service - has replaced the M-47 Patton in seven armoured regiments.
   Other armour includes the AMX-13 light tank and the EBR heavy and AML light armoured cars with 90mm guns.
   Artillery includes SP AMX 105mm guns and 155mm howitzers, and 30mm twin-barrelled antiaircraft guns.
   There are 4 Honest John, surface- to-surface missile battalions in Germany and 1 in France
   (the nuclear warheads formerly held under double-key arrangements with the USA were withdrawn in 1966); and
   3 Hawk surface-to-air missile regiments.
   (The surface-to- surface tactical nuclear missile Pluton is being tested.)
Combat troops stationed overseas include
   3 battalions in the Indian Ocean and Pacific territories,
   1 battalion in the Caribbean and a number of units in Algeria and else where in Africa. * Details of French forces in Africa are given on p.54
   The remaining troops are stationed in France for local defence (DOT).
   Their peacetime strength is about 56,000 men, including 25 infantry battalions.
Reserves: Mobilization would bring the DOT up to a total of 80 infantry battalions and 5 armoured car regiments, organized into 21 brigades.
Navy Total strength: 72,000 (including the Naval Air Force).
   2 aircraft carriers.
   1 helicopter/aircraft carrier.
   1 helicopter carrier.
   2 assault landing ships.
   20 attack submarines.
   2 anti-aircraft cruisers.
   17 destroyers (four with Tartar surface-to-air missiles).
   2 guided-missile frigates (with Masurca surface- to-air missiles and Malafon ASW missiles).
   27 frigates.
   14 coastal escorts.
   14 fleet minesweepers.
   70 coastal minesweepers.
   10 inshore minesweepers.
   7 landing ships.
   14 tank landing craft.
   3 nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) are scheduled to become operational between 1971 and 1976.
   The first SSBN is now being tested, and is scheduled to enter service in 1971.
The Naval Air Force, consisting of 12,000 men and about 240 combat aircraft, includes:
   35 Etendard IV-M fighter-bombers,
   30 Etendard IV-P reconnaissance aircraft,
   38 F-8E Crusader interceptors,
   60 Alize patrollers and
   12 Super- Frelon ASW heavy helicopters, all of which can be flown from aircraft carriers. There are also
   40 Br-1150 Atlantic and
   25 P-2 Neptune maritime reconnaissance aircraft which are flown from shore bases, and about
   30 Alouette II/III and 35 H-34 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 106,000; 500 combat aircraft.
The Strategic Air Command (CFAS) has a first-line strength of
   45 aircraft, organized in 3 bomber wings, each of 3 Mirage IVA bomber squadrons and 1 KC-135F tanker squadron.
   The force is adapted to low-level penetration with 60-kiloton atomic bombs.
   A group of 18 IRBMs, organized in two squadrons of 9 missiles each, is being formed.
   The first squadron is due to become operational in Haute-Provence, in 1971.
The Air Defence Command (CAFDA) has
   3 squadrons with Mirage IIIC interceptors,
   2 squadrons with Vautour IIN all-weather interceptors and
   3 squadrons with Super-Mystere B2 interceptors and
   2 squadrons with Mystere IVA fighters.
   The various components of this command are co-ordinated by the automatic STRIDA II air defence system.
The Tactical Air Force (FATAC) has 2 subordinate Tactical Air Commands;
   1st CATAC and 2nd CATAC, which would take command of the air component of the Strategic Reserve. FATAC controls
   9 squadrons with Mirage IIIE fighter-bombers,
   3 squadrons with F-100D fighter-bombers,
   2 squadrons with Mystere IVA fighter-bombers and
   3 squadrons with Mirage IIIR/IIIRD tactical reconnaissance aircraft.
The Air Transport Command (COTAM) has
   3 squadrons with C-160F Transall and 4 squadrons with N-2501 Noratlas tactical transports,
   1 squadron with DC-6 and Br-765 Sahara heavy transports,
   2 mixed squadrons and 4 squadrons with H-34 and Alouette II helicopters.
   1 squadron of A-ID Skyraider fighter- bombers is stationed in Madagascar;
   1 squadron of A-1D and 1 mixed transport squadron are stationed in the French Territory of the Afars and Issas.
Para-military forces The Gendarmerie, has a strength of 60,000 (with about 60,000 reserves).
   The CRS (Compagnies Republicaines de Securite), which are subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior, number about 15,000.
  
   FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Population: 59,000,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 466,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $150 billion.
Defence budget 1970: DM 20,350 million ($5,560,100,000). DM 3.66 = $1.*
   * Before 26 October 1969 the exchange rate used was DM4 = $1. Army Total strength: 326,000 (including the Territorial Force of 35,000).
   12 armoured brigades.
   1 armoured regiment.
   16 armoured infantry brigades.
   2 mountain brigades.
   3 airborne brigades.
   1,460 M-48A2 Patton and 1,840 Leopard (with 105mm guns) medium tanks.
   1,770 HS-30 and 3,140 M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   270 105mm, 350 155mm, 150 175mm and 75 203mm SP artillery pieces.
   500 SP 40mm AA guns.
   1,100 tank destroyers with 90mm guns or antitank missiles.
   11 battalions with Honest John, and 4 battalions with Sergeant surface-to-surface missiles.
   About 460 Bell-47, UH-1D Iroquois, Alouette II and CH-53 helicopters, and
   80 Do-27 light aircraft.
   With the exception of the Territorial Force, which is held for rear-area duties, the Army is assigned to NATO.
Reserves: 540,000 for direct mobilization.
Navy Total strength: 36,000.
   11 coastal submarines.
   3 guided missile destroyers (with Tartar surface- to-air missiles).
   8 destroyers.
   6 Frigates.
   24 coastal minesweepers.
   30 fast minesweepers.
   18 inshore minesweepers.
   40 fast patrol boats.
   40 support and transport ships.
   24 landing craft.
The Naval Air Force has 6,000 men and about 100 combat aircraft, consisting of
   4 fighter- bomber and reconnaissance squadrons with F-104G, and
   2 maritime patrol squadrons with Br-1150 Atlantics,
   23 S-58 search and rescue helicopters and 6 other aircraft.
   The Navy is almost totally assigned to NATO.
Reserves: 36,000 for direct mobilization.
Air Force Total strength: 104,000: 980 combat aircraft.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   18 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G and G-91.
   4 heavy reconnaissance squadrons with RF- 104G.
   (Deliveries of RF-4E Phantom II are due to start during 1970.)
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with G-91.
   6 transport squadrons with Noratlas and C-160 Transall.
   4 squadrons of UH-1D transport helicopters.
   (There are up to 15-20 aircraft in German fighter, fighter-bomber and light-strike squadrons, and up to
   18 aircraft in reconnaissance and transport squadrons.)
   24 batteries with Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   36 batteries with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   3 battalions Pershing surface-to-surface missiles.
   The Air Force is assigned to NATO.
Reserves: 87,000 for direct mobilization.
Para-military forces About 18,500 Border Police, equipped with Saladin scout cars and coastal patrol boats.
  
   GREECE
Population: 8,975,000.
Military service: Army and Navy, 30 months; Air Force, 23 months.
Total armed forces: 159,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $8.37 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 12,611 million drachmas ($420,370,000). 30 drachmas = $1.
Army Total strength: 118,000.
   11 infantry divisions in three corps (three divisions are kept close to full strength).
   1 armoured division.
   1 commando brigade.
   200 M-47 and 700 M-48 Patton medium tanks. M-24 Chaffee, M-26 Pershing and M-41 Walker Bulldog tanks.
   M-8 and M-20 armoured cars. M-3 scout cars. M-2, M-59 and M-113 APCs.
   105mm and 155mm SP guns. 105mm, 155mm and 203mm howitzers.
   40mm, 75mm and 90mm anti-aircraft guns.
   2 battalions of Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles.
   1 battalion of Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   All the Greek Army is assigned to or earmarked for NATO.
Navy Total strength: 18,000.
   2 submarines (4 more are on order from West Germany).
   8 destroyers.
   5 destroyer escorts.
   6 coastal patrol vessels (4 more, to be equipped with Exocet surface-to-surface missiles, are on order from France).
   7 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 minelayers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   8 tank landing ships.
   6 medium landing ships;
   1 dock landing ship.
   7 landing craft (over 100 tons).
Air Force
Total strength: 23,000; 200 combat aircraft. (There are up to 18 aircraft in Greek fighter and fighter-bomber squadrons.)
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-84F.
   Some HU-16 Albatross, maritime patrol aircraft.
   About 30 C-47 and C-119G transport aircraft.
   1 squadron with 12 H-19 and 6 AB-205 helicopters.
   1 squadron with 10 Bell 47G helicopters.
   1 battalion of Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   (7 tactical squadrons and one transport squadron are assigned to the Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force.)
Para-military forces and reserves Gendarmerie: 23,000. Trained reservists: 200,000.
  
   ITALY
Population: 54,300,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 15 months; Navy, 24 months.
Total armed forces: 413,000 (excluding Carabinieri).
Estimated GNP 1969: $82.3 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 1,510 billion lire ($2,416,000,000). 625 lire = $1.
Army Total strength: 295,000.
   2 armoured divisions with M-47 and M-60 tanks.
   1 independent cavalry brigade with M-47 tanks. 5 infantry divisions.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   5 Alpine brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 rocket brigade (including 2 battalions with Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles).
   4 battalions with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   800 M-47 Patton medium tanks.
   M-24 Chaffee tanks and M-113 APCs.
   The 7 divisions, the 5 Alpine brigades, the cavalry brigade, the rocket brigade and the Hawk battalions are assigned to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 45,000.
   10 submarines.
   4 guided-missile cruisers with Terrier surface-to- air missiles and ASW helicopters. (One is also equipped with Asroc ASW missiles.)
   2 guided missile destroyers with Tartar surface- to-air missiles.
   6 ASW destroyers.
   12 destroyer escorts.
   23 coastal escorts.
   7 fast patrol boats.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   37 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers.
   6 motor gunboats.
   1 command ship.
   7 landing ships.
   1 marine infantry battalion.
The naval air force includes air-sea rescue, units with about
   50 Bell-47, SH-34, AB-204 and SH-3D helicopters and
   3 ASW squadrons with S-2 Trackers.
Air Force Total strength: 73,000; 425 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with G-91Y.
   1 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   4 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-86K.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-104G.
   1 AWX squadron with F-104S.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F.
   3 transport squadrons with C-l 19.
   1 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missile groups.
   (The above units are assigned to the Fifth Allied Tactical Air Force.)
   2 light-strike squadrons with G-91.
   1 transport squadron with C-47, Convair 440 and DC-6.
   (There are 12-25 aircraft in an Italian combat squadron [`gruppo']. The transport squadrons have 16 aircraft each.)
Para-military forces and reserves The Carabinieri Corps (mainly security, Frontier Guard and military police duties): 76,000.
   Trained reservists total about 630,000.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 340,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 550.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.86 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 402,800,000 francs ($8,056,000). 50 francs = $l.
Army Total strength: 550.
   A light infantry battalion (4 companies).
   Some anti-tank guns and mortars.
   2 companies are earmarked for the ACE Mobile Land Force (AMLF).
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of 350 men.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 13,000,000.
Military service: Army, 16-18 months; Navy, 21-24 months; Air Force, 18-21 months.
Total armed forces: 121,250.
Estimated GNP 1969: $27.5 billion.
Defence estimates 1970: 3,893 million guilders ($1,075,000,000). 3.62 guilders = $1.
Army Total strength: 80,000.
   1 armoured infantry brigades, 2 armoured brigades and some corps troops (assigned to NATO).
   600 Centurion medium tanks (including those with reserve units)
   (415 Leopards, to partly replace them, are being delivered).
   AMX-13 light tanks.
   DAF-104 and Ferret scout cars.
   AMX-VTT, M-113, and DAF-YP 408 armoured personnel carriers.
   105mm, 155mm, 175mm and 203mm SP artillery. Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles.
Reserves: 1 infantry division, and the remaining corps troops, including an independent infantry brigade to be completed by call-up of reservists,
   are earmarked for assignment to NATO. A number of infantry brigades could be mobilized, if needed, for territorial defence.
Navy Total strength: 20,000 including 3,000 marines and 2,000 Naval Air Force.
   2 submarines (2 from new construction are due to be delivered in 1970).
   2 cruisers (one fitted with Terrier surface-to-air missiles).
   3 guided-missile frigates (with Seacat surface-to- air missiles).
   12 destroyers.
   6 corvettes.
   6 support escorts.
   5 patrol vessels.
   30 coastal minesweepers and minehunters (plus 11 in reserve).
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   1 fast combat support ship.
   5 armed supply and survey ships.
The Naval Air Force is an ASW and reconnaissance force with:
   3 squadrons each of 12 S-2 Trackers.
   1 squadron of 15 P-2 Neptunes (9 Br-1150 Atlantics are being delivered as replacements).
   Helicopters include 12 Wasps (operated from the frigates), 8 SH-34J and some AB-204Bs.
Air Force Total strength: 21,250; 135 combat aircraft.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F (1 squadron has 25 aircraft).
   (These are due for replacement by NF-5As; of 105 NF-5A/B on order about 30 have been received.)
   4 interceptor squadrons with F-104G.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with RF-104G (with 20 aircraft).
   (With the exceptions stated above, there are 18 aircraft in a Netherlands combat squadron.)
   1 transport squadron with F-27 Friendships (NATO-earmarked).
   5 observation and communication squadrons (under Army command) with Alouette III helicopters,
   and Super-Cub and DHC-2 Beaver light aircraft.
   8 squadrons with Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles (1 squadron is NATO-earmarked).
   11 squadrons with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   The whole Air Force is assigned to NATO less the exceptions stated above.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie (The Royal Marechaussee) of about 3,000 men.
  
   NORWAY
Population: 3,885,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.
Total armed forces: 41,100.
Estimated GNP 1969: 89.7 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 2,641 million kroner (8370,000,000). 7.14 kroner = $1.
Army Total strength: 23,500.
   The army is organized into 5 regional commands, comprising all ground forces.
   The regional commands are again divided into a number of ground defence districts.
   Major units are mainly organized in Regimental Combat Teams (RCT).
   The peacetime establishment includes a brigade group with M-48 tanks stationed in Arctic Norway,
   a number of independent battalions and supporting elements as well as training units.
   Mobilization would produce 11 RCTs plus supporting units. This force would total 130,000.
   78 Leopard medium tanks are being delivered.
   Some M-24 Chaffee light tanks, and M-8 armoured cars.
   Some M-113 and BV-202 APCs.
Navy Total strength: 8,600 (including 800 Coastal Artillery).
   15 coastal submarines.
   5 frigates.
   2 coastal escorts.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 coastal minelayers.
   20 gunboats.
   About 25 torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   3 armed depot and training ships.
   A number of coastal artillery batteries.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 114 combat aircraft. (There are 15-20 aircraft in a Norwegian combat squadron.)
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons each with 16 F-5A.
   1 all-weather fighter squadron with 20 F-104G.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with 16 RF- 5A.
   6 HU-16 Albatross, and 6 P-3B Orion maritime patrol aircraft.
   Transports include 10 C-47, 6 C-130 and 4 Twin Otters.
   32 UH-1B Iroquois helicopters and 2 Bell-47s.
   6 Nike-Ajax and Nike-Hercules sites are located around Oslo.
   The Norwegian forces are earmarked for assignment to NATO.
Reserves Trained reservists number about 110,000, and there is a Home Guard with local defence responsibilities, totalling about 70,000.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,635,000.
Military service: Army, 18-48 months; Air Force, 18-48 months; and Navy, 48 months.
Total armed forces: 185,500
   (of which about 57.000 including those locally enlisted, are in Angola, 43,000 in Mozambique, and 25,000 in Portuguese Guinea).
Estimated GNP 1969: 85.46 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 10,242 million escudos (8356,200,000). 28.75 escudos =81.
Army Total strength: 150,000.
   Elements of 2 infantry divisions are stationed in Portugal.
   One of these divisions, which has some M-41 and M-47 tanks and is earmarked for assignment to NATO, may be at only 50% of strength.
   The other division, reserved for joint Iberian defence, is even lower in strength. These units have some 105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   The remaining troops (including about 25 infantry regiments) are stationed in the Portuguese provinces in Africa.
   Other Army equipment includes:
   M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
   Humber Mark IV and EBR-75 armoured cars. AML-60 scout cars.
   FV-1609 and M-16 half-track APCs.
Navy Total strength: 18,000, including 500 marines.
   5 submarines.
   1 destroyer escort.
   8 fast frigates.
   5 frigates.
   3 corvettes. .
   12 submarine chasers.
   18 coastal patrol vessels.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   12 coastal minesweepers.
   30 patrol launches (less than 100 tons).
   14 armed support and auxiliary ships.
   5 landing craft (LCT-type).
   55 small landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 17,500; 150 combat aircraft. (There are 15-25 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   2 light bomber squadrons with B-26 Invaders and PV-2 Harpoons.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with F-84G.
   1 light-strike squadron with G-91.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-86F.
   1 maritime patrol squadron with P-2E Neptune.
   12 Noratlas, 40 C-47, 5 C-54, some DC-6 and 15 C-45 transports.
   Other aircraft include 50 T-6, 25 Do-27, 15 T-33 and 30 T-37C reconnaissance/trainers.
   Helicopters include 20 Alouette II and 30 Alouette III.
   Only the Neptune squadron is NATO assigned.
   There is a paratroop regiment of 4,000, which comes under Air Force command; 1 battalion is serving in each of the three African provinces
Para-military forces and reserves National Republican Guard: 15,000. Reservists with military training total about 500,000.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 35,200,000.
Military service: 20 months.
Total armed forces: 477,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $14.0 billion.
Defence estimates 1970-71: 4,700 million liras ($401,000,000). liras = $1 (since 9 August 1970 15 = $1).
Army Total strength: 390,000.
   1 armoured division with M-48 tanks.
   4 armoured brigades with M-48 tanks.
   1 armoured cavalry brigade.
   13 infantry divisions, one of which is mechanized.
   3 mechanized infantry brigades.
   2 parachute battalions.
   M-24 and M-41 light tanks.
   M-36 tank destroyers.
   M-8 armoured cars.
   M-59 and M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   105mm and 155mm SP guns.
   105mm, 155mm and 203mm howitzers.
   40mm, 75mm and 90mm anti-aircraft guns.
   Honest John, surface-to-surface missiles.
   Apart from some fortress regiments and territorial defence units, all Turkish Army formations are assigned to NATO.
Navy Total strength: 37,500.
   10 submarines.
   10 destroyers.
   9 coastal escorts.
   6 submarine chasers.
   8 motor torpedo boats (2 less than 100 tons).
   13 coastal minesweepers.
   3 inshore minesweepers.
   1 fleet minelayer.
   6 coastal minelayers.
   25 armed support ships and auxiliaries.
Air Force Total strength: 50,000; 310 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5A.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with F-100C.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.
   5 interceptor squadrons with F-86D/E/K.
   1 AWX squadron with F-102A.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons with RF-84F and F-84Q.
   transport squadrons, which include 6 C-45, 10 C-47, 3 C-54 and 10 C-130.
   (There are 14-20 aircraft in a Turkish combat squadron.)
   2 battalions (6 batteries) Nike-Hercules surface- to-air missiles.
   The Turkish Air Force, including the Nike battalions, is NATO-assigned.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 20,000 (including three formations organized into infantry brigades).
   National Guard: 20,000.
  

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

   ALBANIA
Population: 2,130,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 41,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.83 billion.
Defence expenditure 1969: 420 million leks ($84,000,000). 4 leks = $1.
Army Total strength: 35,000.
   1 tank brigade.
   5 infantry brigades.
   110 T-34 and 15 T-54 medium tanks.
   BA-64, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APCs.
   122mm and 152mm guns and howitzers. SU-76 SP guns.
   45mm, 57mm, 76mm and 85mm anti-tank guns.
   A few SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles. 37mm, 57mm and 85mm anti-aircraft guns.
   Some light shore batteries.
Navy Total strength: 4,000.
   4 submarines.
   4 ASW patrol vessels.
   36 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   6 inshore minesweepers.
   Some surface-to-surface missiles deployed around the ports of Durazzo and Valona.
Air Force Total strength: 2,500; 70 combat aircraft.
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with MiG-15s, MiG-17s and MiG-19s.
   1 transport squadron with An-2s and Il-14s.
   (There are 10-12 aircraft in an Albanian squadron.)
   About 8 Mi-1 Hare and Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces Total strength: 37,500, consisting of: An internal security force of 12,500.
   A frontier force of 25,000.
  
   AUSTRIA
Population: 7,410,000.
Military service: Army, 9 months; Air Force, 15-24 months.
Total armed forces: 49,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $12.42 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 4,134,849,000 schillings ($159,000,000). 27 schillings = $1.
Army Total strength: 45,000.
   3 tank battalions.
   3 mechanized brigades, each with an armoured battalion, at reduced strength.
   4 reduced strength infantry brigades.
   3 artillery battalions.
   3 independent air defence battalions.
   150 M-47 and 120 M-60 medium tanks.
   40 M-41 and 70 AMX-13 light tanks.
   105mm and 155mm howitzers, and 155mm guns.
   84mm Carl Gustav anti-tank missiles.
   20mm and 35mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors air-defence guns.
   Some 130mm rocket launchers.
   (There are 4 reserve infantry brigades in cadre form.)
Air Force* Total strength: 4,000; 13 combat aircraft.
   * Austrian air units are an integral part of the Army but for purposes of comparison have been isted separately.
   3 Saab-105 fighter-bombers.
   10 J-29F Tunnan fighter-bombers.
   24 Cessna L-19 light reconnaissance aircraft.
   11 Magister and 5 Vampire trainers.
   1 transport squadron with 3 DHC-2 Beavers and 2 Skyvans.
   22 AB-204, 23 Alouette and 12 AB-206 helicopters for transport and liaison duties.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of 12,000.
  
   FINLAND
Population: 4,720,000.
Military service: 8-11 months.
Total armed forces: 39,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $8.8 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970:589,030,000 markkas ($140,200,000). 4.2 markkas=$1.
Army Total strength: 34,000.
   1 armoured brigade (at about half strength).
   6 infantry brigades (at about 35 per cent of full strength).
   8 reduced-strength independent infantry battalions.
   1 field artillery regiment.
   2 coastal artillery regiments.
   3 coastal artillery battalions.
   4 anti-aircraft battalions.
   T-54, T-55 and Charioteer medium tanks. PT-76 light tanks.
   105mm, 122mm and 130mm guns; 122mm and 152mm howitzers.
   81mm and 120mm mortars.
   Vigilant and SS-11 anti-tank missiles.
   ZSU-57, 35mm Oerlikon, 40mm Bofors, 30mm HS and 23mm anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   3 frigates (one used as training ship).
   2 corvettes.
   15 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 coastal minelayers.
   5 inshore minesweepers.
   11 small patrol boats.
   5 armed auxiliary vessels.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000; 45 combat aircraft.
   3 squadrons with 20 MiG-21 fighter/fighter- bombers and 9 Gnat Mark 1 fighter/reconnaissance aircraft.
   16 Magister armed trainers.
   About 10 C-47 and Beaver transport aircraft.
   About 100 other training aircraft, including 55 Magisters, 30 Safirs and a few MiG-15/MiG-21UTI.
   Hound, Alouette II and AB-204B helicopters.
Para-military forces About 3,250 frontier defence troops.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 33,275,000.
Military service: 24 months.
Total armed forces: 281,950.
Estimated GNP 1969: $27.1 billion..
Defence budget 1970: 40,597 million pesetas ($580,000,000). 70 pesetas = $1.
Army Total strength: 210,000.
   1 armoured division (in cadre form).
   1 armoured cavalry brigade.
   1 mechanized infantry division.
   1 motorized infantry division. (Min cadre form).
   2 mountain divisions.
   15 independent infantry brigades.
   1 high mountain brigade.
   2 mountain brigades.
   1 airportable brigade
   1 parachute brigade.
   2 artillery brigades.
   1 battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   M-47 and M-48 medium tanks.
   M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   M-8 Grey Hound, armoured cars, and M-3 White scout cars.
   M-113 APCs.
   105mm and 155mm SP guns.
   105mm, 155mm and 203mm howitzers.
   90mm SP anti-tank guns.
   About 27,000 soldiers, including elements of three divisions, are serving in Spanish Africa,
   8.000 in the Canary Islands, and a further 6,000 in the Balearics.
Navy Total strength: 39,350 including marines.
   1 helicopter carrier.
   4 submarines.
   1 cruiser.
   12 ASW destroyers.
   10 destroyers.
   4 frigates. '
   4 frigate-minelayers.
   6 corvettes.
   3 ASW patrol vessels.
   3 torpedo boats.
   25 minesweepers.
   8 landing ships. .
   2 assault transport ships.
   3 landing craft.
   3 squadrons of ASW helicopters.
   1 squadron of light helicopters.
   A Marine Corps of 6,500 men.
Air Force Total strength: 32,600; 202 combat aircraft.
   10 Mirage IIIE fighter-bombers.
   20 F-5 fighter-bombers. .
   50 HA Saeta fighter-bombers.
   21 F-104G interceptors.
   65 F-86F interceptors.
   11 Hu-16B Albatross, ASW aircraft.
   25 armed T-6 trainers.
   Over 175 transport and communications aircraft, including C-47s, C-54s, 12 Caribous, and Spanish- built Azors.
Para-military forces The Guardia Civil number about 65,000.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 8,020,000.
Military service: Army and Navy, 9-15 months; Air Force, 9-14 months.
Total armed forces: 627,500 (total mobilizable strength).
Estimated GNP 1969: $27.1 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 5,836 million Swedish kronor ($1,129,000,000). 5.17 kronor = $1.
Army Total strength: 18,000 regular officers and NCOs, 36,500 conscript trainees, and
   100,000 reservists called up for 18-40 days' training per year.
   On mobilization the total number would become about 600,000. The peacetime army includes
   7 armoured regiments,
   3 cavalry regiments,
   14 infantry regiments,
   7 artillery regiments and
   1 parachute regiment (all in cadre form).
   On mobilization these would form 100 battalions and a number of independent units.
   About 300 Centurion tanks mounting a 105mm gun are in service, and the
   Swedish strv-S (turretless) tank has started to enter service with armoured units.
   Artillery includes 105mm and 155mm field guns, 105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   Anti-tank weapons include the SS-11, Bantam, Carl Gustav and Miniman.
   One battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 4,700 regular; 7,400 conscripts.
   20 submarines.
   1 cruiser.
   2 destroyers with Rb-08 ship-to-surface missiles.
   6 other destroyers (4 with Seacat ship-to-air missiles).
   7 fast anti-submarine frigates.
   17 heavy torpedo boats.
   16 other motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 minelayers.
   About 40 minesweepers.
   5 regiments of coastal artillery using 75mm and 120mm guns, and Rb-08 surface-to-ship missiles.
   Naval helicopters include 12 Vertols, 3 AB-206As.
Air Force Total strength: 5,700 regular; 9,700 conscripts;
   650 combat aircraft. 10 attack squadrons with A-32A Lansen (with air-to-ship missiles).
   21 AWX squadrons with J-35 Draken.
   2 reconnais.sance/day-fighter squadrons with S-32.
   3 reconnaissance/day-fighter squadrons with S-35E.
   9 squadrons with Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missiles.
   1 transport squadron with 2 C-130E and 7 C-47.
   1 heavy helicopter squadron with Vertol-107.
   A fully computerized and semi-automatic control and air surveillance system, with which all components of the
   Swedish air defence are co-ordinated, is operational. This is known as Stril 60 and is similar to the American SAGE.
Para-military forces The voluntary defence organizations have about 300.000 members in peacetime, of whom about 90.000 are women.
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 6,300,000.
Military service: 4 months initial basic training, followed by regular reservists training of about three weeks a year for 8 years,
   two weeks for 3 years, and one week for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 656,000 total mobilizable strength; reservists can be fully mobilized within 48 hours.
Estimated GNP 1969: $18.8 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 1,815 million Swiss francs ($422,000,000). 4.3 francs = $1.
Army Total strength: 2,500 regular training cadre, 17.000 conscript trainees, and about 583,500 reservists capable of rapid mobilization.
   The militia-style Army is organized into 4 corps.
   1 corps, for the defence of the Alps, consists of 3 mountain divisions;
   the other 3 corps, for the defence of the plain, consist of an armoured division and 2 infantry divisions each.
   There are also 17 frontier, fortress and `redoubt' brigades. '
   The mechanized formations are equipped with 300 Centurion and 200 AMX-13 tanks, and 1.000 M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   150 Swiss-built PZ-61 medium tanks serve with the mechanized divisions.
   There are 48 artillery battalions whose equipment includes 105mm guns and howitzers, 155mm SP guns, 81mm and 120mm mortars.
Air Force (including Air Defence troops)* Total strength: 2,000 regular, 6,000 conscript trainees, and 45,000 reservists capable of rapid mobilization.
   * Swiss Air Force and Air Defence Troops are an integral part of the Army, but are listed here separately, for purposes of comparison.
   Maintenance is carried out by civilian employees. About 315 combat aircraft.
   13 squadrons of Venom FB 50 ground-support aircraft.
   4 squadrons of Mirage IIIS interceptors.
   5 squadrons of Hunter F-58 interceptors with Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.
   1 squadron of Mirage IIIR reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 20 liaison and transport aircraft including
   5 Ju-52/3s and 6 Do-27s.
   About 80 helicopters, including 60 Alouette II/IIIs.
   About 40 anti-aircraft batteries with Oerlikon twin 35mm cannon.
   2 battalions with about 70 Bloodhound 2 surface-to-air missiles.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 20,550,000.
Military service: Army, 18 months; Navy and Air Force, 24 months.
Total armed forces: 238,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $11.0 billion.
Defence estimates 1970: 8,340 million dinars ($667,000,000). dinars = $1.
Army Total strength: 200,000.
   1 armoured division with M-47, T-54 and T-55 tanks.
   9 infantry divisions with some T-34 tanks.
   33 independent infantry brigades.
   12 independent tank brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   1 marine infantry brigade.
   650 M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
   PT-76 and about 35 AMX-13 light tanks.
   M-3 and BTR-50 and BTR-60P APCs.
   Artillery includes SU-100 self-propelled guns and 105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
   SU-57 SP anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 18,000.
   5 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   2 frigates.
   19 submarine chasers.
   10 CUa-class missile patrol -boats with Styx guided missiles.
   About 80 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 medium minesweepers.
   14 inshore minesweepers (some less than 100 tons).
   10 landing craft.
   20-30 batteries of coastal artillery.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000 ; 340 combat aircraft.
   90 F-84G ground-attack aircraft.
   30 Jastreb light ground-attack fighters.
   30 Kraguj close-support aircraft.
   60 MiG-21 Fishbed C/D fighter-interceptors.
   100 F-86D and CF-86D/E fighter-interceptors.
   30 RT-33A and RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   25 medium transport aircraft including C-47s and Il-14s.
   About 40 helicopters including 20 Whirlwinds (made in Yugoslavia) and 15 Mi-4 Hounds.
   8 surface-to-air missile batteries with SA-2 Guideline.
Para-military forces Frontier Guards.
   The territorial defence force being formed, is planned to reach a strength of up to 3 million men and women.
  

The Middle East and the Mediterranean

   TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS
   CENTO
   The members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), are Britain, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey. The United States is associated with CENTO and represented on the Military, Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees and on the Permanent Military Deputies Group. The Treaty is designed to provide mutual co-operation for security and defence. CENTO does not have an international command structure, nor are forces allocated to it. Air striking power could be made available by Britain from bases in Cyprus and by the United States from the aircraft carriers of the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean.
   For the local powers, the CENTO arrangements may be less important than the Regional Co-operation for Development (RCD), which is parallel to but outside CENTO, and under which several schemes are in operation in the economic, cultural and technical fields.
   Other agreements
   Turkey, besides being a member of NATO, also has a bilateral defence agreement with the United States, as do Iran and Pakistan.
   The Soviet Union has no bilateral treaties with countries in the area, though she supplies arms to a number of them.
   Britain has commitments to assist in the defence of Malta, to consult and co-operate in the defence of Cyprus, to aid Libya* if she is engaged in conflict and is responsible for the defence of Bahrein, Qatar, and the Trucial States.
   A defence agreement was concluded between Syria and the United Arab Republic (UAR) on 4 November 1966, providing that an attack on either country would be considered an attack on both. The agreement included establishment of a Defence Council and a Joint Command. The Egyptian Chief-of-StafF was designated as joint commander in the event of war. A similar agreement was entered into by Jordan and the UAR on 30 May 1967, and they were joined by Iraq on 4 June. These agreements do not appear to be active. Iraq and Syria concluded defence pacts in May 1968 and July 1969.
   Libya, Sudan and the United Arab Republic agreed at the end of December 1969, to hold regular meetings to co-ordinate military action against Israel.
   Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and the UAR are members of the League of Arab States, as are Kuwait, South Yemen and Yemen. Among its subsidiary bodies are the Arab Defence Council set up in 1950 and the Unified Arab Command set up in 1964, which has not functioned since the war in June 1967.
   * This treaty had not been formally terminated at the beginning of July 1970, but the Libyan Government has stated that the reasons for its continuation have disappeared.

   ДОГОВОРЫ И СОГЛАШЕНИЯ
   CENTO
   Членами Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO) являются Великобритания, Иран, Пакистан и Турция. Соединенные Штаты связаны с CENTO и представлены в военных, экономических и контрразведывательных комитетах, а также в постоянной группе военных депутатов. Договор призван обеспечить взаимное сотрудничество в области безопасности и обороны. CENTO не иметь международные структуры, ни сил, выделенных ему. Авиационная ударная мощь могла быть предоставлена Великобританией с баз на Кипре и Соединенными Штатами с авианосцев 6-го флота в Средиземном море.
   Для местных властей механизмы CENTO могут иметь меньшее значение, чем региональное сотрудничество в целях развития, которое осуществляется параллельно с CENTO, но за его пределами, и в рамках которого действуют несколько программ в экономической, культурной и технической областях.
   Другие договоры
   Турция, помимо членства в НАТО, также имеет двустороннее оборонное соглашение с Соединенными Штатами, как и Ираном и Пакистаном.
   Советский Союз не имеет двусторонних договоров со странами региона, хотя она поставляет оружие ряду из них.
   У Великобритании есть обязательства по оказанию помощи в обороне Мальты, консультированию и сотрудничеству в обороне Кипра, по оказанию помощи Ливии, если она вовлечена в конфликт и несет ответственность за оборону Бахрейна, Катара и государств, соблюдающих перемирие.
   4 ноября 1966 года между Сирией и Объединенной Арабской Республикой (ОАР) было заключено соглашение об обороне, предусматривающее, что нападение на одну страну будет считаться нападением на обе страны. Соглашение предусматривало создание Совета обороны и Объединенного командования. В случае войны египетский начальник штаба был назначен совместным командующим. Аналогичное соглашение было заключено Иорданией и ОАР 30 мая 1967 года, а 4 июня к ним присоединился Ирак. Как представляется, эти соглашения не действуют. Ирак и Сирия заключили договоры об обороне в мае 1968 года и июле 1969 года.
   Ливия, Судан и Объединенная Арабская Республика договорились в конце декабря 1969 года проводить регулярные совещания для координации военных действий против Израиля.
   Алжир, Ирак, Иордания, Ливан, Ливия, Марокко, Саудовская Аравия, Судан, Сирия, Тунис и САР являются членами Лиги арабских государств, а также Йемен, Кувейт и Южный Йемен. В число его вспомогательных органов входят Совет обороны арабских государств, созданный в 1950 году, и Объединенное арабское командование, созданное в 1964 году, которое не функционировало со времени войны в июне 1967 года.
  * Этот договор официально не был прекращен в начале июля 1970 года, однако ливийское правительство заявило, что причины его продолжения исчезли.
  ALGERIA
Population: 13,750,000.
Military service: limited conscription.
Total armed forces: 57,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $3 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 870 million dinars ($174,000,000). 5 dinars = $1.
Army Total strength: 53,000.
   3 motorized infantry brigades (with some armour). .
   3 independent tank battalions.
   About 45 independent infantry battalions.
   5 independent artillery battalions.
   12 companies of desert troops.
   1 paratroop brigade. '
   300 T-34 and T-54 medium tanks.
   350 BTR-152 APCs.
   140mm and 240mm rocket-launchers.
   85mm guns, 122mm and 152mm howitzers. SU-100 SP assault guns.
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   2 coastal escorts.
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   9 Komar- and Osa-class missile patrol boats (with Styx short-range surface-to-surface missiles).
   10 motor torpedo boats (Soviet P-6 class).
Air Force Total strength: 2,000; 170 combat aircraft.
   140 MiG-15, MiG-17 and MiG-21 fighters.
   30 Il-28 light bombers.
   An-12 and 4 Il-18 transports.
   50 helicopters, mainly Mi-4 Hound; (SA-330 Pumas are being delivered by France).
   About 30 training aircraft.
   1 battalion of SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles. .
   (28 Magister ground-attack/trainer aircraft are on order.)
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of about 8,000, equipped with about 50 AML armoured cars.
  
  IRAN
Population: 28,400,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 161,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $8.9 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 59,000 million rials ($779,000,000). 75.75 rials = $1.
Army Total strength: 135,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   5 infantry divisions.
   1 independent infantry brigade.
   M-24, M-47 and M-60A1 tanks.
   M-8 and M-20 armoured cars.
   M-113 and BTR-152 APCs.
   Soviet 57mm and 85mm anti-aircraft guns.
   1 battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   An aviation battalion with 17 Huskie helicopters. (Further helicopters are being delivered.)
Navy Total strength: 9,000.
   1 destroyer.
   5 frigates (4 with Seacat surface-to-air missiles). 5 corvettes.
   4 patrol boats.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   6 SRN-6 Hovercraft.
   4 landing craft.
   12 patrol vessels (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 17,000; 175 combat aircraft.
   4 squadrons (32 aircraft) of F-4D all-weather fighter-bombers, with Sidewinder and Sparrow air-to-air missiles.
   5 squadrons of F-5 tactical fighter-bombers.
   20 F-86 all-weather interceptors.
   16 RT-33 tactical reconnaissance aircraft (being replaced by 2 squadrons of RF-5).
   Transport aircraft include 8 C-45s, 10 C-47s, 10 C-130Es and 5 Beavers.
   Helicopters include Huskies, Whirlwinds, and 40 AB-205s.
   (100 AB-206 A, 16 Super-Frelon, and 40 UH-1D Iroquois are being delivered.)
   Tigercat surface-to-air missiles.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of about 40,000.
  
  IRAQ
Population: 9,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 94,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $2.8 billion.
Defence estimates 1970: 151,700,000 dinars ($424,760,000). 1 dinar = $2.8.
Army Total strength: 85,000 (including about 15,000 in Jordan and 6,000 in Syria).
   2 armoured divisions.
   5 infantry divisions.
   450 T-54/55, 140 T-34 and 55 Centurion Mark 5 medium tanks.
   40 M-24 Chaffee light tanks.
   55 AML-60 armoured cars and 20 Ferret scout cars.
   BTR-152 APCs.
   Artillery includes Soviet 120mm and 130mm guns. .
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   3 submarine chasers.
   12 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   10 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 7,500; 229 combat aircraft.
   8 Tu-16 medium bombers.
   10 Il-28 light bombers.
   50 Su-7 all-weather fighter-bombers.
   36 Hunter Mark 9 ground-attack aircraft.
   20 T-52 Jet Provost light-strike aircraft. .
   60 MiG-21 interceptors.
   45 MiG-17 and MiG-19 fighters.
   4 Mi-1, 20 Mi-4 and 11 Wessex helicopters.
   Transport aircraft include 12 An-2, 6 An-12, 10 An-24, 13 Il-14, 2 Herons and 3 Bristol Freighters.
   SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Para-military forces Total strength: 20,000 including:
   A national guard of about 10,000.
   1 mechanized brigade of security troops (about men).
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 2,900,000. *Excluding occupied territories.
Military servicel (Jewish population only): men, 36 months; women, 20 months.
Total armed forces: 75,000 regular cadre and conscripts
   (can be raised to about 300,000 by mobilization of reservists, which is completed within 48-72 hours).
Estimated GNP 1969: $4.5 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 3,762.5 million Israeli pounds ($1,075,000,000). 3,5 Israeli pounds = $1.
Army Total strength: 11,500 regular, 50,000 conscripts (275,000 when fully mobilized).
   Active: 2 infantry, two armoured, 1 mechanized and 1 paratroop brigade (some only in cadre form).
   Reserve: about 26 brigades, for one-third of which armour is available on mobilization.
   300 M-48 Patton (with 105mm guns), 450 Centurion, 100 T-54/55s, 200 Super Sherman (with 105mm guns) medium tanks.
   15 AML-90 and some AML-60 and Staghound armoured cars.
   Up to 1500 M-2 and M-3 half-tracks.
   About 300 self-propelled artillery pieces, including mortars and 155mm howitzers on Sherman chassis and 105mm howitzers on AMX chassis.*
   * Further SP artillery is being delivered by the United States.
   Anti-tank weapons include: 106mm recoilless rifles mounted on jeeps. 90mm SP guns.
   SS-10/11 missiles mounted on weapons carriers. Cobra missiles.
   20mm, 30mm and 40mm anti-aircraft guns.
   (There are reports that the MD-660 surface-to- surface missile is due to become operational during 1970 or 1971.)
   There are separate regional defence units which provide a permanent guard in the border regions. Most of these units are on a militia basis.
Navy Total strength: 3,500 regular, and 1,000 conscripts (8,000 when fully mobilized).
   4 submarines.
   1 destroyer.
   1 anti-aircraft frigate.
   1 coastal escort.
   12 Saar-type fast missile patrol boats (with Gabriel surface-to-surface missiles).
   9 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 seaward defence vessels (less than 100 tons).
   7 landing craft (1 less than 100 tons).
   500 naval commandos.
Air Force Total strength: 8,000 regular, 1,000 conscripts (17,000 when fully mobilized); 330 combat aircraft.
   12 Vautour light bombers.
   36 F-4E Phantom fighter-bomber/interceptors.
   67 A-4E Skyhawk fighter-bombers.
   60 Mirage IIIC fighter-bomber/interceptors (some with R-530 missiles).
   30 Mystere IVA fighter-bombers.
   30 Ouragan fighter-bombers.
   10 Super Mystere interceptors.
   85 Magister jet trainers (can be used in ground- attack role).
   2 squadrons with 15 Noratlas, 6 Stratocruiser and 10 C-47 medium transports.
   Helicopters include 25 AB-205s, 5 Alouettes, 12 Super Frelons, 8 CH-53s and 15 H-34s.
   2 battalions of Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   (Israel has ordered and paid for fifty Mirage 5s, but their export from France has been blocked.)
   (Delivery of further American aircraft has been under discussion.)
Para-military forces The militia element of the border region defence units is building up to a strength of 10,000.
  
   JORDAN
Population: 2,225,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 60,250.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.7 billion.
Defence budget 1970:42 million dinars ($117,600,000). dinar = $2.8.
Army Total strength: 58,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   1 Royal Guards battalion (armoured).
   9 infantry brigades.
   1 anti-aircraft regiment, for which Tigercat surface-to-air missiles are on order.
   160 M-47 and M-48 Patton, and 150 Centurion medium tanks.
   130 Saladin armoured cars and about 140 Ferret scout cars.
   250 M-113 and 100 Saracen APCs.
   30 105mm and 155mm howitzers, a few 155mm and 203mm guns, and 3 regiments of 25-pounders.
Navy Total strength: 250.
   8 small patrol craft operating from Aqaba.
Air Force Total strength: 2,000; 38 combat aircraft.
   1 squadron of 18 F-104A interceptors. (A second squadron is due to form in 1970.)
   2 squadrons (about 20 aircraft) of Hunter FGA6 and 9.
   4 C-47, 2 Dove and 2 Devon transport aircraft.
   Helicopters include 6 Alouette III and 3 Whirlwinds.
Para-military forces Total strength: 37,500 consisting of:
   7,500 Gendarmerie.
   30.000 National Guard.
  
   LEBANON
Population: 2,700,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 16,250. Estimated GNP 1969: $1.6 billion.
Defence estimates 1970: PndL100 million ($30,300,000). Pnd Lebanese 3.3 = $1.
Army Total strength: 15,000.
   2 tank battalions.
   1 motorized battalion.
   11 infantry battalions.
   40 Charioteer medium tanks.
   40 AMX-13 and 20 M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   M-706 and M-6 Staghound and AEC Mark-3 armoured cars.
   M-113 and M-59 APCs.
   Artillery includes 155mm howitzers.
Navy Total strength: 250.
   1 patrol vessel.
   1 landing craft. ,
   3 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 1,000; 24 combat aircraft.
   1 squadron of Hunter fighter/ground-attack aircraft.
   1 squadron of Mirage III C interceptors with R.530 air-to-air missiles.
   About 6 transport aircraft.
   1 helicopter squadron with 3 Alouette IIs and 6 Alouette IIIs.
   (A Croiale air-defence missile system is on order.)
Para-military forces There is a Gendarmerie of 2,500.
   It is planned to form a National Guard with a strength of up to 5,000.
  
   LIBYA
Population: 1,935,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 15,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $2.4 billion. Defence budget 1969-70: £L16,400,000 ($45,920,000). £L1=$2.8.
Army Total strength: 14,000.
   2 armoured battalions.
   8 infantry battalions.
   2 artillery battalions.
   1 anti-aircraft artillery battalion.
   9 Centurion medium tanks.
   Saladin armoured cars, Ferret scout cars and Saracen APCs.
   Artillery includes 105mm howitzers.
   (An order for 188 Chieftain heavy tanks is under discussion with Britain.
   There were reports in July of deliveries of armour by the Soviet Union.)
Navy Total strength: 600.
   1 corvette.
   3 fast patrol boats, equipped with Nord SS-12(M) surface-to-surface missiles.
   3 minesweepers.
   1 logistic support ship.
   12 small patrol craft.
   (1 fast frigate is on order.)
Air Force Total strength: 400; 7 combat aircraft.
   1 interceptor squadron with 7 F-5s.
   9 C-47 medium transports.
   3 T-33 jet trainers.
   Some helicopters, including 3 Alouette IIs.
   (50 Mirage 5 and 60 Mirage III are on order.)
  
   MOROCCO
Population: 15,525,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 50,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $3.4 billion.
Defence budget 1969-70: 405 million dirhams ($80,040,000). 5.6 dirhams - $1.
Army Total strength: 45,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   2 motorized infantry brigades.
   1 light security brigade.
   1 paratroop brigade.
   12 independent infantry battalions.
   3 desert cavalry groups.
   4 artillery groups.
   120 T-54 medium and 120 AMX-13 light tanks.
   Some EBR-75, and 50 AML-245 and M-8 Greyhound armoured cars.
   40 M-3 half-track and 90 Czech APCs.
   25 SU-100 and AMX-105, and 50 M-56 SP guns.
   75mm and 105mm howitzers.
   6 Alouette II/III helicopters.
Navy Total strength: 1,000.
   1 frigate.
   1 corvette.
   1 coastal escort.
   1 landing ship.
   2 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 4,000; 26 combat aircraft.
   10 F-5A interceptors.
   12 MiG-17 fighter-bombers (in storage).
   4 AT-6 Texan armed trainers.
   About 45 T-6 Texan, . 25 T-28 Trojan and 8 Magister trainers.'
   12 C-47 and 11 C-119 transports.
   About 20 AB-205, H-34, OH-13 Sioux and HH-43 Huskie helicopters.
   (24 Magister are due to be delivered in 1970.)
Para-military forces Total strength: 3,000, plus about 20,000 auxiliaries.
   Their organization includes 2 mobile security battalions. There are also several companies of Royal Guards.
  
   SAUDI ARABIA
Population: 7,300,000
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 36,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $3.9 billion. , Defence budget 1969-70: 1,742 million riyals ($387,000,000). 4.5 riyals = $1.
Army Total strength: 30,000.
   4 infantry brigades.
   55 M-47 Patton medium tanks.
   35 M-41 Walker Bulldog and 30 AMX-13 light tanks.
   About 200 AML-90 and some M-6 Staghound and M-8 Greyhound armoured cars; some Ferret scout cars.
   Vigilant anti-tank missiles.
   10 batteries of Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 1,000.
   1 patrol vessel.
   5 fast patrol boats.
   (About 20 smaller patrol boats are on order.)
Air Force Total strength: 5,000; 75 combat aircraft.
   16 F-86 fighter-bombers.
   24 BAC-167 Strikemaster ground-attack aircraft.
   35 Lightning interceptors.
   8 C-47, 2 C-118, 6 C-123 and 9 C-130E transport aircraft.
   2 Alouette III, 2 AB-204, 24 AB-205 and 10 AB-206 helicopters.
   About 30 Hunter, Lightning, and T-41A trainers.
   37 Thunderbird surface-to-air missiles, some of which are installed around airfields.
Para-military forces Lightly armed tribal levies (the `White Army') number about 24,000.
   They are used chiefly for internal security purposes.
  
   SUDAN
Population: 15,600,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 27,450.
Estimated GNP 1969: $2.1 billion.
Defence budget 1969-70: £S30,300,000 ($87,570,000). £Sudan 1=$2.87.
Army Total strength: 26,500.
   4 infantry brigades (each of four battalions).
   3 independent infantry battalions.
   1 armoured regiment.
   1 parachute regiment.
   3 artillery regiments.
   About 50 T-55 tanks.
   50 Saladin and 45 M-706 Commando armoured cars.
   60 Ferret scout cars.
   Artillery includes about 50 25-pounders, 40 105mm guns and howitzers, 20 120mm mortars,
   80 Bofors 40mm and some Soviet 85mm anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 500.
   6 coastal patrol boats.
Air Force Total strength: 450; 32 combat aircraft.
   16 MiG-21 interceptor/fighter-bombers.
   5 BAC-145 T.Mk5.
   8 Jet Provost Mk 52.
   3 Piston Provost Mk 51.
   3 Pembroke, 3 F-27 Troopships and 5 An-24 transports.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 1,000. Frontier Police: 2,000.
  
   SYRIA
Population: 6,025,000.
Military service: 30 months. (Jewish population exempted.)
Total armed forces: 86,750.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.35 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: pound 840 million Syrian ($221,000,000). pound 3.8 Syrian = $1.
Army Total strength: 75,000 (including 1,200 in Jordan and 2,000 in Iraq).
   4 armoured brigades.
   4 mechanized brigades.
   6 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute battalion.
   3 commando battalions.
   7 artillery regiments (including 1 in Jordan).
   About 30 IS-3 heavy tanks.
   150 T-34 and 700 T-54/55s medium tanks.
   100 SU-100 tank destroyers and 600 BTR-152 APCs.
   Soviet-made artillery includes 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns.
   40 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 1,750.
   2 minesweepers.
   3 coastal patrol vessels.
   10 Komar-class missile patrol boats, with Styx short-range surface-to-surface missiles.
   15 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 10,000 men; 210 combat aircraft.
   80 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   40 Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   90 MiG-21 interceptors.
   8 Il-14, 6 C-47, 4 D-18 and 3 Li-2 transport aircraft.
   4 Mi-1, 8 Mi-4 and some Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie: 5,000.
   Internal Security Camel Corps: 1,500.
   The People's Militia is stated to be building up to 250,000.
  
   TUNISIA
Population: 4,850,000.
Military service: 1 year (selective).
Total armed forces: 21,050.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.2 billion.
Defence budget 1969-70: 8,700,000 dinars ($16,704,000). 1 dinar = $1.92.
Army Total strength: 20,000.
   1 armoured battalion.
   5 infantry battalions.
   1 artillery group.
   1 Sahara patrol group.
   About 15 AMX-13 and M-41 light tanks.
   M-8 Greyhound and about 20 Saladin armoured cars.
   Artillery includes 105mm SP and 155mm guns.
Navy Total strength: 450.
   1 corvette.
   10 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   (2 French fast patrol boats, to be equipped with SS-12 (M) surface-to-surface missiles, are due to be delivered in 1970.)
Air Force Total strength: 600; 12 combat aircraft.
   12 F-86 fighters.
   9 MB-326 jet trainers.
   12 T-6 Texan basic trainers.
   14 Saab 91-D Sofir primary trainers.
   8 Alouette II helicopters.
   3 Flamant light transports.
Para-military forces Gendarmerie of 5,000, organized in 6 battalions.
  
   UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (UAR)
Population: 33,300,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 288,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $6.3 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: £E553 million ($1,272 million). £El=$2.3.
Army Total strength: 250,000.
   3 armoured divisions.
   4 mechanized infantry divisions.
   5 infantry divisions.
   18 commando battalions.
   2 parachute brigades.
   15 artillery brigades.
   About 30 IS-3 and T-10 heavy tanks.
   Some 950 T-54/T-55, 250 T-34, 10 Centurion Mark 3 and 15 Sherman medium tanks.
   150 PT-76 amphibious and 20 AMX-13 light tanks.
   900 BTR-40, BTR-50, OT-64 and BTR-152 armoured personnel carriers.
   About 150 SU-100 and JSU-152 SP assault and ZSU-57 SP anti-aircraft guns.
   1,500 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns and about 40 lorry-mounted rocket-launchers.
   About 24 FROG-3 and 25 Samlet short-range surface-to-surface missiles.
Navy Total strength: 14,000, including coastguards.
   12 submarines (6 ex-Soviet W-class and 6 ex-Soviet R-class).
   6 destroyers (4 ex-Soviet Skory-class and 1 ex-British Z-type).
   2 escort vessels.
   12 coastal escorts.
   7 fleet minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class missile patrol boats and 7 Komar- class, both with Styx short-range surface-to- surface missiles.
   27 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   17 small landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 20,000; 415 combat aircraft.
   15 Tu-16 medium bombers.
   28 Il-28 light bombers.
   150 MiG-21 interceptors.
   105 Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   165 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   About 40 Il-14 and 20 An-12 medium transports.
   70 Mi-1, Mi-4, Mi-6 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   150 MiG, Yak and Delfin trainers, some of which can be armed.
Air defence is provided by 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-aircraft guns, and by
   250 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles deployed in 25 batteries of 6 launchers each,
   co-ordinated with a radar network and six squadrons of MiG-21C interceptors.
   There are some 100 Soviet-operated MiG-21J interceptors.
   It is believed that 22 SA-3 sites have been completed, and that construction of another 23 is in progress.
   These missiles are manned by Soviet personnel.
Missile Command This is separate from the Army and the Air Force, and consists of about 4,000 men, including civilian technicians.
   The 100 missiles that have been built include the
   Al Zafir, stated to be able to carry a 900-lb warhead some 200 miles, the
   Al Kahir, stated to be able to carry a rather 0x08 graphic
larger warhead up to 350 miles, and the
   Al Raid, stated to be able to carry a one-ton scientific probe some 440 miles.
   (All these figures are thought to be over-optimistic.)
   The first two were designed to be launched from mobile platforms, but none of the missiles is thought to have achieved any operational capability.
   It is believed that the programme has been abandoned and that the command may be disbanded.
Para-military forces A National Guard of about 90,000.

Sub-Saharan Africa*

   The Organization of African Unity (OAU)
   All internationally recognized independent African states, except the Republic of South Africa, are members of the OAU, which was constituted in May 1963 and which has a Defence Commission. Among its stated purposes are co-operation for defence and security; and defence of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the members.
   Other agreements
   Many countries have defence arrangements with external powers. There are bilateral military assistance agreements between the United States and Congo (Kinshasa), Dahomey, Ethiopia, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and South Africa, and between Britain and Kenya and Uganda. There is also an agreement between Britain and South Africa made in June 1955 and revised in January 1967, covering the use of the Simonstown naval base.
   France has bilateral defence agreements with Cameroun, the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, the Malagasy Republic, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
   The Soviet Union has no defence agreements with countries in the area, though she supplies arms to a number of them.
   Portugal directly assures the defence of Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea, and Spain of Spanish Sahara, Ceuta and Melilla. All of these are overseas provinces except Ceuta and Melilla which are integral parts of Spain.
   * With a few important exceptions, only countries with armed forces over 5,000 strong are included. Though in some African States they have a considerable internal security role, civil police forces have not been included. Details of civil police forces of African States and of the armed forces of countries not included here may be found in Adelphi Paper No. 67 The Armed Forces of African States, 1970. The amount of military equipment shown may not necessarily be that which can be used. In some of die developing nations maintenance facilities and skills may pose problems, and spare parts may not be readily available.
  
   Организация африканского единства (ОАЕ)
   Все международно признанные независимые африканские государства, за исключением Южно-Африканской Республики, являются членами ОАЕ, созданной в мае 1963 года и имеющей комиссию по обороне. Среди заявленных целей - сотрудничество в области обороны и безопасности, а также защита суверенитета, территориальной целостности и независимости государств-членов.
   Другие договоры
   Многие страны имеют оборонные договоренности с внешними державами. Имеются двусторонние соглашения о военной помощи между Соединенными Штатами и Конго (Киншасой), Дагомеей, Эфиопией, Гвинеей, Либерией, Мали, Сенегалом и Южной Африкой, а также между Великобританией и Кенией и Угандой. Существует также соглашение между Великобританией и Южной Африкой, заключенное в июне 1955 года и пересмотренное в январе 1967 года, охватывающее использование военно-морской базы Симонстаун.
   Франция заключила двусторонние соглашения об обороне с Камеруном, Центральноафриканской Республикой, Чадом, Конго (Браззавиль), Дагомеей, Габоном, Кот-Д'Ивуаром, Малагасийской Республикой, Мавританией, Нигером, Сенегалом и Того.
   У Советского Союза нет оборонных соглашений со странами региона, хотя она поставляет оружие ряду из них.
   Португалия непосредственно обеспечивает оборону Анголы, Мозамбика и португальской Гвинеи, а Испания - испанской Сахары, Сеуты и Мелильи. Все они являются заморскими провинциями, за исключением Сеуты и Мелильи, которые являются неотъемлемой частью Испании.
   * За некоторыми важными исключениями, включены только страны, вооруженные силы которых превышают 5000 человек. Хотя в некоторых африканских государствах они играют значительную роль в обеспечении внутренней безопасности, в их состав не входят силы гражданской полиции. Подробности сил гражданской полиции африканских государств и вооруженных сил страны могут быть найдены в Adelphi Paper No. 67 The Armed Forces of African States, 1970. Количество военной техники не обязательно может быть тем, которое может быть использовано. Отсутсвие средств и умения обслуживать в развивающихся странах могут представить проблемы, и запасные части не могут быть доступны.
  
   CONGO (Kinshasa) (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Population: 20,850,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 38,250.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.5 billion. Defence budget 1970: 30 million zaires ($60,000,000). 1 zaire = $2.
Army Total strength: 37,500.
   14 infantry battalions.
   4 parachute battalions.
   2 commando battalions.
   7 battalions of gendarmerie.
   National Guard battalions.
   The above, together with support units, form eight provincial `groupements'.
   40 AML-60 and 15 AML-90 armoured cars. Ferret scout cars.
Navy Total strength: 100.
   About 10 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 650; 21 combat aircraft.
   10 T-6 Texan and 8 T-28 Trojan armed trainers.
   2 DC-4 and 10 DC-3 transports.
   Alouette helicopters.
   (17 MB-326GB ground-attack/trainer aircraft are on order, of -which about 5 have been received.)
  
   ETHIOPIA
Population: 25,200,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 45,400.
Estimated GNP 1969: US$ 1.6 billion
Defence budget 1969-70: E$89,870,000. (US $35,948,000). E$ 2.5 = US$1.
Army Total strength: 41,000.
   8,000-man infantry divisions (including the Imperial Guard).
   1 tank battalion.
   About 50 M-41 Walker Bulldog and M-24 Chaffee light tanks.
   About 40 APCs.
   1 armoured car squadron.
   4 artillery battalions.
   2 anti-aircraft batteries.
   1 engineer and 8 training battalions.
Navy Total strength: 1,400.
   1 training ship (ex-seaplane tender).
   5 patrol boats.
   2 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   3 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000; 43 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber squadron with 6 Canberra B2.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 12 F-86F.
   1 ground-attack squadron with 8 Saab-17.
   1 fighter squadron with 8 F-5A.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 6 T-28 and 3 T-33.
   1 transport squadron with 6 C-47,2 C-54,3 Doves and 1 Il-14.
   Other aircraft include 15 Saab-91 Safirs and 8 T-28 trainers, and 3 Alouette helicopters.
Para-military forces Total strength: 4,500, consisting of a mobile force of 3,000 and 1,500 frontier guards.
  
   GHANA
Population: 8,750,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 15,900.
Estimated GNP 1969: $2.06 billion.
Defence budget 1969-70: 49,100,000 cedi ($48,140,000). 1.02 cedi = $1.
Army Total strength: 14,000.
   3 brigades, each consisting of 3 battalions and support units.
   1 paratroop battalion.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons with Saladin armoured cars and Ferret scout cars.
Navy Total strength: 800.
   2 corvettes.
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   2 seaward defence vessels.
   3 patrol boats (ex-Soviet P-class-less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 1,100; no combat aircraft.
   1 transport squadron of 11 DHC-3 Otters.
   1 transport squadron of 8 DHC-4 Caribous and 3 Herons.
   1 communications and liaison squadron with 12 DHC-2 Beavers.
   1 helicopter squadron with 6 Whirlwinds, 3 Wessex, 1 Mi-4 Hound and 4 Hughes 269.
   Training aircraft include 5 Aermacchi MB-326s, 10 Chipmunks, 2 Beavers and 4 HT-2s.
Para-military forces A workers' brigade of about 3,000 men, with some basic military training.
  
   GUINEA
Population: 3,975,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 5,400. Estimated GNP 1969: $0.7 billion.
Defence budget 1966-67: 2,338 million Guinea francs ($9,470,000).
   247 Guinea francs = $1 (until August 1969). 278 Guinea francs = $1 (since August 1969).
Army Total strength: 5,000.
   5 infantry battalions.
   1 artillery battalion.
   3 engineer companies.
   About 12 T-34 tanks, and some BTR-152 APCs.
   Artillery includes 105-mm and 122-mm guns.
Navy Total strength: 200.
   4 patrol boats (ex-Soviet P-6 class - less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 200; 8 combat aircraft.
   8 MiG-17 fighters.
   2 Il-18 and 4 Il-14 transports.
Para-military forces Total strength: 7,500, consisting of:
   A Gendarmerie of 900. A Republican Guard of 1,600. A Militia of 5,000.
  
   IVORY COAST
Population: 4,275,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 4,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.3 billion.
Defence budget 1969 : 4,100 million CFA francs ($15,570,000).
   247 CFA francs = $1 (until August 1969). 278 CFA francs = $1 (since August 1969).
Army Total strength: 4,000.
   3 infantry battalions.
   1 armoured squadron.
   1 reconnaissance squadron.
   1 paratroop company.
   2 artillery batteries with 105mm guns and 40mm AA guns.
   1 engineer company.
   About 10 AMX-13 light tanks.
   Other equipment includes French scout cars and mortars.
Navy Total strength: 200.
   3 patrol vessels (1 less than 100 tons).
   2 landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 300; no combat aircraft.
   4 C-47 medium and 5 MH-1521 Broussard light transports.
   1 Mystere 20 transport.
   5 Alouette helicopters.
   4 light aircraft.
Gendarmerie Total strength: 1,750.
  
   KENYA
Population: 11,200,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 5,400.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.4 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1968: 128 million shillings ($17,900,000). 7.14 shillings = $1.
Army Total strength: 4,700.
   1 brigade consisting of:
   4 infantry battalions.
   1 support battalion which includes a paratroop company.
   Equipment includes Ferret scout cars and 120mm mortars.
Navy Total strength: 250.
   1 seaward defence boat.
   3 patrol boats.
Air Force Total strength: 450; no combat aircraft.
   1 squadron with 4 DHC-4 Caribou utility transports.
   1 squadron with 7 DHC-2 Beaver light transports.
   1 squadron with 3 Beaver and 6 Chipmunk trainers.
   (5 Bulldog trainers are on order.)
Para-military forces The civil police includes some para-military General Service Units.
  
   MALAGASY REPUBLIC
Population: 7,025,000.
Military service: compulsory military or civic service of 2 years.
Total armed forces: 4,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.78 billion.
Defence budget 1969: 3,450 million MG francs ($13,450,000).
   247 MG francs = $1 (until August 1969). 278 MG francs = $1 (since August 1969).
Army Total strength: 4,000.
   2 mixed regiments, each consisting of:
   4 infantry companies.
   1 paratroop company.
   1 reconnaissance squadron.
   1 engineer regiment.
   1 artillery battery.
Navy Total strength: 300.
   3 patrol vessels.
   1 training ship.
   1 tender.
   1 company of marines.
Air Force Total strength: 200; no combat aircraft.
   4 C-47 medium transports.
   6 MH-1521 Broussard light transports.
   3 MD-315 Flamant light aircraft.
   1 helicopter.
Para-military forces. A Gendarmerie of 4,000
  
   NIGERIA
Population: 66,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 185,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $5.25 billion.
Defence budget 1968-69: Pnd 35,509,660 ($99,430,000). Pnd 1 = $2.80.
Army Total strength: 180,000.
   4 army divisions.
   1 marine commando division.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons.
   Armoured vehicles include Saladin, AML-60 and AML-90 armoured cars, Ferret scout cars, and
   Saracen APCs.
   Artillery includes British 25-pounders, and Soviet 76-mm and 122-mm guns.
Navy Total strength: 2,000.
   1 frigate.
   1 submarine chaser.
   3 fast patrol boats (ex-Soviet - less than 100 tons).
   7 seaward defence boats.
   1 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 3,000; 33 combat aircraft.
   3 Il-28 medium bombers.
   12 MiG-15/17 ground-attack aircraft.
   8 L-29 Delfin and 10 P-149D armed trainers. Other aircraft include:
   3 C-47 transports.
   Some Do-27/28 communications and liaison aircraft.
   About 10 helicopters, including Whirlwinds and Alouette II.
  
   RHODESIA
Population: 5,250,000 (250,000 white population). Military service: 12 months (white population).
Total armed forces: 4,600.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.2 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969-70: Pnd R 8,440,000 ($23,630,000). Pnd R1 = $2.8.
   (Since February 1970 Pnd R $1 = US $1.4).
Army Total strength: 3,400.
   1 Special Air Service squadron.
   2 infantry battalions (one has a few Ferret scout cars).
   1 artillery battery.
   There is an establishment for 3 brigades, 2 being based on regular infantry battalions.
   These brigades would be brought up to strength by calling out the Territorial battalions referred to below.
Air Force Total strength: 1,200; 48 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber squadron with 11 Canberras.
   1 day-fighter/ground-attack squadron with 12 Hunters.
   1 day-fighter/ground-attack squadron with 12 Vampires.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 13 T-52 Provosts.
   1 transport squadron including C-47s.
   1 helicopter squadron with 8 Alouette IIIs.
Reserves Total strength: 4,000.
   All the white population who have completed their 12 months' military training are assigned to Territorial battalions for 3 years of parttime
   training. These reserve units are divided between active Territorial battalions, based on the cities, and reserve Territorial battalions, based on
   country districts. The establishment of the reserves is for 8 battalions and 1 field artillery battery.
   It is also likely that the majority of the ground personnel servicing the regular Air Force units are Air Force reservists or nonwhite civilians
   employed by the Air Force.
Para-military forces Total strength: 6,400 active; 28,500 reservist.
   The British South African Police (BSAP) are in many ways a para-military force, in that they have military equipment such as small arms
   and would be responsible for much of the internal security of Rhodesia in the event of civil disturbances or a military threat from outside.
   The white population forms only about a third of the active strength, but nearly three-quarters of the Police reserves.
  
   SENEGAL
Population: 3,900,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 5,850.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.83 billion.
Defence budget 1969-70 : 4,461 million CFA francs ($18,060,000).
   247 CFA francs = $1 (until August 1969). 278 CFA francs = $1 (since August 1969).
Army Total strength: 5,500.
   2 infantry battalions (5 companies each).
   2 parachute companies.
   2 commando companies.
   1 reconnaissance squadron.
   1 engineer battalion.
   Support units include a transport and a signals company.
Navy Total strength: 150.
   5 patrol boats (4 less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 200; no combat aircraft.
   4 C-47 medium transports.
   4 MH-1521 Broussard light transports.
   2 helicopters.
Gendarmerie Total strength: 1,600.
  
   SOMALI DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 2,925,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 12,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.2 billion.
Defence budget 1969 : 64,320,000 shillings ($9,008,000). 7.14 shillings = $1.
Army Total strength: 10,000.
   7 mechanized battalions.
   3 infantry battalions.
   1 battalion of mobile scouts.
   About 150 T-34 medium tanks. * Only about half are likely to be serviceable.
   Some Ferret scout cars.
   About 60 Soviet APCs, including BTR-152s.
   Artillery includes Soviet 100-mm field guns.
Navy Total strength: 250.
   7 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 1,750; 18 combat aircraft.
   18 MiG-15/17 fighters.
   20 Yak-11 and 6 MiG-15/17UTI trainers.
   Transports include C-45, C-47 and 1 An-24.
Para-military forces Total strength: 500 border guards.
  
   SOUTH AFRICA
Population: 20,025,000 (3,800,000 white population).
Military service: 9-12 months in Citizen Force.
Total armed forces: 43,800 (full time, excluding the Kommandos).
Estimated GNP 1969: $15.89 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 257,100,000 rand ($359,940,000). 1 rand = $1.4.
Army Total strength: 32,300 (10,000 regular and 22,300 Citizen Force under training at any one time.
   The Kommandos are organized and trained on the same lines as the Citizen Force and number approximately 58,000).
   100 Centurion Mark 5 and about 100 Sherman and Comet tanks.
   About 500 AML-60 and AML-90 armoured cars, and Ferret scout cars.
   Saracen APCs.
   Most light arms and ammunition are manufactured in South Africa.
Navy Total strength: 3,500 (2,250 regular and 1,250 Citizen Force under training at any one time).
   2 destroyers carrying Wasp ASW helicopters.
   6 ASW frigates.
   1 ocean-going minesweeper.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 seaward defence boats.
   1 fleet replenishment tanker.
   (3 Daphne-type submarines are on order from France. Delivery of the first has been taken; the remainder are due for delivery in 1971.)
Air Force Total strength: 8,000 (5,000 regular and 3,000 Citizen Force under training at any one time);
   240 combat aircraft (including Citizen Air Force).
   9 Canberra B12 bombers.
   15 Buccaneer Mark 50 light bombers.
   20 Mirage III-EZ fighter-bombers equipped with AS-20 and AS-30 air-to-surface missiles.
   16 Mirage III-CZ interceptors equipped with R-530 air-to-air missiles.
   Other combat aircraft include 4 Mirage III-RZ, 30 F-86 Mark 6 and about 40 Vampire FB-5.
   7 Shackleton maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   9 Transall, 44 C-47, 7 C-130B, 1 Viscount and 4 Skymaster medium transports.
   9 P-166 light transports.
   6 Alouette II, 50 Alouette III, 8 Wasp and 16 Super Frelon helicopters.
   Training aircraft include 85 MB-326;
   at least 225 of this type are being produced in South Africa under the designation Impala.
   Approximately 150 Harvards are used for training or are in storage.
   (Crotale surface-to-air missiles are on order from France.)
   The Citizen Air Force operates eight squadrons with C-47 transports, Impala and about 100 Harvard trainers
   (able to carry eight 19-lb. fragmentation bombs).
Para-military forces About 3,000 of the police have received antiterrorist training.
   Equipment includes 80 Saracen APCs, on loan from the army, and 430 patrol trucks.
  
   TANZANIA
Population: 13,250,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 10,350.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.0 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1968: 78 million shillings ($10,900,000). 7.14 shillings = $1.
Army Total strength: 10,000.
   4 infantry battalions.
   12 Chinese light tanks.
   Some BTR-40 and 15 BTR-152 APCs.
   Some Chinese-made mortars and Soviet artillery.
Navy Total strength: 100.
   4 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength 250; no combat aircraft.
   The Soviet Union is expected shortly to supply some MiG-17 interceptors.
   1 An-2, 5 DHC-3 Otter and 4 DHC-4 Caribou transports.
   7 P-149 trainers.
  
   UGANDA
Population: 9,725,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 6,700.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.84 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1968: 143 million shillings ($20,030,000). 8.14 shillings = $1.
Army Total strength: 6,250.
   2 brigade groups each consisting of: 2 infantry battalions with supporting services.
   1 independent infantry battalion.
   Some Ferret scout cars, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APCs.
Air Force Total strength: 450; 19 combat aircraft.
   12 Magister armed trainers.
   1 squadron of 7 MiG-15s and Mig-17s.
   1 transport squadron which includes 6 C-47s.
   4 Piaggio P-149 and 5 L-29 Delfin trainers.
   6 Piper light aircraft.
Para-military forces The police force includes about 800 men in paramilitary general service units.
  
   ZAMBIA
Population: 4,350,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total regular armed forces: 4,400.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.4 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1968: 14,325,000 kwacha ($20,050,000). 1 kwacha = $1.4.
Army Total strength: 4,000.
   1 brigade group consisting of:
   3 infantry battalions.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Ferret scout cars.
   1 battery of 105mm gun-howitzers.
   1 engineer company.
   A signals platoon and supporting services.
Air Force Total strength: 400; no combat aircraft.
   1 transport squadron with 2 C-47s and 4 DHC- Caribous.
   1 communications and liaison squadron with 6 DHC-2 Beaver aircraft and
   5 AB-205 helicopters.
   6 Chipmunk trainers.
   (8 Bulldog trainers are on order.)
Para-military forces The police force includes 2 mobile battalions.
  
   EXTERNAL POWERS IN AFRICA
  
   FRANCE
   The total number of French troops stationed in Africa on 1 July 1970 was about 12,500, deployed as follows:
IVORY COAST Total strength: 600 (all army).
   1 mixed regiment - including an armoured car squadron on detachment in Niger.
SENEGAL Total armed forces: 2,200.
Army Total strength: 1,450
   Including 1 mixed regiment.
Navy Total strength: 550.
   2 coastal escorts.
   1 tank landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 200.
   6 N-2501 Noratlas transports.
   1 light aircraft flight.
CHAD Total armed forces: 2,500.
Army Total strength: 1,700 including:
   1 mixed regiment.
   1 parachute regiment (Legionnaires).
Air Force Total strength: 800; 5 combat aircraft.
   5 A-1D Skyraider ground support aircraft. 10 N-2501 Noratlas transports.
   About 20 H-34 and Alouette II helicopters. A few light aircraft.
GABON Total armed forces: 400.
   Army Total strength: 400 including a paratroop company.
MALAGASY REPUBLIC Total armed forces: 2,000.
Army
Total strength: 1,250.
   1 parachute regiment (2 companies only).
   1 infantry regiment (2 companies only).
Navy Total strength: 450.
   1 frigate.
   2 minesweepers.
   1 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 300; 12 combat aircraft.
   1 squadron with A-1D Skyraider ground-support aircraft.
   6 N-2501 Noratlas medium transports.
  
   France also maintains the following garrison in her overseas territory:
FRENCH TERRITORY OF THE AFARS AND ISSAS (formerly French Somaliland) Total strength: (excluding Gendarmerie): 4,400.
Army Total strength: 3,600.
   1 mixed regiment.
   1 infantry regiment (Ugiomaires).
   1 artillery regiment.
   Equipment includes AMX-13 light tanks and Ferret scout cars.
Navy Total strength: 300.
   2 minesweepers.
   Some landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 500; 12 combat aircraft.
   1 squadron with A-1D Skyraider ground-support aircraft.
   1 transport squadron with N-2501 Noratlas and H-34 and Alouette helicopters.
Gendarmerie
   Total strength: 500, including 400 locally recruited auxiliaries.
  
   Under the provision of the Evian agreements of 1962, France still maintains the following forces in:
ALGERIA Total strength: 400.
   1 infantry company (Legionnaires).
   An air force detachment.
  
   PORTUGAL
   A total of about 125,000 Portuguese troops (including those locally enlisted), of all three services, are serving in the African provinces:
ANGOLA Total armed forces strength: 57,000.
MOZAMBIQUE Total armed forces strength: 43,000.
PORTUGUESE GUINEA Total armed forces strength: 25,000.
  
   SPAIN
Total strength: 27,000.
SPANISH SAHARA Total strength: 10,000.
   These include mechanized and commando formations of the Spanish Foreign Legion, as well as various support units.
CEUTA Total strength: 8,000.
MELILLA Total strength: 9,000. There are also about 8,000 troops in the Canary Islands.
  

Asia and Australia

CHINA

   China's military potential still lies basically in her large reserves of manpower. Although no official Chinese population figures have been issued for some years, it is likely that there are about 150 million Chinese males of military age available for drafting. The Chinese arms industry could not supply more than a small part of this manpower with modem weapons, even small arms, and the People's Liberation Army (PLA), which encompasses all three services, totals less than 3 million. Although this is a large absolute figure in relation to other standing armies, it is relatively thinly deployed over most parts of China, though there are concentrations in certain strategic areas.
   As regards China's established conventional forces, the bulk of the military manpower lies in the army, which is basically an infantry force of 118 line divisions. The PLA has been, since the Cultural Revolution, much involved in administrative and industrial matters, and its overall efficiency as a military force must have suffered. Nevertheless, despite limitations in equipment, the Chinese army remains a formidable force in difficult terrain and in defensive warfare.
   The military situation along the Sino-Soviet border appears to have stabilized somewhat since the Peking talks got under way. The Sino-Soviet Treaty of Alliance and Friendship, signed in 1950 for a period of thirty years, has in effect become moribund and neither side now makes reference to it. China has no other formal military alliances.
   The Nuclear Programme
   The Chinese carried out their first nuclear test in 1964 and may now have accumulated fissionable material for about 120 atomic bombs of nominal yield (20 kt); or some atomic and some hydrogen (i.e. thermonuclear) weapons, though in this case the total number would be smaller. Some of the thermonuclear devices could be several megatons in yield. China's first underground nuclear test was announced in September 1969; the programme of nuclear tests indicates continuing research on compact weapons suitable for missile or aircraft delivery.
   The Missile Programme
   The launching into earth orbit of a 173 kg (381 lb) artificial satellite in April 1970 indicated that China had perfected a booster vehicle of somewhat similar power to the early American Thor IRBM, which had a range of about 1,500 miles. It has not been revealed whether the vehicle employed was a large single-stage rocket or an improved two-stage version of the one used in the 1966 test. It is more likely to have been the latter since this would give the Chinese experience of the missile staging employed on ICBMs. The new vehicle is likely to have inertial guidance, as do American and Soviet long-range missiles; it is probably still an experimental version, not yet fully developed.
   Although deployment of MRBMs has been forecast by American sources since 1967, there is still no report of this actually taking place, although it is possible that some Sandal- type missiles are available. It may be that the Chinese are giving priority to the development of an ICBM. Flight tests over the south-western Pacific or the Indian Ocean would herald the preliminary stages of such a programme.

КИТАЙ

   Военный потенциал Китая по-прежнему в основном заключается в его больших резервах живой силы. Хотя официальные данные о населении Китая за последние несколько лет не публиковались, вполне вероятно, что для призыва имеется около 150 миллионов китайских мужчин призывного возраста. Китайская военная промышленность не могла обеспечить более чем небольшую часть этих сил современным вооружинием, даже стрелковым оружием, а Народно-освободительная армия (НОАК), и все три вида вооруженных сил насчитывают менее 3 миллионов человек. Хотя это большая абсолютная цифра по отношению к другим постоянным армиям, она относительно не велика на большей части Китая, хотя есть концентрация в некоторых стратегических районах.
   Что касается китаских обычных вооруженных сил, основная масса военной мощи приходится на армию, которая по сути является пехотой силой в 118 линейных дивизий. Со времени культурной революции НОАК активно занималась административными и промышленными вопросами, и ее общая эффективность как военной силы, должно быть, пострадала. Тем не менее, несмотря на ограничения в оснащении, китайская армия остается грозной силой в труднопроходимой местности и в оборонительной войне.
   Военная ситуация вдоль китайско-советской границы, похоже, несколько стабилизировалась после начала пекинских переговоров. Советско-китайский Договор о союзничестве и дружбе, подписанный в 1950 году сроком на тридцать лет, фактически умер, и ни одна из сторон не ссылается на него. У Китая нет других официальных военных союзов.
   Ядерная программа
   Китайцы провели свои первые ядерные испытания в 1964 году и теперь, возможно, накопили расщепляющийся материал для около 120 атомных бомб номинальной мощьности (20 кт); или иное атомное и водородное (т. е. термоядерное) оружие, хотя в этом случае общее число было бы меньше. Некоторые из термоядерного зарядов могут иметь несколько мегатонн мощности. Первые подземные ядерные испытания Китая были объявлены в сентябре 1969 года; программа ядерных испытаний свидетельствует о продолжении исследований для создания компактного оружия, пригодного для доставки ракетами или самолетами.
   Ракетная программа
   Запуск на околоземную орбиту искусственного спутника массой 173 кг (381 фунт) в апреле 1970 года показал, что Китай усовершенствовал ракету-носитель аналогичной по мощности ранней американской БРСД Thor, которая имела дальность около 1500 миль. Не было выявлено, является ли носитель большой одноступенчатой ракетой или усовершенствованной двухступенчатой испытанной в 1966. Если последнее, так как это дало бы китайцам опыт ракетной технологии, используемой на МБР. Новая ракета, вероятно, будет иметь инерционное наведение, как у американских и советских ракет дальнего радиуса действия; это, вероятно, все еще экспериментальная версия, еще не полностью разработанная.
   Хотя развертывание БРСД прогнозируется американскими источниками с 1967 года, до сих пор нет сообщений о том, что это действительно происходит, хотя возможно, что имеются ракеты типа Sandal. Может быть, китайцы отдают приоритет развитию МБР. Летные испытания над юго-западной частью Тихого океана или Индийским океаном станут предвестником предварительных этапов такой программы.
  
   CHINA
Population: 750,000,000*
   * No official population figures have been published since 1 January 1958, when the total was 646,530,000. The figure quoted here is based on the latest estimate published by the United Nations. Other estimates range from 720 million to 850 million. Selective military service: Army, 4-5 years; Air Force, 5 years; Navy, 5-6 years.
Total regular forces: 2,780,000 (including rail-way engineer troops).
   As the Chinese Government has not made public any budget figures since I960, China's defence expenditure can only be estimated.
   If one accepts the American view that China is spending 9-10 per cent of her GNP on defence(including defence R & D),
   and assuming that in 1970 the economy has at last moved above the 1966 level, then Professor T. C. Liu's calculation of the
   GNP for late 1966 at 11.8 billion yuan indicates a defence expenditure figure of approximately 12.0 billion yuan today ($4,880,000,000).
   Calculation of the GNP in dollar purchasing power (about $80 billion) would indicate a rather higher defence expenditure.
   2.46 yuan=$1.
Army Total strength: 2,450,000 (including railway engineer troops).
   The ground forces of the PLA consist of about 118 front-line divisions of which
   108 are infantry,
   5 armoured,
   3 cavalry and
   2 airborne; in addition there are about
   20 artillery divisions.
   There are also supporting signals, engineer, railway engineer and motor transport units.
   Heavy equipment consists of items supplied earlier by the Soviet Union, such as artillery up to 152mm and 203mm, and the JS-2 heavy tank.
   Medium armour consists of the T-34 and the T-54 tank, which is produced in China under the designation T-59.
   The Chinese are also thought to be producing armour of their own design,including light tanks and APCs.
   Self-propelled artillery includes SU-76, SU-I00, JSU-I22 and JSU-152.
   There is a shortage of heavy field- engineering equipment and heavy self-propelled artillery, as well as motor transport, while radar and
   electronic communications equipment is generally less sophisticated than modem Western or Soviet types.
   The ground forces are adequately equipped with a range of infantry weapons, light and medium mortars, rocket-launchers, recoilless rifles
   and light and medium artillery, all produced in China.
Deployment.
   China is divided into 12 Military Regions (MRs),*
   * The Inner Mongolia MR has been divided between the Shenyang and the Peking MRs.
   of which two on the northern and western borders - Sinkiang and Tibet- normally report directly to the Central Govemment in Peking rather
   than to the central military authorities.
   The military commander of each Region also commands the regular air and naval forces assigned to it, together with the civilian militia.
   The Military Regions are in turn divided into Military Districts, with usually two or three Districts to a Region.
   It is believed that basically one Army is assigned to each Military District giving a total of about 30 Armies.
   An Army generally consists of three infantry divisions, three artillery regiments and, in some cases, three armoured regiments.
   Of the five armoured divisions in the PLA, two or three are probably kept in the Peking and Shenyang Regions.
   On the basis of the above organization, and allowing for the fact that divisions may be trans- ferred at one time or another to areas
   of particular tension, the geographical distribution of the divisions is believed to be as follows:
   Tibet: 3 divisions.*
   Sinkiang: 4 divisions.*
   Manchuria and Peking (Shenyang* and Peking* MRs): 32 divisions.
   Along the coastal belt from Shantung to Hong Kong (Tsinan, Nanking and Foochow MRs): 28 divisions.
   Along the axis of the Canton-Wuhan railway (Canton and Wuhan MRs): 25 divisions.
   On Hainan Island (under Canton MR): 3 divisions.
   Western China (Lanchow MR): 11 divisions.
   Szechwan and Yunnan (Chengtu and Kunming MRs): 12 divisions.
   * There are, in addition, 2 or 3 divisions of border troops in each of these Military Regions.
   Working in North Vietnam and Laos are a railway engineer division and some construction engineer troops, amounting to about 10,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 150,000 (including 16,000 Naval Air Force and 28,000 Marines).
   1 G-class submarine (with ballistic missile tubes).
   29 fleet submarines.
   3 coastal submarines.
   4 destroyers.
   9 destroyer escorts.
   15 patrol escorts.
   24 submarine chasers.
   10 missile patrol boats.
   50 minesweepers.
   45 auxiliary minesweepers.
   200 motor torpedo boats and hydrofoils (less than 100 tons).
   300 motor gunboats.
   275 landing ships/landing craft.
   The Chinese Navy is divided into three fleets, the North Sea Fleet, the East Sea Fleet and the South Sea Fleet.
   Deployment of ships among these is thought to be as below:
North sea fleet. 230 vessels. It is organized into a destroyer squadron, and squadrons of submarines, submarine chasers, landing craft,
   torpedo boats, gunboats and minesweepers. The main bases are at Tsingtao and Lushun. Units are deployed along the coast
   from the mouth of the Yalu river in the north to Lien Yun Kang in the south.
East sea fleet. 435 vessels. This constitutes the major numerical strength of the Chinese Navy in surface ships and is organized into
   1 escort squadron, 1 submarine squadron and squadrons of submarine chasers, landing craft, torpedo boats, gunboats, and minesweepers.
   Bases are at Shanghai and Chou Shan. It is deployed along the coast from Lien Yun Kang in the north to Chao An Wan in the south.
South sea fleet. 300 vessels. It is organized into an escort squadron, and squadrons of submarine chasers, landing craft, torpedo boats,
   gunboat types and minesweepers. Bases are at Whampoa and Tsamkong.
   It is deployed from Chao An Wan in the north to the North Vietnam frontier in the south.
There are about 500 shore-based naval aircraft, including up to
   100 Il-28 torpedo-carrying light bombers and substantial numbers of MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters.
   These fighters, though under Navy Command, are fully integrated into the air defence system of China.
Air Force Total strength: 180,000, including 85,000 in air defence ground units; 2,800 combat aircraft. There are
   some Tu-16 and a few Tu-4 (a copy of the B-29) medium bombers and
   150 Il-28 light bombers.
   The remaining aircraft are chiefly early model MiG-15s and MiG-17s, a growing number of MiG-19s and a
   small number of MiG-21s (the latter probably Russian-supplied in the early 1960s).
   There is a small air transport fleet, which includes some An-2s, Il-14s, Il-18s and Mi-4 helicopters.
   This fleet could be supplemented by aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau, numbering about 350.
   The serviceability of some aircraft types may be affected by shortage of spare parts.
   There is an air-defence system, initially developed to defend the eastern seaboard of China and now greatly expanded.
   It is based on radar and interceptor aircraft, including some MiG-21s, and some SA-2 Guideline surface-to- air missiles.
Para-military forces Security and border troops number about 300,000.
   The border troops include 19 infantry- type divisions and 30 independent regiments permanently stationed in the frontier areas,
   in addition to the regular divisions.
   There is also a public security (formerly People's Armed Police) force,
   and a civilian militia claimed by the Chinese authorities to be 200 million strong,
   though its effective element is probably not more than 7 million.
  

OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES AND AUSTRALASIA

   The Soviet Union has Treaties of Friendship, Co-operation and Military Assistance with Mongolia and with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. She does not have defence agreements with either India or Pakistan, but has supplied military equipment to both countries.
   The United States has mutual defence treaties with the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of China, Australia and New Zealand and an agreement to support the independence and integrity of Thailand. The United States has had a security treaty with Japan since 1951, which was extended in June 1970.*
   In 1954 the United States, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand signed the South-East Asia Collective Defence Treaty, which came into force in 1955 and brought into being SEATO. Member-countries were originally committed to build up collective economic and military strength, and to consult with a view to joint defensive action in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member country or against the so-called `protocol states' of Cambodia, Laos and South Vietnam. However, since 1955 and 1956 respectively, Cambodia and Laos have chosen not to accept the protection of SEATO.
   The Treaty area is the general area of South-East Asia and the South-West Pacific, below latitude 21R30' North. SEATO has no central command structure and forces remain under national control. American support for the treaty powers is exercised from a number of bases in the area, for example, by the Seventh Fleet based on Taiwan and the Philippines, and American air and ground forces in Guam, Thailand and Vietnam.
   On 31 March 1969 Britain, while remaining a member of SEATO, ceased to declare ground forces to the contingency plans of the Organization. France now has no forces declared to SEATO. Pakistan is a member of SEATO but has announced her progressive disengagement from the Alliance, though she continues to receive American military assistance.
   The United States, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and Thailand have sent troops to South Vietnam. This was not done by a decision of the SEATO Council, but these countries have, for the most part, justified their decision to intervene in terms of their SEATO obligations.
   The security of Australia and New Zealand is primarily assured by the tripartite treaty known as ANZUS, between these two countries and the United States, which was signed in 1951 and is of indefinite duration. Under this treaty each agrees to `act to meet the common danger' in the event of armed attack on either metropolitan or island territory of any one of them or on armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft, in the Pacific.
   Britain maintains forces in Malaysia and Singapore under the Anglo-Malaysian Defence Agreement (AMDA). Australia and New Zealand maintain forces in Malaysia and Singapore and are to continue to do so after 1971, with the land components based in Singapore and Australia's air contribution based mainly at Butterworth in the Malayan Peninsula. Their military contributions to SEATO are drawn partly from these forces.
   British, Australian and New Zealand defence policies in the Malaysian area are co-ordinated through the arrangement known as ANZAM. Future arrangements for the defence of Singapore and Malaysia are under discussion between Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Malaysia.
   * Ether party may now terminate the treaty by giving one year's notice to the other.

ДРУГИЕ АЗИАТСКИЕ СТРАНЫ И АВСТРАЛИЯ

   Советский Союз имеет договоры о дружбе, сотрудничестве и военной помощи с Монголией и Корейской Народно-Демократической Республикой. Он не имеет оборонных соглашений ни с Индией, ни с Пакистаном, но поставляла военную технику обеим странам.
   Соединенные Штаты имеют договоры о взаимной обороне с Филиппинами, Республикой Корея, Китайской Республикой, Австралией и Новой Зеландией и соглашение о поддержке независимости и целостности Таиланда. С 1951 года Соединенные Штаты заключили с Японией договор о безопасности, который был продлен в июне 1970 года.*
   В 1954 году Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Великобритания, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины и Таиланд подписали Договор о коллективной обороне в Юго-Восточной Азии, который вступил в силу в 1955 году и положил начало SEATO. Страны-члены изначально были привержены наращиванию коллективной экономической и военной мощи и проведению консультаций в целях совместных оборонительных действий в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против страны-члена или против так называемых "протокольных государств" Камбоджи, Лаоса и Южного Вьетнама. Однако начиная с 1955 и 1956 годов, соответственно, Камбоджа и Лаос решили не соглашаться на защиту SEATO.
   Договорным районом является общая зона Юго-Восточной Азии и юго-западной части Тихого океана, расположенная ниже 21R 30' северной широты. SEATO не имеет центральной структуры командования, и силы остаются под национальным контролем. Американская поддержка договорных держав осуществляется с ряда баз в этом районе, например, Седьмым флотом, базирующимся на Тайване и Филиппинах, и американскими Военно-воздушными и наземными силами на Гуаме, в Таиланде и Вьетнаме.
   31 марта 1969 года Британия, оставаясь членом SEATO, перестала предоставлять сухопутные войска организации. Франция сейчас не имеет сил, предоставленных SEATO. Пакистан является членом SEATO, но объявил о ее постепенном выходе из союза, хотя продолжает получать американскую военную помощь.
   Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Филиппины и Таиланд направили войска в Южный Вьетнам. Это не было сделано решением Совета SEATO, но эти страны, по большей части, оправдали свое решение вмешаться с точки зрения своих обязательств SEATO.
   Безопасность Австралии и Новой Зеландии в первую очередь обеспечивается трехсторонним договором, известным как ANZUS, между этими двумя странами и Соединенными Штатами, который был подписан в 1951 году и действует бессрочно. В соответствии с этим договором каждый из них соглашается "действовать в ответ на общую опасность" в случае вооруженного нападения на метрополию или островную территорию любого из них или на вооруженных сил, кораблей или авиации на Тихом океане.
   Британия сохраняет силы в Малайзии и Сингапуре в соответствии с англо-малайзийским оборонным соглашением (AMDA). Австралия и Новая Зеландия сохраняют свои силы в Малайзии и Сингапуре и будут продолжать делать это после 1971 года, при этом сухопутные компоненты базируются в Сингапуре, а воздушные силы Австралии базируются главным образом в Баттерворте на Малайском полуострове. Военный вклад в SEATO частично поступает от этих сил.
   Британская, австралийская и новозеландская оборонная политика в малазийском регионе координируется с помощью механизма, известного как ANZAM. Будущие договоренности об обороне Сингапура и Малайзии обсуждаются между Великобританией, Австралией, Новой Зеландией, Сингапуром и Малайзией.
   * Теперь любая из сторон может расторгнуть договор, направив уведомление за один год другой стороне.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 12,600,000.
   Two years' selective military service.
Total armed forces: 85,050 (including 8,000 in South Vietnam).
Estimated GNP 1.969: $US 31.75 billion. Defence estimates 1969-70: $A 1,104 million ($1,225,000,000). $A 1 = $US 1.12.
Army Total strength: 45,000.
   9 infantry battalions, including 1 battalion group based in Singapore and a task force
   (3 infantry battalions with supporting services) in South Vietnam.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment.
   1 tank regiment with Centurions.
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   1 logistic support force.
   2 field artillery regiments.
   1 light anti-aircraft regiment.
   1 aviation regiment.
   Saladin armoured cars; Ferret scout cars.
   150 M-113, and some Saracen APCs.
   Artillery includes 105mm howitzers.
   About 50 Sioux and Alouette III and 12 CH-47 helicopters.
The Citizen Military Force of 33,000 (not included in the above total) is found from reservists,
   and is intended to form 25 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services,
   which will include 1 battalion each in Papua and New Guinea.
Navy Total strength: 17,400.
   4 submarines.
   1 aircraft carrier.
   3 guided-missile destroyers (with Tartar surface- to-air missiles).
   9 destroyers.
   1 destroyer escort.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 minehunters.
   20 patrol boats.
   1 destroyer tender.
   1 fast troop transport.
   Carrier-borne aircraft include
   1 squadron of A-4G Skyhawk fighters,
   1 squadron of Tracker ASW aircraft, and
   1 squadron with Wessex anti-submarine helicopters.
The Navy Citizen Military Force (reservists) numbers 4,170.
Air Force Total strength: 22,650 ; 211 combat aircraft.
   1 squadron of Canberra B-20 light bombers.
   3 squadrons of Mirage III-O interceptor/strike aircraft with Matra air-to-air missiles.
   1squadron of P-3B Orion and 1 squadron of P-2H Neptune maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   (24 F-4E Phantoms will be leased from the US Government: delivery is due to begin in 1970.)
   87 Aermacchi MB 326 light-strike/trainers.
   24 C-130 Hercules and 22 CV-2B Caribou medium transports.
   4 helicopter squadrons with UH-1 Iroquois.
There is a Citizen Air Force (reservists) of 900 men.
  
   BURMA
Population: 27,575,000.
Military service: 2 years. .
Total armed forces: 143,250.
Estimated GNP 1969: $2.3 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 531 million kyat ($108,000,000). 4.8 kyat = $1.
Army Total strength: 130,500.
   5 regional commands.
   2 infantry divisions.
   Some Comet medium tanks, Humber armoured cars, and Ferret scout cars.
   Largely an infantry force, but with some artillery, engineer and signals regiments.
   It is organized chiefly for counter-insurgency and internal security duties, and has mainly American, British, and Yugoslav light arms.
Navy Total strength: 6,250.
   1 frigate.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 coastal escorts.
   5 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 support gunboats.
   34 river gunboats (27 less than 100 tons).
   10 support ships.
Air Force Total strength: 6,500; 28 combat aircraft.
   12 F-86F Sabre fighter-bombers.
   10 T-33 and 6 Vampire armed trainers.
   4 C-45, 6 C-47, 6 Otter and 2 Bristol-170 transport aircraft.
   6 Sioux, 10 Huskie, 8 Alouette III and 3 Mi-4 helicopters.
  
   CAMBODIA*
   * The size, organization and equipment of the armed forces given here must be regarded as provisional.
Population: 6,850,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 123,800.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.98 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 2,370 million riels ($58,330,000).
   35 riels=$l (up to August 1969). 55.5 riels =$1 (since August 1969).
Army Total strength: 120,000.
   55 infantry and commando battalions.
   1 tank regiment with M-24 Chaffee and AMX-13 light tanks.
   1 armoured car battalion with M-8 Greyhounds.
   3 parachute battalions.
   Artillery includes ex-French 105mm howitzers and Soviet 122mm guns.
   Chinese 37mm, ex-French 40mm and Soviet 57mm, 85mm and 100mm anti-aircraft guns.
Navy Total strength: 1,500 (including 150 marines).
   3 patrol vessels.
   1 gunboat.
   2 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 patrol boats (less than 100 ions).
   3 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 2,300; 64 combat aircraft.
   2 squadrons (24 aircraft) with MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighters.
   20 A-l Skyraider ground attack aircraft.
   20 T-28 Trojan ground-attack aircraft.
   About 25 transport aircraft including 12 C-47s, An-2s, Beavers, MD-315 Flamants and Il-14s.
   5 Magister, 20 Horizon, 6 T-6 and 6 T-37 trainers.
   10 Alouette II, 3 H-34 and 1 Mi-4 helicopters.
Para-military forces Armed police and Home Guard type forces number about 100,000-150,000 men.
  
   REPUBLIC OF CHINA (TAIWAN)
Population: 14,400,000.
Military service: 2 years for Army; 3 years for Navy and Air Force.
Total armed forces: 522,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $4.76 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 19,300 million NT dollars ($482,500,000).
   40 new Taiwan (NT) dollars = $1.
Army Total strength: 387,500 (including 60,000 on Quemoy and 15,000 on Matsu).
   2 armoured divisions.
   2 armoured cavalry regiments.
   14 infantry divisions.
   6 light divisions.
   4 Special Forces Groups.
   1 parachute brigade.
   M-47 and M-48 Patton medium tanks.
   M-24 Chaffee, M-41 Walker Bulldog and Stuart light tanks.
   M-18 tank destroyers.
   1 battalion with Honest John, surface-to- surface missiles.
   1 battalion with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   1 battalion and one battery with Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
Navy Total strength: 34,000.
   3 submarines.
   8 destroyers.
   7 frigates.
   16 other fleet escorts.
   24 coastal escorts.
   50 patrol vessels (less than 100 tons).
   4 fleet minesweepers.
   7 coastal minesweepers.
   21 tank landing ships.
   15 medium landing ships.
   38 landing craft.
   10 logistics support ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 36,000.
   2 divisions.
Air Force Total strength: 65,000 men; 413 combat aircraft.
   90 F-100A fighter-bombers.
   45 F-104G interceptors.
   18 F-104A interceptors.
   150 F-86F interceptors.
   70 F-5A tactical fighters.
   40 RF-104G, RF-101 and RF-84 reconnaissance aircraft.
   30 C-46, 50 C-47, 40 C-119 and 10 C-123 transport aircraft.
Para-military forces There is a militia with a strength of about 175,000.
  
   INDIA
Population: 550,000,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 930,000 (regular armed forces excluding police, border guards and other para-military units).
Estimated GNP 1969: $42 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 11,001 million rupees ($1,466,800,000). 7.5 rupees = $1.
Army Total strength: 800,000.
   1 armoured division.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   13 infantry divisions.
   10 mountain divisions.
   6 independent infantry brigades.
   2 parachute brigades.
   200 Centurion Mark 5/7, 250 M4A3 Sherman, 450 T-54 and T-55 and 250 Vijayanta (with 105mm guns) medium tanks.
   350 Daimler and Humber armoured cars.
   About 3,000 artillery pieces, mostly British 25-pounders, but including some 350 100mm and 140 130mm guns from the USSR.
   About 20 anti-aircraft artillery units.
Reserves Trained reservists number about 100,000, including a Territorial Army of 44,000.
Navy Total strength: 40,000.
   16,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   4 submarines (ex-Soviet F-class).
   2 cruisers.
   11 destroyer/destroyer escorts (including 5 exSoviet Petya-class).
   5 anti-submarine frigates.
   3 anti-aircraft frigates.
   10 patrol boats (4 less than 100 tons).
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   1 landing ship.
   3 landing craft.
   9 seaward defence boats (6 less than 100 tons).
   The naval air force includes
   35 Seahawk attack aircraft,
   12 Alize maritime patrollers, and about
   10 Alouette III helicopters.
   16 Seahawks, 4 Alizes and 2 Alouettes can be carried on the aircraft carrier at any one time.
Air Force Total strength: 90,000; 625 combat aircraft.
   3 squadrons with Canberra B-l light bombers.
   4 squadrons with Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   2 squadrons with HF-24 Marui 1A fighter- bombers.
   6 squadrons with Hunter F 56 fighter-bombers.
   6 squadrons with MiG-21 interceptors.
   8 squadrons with Gnat Mark I interceptors.
   1 squadron with Canberra PR-57 reconnaissance aircraft.
   2 squadrons with Vampire tactical reconnaissance aircraft.
   1 squadron with L-1049 Super Constellation maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   (There are from 8 to 25 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   60 C-47, 60 C-119, 24 Il-14, 30 An-12, 30 Otter, 25 HS-748 and 15 Caribou transport aircraft.
   Helicopters include about 100 Mi-4 and 120 Alouette III and 12 Bell 47.
   About 50 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile launchers.
   There is an Auxiliary Air Force of 7 squadrons, flying chiefly Harvard and Vampire trainers.
Para-military forces A Border Security Force of about 100,000.
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 118,250,000.
Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 365,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $9.8 billion
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: approximately 105 billion rupiahs ($278,000,000). 378 rupiahs = $1*.
   * Rupiahs have been converted into dollars at an average rate of 210 = $1 for 1967, 320 = $1 for 1968 and 350 for 1969
Army Total strength: 275,000. '
   The regular element includes:
   8 armoured battalions.
   15 infantry brigades, formed from about 100 infantry battalions.
   Specialist units including the Paracommando Regiment (RPKAD).
   The KOSTRAD (Strategic Reserve Command) consists of approximately 6 brigades and includes paratroops and armour, artillery and engineers.
   About one-third of the army is engaged in civil and administrative duties.
   Stuart, AMX-13 and PT-76 amphibious tanks.
   Saladin armoured cars, and Ferret scout cars.
   Saracen and BTR-152 APCs.
   Various types of Soviet-bloc artillery, including 57mm Soviet anti-aircraft guns and associated radar.
   Small arms are of both Western and Soviet-bloc origin.
Navy (The operational strength of the Navy and Air Force is well below the number quoted.
   It is thought that only the active fleet submarines, and the light-strike and transport aircraft are fully operational.)
Total strength: 40,000 (includes the naval air forces and the 14,000-strong Marine Corps).
   6 diesel-powered submarines (ex-Soviet W-class). * 6 other W-class vessels are normally kept in reserve.
   1 heavy cruiser (ex-Soviet Sverdlov-class.)
   7 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   11 frigates (of which 7 are ex-Soviet Riga-class).
   12 coastal escorts (8 ex-Soviet, 4 ex-USA).
   12 Komar-class missile patrol boats with (Styx surface-to-surface missiles).
   8 patrol boats.
   30 motor torpedo boats.
   15 coastal minesweepers.
   18 motor gunboats.
   25 seaward defence boats (less than 100 tons).
   3 submarine support ships.
   6 landing ships.
   7 landing craft.
The land-based naval air arm includes:
   20 MiG-19 and MiG-21 interceptors.
   5 HU-16 Albatross, and PBY-5A Catalina ASW aircraft.
   About 12 S-55, S-58 and Mi-4 helicopters.
The marines form 2 brigades.
Air Force Total strength: 50,000 (including air defence units and 2,000 paratroops); 180 combat aircraft.
   25 Tu-16 medium bombers, some with Kennel air-to-surface missiles.
   30 Il-28 light bombers.
   15 B-25 Mitchell light bombers.
   15 F-51D Mustang light-strike aircraft.
   About 20 MiG-15, 40 MiG-17, 35 MiG-19, and 15 MiG-21 interceptors.
   About 60 transport aircraft, including Il-14, C-130B, C-47 An-12 and Otter.
   About 30 helicopters, including Mi-4, Mi-6, Alouette II and Bell 47.
   There are at least three surface-to-air missile sites, which are claimed to be equipped with SA-2 Guideline missiles,
   and equipment for further sites.
Para-military forces The police force numbers about 110,000 and includes a para-military force (Mobile Brigade) of about 20,000.
   There is also a militia of about 100,000.
  
   JAPAN
Population: 103,650,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 259,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $167 billion.
Defence estimates 1970-71: 569,354 million yen ($1,582 million). 360 yen = $1.
Army Total strength: 179,000.
   1 mechanized division.
   12 infantry divisions (7,000-9,000 men each).
   1 airborne brigade.
   Artillery, engineer, aviation and signal brigades.
   Type 61 and 400 M-4 medium tanks.
   M-24 and M-41 light tanks. .
   Type 60, SU and SX APCs.
   105mm and 155mm SP guns, and 203mm howitzers.
   SS-4 twin 106mm SP anti-tank guns.
   3 Hawk surface-to-air missile battalions.
   140 aircraft and 210 helicopters.
Navy Total strength: 38,000.
   16 submarines.
   1 guided-missile destroyer (with Tartar surface- to-air missiles).
   26 destroyers.
   1 frigate.
   10 coastal escorts.
   8 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 minelayers.
   39 coastal minesweepers.
   3 tank landing ships.
   1 medium landing ship.
   6 landing craft.
   42 small landing craft (less than 100 tons).
   The naval air component has about 200 aircraft including
   50 S2F-1 Trackers,
   60 P2V-7 Neptunes and
   60 helicopters.
   The Coast Guard (not included in the Navy figure) includes
   85 patrol vessels over 100 tons, and about
   120 smaller patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 42,000; 450 combat aircraft. (There are 25 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   8 squadrons with F-86F fighter-bombers.
   7 squadrons with F-104J Eiko interceptors.
   1 squadron with RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   50 transport aircraft, including about 40 C-46.
   35 H-19, S-62 and V-107 helicopters.
   350 training aircraft, including T-l, T-33A, T-34 and F-104DJ.
   5 Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile battalions (72 launchers).
   A Base Air Defence Ground Environment with 24 radar stations.
  
   KOREA-DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 13,600,000.
Military service: 3-4 years. .
Total armed forces: 413,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $3.0 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 1,918 million won ($746,000,000). 2.57 won = $1.
Army Total strength: 370,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   20 infantry divisions.
   5 independent infantry brigades.
   15,000 men in special commando teams.
   750 T-34, T-54, T-55 and T-59 medium tanks.
   150 PT-76 amphibious light tanks.
   BA-64, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APCs.
   200 SU-76 and SU-100 SP assault guns and ZSU-57 SP anti-aircraft guns.
   2,000 anti-aircraft guns.
   6,000 other guns and mortars of up to 152mm calibre.
   60 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile sites with about 300 missiles.
Navy Total strength: 13,000.
   4 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   4 missile patrol boats (Komar-class).
   50 high speed torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   10 fleet minesweepers. ,
   20 patrol vessels (4 less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 30,000; 580 combat aircraft.
   70 Il-28 light bombers.
   60 MiG-15 and 340 MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   90 MiG-21 interceptors.
   20 MiG-19 interceptors.
   About 30 An-2, Li-2, Il-12 and Il-14 transports.
   20 Mi-4 helicopters.
   70 Yak-9, Yak-11, Yak-18, MiG-15 and Il-28 trainers.
Para-military forces 25,000 security forces and border guards.
   There is also a civilian militia with a claimed strength of 1,250,000.
  
   KOREA - REPUBLIC OF KOREA (SOUTH)
Population: 31,800,000.
Military service: Army/Marines, 2f years; Navy/ Air Force, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 645,000. '
Estimated GNP 1969: $7.5 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 101,600 million won ($333,000,000). (1969) 280 won = $1. (1970) 305 won = $1.
Army Total strength: 570,000 (including 50,000 in South Vietnam).
   19 front-line infantry divisions.
   10 reserve infantry divisions (cadres only).
   2 armoured brigades with M-48 Pattons.
   80 artillery battalions with guns of up to 155mm calibre.
   M-4 Sherman medium and Stuart and M-24 Chaffee light tanks.
   M-8 armoured cars and M-113 APCs.
   1 battalion with Honest John, surface-to- surface missiles.
   2 squadrons with Hawk surface-to-air missiles.
   1 battalion with Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles.
   2 infantry divisions and some engineer units are in South Vietnam.
Navy Total strength: 19,000.
   4 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   4 frigates.
   6 escort transports.
   17 coastal escorts and patrol boats.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   20 landing ships.
Marine Corps Total strength: 33,000.
   5 brigades, including one serving in South Vietnam.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000; 200 combat aircraft.
   15 F-4 Phantom fighter-bombers.
   100 F-86F fighter-bombers.
   55 F-5 tactical fighters.
   20 F-86D all weather interceptors (with Sidewinder missiles).
   10 RF-86F reconnaissance aircraft.
   30 transport aircraft including C-46s and Aero Commanders.
   About 6 H-19 Chickasaw helicopters.
Para-military forces A militia with a proposed strength of 2,500,000 is being formed for local defence purposes.
  
   LAOS
Population: 2,960,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.2 billion. 500 kip = $1.
1. ROYAL LAO FORCES
Military service: conscription.
Total strength: 67,250.
Defence budget 1969/70: 10,800 million kip ($21,600,000).
Army Total strength: 65,000.
   24 mobile infantry battalions.
   About 40 static infantry battalions.
   8 paratroop battalions.
   M-24 and amphibious PT-76 light tanks.
   M-8 armoured cars.
   12 artillery batteries (gun or heavy mortar.)
Navy Total strength: about 400 men.
   4 river squadrons consisting of:
   25 gunboats
   6 landing craft (all are under 100 tons, and some are not operational).
Air Force Total strength: 1,850 men; 65 combat aircraft.
   About 60 T-28D and 5 T-6 light-strike aircraft.
   About 20 transports including 10 C-47s and 3 Beavers.
   About 15 Alouette II/III, UH-19 and UH-34 helicopters.
Para-military forces Total strength: 40,000.
   Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the frontier with Vietnam.
2. PATHET-LAO FORCES
Total strength: about 25,000 men (including dissident neutralists).
   Some PT-76 amphibious light tanks and BTR-40 armoured cars.
   Some 105mm howitzers.
   They are believed to be integrated with about 67,000 regular North Vietnamese troops operating in the northern provinces
   and in the eastern area of the southern provinces.
   They have received a large supply of arms and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin, but no combat troops from these countries.
   The Pathet-Lao and North Vietnamese control all the eastern half of Laos, including the Plain of Jars and the frontier with Vietnam.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 10,850,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 47,750.
Estimated GNP 1969: $3.68 billion.
Defence budget 1970: Mai. $803 million ($US 260,000,000). 3.1 Malaysian dollars = $US1.
Army Total strength: 40,000.
   6 infantry brigades.
   4 reconnaissance regiments with Ferret scout cars.
   2 artillery regiments with 105mm howitzers.
   A low level air defence battery.
   Signals, engineer and administrative units.
Navy Total strength: 3,250.
   2 ASW frigates.
   5 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   24 other patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   1 seaward defence boat (less than 100 tons).
   20 small landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 4,500; 30 combat aircraft.
   10 CA-27 Sabre fighter-bombers.
   20 CL-41G Tebuan light training and strike aircraft.
   70 other aircraft including:
   10 Herald and 12 Caribou transports.
   20 Alouette III and 10 S-61A helicopters.
   5 Dove and 2 Heron liaison aircraft.
Para-military forces The police field force has a total strength of about 10,000, organized into 14 battalions.
  
   MONGOLIA
Population: 1,285,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 25,700.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.6 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 90 million tugrik ($22,500,000). 4 tugrik =$1
Army Total strength: 25,000.
   2 infantry divisions.
   About 50 T-34 and some T-54 medium tanks.
   Some BTR-60 armoured personnel carriers.
   The equivalent of 3 divisions of Soviet troops is believed to be stationed in Mongolia.
Air Force Total strength: 700 men; 10 combat aircraft.
   Operates primarily in support of the Army, and employs a large number of Soviet technical advisers.
   10 MiG-15 fighter-bombers.
   30 An-2, Il-12, Il-14 and An-24 transports.
   Yak-11, Yak-18 and UT-2 trainers.
   3 helicopters.
Para-military forces Security police: about 17,500.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,800,000.
Voluntary military service (supplemented by selective national service for the Army).
Total armed forces: 13,135.
Estimated GNP 1969: $US 5.2 billion.
Defence estimates 1969-70: $NZ 88,800,000 ($US 99,450,000). $NZ 1 = $US 1.12
Army Total strength: 5,740.
   1 infantry battah'on (less two companies) in Malaysia.
   2 infantry companies and an artillery battery in Vietnam.
   Regular troops form the nucleus of a Combat Brigade Group, a Logistic Support Force, Reserve Brigade Group and a Static Support Force.
   These units would be completed by the mobilization of territorials.
   Centurion medium and M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   Ferret scout cars.
Navy Total strength: 2,920.
   1 general purpose frigate (with Seacat surface-to- air missiles).
   2 escort minesweepers.
   12 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
   3,000 naval reservists.
   2 Wasp helicopters (one operates from the general purpose frigate).
Air Force Total strength: 4,475; 33 combat aircraft.
   1 squadron of 8 Canberra B(1) 12 light bombers.
   1 squadron of 10 Vampire FB9 fighter-bombers.
   10 A-4K Skyhawk fighter-bombers.
   5 P-3B Orion maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
   5 C-130 Hercules, 15 Devon and 9 Bristol Mark 31 medium transports.
   1 transport squadron is deployed in Singapore.
   14 Iroquois and 13 Sioux helicopters.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 128,400,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 324,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $15.55 billion.
Defence estimates 1970-71: 3,000 million rupees ($625,000,000). 4.8 rupees = $1.
Army Total strength: 300,000 (including 25,000 Azad Kashmir troops).
   2 armoured divisions.
   1 independent brigade.
   11 infantry divisions.
   50 M-4 Sherman, 100 M-47 Patton, 100 M-48 Patton,
   50 T-54/55 and at least 100 Chinese T-59 medium tanks.
   M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   M-113 APCs.
   About 900 25-pounder guns, 105mm and 155mm SP guns.
   200 130mm guns.
   Cobra anti-tank missiles.
   An air defence brigade whose equipment includes 20mm anti-aircraft guns.
   20 H-13 helicopters.
Navy Total strength: 9,500.
   1 submarine (3 Daphne-class submarines are on order from France).
   2 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 fast frigates.
   4 patrol boats.
   8 coastal minesweepers.
   2 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   Naval aircraft include a few UH-19 air-sea rescue helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 15,000; 270 combat aircraft. (With the exception stated, combat squadrons consist of 16 aircraft).
   1 squadron with Il-28 light bombers.
   2 squadrons with B-57B Canberra light bombers.
   7 squadrons with F-86 fighter-bomber/interceptors.
   5 squadrons with MiG-19 fighter-bomber/interceptors.
   1 squadron with Mirage IIIE fighter-bomber/reconnaissance aircraft.
   1 squadron with F-104A interceptors (10 aircraft).
   5 RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   Transport aircraft include 8 C-47s and 8 C-130s.
   About 80 T-6, T-33, T-37B and Mirage IIID trainers.
   25 Bell 47, Kaman HH-43B Huskie and Alouette III helicopters.
Para-military forces Total strength: 225,000.
   This total includes the frontier corps, lightly- armed tribal levies and local defence units.
  
   PHILIPPINES
Population: 38,500,000. Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 33,000 (excluding Constabulary).
Estimated GNP 1969: $8.2 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 480 million pesos (ї123,000,000). 3.9 pesos = $1.
Army Total strength: 18,000.
   1 combat infantry division.
   4 training divisions (cadres only).
   M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
   M-24 and M-41 light tanks.
   M-3 half-tracks.
   10 engineer-construction battalions.
   1 Hawk surface-to-air missile battalion.
Navy Total strength: 6,000 (excluding naval engineers).
   1 destroyer escort.
   4 command ships.
   7 coastal escorts.
   6 patrol vessels.
   28 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 landing ships.
   5 armed auxiliaries.
   1 marine battalion.
   6 naval engineer-construction battalions.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 45 combat aircraft.
   25 F-86F day-fighters.
   20 F-5A fighter/ground-support aircraft.
   Transports include 30 C-47s and 1 F-27 Friendship.
   About 20 helicopters, including UH-21Hs and H-34s.
Para-military forces The Philippine Constabulary of 22,000.
  
   SINGAPORE
Population: 2,050,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 14,800.
Estimated GNP 1969: $US 1.43 billion.
Defence estimates 1970-71: S$ 330 million ($106,450,000). Singapore dollars = $1.
Army Total strength: 14,000.
   2 brigades consisting of:
   1 armoured regiment with 80 AMX-13 light tanks (to be operational by 1971).
   8 infantry battalions.
   1 artillery battalion.
   1 engineer battalion.
   1 signals battalion.
   3 further infantry battalions are being formed to make a total of three infantry brigades.
   Artillery includes 120mm mortars and 106mm recoilless rifles.
   Army reserves number 6,000, and form six further infantry battalions and an engineer battalion.
Navy Total strength: 500.
   2 seaward defence boats.
   6 fast patrol boats are on order. '
Air Force Total strength 300; 10 combat aircraft.
   10 BAC-167 Strikemaster ground support aircraft (a further 6 are due to be delivered during 1970).
   8 Cessna-172 light aircraft.
   8 Alouette III helicopters.
   (Delivery of 20 Hunter interceptors and trainers is due to start before the end of 1970.)
Para-military forces A special constabulary is being formed.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 36,000,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 154,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: 55.8 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 4,890 million baht ($235,000,000). 20.8 baht = $1.
Army Total strength: 110,000.
   3 infantry divisions (including 3 tank battalions).
   1 regimental combat team.
   M-24 Chaffee and M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   M-2 and M-16 armoured half-tracks, M3A1 and M-8 scout cars.
   M-113 APCs.
   105mm and 155mm howitzers.
   40 Hawk surface-to-air missile launchers.
   11,000 men are serving in South Vietnam and 5,000 in Laos.
Navy Total strength: 21,500 (including 5,000 marines).
   1 destroyer escort.
   2 frigates.
   8 submarine chasers.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 armoured gunboats.
   2 minelayers.
   5 coastal minesweepers.
   11 patrol vessels.
   2 gunboats (1 less than 100 tons).
   2 patrol boats.
   6 landing ships.
   9 landing craft.
   1 squadron of HU-16 Albatross, and S-2 Tracker maritime reconnaissance aircraft.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000; 101 combat aircraft.
   17 F-5A and F-5B fighter-bombers.
   14 F-86F fighter-bombers.
   6 RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   45 T-28D and 20 T-6 counter-insurgency aircraft.
   About 33 transports, including 5 C-45, 20 C-47, 3 C-54 and 6 C-123B.
   About 70 helicopters, including 40 troopcarrying CH-34s, 20 H-19 Chickasaws and a few S-51s and S-55s.
   4 battalions of airfield defence troops.
Para-military forces Volunteer Defence Corps: 10,000. Border Police: 7,000.
  
   VIETNAM DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 21,900,000.
Military service: 3 years (minimum.)
Total armed forces: 432,750.
Estimated GNP 1969: $2.35 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: equivalent to $500 million.
Army Total strength: 425,000 (including at least 85,000 in South Vietnam, 67,000 in Laos and 40,000 in Cambodia).
   About 40 infantry regiments (in 13 division equivalents).
   About 20 independent infantry regiments.
   7 artillery regiments.
   Infantry regiments have Chinese or Soviet-bloc light arms.
   About 400 armoured vehicles, including:
   T-34 and T-54 medium tanks.
   PT-76 amphibious light tanks.
   M-2 and K-61 APCs.
   Artillery includes SU-76 and JSU-122 SP guns, 75mm recoilless guns and 81mm mortars.
   About 6,000 anti-aircraft guns, including 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm. About half of these are radar-controlled.
   In addition, there are some thousands of air defence machine guns.
   Some 50 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile sites; there are usually 4-6 launchers to each site.
Navy Total strength: 3,250.
   3 coastal escorts (ex-Soviet).
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   4 ex-Chinese fast patrol boats.
   24 ex-Chinese motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   12 ex-Soviet motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   3 ex-Chinese motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 4,500; 133 combat aircraft.
   10 Il-28 light bombers.
   30 MiG-21 interceptors with Atoll air-to-air missiles.
   60 MiG-17 interceptors with Atoll air-to-air missiles.
   40 MiG-15 interceptors.
   8 An-2, 3 An-24, 40 Il-14, 3 Li-2 and 6 Il-12 transport aircraft.
   12 Mi-6 Hook, and 30 Mi-1 Hare and Mi-4 Hound helicopters.
Para-military forces The Frontier and Coastal Security troops and the People's Armed Security Force total 20,000.
   There is a regionally organized armed militia of about 425,000.
  
   VIETNAM-REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (SOUTH)
Population: 18,000,000.
Military service: 3 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 481,000 (regular); 705,000 (para-military).
Estimated GNP 1969: $3.3 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 132,000 million piastres ($1,123,000,000). 117.5 piastres = $1.
Army Total strength: 420,000 (regular forces).
   10 infantry divisions.
   1 airborne division (9 battalions).
   3 independent infantry regiments.
   20 ranger battalions.
   1 Special Forces Group.
   (There are normally three regiments to a Vietnamese division, and four battalions to a regiment.
   There are thus about 160 battalions in the Vietnamese regular army, but some units are below establishment;
   the average actual strength of a battalion is 450, and of a regiment 2,000 against authorized strengths of 640 and 3,000 respectively.)
   11 tank squadrons with M-24, M-41 and AMX-13 light tanks.
   24 squadrons with M-59 and M-113 APCs.
   26 artillery battalions with 105mm and 155mm guns.
   Most light arms and equipment are American.
Navy Total strength: 38,000 (including marines and junk-force personnel).
   2 destroyer escorts.
   1 patrol escorts.
   1 submarine chaser.
   3 coastal minesweepers.
   20 motor gunboats.
   21 landing ships.
   About 200 landing craft.
   About 250 river patrol craft.
   There is a force of about 400 motorized junks for coastal defence.
   There is a Marine Brigade of 6 infantry battalions and one support battalion.
Air Force Total strength: 23,000; 200 combat aircraft. (Combat squadrons have from 15-20 aircraft.)
   3 squadrons of A-1E Skyraider light bombers.
   3 squadrons of A-37 fighter-bombers.
   1 squadron of F-5 tactical fighters.
   80 O-1 armed light aircraft.
   Some RC-47 reconnaissance aircraft.
   About 120 transport aircraft including 45 C-47, 55 C-119s, Caribous and Skywagons.
   20 CH-34 Choctaw and 100 Iroquois helicopters.
Para-military forces Regional Forces: 275,000.
   Organized into rifle companies and at the disposal of the provincial governors.
   Popular Forces: 230,000.
   Organized into platoons, with light arms, acting as a militia.
   Other Para-Military Groups: 180,000.
   Police Field Force 20,000.
   These have light arms, and there are some special units with armoured vehicles and helicopters for internal security duties.
  

Latin America

   Continental Treaties and Agreements
   In March and April 1945, the Act of Chapultepec was signed by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. This Act declared that any attack upon a member-party would be considered an attack upon all, and provided for the collective use of armed force to prevent or repel such aggression.
   In September 1947, all of the parties to the Chapultepec Act-with the exception of Ecuador and Nicaragua - signed the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, otherwise known as the Treaty of Rio. (Cuba subsequently withdrew from the Treaty in March 1960). This Treaty bound signatories to be constrained to peaceful means of settlement in the event of disputes between themselves, and provided for collective self-defence should any member-party be subject to external attack.
   The Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS), drawn up in the same year as the Organization's formation (1948), embraced declarations based upon the Treaty of Rio. The member-parties - the signatories to the Act of Chapultepec plus Barbados, El Salvador, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago - are bound to peaceful settlement of internal disputes, and to collective action in the event of external attack upon one or more signatory states.
   Other Agreements
   In July 1965, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua agreed to form a military bloc for the co-ordination of all resistance against possible communist aggression.
   The United States has bilateral military assistance agreements with: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. She also has bilateral agreements - with Cuba, for jurisdiction and control over Guantanamo Bay;f and with Trinidad and Tobago, for the establishment and retention of US military bases in the area.
   The United States is also a party to the following multilateral defence treaties: the Act of Havana, 1940, signed by representatives of all the then 21 American Republics, which provides for the collective trusteeship, by American nations, of European colonies and possessions in the Americas, should any attempt be made to transfer the sovereignty of these colonies from one non-American power to another; and the Havana Convention, which corresponds with the Act of Havana, signed in 1940 by the same states, with the exception of Bolivia, Chile, Cuba and Uruguay.
   The Soviet Union has no defence agreements with any of the states in this area, although in recent years it has supplied military equipment to Cuba.
  British Honduras is a British Colony with internal self-government.
  French Guiana is a French Overseas Department.
   Surinam (Dutch Guiana) is constitutionally part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Латинская Америка

   Континентальные договоры и соглашения
   В марте и апреле 1945 года Акт Чапультепека был подписан Аргентиной, Боливией, Бразилией, Венесуэлой, Гватемалой, Гаити, Гондурасом, Доминиканской Республикой, Колумбией, Коста-Рикой, Кубой, Мексикой, Никарагуа, Панамой, Парагваем, Перу, Соединенными Штатами, Уругваем, Чили и Эквадором. В этом договоре провозглашалось, что любое нападение на участника будет считаться нападением на всех, и предусматривалось коллективное применение вооруженной силы для предотвращения или отражения такой агрессии.
   В сентябре 1947 года все участники закона Чапультепека, за исключением Никарагуа и Эквадора, подписали Межамериканский договор о взаимной помощи, известный также как Рио-де - Жанейрский договор. (Впоследствии Куба вышла из договора в марте 1960 года). Этот договор обязывал подписавших его участников ограничиваться мирными средствами урегулирования в случае возникновения между ними споров и предусматривал коллективную самооборону в том случае, если какой-либо член организации подвергнется внешнему нападению.
   Устав Организации Американских Государств (ОАГ), составленный в том же году, как формирование организации (1948), приняли заявления, на основании договора с Рио. Стороны-члены - подписавшие закон О Чапультепеке плюс Барбадос, Сальвадор, Ямайка и Тринидад и Тобаго - обязаны добиваться мирного урегулирования внутренних споров и предпринимать коллективные действия в случае внешнего нападения на одно или несколько подписавших его государств.
   Другие договоры
   В июле 1965 года, Сальвадор, Гватемала, Гондурас и Никарагуа договорились создать военный блок для координации сопротивления против возможной коммунистической агрессии.
   Соединенные Штаты имеют двусторонние соглашения о военной помощи с Аргентиной, Боливией, Бразилией, Гаити, Гватемалой, Доминиканской Республикой, Колумбией, Коста-Рикой, Никарагуа, Панамой, Парагваем, Перу, Сальвадором, Уругваем, Чили, Эквадором и Ямайкой. Она также имеет двусторонние соглашения с Кубой, о юрисдикции и контроле над Гуантанамо; и с Тринидадом и Тобаго, о создании и сохранении американских военных баз в этом районе.
   США также является участницей следующих многосторонних оборонных договоров: акт Гаване, 1940, подписанный представителями всех 21 Американских Республик, который предусматривает коллективную опеку, американских наций, европейских колоний и владений в Америке, если будет предпринята попытка, чтобы передать суверенитет этих колоний от одного неамериканского государства другому; и Гаванскую Конвенции, которой соответствует акт Гаване, подписанный в 1940-х годах в теми же государствами, за исключением Боливии, Чили, Кубы и Уругвая.
   Советский Союз не имеет оборонных соглашений ни с одним из государств в этой области, хотя в последние годы он поставлял военную технику Кубе.
   Британский Гондурас - британская колония с внутренним самоуправлением.
   Французская Гвиана - французский заморский департамент.
   Суринам (голландская Гвиана) является конституционной частью Королевства Нидерландов.
  
   ARGENTINA
Population: 24,350,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 1 year; Navy, 2 years.
Total armed forces: 137,000 (excluding Gendarmerie).
Estimated GNP 1969: $16.5 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 1,800 million pesos ($480 million). 3.5 pesos = $1 (up to June 1970). 4.0 pesos = $1 (since June 1970).
Army Total strength: 85,000.
   2 mechanized brigades.
   6 infantry brigades. .
   2 mountain brigades. .
   1 airborne brigade.
   10 artillery regiments.
   M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
   60 AMX-13 light tanks (not all operational).
   M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   Artillery includes rocket launchers, 105mm and 155mm guns, and 155mm SP howitzers.
   Anti-tank weapons include recoilless rifles (with Cobra anti-tank missiles on order).
Reserves: Trained army reserves number about 250,000, of which about 200,000 are National Guard and 50,000 Territorial Guard.
Navy Total strength: 28,500 (including the Naval Air Force).
   1 aircraft carrier.
   2 submarines (2 more on order).
   3 cruisers.
   11 destroyers.
   4 frigates (2 more on order).
   7 corvettes.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   10 landing ships and craft.
There is a Naval Air Force of about 3,000 men and 70 combat aircraft:
   10 F-9B Panther fighters.
   40 Fennec light strike/training aircraft.
   6 MB-326K armed trainers (18 more on order).
   6 S-2A Tracker, 6 P-2V5 Neptune and 3 PBY-5A Catalina maritime patrol aircraft.
   15 C-47 and C-54 transports.
   About 20 trainers, including TF-95 Cougar and Beech C-45.
   15 helicopters, including Bell 47D/G/J, UH-19, and SH-34G.
   Seacat and Tigercat surface-to-air missiles.
Marines. There is a marine force, the Naval Infantry Corps, with 6,500 men.
   It includes 1 field artillery and 1 AA battalion, with artillery up to 105mm howitzers.
Air Force Total strength: 17,000; 70 combat aircraft.
   25 A-4B Skyhawk fighter-bombers (with 16 A-4F on order).
   25 F-86F Sabre jet fighters.
   20 Meteor fighters.
   3 C-130E, 5 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 8 F-27, 30 C-47, 6 C-45 and 4 DC-6 transports.
   Other transports include 20 Dove, 15 Dinfia Guarani II and 35 Dinfia Huanquero.
   45 light transport and liaison aircraft.
   Trainers include 32 MS-760, 80 T-34 and 30 T-28A.
   Helicopters include 4 UH-1H Iroquois, 4 Bell 47G, 6 S-55 and 14 Hughes 269-HM.
   (12 Canberra bombers and 80-100 AX-2 counterinsurgency (COIN) turbo-prop aircraft are on order.)
Para-military forces Total strength: 25,000.
   There is a Gendarmerie of 17,000 men, which comes under Army command and is used mainly for frontier duties.
   Air Force T-28s are also used for police work.
   The National Maritime Prefecture, numbering 8,000, performs coast guard duties and is subordinate to the Navy.
  
   BOLIVIA
Population: 4,925,000.
Selective military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 21,800.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0,834 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969:226,380,000 pesos ($19,055,500). 11.88 pesos - $1.
Army Total strength: 20,000.
   2 infantry brigades.
   1 motorized regiment.
   ranger battalions specially trained in counterinsurgency.
   1 paratroop regiment.
   5 artillery regiments.
   M-113 armoured personnel carriers.
   Light mortars and artillery.
Air Force Total strength: 1,800; 15 combat aircraft.
   12 F-51D turboprop Mustang fighters.
   3 AT-6 light fighters.
   20 T-6 and 4 T-28 trainers.
   7 Cessna 185 liaison aircraft.
   20 transports, including C-47 and C-54.
   About 15 helicopters, including Hughes 500M and OH-23C/D.
Para-military forces About 5,000 armed police and frontier guards.
  
   BRAZIL
Population: 92,550,000.
Military service: 1 year.
Total armed forces: 194,350.
Estimated GNP 1969: $22.9 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 2,558 million cruzeiros ($599,700,000).
   3.63 cruzeiros = $1 (up to May 1969).
   4.025 cruzeiros = $1 (June-December 1969). 4.265 cruzeiros = $1 (since January 1970).
Army Total strength: 120,000.
   1 armoured division.
   4 mechanized divisions.
   7 infantry divisions.
   1 airborne division.
   100 M-41 Walker Bulldog light tanks.
   Anti-tank weapons and artillery rockets.
   A helicopter COIN squadron, operating 7 Bell 206A Jet Rangers and 8 Bell UH-1D Iroquois, provides army support.
Navy Total strength: 44,350, including 1,000 marines.
   1 aircraft carrier.
   4 submarines (2 more on order).
   2 cruisers.
   12 destroyers (1 with Seacat surface-to-air missiles).
   6 frigates.
   10 corvettes.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   (4 fast minesweepers are on order.)
The Brazilian Navy operates a helicopter force of
   15 Whirlwinds, 5 Wasps and Widgeons, 2 Bell-47, 3 Hughes 269A, 9 Hughes 200, 6 Hughes 500, and 4 SH-3D.
Air Force Total strength: 30,000; 110 combat aircraft.
   18 B-26K light bombers.
   54 TF-33 armed trainers.
   About 180 transports, including C-45, C-47, DC-6B, DHC-5 Buffalo, HS-125, C-130 Hercules and C-119G Packet.
   About 250 trainers, including 7 Magister, 70 Uirapurtt, 40 T-37C, 160 Fokker S-11/12, T-6G Texan, T-28C and Super H-18.
   3 squadrons with O-1 Bird Dog, T-6 Texan, L-6 Paulistinha, L-42 Regente and T-37C operate in conjunction with the Army.
   A group provides naval support; the aircraft include: 13 Tracker, 14 Neptune, and 12 Albatross, maritime patrol aircraft.
   3 C-130 Hercules medium transports.
   5 Pilatus Porters and a few B-25 Mitchells, T-6 Texans and T-11 Kansans.
   Helicopters include LOH-6A, Alouette II and FH-1100 LOH.
   (16 Mirage III fighters, 15 A-4F Skyhawk fighter- bombers, 112 MB-326 trainers, and 150 T-25 Universal trainers are on order.)
Para-military forces Various public security forces total about 120,000.
   There are also State militias, which require call-out to reach full strength.
  
   CHILE
Population: 9,775,000.
Military service: 1 year.
Total armed forces: 61,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $6.8 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 1,654 million escudos ($167,000,000).
   7.58 escudos = $1 (up to May 1969).
   8.97 escudos = $1 (June-November 1969). 9.88 escudos = $1 (since December 1969).
Army Total strength: 38,000.
   6 infantry brigades.
   6 6 cavalry regiments (2 motorized, 4 horse).
   8 artillery regiments.
   Some anti-aircraft and support detachments.
Navy Total strength: 15,000.
   2 submarines (with 2 Oberon-class on order).
   2 cruisers.
   4 destroyers.
   1 frigate.
   2 corvettes.
   4 motor torpedo boats.
   (2 Leander-class frigates are on order, to be fitted with Seacat missiles.)
Air Force Total strength: 8,000; 29 combat aircraft.
   15 B-26 light bombers.
   25 Hunter fighters are being delivered.
   14 Grumman HU-16B Albatross, maritime patrol aircraft.
   Trainers include 45 T-34, 10 T-37B, 8 T-33A and 5 Vampires.
   About 90 transports, including 20 C-45, 25 C-47, 20 DHC-2 Beaver, 12 DHC-3 Otter, 8 DHC-6 Twin Otter, and 4 DC-6.
   5 Twin Bonanza, 10 Cessna 180,4 Cessna 0-1 and 20 T-6 liaison aircraft.
   30 helicopters, including 11 Bell 47, 9 Sikorsky UH-19, 10 Hiller UH-12E and 2 Bell UH-1D.
   (Some ASW helicopters are on order.)
Para-military forces Public security forces number 22,500.
  
   COLOMBIA
Population: 21,025,000.
Military service: 1 year.
Total armed forces: 64,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: $5.64 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 1,870 million pesos ($114,200,000).
   16.3 pesos = $1 (up to November 1969). 17.6 pesos = $1 (since December 1969).
Army Total strength: 50,000 (can be raised to 300,000 on full mobilization).
   8 infantry brigades.
   Light armour, motorized infantry, artillery and engineer detachments.
Navy Total strength: 8,000.
   8 destroyers.
   1 destroyer escort.
   1 frigate.
   8 coastal patrol vessels.
   5 river gunboats.
   14 patrol motor launches (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 6,000; 22 combat aircraft.
   About 8 B-26 light bombers.
   6 CL-13B and F-86F Sabre jet fighters.
   8 Catalina maritime patrol aircraft.
   2 C-130 Hercules transports.
   About 50 other transport aircraft, including C-54,C-47, DHC-3 Otter, Aero Commander and DHC-2 Beaver.
   30 T-41D and 10 T-37C trainers.
   Other trainers include T-33A, T-34A and T-6.
   About 50 helicopters, including 12 OH-6 A, 6 TH-55, 20 Bell 47, 6 Kaman HH-43B, UH-23 and UH-1B.
Para-military forces A National Police Force of about 35,000 men, adaptable to a para-military role.
  
   CUBA
Population: 8,350,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 109,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $4.5 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 290 million pesos ($290,000,000). peso = $1.
Army Total strength: 90,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   9 infantry brigades.
   1 artillery brigade.
   About 60 IS-2 heavy tanks.
   350 T-34, and 150 T-54/55 medium tanks.
   PT-76 light tanks.
   100 SU-100 assault guns.
   About 200 BTR-40, BTR-60 and BTR-152 APCs.
   Artillery includes 122mm and 152mm guns, and 82mm mortars.
   30 FROG and Salish surface-to-surface missiles.
   57mm, 76mm and 85mm anti-tank guns.
   Snapper anti-tank missiles.
Navy Total strength: 7,500.
   2 frigates.
   2 escort patrol vessels.
   18 submarine chasers.
   18 18 Komar-class missile patrol boats.
   24 motor torpedo boats.
   Samlet coastal defence missiles.
Air Force Total strength: 12,000 (including the Air Defence Forces); 185 combat aircraft.
   20 MiG-15 fighter-bombers.
   50 MiG-21 interceptors.
   40 MiG-19 interceptors.
   75 MiG-17 interceptors.
   About 50 transport aircraft, mostly Il-14, An-24, and An-2.
   Trainers include 30 MiG-15 UTI and Zlin-326.
   About 25 Mi-4 and 30 Mi-1 helicopters. ,
   24 sites with 144 SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile launchers.
Para-military forces 10,000 State Security troops.
   3,000 border guards.
  
   DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Population: 4,310,000.
Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 19,300.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.25 billion.
Defence estimates 1966 : 36,100,000 pesos ($36,100,000). peso = $1.
Army Total strength: 12,000.
   4 infantry brigades.
   1 artillery regiment.
   1 anti-aircraft regiment.
   Reconnaissance, engineer and signals units.
   AMX-13 light tanks, some armoured cars and scout cars.
Navy Total strength: 3,800.
   2 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   5 coastal escorts.
   5 patrol vessels.
   6 patrol craft.
   1 landing ship.
   2 landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 3,500; 49 combat aircraft.
   7 B-26 Invader fight bombers.
   20 Vampire Mark I fighter-bombers.
   20 F-51D Mustang piston-engined fighter- bombers.
   PBY-5A Catalina maritime patrol aircraft.
   20 transport aircraft, including 6 C-45, 6 C-46,
   3 DHC-2 Beaver and 3 Cessna 170.
   30 training aircraft, including T-6 Texan, T-11 Kansan, BT-13 Valiant and PT-17 Kaydet.
   2 Bell 47 and 2 Sikorsky H-19 helicopters.
   (7 OH-6A helicopters are on order.)
Para-military forces The Gendarmerie has about 10,000 men.
  
   ECUADOR
Population: 6,090,000.
Selective military service for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 20,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: 51.5 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 447 million sucres (524,830,000). 18 sucres =$1.
Army Total strength: 12,800.
   3 mechanized squadrons.
   12 infantry battalions.
   3 artillery groups.
   2 engineer battalions.
   2 anti-aircraft battalions.
   50 light tanks.
Navy Total strength: 3,700.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 coastal escorts.
   6 patrol craft.
   2 motor gunboats.
   2 landing ships.
Air Force Total strength: 3,500; 25 combat aircraft.
   5 Canberra B-6 light bombers.
   10 F-80C Shooting Star fighter-bombers.
   8 Meteor FR-9 interceptors.
   Catalina maritime patrol aircraft.
   1 transport squadron with C-45s and C-47s.
   About 25 training aircraft including T-6 and T-33.
   3 Bell helicopters.
Para-military forces
Total strength: 5,800.
  
   EL SALVADOR
Population: 3,515,000.
Selective military service for 12 months.
Total armed forces: 5,630.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.94 billion.
Defence estimates 1966: 26 million colones ($10,400,000). 2.5 colones=$1.
Army Total strength: 4,500.
   3 infantry battalions (nominal brigades).
   1 cavalry regiment.
   1 artillery regiment.
   The wartime establishment allows for the creation of 12 further infantry brigades; these would be formed from the Territorial Service,
   which has about 30,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 130.
   2 coastal patrol craft.
   3 other small craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force Total strength: 1,000; 12 combat aircraft.
   6 F-4U Corsair fighter-bombers.
   6 F-51D Mustang fighter-bombers.
   4 C-47 transport aircraft.
   About 30 training aircraft, including 10 T-6 Texan and T-11 Kansan.
Para-military forces National Guard, National Police and Treasury Police. Total strength: 2,500.
  
   GUATEMALA
Population: 5,170,000.
Selective military service for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 9,000.
Estimated GNP 1969: 51.6 billion.
Defence estimates 1966: 15 million quetzals ($15,000,000). 1 quetzal = $1.
Army Total strength: 7,800.
   Some motorized units.
   6 infantry battalions.
   Some parachute trained infantry.
   An anti-aircraft company.
   Support detachments.
   A few M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
Navy Total strength: 200.
   1 gunboat. .
   4 small patrol craft.
Air Force (The Air Force comes under Army Administration.)
Total strength: 1,000; 16 combat aircraft.
   5 B-26 Invader light bombers.
   11 F-51D Mustang fighter-bombers.
   6 C-47 transport aircraft.
   About 10 training aircraft, including T-6 Texan and some T-33s.
   UH-12B helicopters.
Para-military forces The Policia National has a strength of 3,000.
  
   HAITI
Population: 4,765,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 5,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.35 billion.
Defence estimates 1966: 40 million gourdes ($8,000,000). 5 gourdes = $1.
Army Total strength: 5,000.
   The army is organized in small combat teams for internal security duties.
   9 light tanks.
   Some 37mm and 75mm artillery.
Navy Total strength: 250.
   6 patrol vessels.
   1 tank landing craft.
Air Force Total strength: 250; 6 combat aircraft.
   6 F-51 Mustang piston-engined fighter-bombers.
   2 C-45 and 3 C-47 transports.
   About 15 training aircraft, including T-6 Texan, T-19 Cornell and 2 T-28A Trojan.
Para-military forces Presidential Guard Regiment of 265 men. Armed civilian militia of about 8,000, also under direct command of the President.
   The secret police (Tontons-Macoutes) number 5,000.
  
   HONDURAS
Population: 2,575,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 4,725.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.66 billion.
Defence budget 1970: 12,600,000 lempiras ($6,300,000.) 2 lempiras = $1.
Army Total strength: 3,500.
   1 motorized detachment.
   2 infantry battalions.
   About 20 infantry companies.
   1 artillery battery.
   Some light tanks.
Navy Total strength: 25.
   3 coastal patrol craft.
Air Force Total strength: 1,200; 12 combat aircraft.
   12 F-4U Corsair fighter-bombers.
   7 transport aircraft, including 3 C-47s.
   About 25 training aircraft, mostly T-6 Texan, NA-16 Valiant and PT-17 Kaydet.
   4 H-19 helicopters.
Para-military forces A Civil Guard of 2,500.
  
   MEXICO
Population: 50,700,000.
Military service: 12 months, part-time.
Total armed forces: 68,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $29.7 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 2,530 million pesos ($202,400,000). pesos = $1.
Army Total strength: 54,000.
   1 mechanized brigade.
   2 infantry brigades.
   18 independent cavalry squadrons.
   30 independent infantry battalions.
   3 artillery regiments.
   Anti-aircraft, engineer and support units.
   M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
   Humber Mark IV armoured cars.
   75mm and 105mm howitzers.
Navy Total strength: 7,600, including Naval Air Force.
   5 frigates.
   3 gunboats.
   4 escorts/minesweepers.
   5 river patrol craft.
   1 troop transport.
   About 14 naval aircraft, including 5 Catalinas for maritime patrol.
   Marines About 900 men, organized in 7 companies.
Air Force Total strength: 6,000; 120 combat aircraft.
   15 Vampire fighter-bombers.
   15 T-33A fighter-bomber/trainers.
   110 training aircraft, including 45 T-6 Texans, 15 T-11 Kansans, 30 T-28 Trojans and 10 T-34 Mentors.
   The T-6 and T-28 aircraft can be used in a ground-support role, and the T-11s are also used for reconnaissance.
   20 transport aircraft, including 6 C-47, 5 C-54, and 2 C-118.
   30 helicopters, including 8 Alouette II, 18 Bell 47 and 1 UH-12E.
   A paratroop battalion group of 1,800 men.
  
   NICARAGUA
Population: 1,985,000.
Selective military service.
Total armed forces: 7,100.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.73 billion.
Defence estimates 1966: 63 million cordobas ($9,000,000). 7 cordobas = $1.
Army (National Guard) Total strength: 5,400.
   Several infantry companies, with a motorized detachment, motorized engineers and an antiaircraft battery.
   The National Guard is engaged mostly on internal security and border patrol duties.
Navy (Coastguard) Total strength: 200.
   6 coastal patrol vessels. Small patrol boats.
Air Force Total strength: 1,500; 12 combat aircraft.
   6 B-26 light bombers.
   6 T-33A armed trainers.
   About 20 training aircraft, including T-6 Texan, BT-13A Valiant and AT-11 Kansan, and T-28.
   4 C-45, 3 C-47 and 10 Cessna 180 transport aircraft.
   H-300A and OH-6A helicopters.
Para-military forces A Gendarmerie of 4,000 men.
  
   PARAGUAY
Population: 2,378,000.
Military service: 2 years. "
Total armed forces: 20,200.
Estimated GNP 1969: $0.54 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 2,714 million guaranis ($21,540,000). 126 guaranis = $1.
Army Total strength: 17,500.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   3 infantry brigades.
   3 artillery batteries.
   1 motorized engineer battalion.
Navy Total strength: 1,900, including Marines.
   3 river patrol boats.
   3 patrol launches.
   4 river gunboats.
Air Force Total strength: 800; 6 combat aircraft.
   About 20 training aircraft, including T-6 Texan, PT-17 Kaydet and MS-760.
   (About 6 of the T-6s have been fitted with bomb racks.)
   10 C-47 and 3 Hiller EC-2 transport aircraft.
   8 helicopters, including 4 Bell 47C and 3 UH- 12E.
Para-military forces Security forces total 8,500.
  
   PERU
Population: 13,585,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 54,650.
Estimated GNP 1969: $5.2 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 6,021,657,000 soles ($155,600,000). 38.7 soles = $1.
Army Total strength: 35,500.
   1 armoured brigade.
   4 infantry brigades.
   1 commando brigade.
   Mountain, paratroop, artillery, and engineer battalions.
   60 M-4 Sherman medium tanks.
   100 AMX-13 light tanks.
   50 armoured cars.
   Some 105mm and 155mm artillery.
Navy Total strength: 10,150.
   4 submarines.
   2 cruisers.
   2 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 submarine chasers.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   6 coastal patrol boats.
   7 river gunboats.
   4 landing ships.
   8 Bell 47G helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 129 combat aircraft.
   22 Canberra fight bombers.
   8 B-26C Invader fight bombers.
   10 F-47D Thunderbolt fighter-bombers.
   14 Mirage 5 fighters.
   20 F-86F fighters.
   10 F-80C Shooting Star interceptors.
   16 Hunter F-52 interceptors.
   8 T-33A armed trainers.
   The above aircraft form three combat groups of two or three squadrons each.
   There are also:
   1 maritime reconnaissance squadron with 6 PV-2 Harpoons.
   1 photo-reconnaissance squadron with 10 C-60.
   5 HU-16A Albatross, maritime patrol aircraft.
   Transport and communications aircraft, include: 9 DHC-2 Beavers, 19 C-47, 3 DHC-6 Twin Otters, 18 Beech Queen Airs and 16 DHC-5 Buffalo.
   55 training aircraft, including 2 Hunter T-62, 15 T-6 Texan, 6 T-34 Mentors, 26 T-37B intermediate trainers, and 25 Cessna T-41A.
   Helicopters include 4 Bell 47G, 6 Alouette II/III and 9 UH-1D Iroquois.
   (6 C-130 Hercules and 16 DHC-5 Buffalo transports are on order.)
Para-Military forces Policia National of 18,000.
  
   URUGUAY
Population: 2,886,000.
Voluntary military service.
Total armed forces: 15,400.
Estimated GNP 1969: $1.58 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1969: 990 million pesos ($3,960,000). 250 pesos = $1.
Army Total strength: 12,000.
   5 infantry battalions (nominal brigades).
   1 armoured regiment.
   9 cavalry squadrons.
   5 artillery batteries.
   6 engineer battalions.
   M-24 light tanks.
   M-3A1 scout cars.
   The infantry battalions, armoured regiment and artillery batteries can be made up into brigades by calling out the reserves,
   who number a further 100,000 men.
Navy Total strength: 1,800.
   2 destroyer escorts.
   1 escort vessel.
   3 patrol vessels.
   1 corvette.
   The Naval Air Force includes
   2 PBM-5 Mariner patrol aircraft and
   5 F6F-5 Hellcat fighters operating from shore bases, as well as about
   25 training and light transport aircraft including 4 UH-12 helicopters.
Air Force Total strength: 1,600; 10 combat aircraft.
   10 F-80C Shooting Star fighters.
   5 C-46, 14 C-47 and 1 Beaver transport aircraft.
   About 30 training aircraft, including 10 T-6 Texan and 6 T-33A trainers.
  
   VENEZUELA
Population: 10,490,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 30,500.
Estimated GNP 1969: $9.8 billion.
Defence expenditure 1970: 1,236 million bolivares ($277,750,000). 4.45 bolivares = $1.
Army Total strength: 15,000.
   1 cavalry regiment.
   12 infantry battalions.
   2 tank squadrons.
   Engineering and anti-aircraft battalions.
   AMX-13 light tanks and M-18 tank destroyers.
Navy Total strength: 6,500, including 2,500 marines.
   2 submarines.
   3 destroyers.
   6 destroyer escorts.
   12 coastal escorts.
   4 landing ships.
Air Force Total strength: 9,000; 75 combat aircraft.
   15 Canberra B-2 bombers.
   40 Venom FB-4 and Vampire FB-5 fighter- bombers.
   20 F-86F fighters.
   45 transport aircraft including C-47, C-54 and 18 C-123B Providers.
   About 90 training aircraft, including T-6 Texan, T-24 Mentor, T-52 Jet Provost and T-55 Vampire.
   About 35 helicopters, including 15 Alouette II/III, 6 Bell 47 and 4 Sikorsky UH-19.
Para-military forces The National Guard is a volunteer force with a total strength of 10,000 and is employed chiefly on internal security duties.
  

NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT

   (A) STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCES
   (* The 'strategic' use of nuclear weapons means their use against targets which are neither within the battlefield area nor directly connected with the manoeuvre of combatant forces, as against the 'tactical' use of (possibly the same) weapons against targets within the battlefield area or directly connected
with the manoeuvre of combatant forces.)
   No useful comparison can be made between the strategic forces of the super-powers and their allies on the basis of one criterion alone. At the very least, a comparison between offensive nuclear forces must take the following factors into account:
   (i) Targeting: the number and distribution of targets which nuclear weapons must reach,*
   (* The choice of targets implies a view of the net impact on the adversary of their destruction. A comparison of these net impacts must take account of such factors as relative casualties, relative loss of industrial capacity, relative social and administrative dislocation and relative ability, after a nuclear exchange, to meet minimum imperatives (e.g. survival as a national entity or as a political system). The final estimate of 'net comparative effectiveness' of strategic forces must be based on value judgments (e.g. What probability of sustaining what level of damage will constitute deterrence?) and cannot be measured in objective terms.)
   (ii) Basing and Compatibility: the locations from which weapons will be launched and the range and other technical characteristics affecting their ability to attack relevant targets from these locations.
   (iii) Numbers of weapons, taking account of the weighting of forces as between different categories.
   (iv) Reliability/Survivability: allowance must be made for technical failures, for the impact of defensive efforts and, in the case of second-strike weapons, for the damage from a surprise attack designed to destroy them before launch.
   A complete comparison between East and West, in terms of such criteria, would be beyond the scope of this Appendix. It does, however, seek to analyse the factors in a manner which, as far as possible, permits the result to be seen either as a `balance' between super-powers or between alliances.
  
   Targeting
   The targeting of a first strike, intended to destroy the strategic retaliatory forces of another country, depends upon the location of those forces at the moment of attack The location of fixed land-based missiles in the United States and the Soviet Union is known by each of these countries from the evidence of satellite and other surveillance. The location of long-range bomber bases is known by the same means, although the ability of either country to disperse bombers to secondary bases or to maintain them on `airborne alert' in periods of extreme tension may reduce the practical utility of this information for first-strike purposes. There is no evidence that the location, at any particular time, of the bulk of submarine-based missile forces is known to either side. It follows that, although targeting land-based ICBM forces for a first strike presents little problem (assuming that those forces are not launched on warning of an attack), targeting long-range bomber forces is more difficult and targeting missile submarines is, for the purposes of a disarming first strike, impossible.
   The targeting of a second strike, intended to exact a penalty in terms of civilian population and industry for a precedent first strike, is a much simpler matter. Cities and factories cannot move, and their locations are well known. However, the United States and the Soviet Union provide dissimilar targets for a second strike against civilian targets, simply because, in the former, a higher proportion of population and industry is concentrated in fewer cities. From the table below, which shows the cumulative percentage of population and industrial capacity concentrated in the largest American and Soviet cities, it is clear that a given number of Soviet second- strike weapons of a particular power can be expected to exact a heavier retaliatory penalty, in purely quantitative terms, than the same number of similar American weapons. This imbalance is likely to be increased by the greater relative proximity of American cities to each other, especially near the East Coast. To an unmeasurable extent, however, that advantage may be off-set by the greater administrative and ideological centralization of the Soviet system, and its consequently greater vulnerability to the destruction of a few centres of control.

НАТО и ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   (A) СТРАТЕГИЧЕСКИЕ ЯДЕРНЫЕ СИЛЫ*
   (* "Стратегическое" применение ядерного оружия означает его применение против целей, которые не находятся ни в зоне боевых действий, ни связаны непосредственно с маневрами боевых сил, в отличие от "тактического" применения (возможно, того же) оружия против целей в зоне боевых действий или непосредственно связанных с ним; с маневрами боевых сил.)
   Невозможно провести полезное сравнение между стратегическими силами сверхдержав и их союзниками только на основе одного критерия. По крайней мере, при сравнении наступательных ядерных сил необходимо учитывать следующие факторы:
   (i) Выбор целей: количество и распределение целей для ядерного оружия.*
   * Выбор целей подразумевает под собой представление о воздействии на противника при их уничтожении. При сопоставлении этих последствий необходимо учитывать такие факторы, как относительные потери населения, относительные потери промышленного потенциала, относительная социальная и административная дезорганизация и относительная способность после ядерного обмена удовлетворять минимальным императивам (например, выживание в качестве национального образования или политической системы). Окончательная оценка "чистой сравнительной эффективности" стратегических сил должна основываться на оценочных суждениях (например, какова вероятность сохранения какого уровня ущерба будет представлять собой сдерживание) и не может быть измерена объективно.
   (ii) Базирование и совместимость: места, из которых будет производиться применение оружия, а также дальность и другие технические характеристики, влияющие на их способность атаковать соответствующие цели из этих мест.
   (iii) Количество оружия с учетом соотношения сил между различными категориями.
   (iv) Надежность/живучесть: необходимо учитывать технические сбои, воздействие сил обороны и, в случае оружия второго удара, ущерб от внезапного нападения, предназначенного для их уничтожения до запуска.
   Полное сравнение между Востоком и Западом, с точки зрения таких критериев, выходит за рамки данного приложения. Вместе с тем оно стремится анализировать факторы таким образом, чтобы, насколько это возможно, результат можно было рассматривать как "баланс" между сверхдержавами или союзами.
  
   Выбор целей
   Цель первого удара, предназначенного для уничтожения стратегических сил ответного удара другой страны, зависит от местонахождения этих сил в момент нападения. Расположение стационарных ракет наземного базирования в Соединенных Штатах и Советском Союзе известно каждой из этих стран из спутникового и другого наблюдения. Местоположение баз бомбардировщиков дальнего радиуса действия известно теми же средствами, хотя способность любой из стран рассредоточивать бомбардировщики на второстепенные базы или держать их на "воздушном боевом дежурстве" в периоды крайней напряженности может уменьшить практическую полезность этой информации для целей первого удара. Нет никаких доказательств того, что местонахождение основной ракет подводного базирования в какой-либо конкретный момент времени известно любой из сторон. Из этого следует, что, хотя целеуказания наземных МБР сил для первого удара не проблема (при условии, что эти силы не запустили их по предупреждению о нападении), для дальних бомбардировочных сил сложнее и наведение на ракетные подводные лодки, в первом обезоруживающем ударе, невозможно.
   Цель второго удара, направленного на то, чтобы наказать гражданское население и промышленность за нанесение первого удара, является гораздо более простым делом. Города и фабрики не могут двигаться, и их местоположение хорошо известно. Однако Соединенные Штаты и Советский Союз предлагают различные цели для второго удара по гражданским целям просто потому, что в первом случае большая доля населения и промышленности сосредоточена в меньшем числе городов. Из приведенной ниже таблицы, в которой показан совокупный процент населения и промышленных мощностей, сосредоточенных в крупнейших американских и советских городах, ясно, что советское оружие второго удара той или иной державы может привести к более суровому наказанию в чисто количественном выражении, чем то же количество аналогичных американских вооружений. Этот дисбаланс, вероятно, будет увеличен за счет большей относительной близости американских городов друг к другу, особенно вблизи восточного побережья. Однако в неизмеримой степени это преимущество может быть сведено на нет большей административной и идеологической централизацией советской системы и, следовательно, ее большей уязвимостью перед разрушением нескольких центров управления.
  
    []
  
   Basing and compatibility
   American and Soviet ICBMs and long-range bombers have, in general, sufficient range to strike at every significant target in the territory of the other super-power or of its allies. In all other cases, the relevance of particular nuclear weapon systems to the `strategic balance' is heavily affected by:
   (a) the relative proximity to die territories of one super-power or its allies of countries which are associated with the other super-power and which can thus provide `forward bases';
   (b) the relative availability of mobile launcher systems (aircraft or naval vessels) which can extend the inherent range of the weapons which they carry.
   (a) Bases. The United States has bases in Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, Western Asia (e.g. Turkey) and the Western Pacific, which in practice extend the potential location of its forward, weapon systems to the periphery of the Eurasian landmass, cutting down the effective distance from major Soviet centres. The Soviet Union has no such bases, though it has naval facilities on the southern shores of the Mediterranean. This tends to impose relatively greater limits on its capacity to attain the territory of the continental United States. Its weapon systems can however reach all critical areas of the Eurasian land mass including Western Europe, China and Japan. West European systems (e.g. British submarines and medium-range bombers and some strike aircraft and short-range nuclear weapons) can to a greater or lesser degree attain the territory of the Soviet Union and a fortiori that of other Warsaw Pact countries.
   Some indication of the effects of bases on the strategic balance can be gauged if the following Table of distances between indicative cities is compared with the Table on weapon ranges on pp. 107-9.
  
   Базирование и совместимость
   Американские и советские МБР и дальние бомбардировщики имеют в целом достаточную дальность, чтобы нанести удар по любой значимой цели на территории другой сверхдержавы или ее союзников. Во всех других случаях на значимость конкретных систем ядерного оружия для "стратегического баланса" в значительной степени влияет:
   (а) относительная близость к территориям одной сверхдержавы или ее союзников к другой сверхдержавой и способность таким образом обеспечивать "передовые базы";
   (b) относительная доступность мобильных пусковых установок (самолетов или морских судов), которые могут расширять диапазон оружия, которым они обладают.
   (a) Базы. Соединенные Штаты имеют базы и в Западной Европе и, в меньшей степени, в Западной Азии (например, Турции) и западной части Тихого океана, которые на практике расширяют потенциальные позиции своих систем вооружений передового базирования по периферии Евразийской суши, сокращая эффективное расстояние до крупных советских центров. Советский Союз не имеет таких баз, хотя имеет военно-морские объекты на южных берегах Средиземного моря. Это, как правило, налагает относительно большие ограничения на его способность достичь территории континентальной части Соединенных Штатов. Однако его системы могут достигать всех критических районов Евразийской суши, включая Западную Европу, Китай и Японию. Западноевропейские системы (например, британские подводные лодки и бомбардировщики средней дальности, некоторые ударные самолеты и ядерное оружие малой дальности) могут в той или иной степени достичь территории Советского Союза и, тем более, других стран Варшавского договора.
   Некоторые показатели влияния баз на стратегический баланс могут быть оценены, если сравнить нижеследующую таблицу расстояний между показательными городами с таблицей по дальностям вооружений на стр. 107-9.
    []
  
   (b) Mobile launchers
   Submarines
   All United States and British, and 70 per cent of Soviet, SLBMs are in nuclear- powered submarines, which have great endurance and range and are able to reach firing positions anywhere in the oceans. However, the 30 per cent of Soviet submarines which are diesel-powered lack the endurance and radius of action to be maintained `on station' in areas which permit them to deploy for attack on United States territory. Further, the ranges of the missiles on Soviet submarines are on average much shorter than those on American submarines (350-1,750 statute miles as against 1,750-2,900 statute miles). Finally, the long voyages necessary to and from Soviet ports for major maintenance and re-supply are only partially off-set by the use of surface tenders for afloat support. The net effect of all these factors is that, while some 60 per cent of American missile submarines can be kept `on station' at any time, the Soviet maximum is likely to be closer to 40 per cent.
   Surface Vessels
   The 16 attack carriers in the US Navy provide bases for 900 strike aircraft capable of nuclear attacks on targets up to 750 miles away (this puts, for example, all smaller Warsaw Pact countries and the Ukraine within range of carrier aircraft based in the Mediterranean). There is no Soviet parallel, but the Soviet Union, unlike the United States, possesses 19 surface vessels equipped to fire long-range cruise missiles with nuclear warheads against surface targets at ranges of from 100 to 300 miles. These weapons seem primarily intended for use against ships but could, in theory, be used against targets in the coastal areas of the United States and its allies, where much of the population is concentrated.
   Aircraft
   Medium-range bombers: United States (or British) bombers based in Europe or refuelled from European or Pacific bases, can hit targets anywhere in the Warsaw Pact area. (The United States has only 35 such bombers, but Britain 110.) Similar Soviet bombers can strike at United States allies anywhere on the Eurasian land mass and also at Canada, but not at the United States itself.
   Shorter-range strike aircraft, whether American or allied to the United States, can strike at Warsaw Pact countries and marginally at the Soviet Union. Their Soviet equivalents cannot reach the United States and even their ability to strike Western Europe is .limited since, for instance, the Su-7, carrying a 3000-lb payload and flying a typical operational profile, has a radius of action of only 150-200 miles. Both on the NATO and Warsaw Pact sides, most aircraft of these types are home-based and not normally to be reckoned as `strategic'.
   Missiles
   Intermediate- and medium-range ballistic missiles (JRBMs and MRBMs): Only the Soviet Union possesses any, all home based. These are not mobile systems at the moment but a new mobile IRBM (SS-XZ Scrooge), and a new mobile solid-propellant missile (SS-14 Scapegoat), apparently with MRBM range, have been displayed and tested. Neither is known to be deployed operationally. The existing IRBMs could just reach the United States if suitably sited. IRBMs and MRBMs can reach all targets in Western Europe and Japan and most in China.
   Short-range guided missiles. Although presumably designed for battlefield or tactical use, Soviet short-range missiles could reach civilian targets in Western Europe. The equivalents in the West could similarly reach East European targets and American and German Pershing missiles, from bases in Germany, could reach a short way into the Soviet Union. Only a proportion - probably small - of SRBMs will be deployed at any time in positions from which they could be used for `strategic' purposes.
   Numbers:
   The numbers of potential NDVs available within the NATO and Warsaw Pact areas in July 1970 are given in Table 1 on pp. 105-6. Numbers of NDVs do not indicate accurately the number of individual nuclear weapons which can be delivered. Many aircraft carry more than one weapon each. At present, for example, American long-range bombers of the B-52 type commonly carry 4-5 nuclear weapons, while Soviet long-range bombers are believed to carry about three nuclear weapons each. Many medium-range bombers also carry more than one weapon, as may some types of strike aircraft. Finally missiles may be provided with more than one nuclear warhead. The American Minuteman 3 ICBM and Poseidon SLBM have respectively been designed to carry three and ten multiple independently-targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs), each of which can be used to attack a separate target. The first flight of Minuteman 3 missiles came into service in June 1970. Poseidon will not be deployed operationally until 1971. Multiple reentry vehicles which are not independently targeted are already carried, however, by the modified version of the Polaris A3 missile with which about half of the missile submarines in the US Navy are believed to be equipped. A similar version of Polaris, with multiple re-entry vehicles, is fitted in British missile submarines. No such multiple warhead missiles are known to exist in operational Soviet forces; a three-warhead re-entry system for the SS-9 Scarp ICBM has been tested repeatedly but, although it is technically conceivable that some examples of this re-entry system could already have been deployed, there is no evidence to that effect.
   When these multiplying factors are taken into account, the approximate totals of individual warheads deliverable by American and Soviet NDVs in July 1970 were estimated to be:
  
   (b) Мобильные пусковые установки
   Подводные лодки
   Американцы и англичане, а также 70% советских БР на атомных подводных лодках, обладают большой живучестью и дальностью и способны достигать огневых позиций в любой точке Мирового океана. Однако 30% советских подводных лодок, на дизельном топливе, не обладают достаточной живучестью и радиусом действия, чтобы развернуться на позициях в районах, которые позволяют им совершить нападения на территорию Соединенных Штатов. Кроме того, дальность полета ракет советских подводных лодок в среднем намного меньше, чем американских (350-1750 миль против 1750-2900 миль). Наконец, длительные переходы в советские порты и из них для проведения капитального ремонта и снабжения, лишь частично компенсируются использованием надводных плавбаз. Эффект всех этих факторов заключается в том, что, около 60% американских ракетных подводных лодок могут быть в любое время на позициях, советский максимум, вероятно, будет близок к 40%.
   Надводные корабли
   16 ударных авианосцев ВМС США обеспечивают базирование для 900 ударных самолетов, способных наносить ядерные удары по целям на расстоянии до 750 миль (это ставит, например, все страны Варшавского договора и Украину в диапазон самолетов-носителей, базирующихся в Средиземном море). Советской параллели нет, но Советский Союз, в отличие от США, располагает 19 надводными кораблями, оснащенных крылатыми ракетами большой дальности с ядерными боеголовками для стрельбы на дальности от 100 до 300 миль. Это оружие, как представляется, предназначено главным образом для применения против кораблей, но теоретически может быть использовано против целей в прибрежных районах Соединенных Штатов и их союзников, где сосредоточена большая часть населения.
   Самолеты
   Бомбардировщики средней дальности: бомбардировщики Соединенных Штатов (или Великобритании), базирующиеся в Европе или заправленные с европейских или тихоокеанских баз, могут поражать цели в любом месте в районе Варшавского договора. (В США таких бомбардировщиков всего 35, а в Великобритании 110.) Аналогичные советские бомбардировщики могут наносить удары по союзникам Соединенных Штатов на Евразийской суше, а также по Канаде, но не по самим Соединенным Штатам.
   Ударная авиация меньшей дальности, будь то американская или союзническая с ними, может наносить удары по странам Варшавского договора и незначительно по Советскому Союзу. Их советские аналоги не могут достичь США и даже их способность наносить удары по Западной Европе ограничено, так как, например, Су-7, несущий полезную нагрузку 3000 фунтов и летающий по типичному рабочему профилю, имеет радиус действия всего 150-200 миль. Как на стороне НАТО, так и на стороне Варшавского договора, большинство самолетов этих типов базируются на родине и не считаются "стратегическими.
   Ракеты
   Баллистические ракеты средней и промежуточной дальности: только Советский Союз обладает такими ракетами. На данный момент это не мобильные системы, но новая мобильная БРСД (SS-XZ Scrooge) и новая мобильная твердотопливная ракета (SS-14 Scapegoat), по-видимому, с дальностью БРСД, были показаны и испытаны. (РТ-20 и РТ-15, показаны на парадах, но на вооружение не приняты -ЕТ) Не известно, удастся их внедрить. Существующие БРСД могут достичь Соединенных Штатов, если они соответствующим образом расположены. БРСД могут достигнуть всех целей в Западной Европе и Японии и большей части в Китае.
   Управляемые ракеты малой дальности. Советские ракеты малой дальности, предположительно предназначенные для боевого или тактического применения, могут достигать гражданских целей в Западной Европе. Эквиваленты на Западе могли бы аналогичным образом достигать восточноевропейских целей, а американские и немецкие ракеты Pershing с баз в Германии могли бы достичь и Советский Союз. Только в небольшой пропорции БРМД будут развернуты на позициях, с которых они могли бы быть использована для стратегических целей.
   Численность
   Количество потенциальных стратегических носителей в НАТО и Варшавском договоре в июле 1970 года приведены в Таблице 1. Число носителей не точно указывает количество ядерного оружия, которое может быть доставлено. Многие самолеты несут более одной боеголовки каждый. В настоящее время, например, американские дальние бомбардировщики типа В-52 обычно несут 4-5 единиц ядерного оружия, в то время как советские дальние бомбардировщики, как полагают, несут около трех единиц ядерного оружия каждый. Многие бомбардировщики средней дальности также имеют более одного заряда, как и некоторые типы ударных самолетов. Наконец, ракеты могут быть снабжены более чем одной ядерной боеголовкой. Американская МБР Minuteman 3 и БРПЛ Poseidon соответственно были разработаны для доставки трех и десяти боеголовок индивидуального наведения (РГЧИН), каждая из которых может быть использована для атаки отдельной цели. Первый полет ракеты Minuteman 3 состоялся в июне 1970 года. Poseidon не будет развернут до 1971 года. Несколько боеголовок, которые не являются самостоятельными, уже несется на модифицированной версиии ракеты Polaris A3, которой, как полагают, оснащена около половины ракетных подводных лодок ВМС США. Аналогичная версия Polaris с несколькими боеголовками установлена на Британских ракетных подводных лодках. Известно, что таких ракет с несколькими боеголовками не существует в оперативных советских силах; три боеголовки на МБР SS-9 Scarp неоднократно испытывалась, однако, хотя технически можно предположить, что эта система уже могла быть развернута, никаких доказательств этого нет.
   При учете этих множительных факторов приблизительные итоги по отдельным боеголовкам, доставляемых американскими и советскими носителями в июле 1970 года, оценивались так:
    []
   Of these, over 6,000 of the American warheads listed are fitted to NDVs capable, at least in theory, of reaching Soviet territory, while only some 2,000 of the Soviet warheads are associated with NDVs having the range to strike at the continental United States.
   Из них более 6000 американских боеголовок, перечисленных носителей способны, хотя бы теоретически, достичь советской территории, в то время как, только около для носители 2000 советских боеголовок имеют дальность для удар по континентальной части США.
  
   Reliability/Survivability
   In operational conditions, no weapon system performs perfectly; NDVs are no exception. It is impossible to give exact figures for the number of NDVs which will fail, for technical reasons, to deliver their weapons as planned. In the case of long- range guided missiles, however, a failure rate of 20-30 per cent is to be anticipated. The failure rate for aircraft-delivered missiles (ASMs) is likely to be similar, whereas that for free-fall bombs may be lower than 10 per cent (excluding failure of the aircraft themselves).
   Those NDVs which survive technical mishaps must also overcome defensive efforts to destroy them or to reduce their effects. These efforts may take the form of active defence (anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defences, anti-aircraft missiles and artillery, interceptor aircraft, anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft and surface vessels, hunter-killer submarines) or passive defence (blast and fall-out shelters, population dispersal, physical protection for missiles and aircraft on the ground).
   The Soviet Union has deployed 67 ABM launchers, for the Galosh missile, around Moscow. In addition, for protection against aircraft, there are at least 8,000 Soviet anti-aircraft surface-to air missiles (SAMs), some 3,300 Soviet interceptor aircraft and an unknown number of anti-aircraft artillery pieces. The United States (which has not yet deployed any ABM launchers) has some 1,000 anti-aircraft SAMs and 650 interceptor aircraft for the defence of its continental territory.
   At sea, the Soviet Union has about 125 cruisers and large escorts, 290 submarines (of which 22 are nuclear-propelled hunter-killers) and 160 aircraft and helicopters capable, to a varying extent, of ASW operations. Other Warsaw Pact countries have about 30 smaller vessels suitable for ASW use. The United States has 200 larger vessels and 103 submarines (44 nuclear-propelled) which are specifically equipped for ASW work, together with another 40 surface vessels capable of operating in this role. Over 600 American aircraft and helicopters are exclusively designed for ASW. Other NATO countries, including France, have about 230 larger vessels and 550 aircraft suitable for ASW work.
   Relatively little is. known about passive defence programmes in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Government has emphasized civil defence education and is reported to have provided fall-out shelters in at least some cities. Soviet spokesmen have claimed that, by evacuating civilians, they can reduce the density of urban population on warning of an attack by a factor of ten. Such plans seem, however, to assume both impeccable administration and improbably long warning of an attack.
   The United States Government has identified and marked fall-out shelters for about 50 per cent (108.9 million) of the country's population. Plans for the evacuation of civilians from American cities are embryonic. The provision of blast (as opposed to fall-out) shelters is limited in the United States - as in the Soviet Union - to selected groups of essential military and administrative personnel.
   Passive defence extends to the land-based missiles required for deterrent retaliation, in order that as many as possible should be able to survive a first-strike attack. American ICBMs are emplaced in underground silos capable of withstanding a blast of about 300 pounds per square inch (psi). About 1,140 Soviet ICBMs are also emplaced in hardened underground silos, as are about 50 per cent of Soviet IRBMs and MRBMs.
  
   Надежность / Живучесть
   В эксплуатационных условиях, ни одна система оружия не безотказна; носитель ядерног не исключение. Невозможно дать точные цифры по количеству носителй, которые по техническим причинам не смогут доставить свое оружие, как планировалось. Однако, в случае управляемых ракет большой дальности следует ожидать коэффициент отказов в 20-30%. Коэффициент отказов ракет, доставляемых самолетами, вероятно, будет аналогичным, в то время как для бомб свободного падения он может быть ниже 10% (за исключением отказа самих самолетов).
   Тем носителям, которые избегают технических аварий, необходимо также преодолеть оборонительные действия, чтобы уничтожить их или уменьшить их последствия. Эти действия могут осуществляться в форме активной обороны (противоракетная оборона (ПРО), зенитные ракеты и артиллерия, самолеты-перехватчики, противолодочная авиация и надводные суда, подводные лодки-охотники) или пассивной обороны (укрытия от взрывов и выпадений, рассредоточение населения, физическая защита ракет и самолетов на земле).
   Советский Союз развернул 67 пусковых установок ПРО для ракет Galosh вокруг Москвы. Кроме того, для обороны от авиации имеется не менее 8000 советских зенитных ракет класса "земля-воздух" (ЗРК), около 3300 советских самолетов-перехватчиков и неизвестное количество зенитных артиллерийских орудий. Соединенные Штаты (которые еще не развернули пусковых установок ПРО) имеют около 1000 ЗРК и 650 самолетов-перехватчиков для обороны своей континентальной территории.
   На море в Советском Союзе насчитывается около 125 крейсеров и крупных эскортных кораблей, 290 подводных лодок (из них 22-атомные охотники-убийцы) и 160 самолетов и вертолетов, способных в той или иной степени к противолодочной обороне. В других странах Варшавского договора имеется около 30 небольших судов, пригодных для использования в ПЛО. Соединенные Штаты располагают 200 более крупными кораблями и 103 подводными лодками (44 атомных), которые специально оборудованы для ПЛО, а также еще 40 надводными кораблями, способными выполнять эту роль. Более 600 американских самолетов и вертолетов предназначены исключительно для ПЛО. В других странах НАТО, включая Францию, насчитывается около 230 крупных кораблей и 550 самолетов, пригодных для ПЛО.
   Относительно мало известно о пассивных оборонных программах в Советском Союзе. Советское правительство уделяло особое внимание образованию в области гражданской обороны и, как сообщается, строило убежища по крайней мере в некоторых городах. Советские представители утверждали, что, эвакуируя мирных жителей, они могут уменьшить плотность городского населения при предупреждении о нападении в десять раз. Однако такие планы, похоже, предполагают как безупречное управление, так и невероятно долгое предупреждение о нападении.
   Правительство Соединенных Штатов определило и обозначило места выпадения осадков примерно для 50% (108,9 миллиона) населения страны. Планы эвакуации гражданских лиц из американских городов находятся в зачаточном состоянии. Убежища, спасающих от взрыв (в отличие от противорадиационных) в США как и в СССР - только для отдельных групп основных военных и административных кадров.
   Пассивная оборона распространяется на ракеты наземного базирования, необходимые для сдерживания ответных действий, с тем чтобы как можно больше ракет могли выдержать первый удар. Американские ракеты, установленные в подземных шахтах, способных выдержать избыточное давление около 300 фунтов на квадратный дюйм (PSI). Около 1140 советских МБР также размещены в укрепленных подземных шахтах, как и около 50% советских БРСД.
  
   (B) THEATRE AND NAVAL FORCES
   Any assessment of the military balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact involves comparison of the strengths of both men and equipment, consideration of qualitative characteristics such as geographical advantages, deployment, training and logistic support, and differences in doctrine and philosophy. Inevitably there are difficulties in giving values to qualitative factors and in deciding on their relevance. Furthermore the situation is not a static one; any single presentation will have inadequacies. The comparisons which follow are primarily a quantitative guide and are not an opera- tional assessment. They draw attention to certain qualitative asymmetries which exist but necessarily oversimplify what is by its nature a complex problem.
  
   Land and air forces
   The three NATO major subordinate commands, Northern, Central and Southern Europe, at first seem to offer a convenient basis for making a direct comparison with the opposing forces of the Warsaw Pact but there are problems. The Northern European Command covers not only Norway but also the Baltic area including Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic Approaches. It is not possible to make precise calculations as to the Soviet formations that would be committed to the Baltic area rather than towards the NATO Central European Command. In both land and air forces there is a considerable degree of flexibility to do either: for the Warsaw Pact this sector is a coherent front. For this reason Northern and Central Europe are grouped together in the tables which follow and Southern Europe is shown separately. Such a grouping conceals, however, a marked imbalance in North Norway.
  
   (B) ВОЙСКА ТЕАТРОВ ВОЕННЫХ ДЕЙСТВИЙ И ВОЕННО-МОРСКИЕ СИЛЫ
   Любая оценка военного баланса между НАТО и Варшавским договором предполагает сопоставление сильных сторон как в людях, так и в технике, рассмотрение качественных характеристик, таких как географические преимущества, развертывание, подготовка и материально-техническое обеспечение, а также различия в доктринах и философии. Неизбежно возникают трудности с определением ценности качественных факторов и определением их актуальности. Кроме того, ситуация не является статичной; любое представление будет иметь недостатки. Нижеследующие сравнения являются в первую очередь количественным руководством и не являются оперативной оценкой. Они привлекают внимание к некоторым качественным асимметриям, которые существуют, но неизбежно упрощают то, что по своей природе является сложной проблемой.
  
   Сухопутные и воздушные силы
   Три главных командования НАТО - Северная, Центральная и Южная Европа поначалу кажутся удобной основой для проведения прямого сравнения с противостоящими силами Варшавского договора, но есть проблемы. Северо-европейское командование охватывает не только Норвегию, но и Прибалтику, включая Данию, Шлезвиг-Гольштейн и Балтийские проходы. Невозможно произвести точные расчеты в отношении советских формирований, которые были бы привлечены к Балтийскому региону, а не центрально-европейскому командованию НАТО. Как в сухопутных, так и в воздушных силах существует значительная степень гибкости: для Варшавского договора этот сектор является единым фронтом. По этой причине в нижеследующие таблицы Северная и Центральная Европа сгруппированы, а Южная Европа показана отдельно. Однако такая группировка скрывает заметный дисбаланс в Северной Норвегии.
    []
   If French formations (not part of NATO's integrated commands) are included they would add two mechanized divisions to the NATO totals. All the forces of Warsaw Pact countries are included, though the military value of some of them may be suspect for political reasons.
   In Norway there are only Norwegian forces in peacetime, a brigade group with M-48 tanks being located in the north. The Soviet forces facing them or which could be brought against them from North-Western Russia, probably amount to at least four divisions. This wide disparity highlights the problem of the defence of north Norway against surprise attack. To meet this difficulty a system of self defence, based on a powerful Home Guard and rapid mobilization, has been designed, to take maximum advantage of the ruggedness of the country and the poor road and rail communications, but it is clear that defence against attack of any size depends on timely external assistance.
   Two further imbalances are worth noting. The first, a legacy from the postwar occupation zones, is a certain maldeployment in the NATO Central European Command, where the well-equipped and strong American formations are stationed in the southern part of the front, an area which geographically lends itself to defence, while in the north German plain, across which the routes to allied capitals run, where there is little depth and few major obstacles, certain of the forces are less powerful. The second is that the whole of the Italian land forces, which are included in the table under Southern Europe, are stationed in Italy and thus are at some distance from the areas of actual confrontation.
  
   Если бы французские формирования (не входящие в состав интегрированных командований НАТО) были включены, они добавили бы две механизированные дивизии к общим показателям НАТО. Включены все силы стран Варшавского договора, хотя военная ценность некоторых из них может быть сомнительной по политическим причинам.
   В Норвегии в мирное время есть только норвежские войска, бригадная группа с танками М-48 находится на севере. Советские войска, стоящие перед ними или те, которые могут быть привлечены против них из Северо-Западной России, вероятно, составляют не менее четырех дивизий. Это большое неравенство создаает проблему защиты Северной Норвегии от внезапного нападения. Для решения этой проблемы была разработана система самообороны, основанная на ополчении и быстрой мобилизации, с тем, чтобы в максимальной степени использовать в своих интересах укрепления страны и плохое состояние автомобильных и железнодорожных коммуникаций, однако ясно, что защита от нападений любого масштаба зависит от своевременной внешней помощи.
   Следует отметить еще два дисбаланса. Первый, в наследство от послевоенных оккупационных зон, в развертывании в НАТО Центрально-европейского командования, где хорошо оснащенные и сильные американские формирования, дислоцированны на южном участке фронта, в районе, который территориально способствует обороне. В то время как в Северо-германская низменность, на которой расположены столицы союзных сторон, где небольшая глубина и малоо серьезных препятствий, определенно силы менее мощные. Во-вторых, все итальянские сухопутные войска, которые включены в таблицу по Южной Европе, дислоцированы в Италии и, таким образом, находятся на некотором расстоянии от районов фактической конфронтации.
  
   Manpower.
   A comparison of formations is not by itself sufficient however, since NATO formations are much larger than those of the Warsaw Pacta. It is necessary to take account of this difference in size and also of the combat troops in formations higher than divisions and those men who directly support them. Figures calculated on this basis - and the calculation can only be an approximate and arbitrary one - give the following comparison for forces in peacetime (figures are in thousands):
  
   Личный состав.
   Сравнение соединений само по себе не является достаточным, поскольку формирования НАТО намного крупнее, чем формирования Варшавской Договора, необходимо учитывать эту разницу в размерах, а также боевых войск в соединениях выше дивизий и тех людей, которые непосредственно их поддерживают. Цифры, рассчитанные на этой основе - а расчет может быть только приблизительным и произвольным - дают следующее сравнение сил в мирное время (цифры в тысячах):
    []
   a Formation strengths are given on page following Preface.
   b Some of these may be, stationed in France. a month, if mobilization were unimpeded.
   If French forces are included the NATO figure for Northern and Central Europe would be increased by perhaps 40,000.
   Если французские войска вошли цифра НАТО в Северной и Центральной Европе увеличится примерно 40 000.
  
   Reinforcements.
   The mobilization of first line reserves and the movement of reinforcements to the theatre would materially alter the above figures. The immediate mobilization capacity of the Warsaw Pact is greater than that of the West: it has been estimated that the force of 31 Soviet Divisions in Central Europe might be increased to 70 in well under
   The Soviet Union, a European power, and operating on interior lines, can bring up reinforcements overland, with heavy equipment, far faster than can the United States across the Atlantic. American ability to bring back quickly by air the dual-based brigades whose equipment is in Germany has been demonstrated and the C-5 aircraft coming into service will greatly increase the airlift. But this lift depends on a secure air environment, safe airfields to fly into, and the willingness to reinforce in a crisis situation at the risk of heightening tension by doing so. And reinforcing divisions would need sealift to move their heavy equipment.
   Implicit in Western defence plans is the concept of political warning time, that there will be sufficient warning of a possible attack to enable NATO forces to be brought to a higher state of readiness and for reinforcement and mobilization to take place. Advantage here will always lie with an attacker, who can start mobilization first, hope to conceal his intentions and achieve some degree of tactical surprise. The point of attack can be chosen and a significant local superiority built up. The defender is likely to start more slowly and will have to remain on guard at all points.
   A fair summary of the reinforcement position might be that the Warsaw Pact is intrinsically capable of a faster build up in the early stages, particularly if local or general surprise is achieved; that NATO can only match such an initial build up if it has, and takes advantage of, sufficient warning time; that the subsequent rate of build up favours the Warsaw Pact unless the crisis develops slowly enough to permit full reinforcement; in this last case the West would be in a position much more resembling equality. Alliance countries maintain more men under arms than the Warsaw Pact. For Army/Marines the figures (in thousands) are: NATO 3,374, (including France 3,702); Warsaw Pact 2,837. Of course large numbers of these men are outside Europe, as for example American forces in Asia and Soviet forces on their Far Eastern frontier.
  
   Подкрепления
   Мобилизация резервов первой линии и переброска подкреплений в театр существенно изменили бы вышеуказанные цифры. Непосредственный мобилизационный потенциал Варшавского договора выше, чем у Запада: по оценкам, силы в 31 советских дивизий в Центральной Европе могут быть увеличены до 70.
   Советский Союз, европейская держава, и используя внутренние линии, может перебрасывать подкрепления по суше, с тяжелой техникой, гораздо быстрее, чем Соединенные Штаты через Атлантику. Американская способность быстро перебрасывать по воздуху бригады двойного базирования, тяжелое вооружение которых находится в Германии, была продемонстрирована, и самолет С-5, поступающий в эксплуатацию, значительно увеличит способность воздушных перевозок. Но этот переброска зависит от безопасности воздушного пространства, безопасности аэродромов и готовности усиливаться в кризисной ситуации, рискуя тем самым усилить напряженность. Для усиления дивизий потребуется транспорт для перемещения тяжелого оборудования.
   В западных оборонных планах имплицитно заложена концепция времени политического предупреждения о том, что будет достаточно предупреждений о возможном нападении, чтобы силы НАТО могли быть приведены в более высокую степень готовности, а также для усиления и мобилизации. Преимущество всегда будет у напавшего, который может начать мобилизацию первым, надеясь скрыть свои намерения, и добиться некоторой степени тактической внезапности. Место атаки можно выбрать и создать значительное местное превосходство. Обороняющийя, скорее всего, начнет позже и должен будет оставаться в обороне во всех местах.
   Выводом может быть, что Варшавский договор, по сути, способен быстрее создать превосходство на начальных этапах, особенно если местная или общая внезапность будет достигнута; и то, что НАТО может только начать наращивать силы, и добиться преимущества, если есть достаточное время предупреждения. В последующем в темпах наращивания он опередить Варшавский договор можно, если кризис будет развиваться достаточно медленно, чтобы позволить полностью вооружиться; в этом последнем случае Запад окажется в положении гораздо более напоминающее равенство. Страны Североатлантического союза имеют больше вооруженных людей, чем Варшавский договор. Для армии/морской пехоты цифры (в тысячах): НАТО 3374 (включая Францию 3702); Варшавский Договор 2 837. Конечно, большое количество этих людей находится за пределами Европы, как, например, американские войска в Азии и советские войска на дальневосточной границе.
  
   Equipment
   In a comparison of equipment one point stands out: the Warsaw Pact is armed almost completely with Soviet or Soviet designed material and enjoys the flexibility, simplicity of training and economy that standardization brings. NATO forces have a wide variety of everything from weapon systems to vehicles, with consequent duplication of supply systems and some difficulties of interoperability.
   As to numbers of weapons, there are some notable differences, of which tanks are perhaps the most significant. Hie relative tank strengths are as follows:
   Вооружение
   При сравнении вооружения выделяется один момент: Варшавский договор практически полностью вооружен советским или советской разработки оружием и пользуется гибкостью, простотой обучения и экономичностью, которые приносит стандартизация. Силы НАТО имеют широкий спектр всего, от систем вооружения до транспортных средств, с последующим дублированием систем снабжения и некоторыми трудностями оперативной совместимости.
   Что касается количества оружия, то есть некоторые заметные различия, из которых танки, пожалуй, являются наиболее значительными. Численность танков выглядит следующим образом:
    []
   It will be seen that NATO has rather less than half as many tanks as the Warsaw Pact in - Northern and Central Europe, though NATO tanks are generally more modem (except for the T-62, now increasingly coming into service in the Pact forces). This relative weakness in tanks reflects NATO's essentially defensive role and is offset to some extent by a superiority in ground anti-tank weapons. NATO probably also has more effective airborne anti-tank weapons, such as the missiles carried by fighter aircraft and helicopters. In conventional artillery both sides are about equal in strength: NATO is, though, likely to have superior fire-power because of the greater lethality of its ammunition and the logistic capability to sustain higher rates of fire. This capability stems from a significantly higher transport lift, about half as high again in a NATO division as compared with a Warsaw Pact one. NATO has, however, an inflexible logistic system, based almost entirely on national supply lines with little central co-ordination. It cannot now use French territory and has many lines of communication running north to south, near the area of forward deployment.
   Видно, что в Северной и Центральной Европе у НАТО в два раза меньше танков, чем у Варшавского договора, хотя танки НАТО, как правило, более современные (за исключением Т-62, в настоящее время поступающего на вооружение в силы договора). Эта относительная слабость в танках отражает по существу оборонительную роль НАТО и в некоторой степени компенсируется превосходством в наземных противотанковых вооружениях. НАТО, вероятно, также обладает более эффективным воздушным противотанковым оружием, таким как ракеты на истребителях и вертолетах. В обычной артиллерии обе стороны примерно равны по силе: НАТО, однако, вероятно, будет иметь превосходящую огневую мощь из-за большей летальности своих боеприпасов и материально-технического потенциала для создания более высоких темпов огня. Этот потенциал обусловлен значительно более высокой транспортной грузоподъемностью, примерно в два раза выше в подразделении НАТО по сравнению с подразделением Варшавского договора. В НАТО, однако, негибкая система логистики, основана почти исключительно на национальных линиях снабжения с небольшой центральной координацией. В настоящее время оно не может использовать французскую территорию и имеет много линий связи, проходящих с севера на юг, вблизи района передового развертывания.
  
   Aircraft
   If NATO ground formations are to be able to exploit, by day as well as by night, the mobility they possess, they must have a greater degree of air cover over the battlefield than they now have. Such cover is provided by a combination of rapid warning and communications systems, surface-to-air weapons and fighter aircraft. In much of this ground-air environment NATO is well prepared, but in numbers of aircraft it is markedly inferior:
   Самолеты
   Для того чтобы наземные формирования НАТО могли пользоваться как днем, так и ночью мобильностью, которой они обладают, они должны иметь большую степень прикрытия с воздуха над полем боя, чем сейчас. Такое прикрытие обеспечивается сочетанием быстрого оповещения и связи, зенитного оружия и истребителей. Во многом эта воздушно-наземное обеспечение НАТО хорошо подготовлено, но по количеству самолетов оно заметно уступает:
    []
   The division into the categories shown is only approximate since some aircraft can be adapted to more than one kind of mission. In general NATO has a higher proportion of multi-purpose aircraft and the best of the NATO aircraft are superior, over their full mission profiles, to those of the Warsaw Pact, especially in range and payload. But the two air forces have different roles: long range and payload may have lower priority for the Warsaw Pact. NATO, for example, has maintained a long-range deep-strike tactical aircraft capability; the Soviet Union has chosen to build a MRBM force which could, under certain circumstances, perform analogous missions.
   The Warsaw Pact also enjoys the advantage of interior lines of communication which make for ease of command and control and logistics. They have a relatively high capability to operate from dispersed natural airfields serviced by mobile systems, have far more airfields and the great advantage of standard ground support equipment which stems from having only Soviet designed aircraft. These factors make for much greater flexibility than NATO, with its many national sources of aircraft and wide variety of support equipment. NATO probably has some superiority in sophistication of equipment, the capability of its aircrews, which have in general higher training standards and fly more hours, and the versatility of its aircraft. The NATO countries also have a world-wide inventory of aircraft far greater than that of the Warsaw Pact and in a situation where total reinforcement can be taken into account would have the greater capability. With all these different factors the relative capabilities are not measurable in precise terms but the Warsaw Pact advantage in numbers remains a very real one.
  
   Разделение на указанные категории является лишь приблизительным, поскольку некоторые самолеты могут быть приспособлены для выполнения более чем одной миссии. В целом НАТО имеет более высокую долю многоцелевых самолетов, и лучшие самолеты НАТО превосходят самолеты Варшавского договора, особенно по дальности и полезной нагрузке. Но у двух военно-воздушных сил разные роли: большая дальность и полезная нагрузка имеют более низкий приоритет для Варшавского договора. НАТО, например, сохранила потенциал дальней тактической авиации глубокого удара; Советский Союз решил создать силы БРСД, которые могли бы, при определенных обстоятельствах, выполнять аналогичные миссии.
   Варшавский договор также пользуется преимуществами внутренних линий связи, которое облегчают командование, контроль и материально-техническое обеспечение. Они обладают относительно высокой способностью работать с разрозненных полевых аэродромов, обслуживаемых мобильными системами, имеют гораздо больше аэродромов и большое преимущество стандартного наземного вспомогательного оборудования, которое связано с наличием только советских самолетов. Эти факторы обеспечивают гораздо большую гибкость, чем НАТО, с ее многочисленными национальными поставщиками самолетов и широким спектром вспомогательного оборудования. НАТО, вероятно, имеет некоторое превосходство в совершенности техники, в возможностях своих летных экипажей, которые имеют в целом более высокие стандарты подготовки и летают больше часов, и в универсальности своих самолетов. Страны НАТО также располагают во всем мире гораздо большим количеством самолетов, чем в Варшавский договор, и в ситуации, когда может быть произведена полная мобилизация, они будут иметь больший потенциал. С учетом всех этих различных факторов, относительные возможности не поддаются точной оценке, однако численное преимущество Варшавского договора остается весьма реальным.
  
   Theatre nuclear weapons
   NATO has some 7,000 nuclear warheads, deliverable by a variety of vehicles, some 2,250 in all, aircraft, short-range missiles and artillery.
   (In footnote on page 85 the distinction between the `tactical' and `strategic' use of nuclear weapons is described. The figure of 7,000 warheads given here includes a substantial number carried by, for example, aircraft such as the F-4 or F-104, which can be put to `strategic' use, and are discussed in the section on the strategic balance on p. 88. There is inevitably overlap when dealing with delivery vehicles, aircraft and missiles, capable of delivering conventional or nuclear weapons for either `tactical' or `strategic' purposes.)
   There are also nuclear mines. Yields are in the kiloton and sub-kiloton range. The ground based missile launchers and guns are organic to formations down to divisions and are operated both by American and allied troops, but in the latter case under double key. The figure for Soviet warheads is probably about 3,500, delivered by roughly comparable aircraft and missile systems. Some of the delivery vehicles, but not the warheads, are in the hands of non-Soviet Warsaw Pact forces.
   This comparison of nuclear warheads must not be looked at in quite the same light as the conventional comparisons preceding it, since on the NATO side the strategic doctrine is not and cannot be based on a use of such weapons on this sort of scale. These numbers were accumulated to implement an earlier, predominantly nuclear, strategy and an inventory of this size now has the chief merit of affording a wide range of choice of weapons, yield and delivery system if controlled escalation has to be contemplated. A point that does emerge from the comparison however is that the Soviet Union has the ability to launch a battlefield nuclear offensive on a massive scale if she should choose, or to match any NATO escalation with broadly similar options.
  
   Ядерное оружие
   НАТО имеет около 7000 ядерных боеголовок, которые могут быть доставлены различными носителями, всего около 2250 единиц авиации, ракет малой дальности и артиллерии.
   (В сноске на странице 85 проводится различие между "тактическим" и "стратегическим" применением ядерного оружия. Приведенная здесь цифра в 7000 боеголовок включает в себя значительное число, носимых, например, самолетами типа F-4 или F-104, которые могут быть поставлены на "стратегическое" применение и обсуждаются в разделе о стратегическом балансе на с. 88. Когда речь идет о средствах доставки, самолетах и ракетах, способных доставлять обычные или ядерные вооружения в "тактических" или "стратегических" целях, неизбежно возникает дублирование.)
   Есть и ядерные мины. Мощность в килотонном и суб-килотонном диапазона. Наземные ракетные установки и орудия органичны для соединений вплоть до дивизий и управляются как американскими, так и союзными войсками, но в последнем случае под двойным ключом. Число советских боеголовок, вероятно, составляет около 3500, доставляемых примерно сопоставимыми самолетами и ракетными системами. Некоторые из средств доставки, но не боеголовки, находятся в руках несоветских сил Варшавского договора.
   Это сопоставление ядерных боеголовок не должно рассматриваться в том же свете, что и предшествующие ему обычные сопоставления, поскольку со стороны НАТО стратегическая доктрина не основывается и не может основываться на применении такого рода оружия в таких масштабах. Эти запасы были накоплены для осуществления более ранней, преимущественно ядерной, стратегии, и в настоящее время главным достоинством наличие такого числа является предоставление широкого спектра выбора оружия, средств и систем доставки, если необходимо предусмотреть контролируемую эскалацию. Однако из сравнения следует, что Советский Союз имеет возможность начать ядерное наступление на поле боя в массовом масштабе, если он это выберет, или сопоставить эскалацию НАТО с подобным вариантом.
  
   Naval forces
   To compare the maritime strengths of the two sides, particularly on a regional basis, offers many difficulties. Naval power is highly flexible; ships move between fleets, fleets move over great distances. It is far from easy and often inappropriate to set ships off against each other numerically: in anti-submarine warfare, for example, surface vessels, submarines and maritime aircraft must all be seen together as combined teams; or again, many naval units can be given a primary role of supporting the land battle. It is, furthermore, not possible to make anything like the same degree of separation between strategic and tactical functions where naval forces are concerned; their roles are often speedily interchangeable.
   With these and many other reservations, some touched on below, the relative strengths of the more significant ships are listed here, by the main fleet areas? No attempt has been made to divide the North Atlantic area further since reinforcement between task forces is normal. The figures must not be regarded as indicating any fixed or optimum fleet size or composition, but simply typical strengths. The category of `surface attack - cruisers/destroyers' indicates that these ships have significant anti-ship weapons, in the Soviet case long-range surface-to-surface missiles (SSM). The missiles carried by ships in the `Anti-submarine - destroyers/frigates/escorts' category are primarily or exclusively for air defence (SAM).
   None of the above figures include the French navy, which, as will be seen on p. 26 is itself quantitatively stronger than the Soviet Mediterranean Squadron normally is.
   The comparisons show marked and well known asymmetries. The United States Navy has powerful carrier-strike forces, with aircraft and missiles for air defence and anti-submarine warfare and with long-range aircraft for the strike role against surface vessels and land targets, nuclear armed if appropriate. The Soviet Navy, by contrast, has no attack carriers and relies on land based aircraft for both air cover and strike, supplemented by ship-borne air defence missiles and, of course, by the powerful long-range surface-to-surface missiles which a large number of Soviet vessels carry and for which there is no Western equivalent. This lack of carrier-borne aircraft would in war or in time of tension effectively limit the radius of action of Soviet surface fleets, despite the fact that they are in other ways becoming increasingly self-sufficient.
   The submarine strengths show some clear differences. The Soviet Union has had to develop a counter to the strategic threat posed by the strike carriers and missile submarines in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, and has built large numbers of submarines for this purpose. A major construction of nuclear-powered vessels, to replace those that are diesel-powered, has been embarked upon. Because of this the West has paid great attention to anti-submarine warfare and is probably ahead in this field, but this does not offset the sheer numbers that the Soviet Union deploys; to find and engage nuclear submarines is particularly difficult. This imbalance is the more important because the West depends on major naval surface vessels and on the carriage by sea of basic commodities: it is more vulnerable to submarine attack than is the Soviet Union.
   Soviet new construction has not, of course, been confined to submarines: a large proportion of the Soviet fleet has been built in the last 20 years. Though the numbers of ships in all navies is reducing, under pressure of rising building costs, the Soviet Navy has fallen proportionately less than those of the West and it contains a relatively larger number of newer ships.
   As briefly mentioned above, Soviet cruisers, destroyers and patrol boats carry surface-to-surface cruise missiles, the largest of which, the Shaddock, has a range of 290 statute miles. Similar cruise missiles are also to be found in Soviet submarines, aircraft and in shore batteries.*
   (*There are, of course, other, longer range missiles carried by submarines, listed on pp. 105-6.)
   The efficiency of the short-range missiles carried by patrol boats is well known; the longer range ones are no doubt very effective weapons.
   These systems pose an obvious threat to land and sea targets, but particularly to naval forces without carriers, dependent for their own long-range strike on land-based aircraft.
   Any assessment of an overall balance is obviously difficult to make. The differing roles in wartime must be taken into account: the Soviet fleets would be largely strategically-defensive, meeting the threat posed by Western carrier strike forces and missile submarines (though there would be large numbers of Soviet submarines left available for offensive purposes). The nature of the main deployment areas must also be considered. In the Mediterranean, for example, Soviet re-supply and reinforcement to and from the naval squadron could be much inhibited. The Baltic would have some similarities. Of great importance would be the degree of availability to the Soviet Union of airfields in the Mediterranean countries. In the North Atlantic the United States can readily draw on reinforcement from the home base; the Soviet Union, by contrast, is much more limited in its strategic movement.
   The biggest imponderable is that of the nature and duration of any future conflict. If extended, then Soviet submarine strength would be a menace to Western shipping, world-wide, whereas the Soviet Union is much more self-sufficient. If short, then naval action is unlikely to be dominant; the outcome would be decided on land. There are too many variables to allow of comprehensive judgments but it seems fair to say that while the sea is still an area in which the West has superiority, the Soviet fleets are now able to offer a challenge at every level of military or politico-military action. This is a change which has taken place in recent years, which has lifted the Soviet Navy into a category comparable with, though still weaker than, the West.
  
   Военно-морские силы
   Сопоставление морских преимуществ обеих сторон, особенно на региональной основе, сопряжено со многими трудностями. Военно-морская мощь отличается высокой гибкостью; корабли перемещаются между флотами, флоты перемещаются на большие расстояния. Далеко не просто и часто неуместно ставить корабли друг против друга численно: в противолодочной войне, например, надводные суда, подводные лодки и морские самолеты должны рассматриваться вместе как объединенные силы; или опять же, многим морским подразделениям может быть отведена основная роль поддержки наземного боя. Кроме того, невозможно обеспечить такое же разделение стратегических и тактических функций, в случае военно-морских сил; их роли зачастую быстро взаимозаменяемы.
   С этими и многими другими оговорками, некоторые из которых затронуты ниже, относительные силы сторон кораблей основных классов перечислены здесь, по основным морским театрам. Не предпринималось попыток еще больше разделить Североатлантический район, поскольку обмен между целевыми группами является обычным. Цифры не должны рассматриваться как указывающие на какой-либо фиксированный или оптимальный размер или состав флота, а просто типичные силы сторон. Категория "надводные ударные крейсера / эсминцы" указывает на то, что эти корабли имеют значительное противокорабельное оружие, в Советском случае ракеты большой дальности класса "земля-земля" (SSM). Ракеты, на кораблях категории "противолодочные эсминцы/фрегаты/эскортные", предназначены главным образом или исключительно для целей противовоздушной обороны (ЗРК).
   Ни одна из вышеперечисленных цифр не включает в себя французский флот, который, как будет видно на p. 26 сама по себе количественно сильнее, чем обычно Советская средиземноморская эскадра.
   Сравнения показывают заметные и хорошо известные асимметрии. ВМС США имеют мощные авианосные ударные силы, с авиацией и ракетами для ПВО и ПЛО и дальней авиацией в ударной роли против надводных кораблей и наземных целей, в том числе соответствующие ядерные. Советский флот, напротив, не имеет авианосцев и полагается на наземные самолеты как для прикрытия, так и для нанесения ударов, дополняемую корабельными ракетами ПВО и, конечно же, мощными ракеты большой дальности класса "земля-земля", которые несет большое количество советских кораблей и для которых нет западных аналогов. Такое отсутствие авианосных самолетов могло бы в условиях войны или во время напряженности эффективно ограничить радиус действия советских надводных флотов, несмотря на то, что они другими способами становятся все более самодостаточными.
   Сильные стороны подводных лодок показывают некоторые явные различия. Советскому Союзу пришлось разработать противодействие стратегической угрозе, создаваемой ударными авианосцами и ракетными подводными лодками в Атлантике и Средиземноморье, и для этого он построил большое количество подводных лодок. Крупное строительство атомных лодок, чтобы заменить те, которые являются дизельными двигателями, было начато. Из-за этого Запад уделял большое внимание противолодочной войне и, вероятно, опережает в этой области, но это не компенсирует само количество, которое развертывает Советский Союз; особенно трудно находить и уничтожать атомные подводные лодки. Этот дисбаланс тем более важен, что Запад зависит от крупных надводных военно-морских судов и от перевозки морем основных товаров: он более уязвим для подводного нападения, чем Советский Союз.
   Советское новое строительство, конечно, не ограничивалось подводными лодками: большая часть советского флота была построена за последние 20 лет. Хотя количество кораблей во всех флотах сокращается, под давлением растущих расходов на строительство, Советский флот сократился пропорционально меньше, чем Западные, и он содержит относительно большее количество новых кораблей.
   Как кратко упоминалось выше, советские крейсеры, эсминцы и катера несут крылатые ракеты класса "земля-земля", самая большая из которых, Shaddock, имеет дальность 290 миль. Аналогичные крылатые ракеты можно встретить также на советских подводных лодках, самолетах и береговых батареях.*
   (*Есть, конечно, другие, Дальность ракет подводных лодок, на с.105-6.)
   Эффективность ракет малой дальности, несоущихся на катерах, хорошо известна; ракеты большей дальности, несомненно, являются весьма эффективным оружием.
   Эти системы представляют очевидную угрозу для наземных и морских целей, но особенно для военно-морских сил, не имеющих авианосцев, зависящих от их собственных дальних ударов по наземным самолетам.
   Очевидно, что любую оценку общего баланса сделать трудно. Необходимо принимать во внимание различия в ролях в военное время: советские флоты будут в значительной степени стратегически оборонительными, отвечающими угрозе, создаваемой западными ударными силами и ракетными подводными лодками (хотя для наступательных целей останется большое количество советских подводных лодок). Необходимо также учитывать характер основных районов развертывания. В Средиземном море, например, советское снабжение и подкрепление военно-морской эскадре может быть значительно затруднено. Балтика имеет некоторое сходство. Большое значение имела бы степень доступности Советскому Союзу аэродромов в средиземноморских странах. В Северной Атлантике Соединенные Штаты с могут рассчитывать на подкрепление со стороны своей базы; Советский Союз, напротив, гораздо более ограничен в своих стратегических перебросках.
   Самая большая трудность заключается в определении характера и продолжительности будущего конфликта. Если он расширится, то советские подводные силы будет представлять угрозу для западного судоходства во всем мире, в то время как Советский Союз гораздо более самодостаточен. Если коротко, то военно-морские действия вряд ли будут доминирующими; исход будет решаться на суше. Есть слишком много переменных, чтобы позволить всеобъемлющие суждения, но кажется справедливым сказать, что в то время как море все еще является областью, в которой Запад имеет превосходство, но советские флоты теперь могут бросить вызов на каждом уровне военных или военно-политических действий. Это изменение, которое произошло в последние годы, которое подняло Советский флот в категорию, сопоставимую, хотя и все еще слабее, чем Западный.
  
    []
  
    []
  
    []
   * Including the Mediterranean squadron.
  

THE SOVIET UNION AND CHINA

  
   A balance of a sort may exist between countries where a comparison of such things as numbers of divisions, equipment or training is a very one-sided one; other factors, notably political, geographic and demographic, will assert themselves strongly. This is the case with the Soviet Union and China. If only unrestricted war were being considered, involving nuclear weapons, there is no balance; Soviet superiority is complete. Large-scale war with conventional weapons is, however, by no means so simple to assess, despite a huge Soviet advantage in tanks, guns and aircraft and the industries to produce them.
  
   Nuclear
   The strategic nuclear strength of the Soviet Union is given in detail in the section on Strategic Nuclear Forces on p. 85 ff. China has been working on the development of a missile to carry nuclear warheads and may have perfected a booster vehicle in the IRBM class. There is no evidence so far of any operational deployment of a missile and China's ability to deliver nuclear weapons may still be limited therefore to some Tu-16s, a few Tu-4 medium-range bombers of pre-1946 design and Il-28 short-range bombers.
  
   Land forces Manpower
   The Sino-Soviet-Mongolian frontier is some 7,000 miles long. The strengths deployed in the frontier areas, in the Soviet Military Districts (MDs) and the Chinese Military Regions (MRs) (manpower figures in thousands), are as follows:
  
   СОВЕТСКИЙ СОЮЗ И КИТАЙ
  
   Может существовать своего рода баланс между странами, в которых сопоставление таких показателей, как численность подразделений, оснащение или профессиональная подготовка, носит весьма односторонний характер; другие факторы, в частности политические, географические и демографические, это подтверждают. Так обстоит дело с Советским Союзом и Китаем. Если бы рассматривалась только неограниченная война с применением ядерного оружия, баланса не было бы; советское превосходство было бы полным. Масштабная война с обычными вооружениями, однако, отнюдь не так проста в оценке, несмотря на огромное советское преимущество в танках, пушках и самолетах и отраслях их производства.
  
   Ядерный баланс
   Стратегическая ядерная мощь Советского Союза подробно представлена в разделе О стратегических ядерных силах на стр.85. Китай работает над созданием ракеты для доставки ядерных боеголовок и, возможно, усовершенствовал ракету-носитель класса БРСД. До сих пор нет никаких доказательств какого-либо оперативного развертывания ракеты, и способность Китая поставлять ядерное оружие все еще может быть ограничена поэтому только нескоькими Ту-16, несколькими бомбардировщиков средней дальности Ту-4 конструкции до 1946 года и бомбардировщиками малой дальности Ил-28.
  
   Сухопутные войска
   Китайско-советско-монгольская граница имеет протяженность около 7000 миль. Силы, развернутые в приграничных районах, в советских военных округах (ВО) и китайских военных регионах (МРС) (численность живой силы в тысячах человек), следующее:
  
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   The Soviet MDs cover, however, areas from the Caucasus to the Bering Straits, which are far removed from the Chinese border; no more than 30 Soviet divisions are likely to be deployed close to the frontier. The Soviet Union has substantial transport airlift capacity, both long- and short-range and the railway across Siberia offers considerable flexibility for reinforcement, though long stretches of it run close to the border.*
   (*Reportedly building of new road and rail facilities in Western Siberia is now going on.)
   Reinforcement over and above the figures in the table is another matter. The Soviet Union shows no sign of reducing its large military establishment in Europe. China has neither the airlift, nor the vehicle mobility within its forces that the Soviet Union has, but its reinforcements are nearer to hand: by drawing on forces from the Chengtu, Wuhan, Tsinan and Nanking MRs China could quickly deploy over one million men without denuding its southern borders.
  
   Советские военные округа охватывают, однако, районы от Кавказа до Берингова пролива, которые находятся далеко от китайской границы; не более 30 советских дивизий, вероятно, развернуты вблизи границы. Советский Союз обладает значительными транспортными возможностями для воздушных перевозок, как на большие, так и на короткие расстояния, и железная дорога через Сибирь предоставляет значительную гибкость для подкрепления, хотя ее длинные участки проходят недалеко от границы.*
   (*Сообщается, что в Западной Сибири продолжается строительство новых автомобильных и железнодорожных объектов.)
   Другое дело последующее усиление. Советский Союз не демонстрирует никаких признаков сокращения своего крупного военного присутствия в Европе. Китай не имеет ни воздушных перевозок, ни мобильных транспортных средств в своих силах, какие Советский Союз имеет, но его подкрепления ближе к местам боев: опираясь на силы из Чэнту, Ухань, Цинань и Нанкин г-жа Китай может быстро развернуть более одного миллиона человек без денудирования своих южных границ.
  
   Equipment
   In equipment, other than light weapons, there is no department in which the Soviets do not have a huge superiority, in numbers, quality and the ability to design, develop and produce. China's arms industries are thought to be producing armour of their own design, but the main tank, the T-59, is merely a Chinese-built version of the Soviet T-54, now largely replaced in Soviet divisions by the more modern T-62. A large part of the heavy equipment consists of material supplied by the Soviet Union not later than the early 1960s and there is a general shortage of heavy field-engineering equipment and motor transport. Radar and electronic communications equipment is scarce and unsophisticated but there are adequate Chinese-produced infantry weapons, light rocket-launchers and towed artillery in the ground forces.
  
   Вооружение
   В технике, кроме легкого вооружения, нет области, в котором Советы не имели бы огромного превосходства, по численности, качеству и умению проектировать, разрабатывать и производить. Считается, что китайская оружейная промышленность производит бронетехнику собственной разработки, но основной танк, Т-59, является лишь китайской версией советского Т-54, который в настоящее время в основном заменен в советских дивизиях более современным Т-62. Большая часть тяжелой техники состоит из, поставляемых Советским Союзом не позднее начала 1960-х годов, и ощущается общая нехватка тяжелого полевого инженерного оборудования и автотранспорта. Радиолокационное и электронное оборудование связи является дефицитным и устаревшим, однако в сухопутных войсках имеется достаточное количество пехотного оружия китайского производства, легких ракетных установок и буксируемой артиллерии.
  
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   b These figures are based on there being three Chinese armoured divisions in the Northern MRs, supplemented by armoured regiments. Chinese tank divisional establishment is taken as being the same as that of a Soviet division but it may be lower.
   These figures are calculated at full establishment, which may well be too high, but they are sufficient to show that, whatever the establishment deficiencies are, there must be an enormous gap between the two sides. The Chinese Army remains largely an infantry force with serviceable but often outdated equipment.
   b Эти цифры основаны на наличии в Северном округе трех китайских бронетанковых дивизий, дополненных бронетанковыми полками. Китайская танковая дивизия считается такой же, как и советская дивизия, но может быть и ниже.
   Эти цифры рассчитываются при полном учреждении, которое вполне может быть слишком высоким, но они достаточны, чтобы показать, какой огромный разрыв между двумя сторонами. Китайская армия является в основном пехотной силой с исправной, но часто устаревшей техникой.
  
   Air forces
   Soviet aircraft are modem and the production base huge. Chinese aircraft are largely early model Soviet types and, while China has built and been able to export the MiG-19, it has demonstrated no ability to develop newer types. The few MiG-21s it has were probably Soviet supplied in the early 1960s.
   Air power is flexible and can be moved quickly from central airfields to any front. The following figures are therefore national totals but exclude the whole of the Soviet Air Defence Command (PVO-Strcmy) and the naval air forces of both sides.
   There are a number of riders to this table apart from the qualitative one of the superior range, payload and performance of the Soviet aircraft. Soviet aircraft have other roles (e.g. long-range bombers in relation to the United States and medium bombers and tactical aircraft to Europe), but this would not prevent numbers of them operating with relative ease in support of small-scale hostilities with China. The Soviet Union also has a large air defence missile capability, much of it mobile, and long-range surface-to-surface missiles (whose primary role is nuclear), as well as shorter-range missiles with ground forces. Large numbers of Chinese aircraft are based in Tibet and many are deployed in the coastal area. Chinese air defence capacity, with few missiles and only moderate interceptors, is modest compared with that of the Soviet Union.
  
   Воздушные силы
   Советская авиация имеет современную и огромную производственную базу. Китайские самолеты в основном являются ранними моделями советских типов, и, в то время как Китай построил и смог экспортировать МиГ-19, он не продемонстрировал способности разрабатывать новые типы. Несколько МиГ-21 были, вероятно, советскими начала 1960-х годов.
   Воздушная сила гибкая и может быть быстро переброшена от центра к любому фронту. Таким образом, нижеследующие цифры являются национальными итоговыми, но не включают советское командование противовоздушной обороны (ПВО-страны) и военно-морскую авиацию обеих сторон.
   Помимо количественного превосходства данного в таблице, имеется качественное в дальности полета, полезной нагрузки и летно-технических характеристик советских самолетов. Советские самолеты выполняют и другие функции (например, дальние бомбардировщики по отношению к США и средние бомбардировщики и тактические самолеты к Европе), но это не помешало бы им относительно легко действовать в поддержку маломасштабных военных действий с Китаем. Советский Союз также обладает большим ракетным потенциалом противовоздушной обороны, в основном мобильными ракетами и ракетами большой дальности класса "земля-земля" (основная роль которых - ядерная), а также ракетами меньшей дальности в наземных силах. Большое количество китайских самолетов базируется в Тибете, и многие из них развернуты в прибрежной зоне. Потенциал ПВО Китая, с небольшим количеством ракет и только умеренным числом перехватчиками, является скромным по сравнению с Советским Союзом.
  
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   Naval forces
   If naval forces were committed to a conflict, the Soviet Pacific Fleet, which admittedly has other tasks, is, in significant vessels, superior in numbers and quality to the Chinese Navy. It has, furthermore, both cruise and ballistic missile submarines, diesel and nuclear. The Chinese naval air force is rather larger than the Soviet air component of the Pacific Fleet, but much inferior in quality and has in any case a territorial air defence role as well.
  
   ВМС
   Если военно-морские силы будут вовлечены в конфликт, Советский Тихоокеанский флот, который, по общему признанию, имеет другие задачи, по кораблям основных классов превосходит по численности и качеству китайский флот. Кроме того, он располагает подводными лодками с крылатыми и баллистическими ракетами, дизельными и атомными. Морская авиация Китая значительно больше советского воздушного компонента Тихоокеанского флота, но значительно уступаетт ему в качестве и в любом случае выполняет роль территориальной противовоздушной обороны.
  
   Other factors
   The above comparisons leave an impression of an immense advantage to the Soviet Union in all save manpower. In an unrestricted nuclear conflict, the Soviets could virtually destroy the Chinese air and naval forces and wreak widespread devastation in cities, destroying China's industry and leadership. Soviet destruction of Chinese nuclear capacity would also not be too difficult militarily, though if attempted with conventional weapons it would present problems, probably involving continuous attacks and no certainty of complete success, in particular because major installations are believed to exist well within China proper at Haiyen, Lanchou and Paotou.ў The Soviet Union might find itself involved in a protracted land war it could neither limit nor win. Such a war would split the world Communist movement along racial lines and do incalculable damage to Soviet prospects of retaining influence in the Third World.
   Would a large-scale land war favour China? China certainly possesses enormous defensive strength against deep invasion and protracted hostilities, arising from its geography and its immensely numerous, resilient, hardy masses. This suggests a degree of strategic stalemate, with the Soviet Union unwilling to use its nuclear firepower yet unable to win all-out war against an unremitting adversary by conventional means, and China with little nuclear strength or ability to carry war deep into a Soviet Union itself defensively almost impregnable. The border area is another matter. Here either side is capable of mustering local superiority and winning small- scale engagements, but the Soviet Union has advantages that will enable it to dominate larger-scale hostilities and deliver punishing blows.
  
   Прочие факторы
   Вышеприведенные сравнения оставляют впечатление огромного преимущества СССР во всех силах. В условиях неограниченного ядерного конфликта советы могут фактически уничтожить китайские воздушные и морские силы и нанести широкомасштабный ущерб городам, уничтожив промышленность и руководство Китая. Уничтожение китайского ядерного потенциала также не слишком сложно в военном отношении, но война с применением обычного оружия это создаст проблемы с проведением постоянных обстрелов без всякой уверенности полного успеха, в частности потому, что большие пусковые установки, как полагают, существует в пределах собственно Китая в Haiyen, Lanchou и Paotou. Советский Союз может оказаться вовлеченным в затяжную сухопутную войну, которую он не сможет ни ограничить, ни выиграть. Такая война расколет мировое коммунистическое движение по расовому признаку и нанесет неисчислимый ущерб советским перспективам сохранения влияния в странах третьего мира.
   Будет ли крупномасштабная сухопутная война в пользу Китая? Китай, безусловно, обладает огромной оборонительной силой против глубокого вторжения в затяжных военных действиях, обусловленных его географией и его чрезвычайно многочисленными, устойчивыми, выносливыми массами. Это говорит о некоторой степени стратегического тупика, с Советским Союзом, не желающим использовать свою ядерную огневую мощь, но неспособным выиграть тотальную войну против неослабевающего противника обычными средствами, и Китаем с небольшой ядерной силой или неспособностью перенести войну вглубь самого Советского Союза, оборонительно почти неприступного. Другое дело-приграничная территория. Здесь любая из сторон способна обеспечить местное превосходство и выиграть мелкие бои, но Советский Союз имеет преимущества, которые позволят ему доминировать в крупномасштабных боевых действиях и наносить карающие удары.
  

TABLES

  
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   Footnotes to (A)
   a. China is not included in this table. Her ability to deliver nuclear weapons appears to be limited to some Tu-16 and Tu-4 medium-range bombers and Il-28 short-range bombers.
   b. In addition, there are about 300 Tu-16 Badgers in the Naval Air Force, configured for attacks on shipping, which could deliver nuclear weapons.
   c. There is no evidence that the MiG-23 has been deployed in a strike role, but it would be well suited to adaptation for such use.
  
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   2. MAJOR NUCLEAR DELIVERY VEHICLES 1970
  
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   NOTES
   a. ICBM = inter-continental ballistic missile (range 4,000+ miles); IRBM = intermediate-range ballistic missile (range 1,500-4,000 miles); MRBM = medium- range ballistic missile (range 500-1,500 miles); SRBM = short-range ballistic missile (range under 500 miles); SLBM =-submarine-launched ballistic missile.
   b. L = liquid propellant; SL = storable liquid propellant; S = solid propellant; J = ram- or turbojet.
   c. Operational range depends upon the payload carried; use of maximum payload may reduce range by up to 25 per cent below maximum.
   d. MT = megaton = million tons of TNT equivalent (MT range = 1MT or over); KT = kiloton = thousand tons of TNT equivalent (KT range = less than IMT).
   e. The majority of Polaris A3 missiles have been modified to carry three warheads of about 200 KT each.
   f. Numerical designations for Soviet missiles (e.g. SS-9) are of US origin; names (e.g. Scarp) are of NATO origin.
   g. SS-9 missiles have also been tested (i) with three warheads of 4-5 MT each, (ii) with a modified payload for use as a depressed trajectory ICBM (DICBM) or fractional orbit bombardment system (FOBS).
   h. A new mobile IRBM (SS-XZ Scrooge) has been displayed and tested but is not known to be deployed operationally.
   i. A new mobile solid-propellant missile (SS-14 Scapegoat), apparently with MRBM range, has been displayed and tested but is not known to be deployed operationally.
   j. The SS-12 may not yet be deployed operationally.
   k. Launched only from the surface in some older submarines.
   l. Long-range bomber = maximum range over 6,000 miles; medium-range bomber = maximum range 3,500-6,000 miles, primarily designed for bombing missions.
   m. Theoretical maximum range, with internal fuel only, at optimum altitude and speed. Ranges for strike aircraft assume no weapon load. Especially in the case of strike aircraft, therefore, range falls sharply for flights at lower altitude, at higher speed or with full weapons load (e.g. combat radius of A-7, at operational height and speed, with typical weapons load, is approximately 620 miles).
   n. Mach 1 (M = 1,0) = speed of sound.
   o. ASM = air-to-surface missile.
   p. F-104s are no longer in active service as strike aircraft with the US Air Force but remain in service with other NATO air forces.
   q. Names of Soviet aircraft (e.g. Bear) are of NATO origin.
   r. Naval Air Force versions of the Tu-16 carry 2 x Kelt or 2 x Kennel ASMs for anti-shipping use.
  
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   GENERAL NOTE. In this table, unless otherwise footnoted, the term 'current international defence production' comprehends those projects in which all participating countries are making a positive technological contribution to production, and are likely to procure the end-product for national use.
   Figures appearing in the column headed 'Years' indicate the date from which practical collaborative work on projects commenced, and do not take account of the timing of political initiatives or agreements, which may have been prior or subsequent to the period stated above, or of previous work by individual companies.
   Details of similar projects which have now finished may be found in Table 13 of C. J. E. Harlow's paper The European Armaments Base: A Survey, Part I: Economic Aspects of Defence Procurement, 'Defence, Technology and the Western Alliance', No. 2 (London: Institute for Strategic Studies, 1967).
   * Of the 6 nations making major technological contributions to the programme, 2 - Britain and the United States - will not derive any direct improvements in their national systems, though the British air-defence network will interface with NADGE. Sub-contractors in - other NATO nations are numerous.
  
   6. MAJOR IDENTIFIED ARMS AGREEMENTS, JULY 1969-JUNE 1970
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   NOTES
   This table lists major agreements both on a finn-togovernment and on a government-to-government basis, and covers both credit and cash sales. Costs to recipients may include spares, support, etc., and reflect the value of goods taken in part-exchange where applicable. Payees may include sub-contractors in the purchasing country, as well as prime contractors in the supplying country. No licensing agreements are included.
   American, Soviet or Chinese military aid to Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Korea, and Soviet deliveries to members of the Warsaw Pact are excluded.
  

APPENDIX: FISSILE MATERIAL

   BACKGROUND
   Fissile material, the primary raw material of nuclear energy, has many civil uses. In some of its forms, it is also the basis for military programmes. Without it, the production of nuclear weapons is at present impossible, as is the sustenance of propulsion reactors for submarines or naval surface vessels.
   A fusion weapon (`H-bomb') requires a fission weapon (`A-bomb') to trigger its explosive energy. Fission weapons or fission triggers for fusion weapons require a sufficient quantity of either fissile uranium or fissile plutonium. Of the two main uranium isotopes which can be used to initiate fission (U-233, U-235), U-233, which does not exist in nature, has so far attracted little interest for weapon purposes. Of the two main plutonium isotopes (Pu-239, Pu-240), neither of which exists in nature, Pu-240 is unsuitable for the initiation of a fission explosion. Primary attention, for military purposes, therefore focuses upon U-235 and Pu-239. In present circumstances, no country can begin or sustain a nuclear weapons programme without access to one of these isotopes.
   U-235
   Only about seven atoms of every 1,000 in the uranium found in nature consist of U-235. Before uranium can be used in a weapon, this proportion must be increased very considerably, normally to over 90 per cent of U-235, in a specialized enrichment plant.
   Almost all uranium enrichment has so far been carried out by a process known as gaseous diffusion. In this method, refined natural uranium is converted into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6) and is then diffused through a series of membranes which transmit the lighter molecules, rich in U-235, more readily than the heavier molecules, rich in U-238. Because of the number of membrane stages they must contain in order to achieve significant enrichment, and because of the quantity of ancillary equipment which they require, gaseous diffusion plants are very big. They also consume extremely large amounts of electric power. Moreover, their construction and operation become painfully uneconomical below a very high level of capacity. For all these reasons, they are the prerogative of wealthy countries with a requirement for a large enrichment capacity. Nevertheless, the only full-scale production plants in the world for the enrichment of uranium are those of the gaseous diffusion type which exist in the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France and China, all of which are nuclear weapon states. Available details of those in the United States, Britain and France are given in the Table on p. 122. No details are available of the plants in the Soviet Union and China.
   The Table on p. 122 also gives figures, in megawatts (MW), for the power levels at which gaseous diffusion plants operate. In terms of electricity consumption, these
  
  
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   Notes:
   a. kgSW/yr = kilograms of separative, work per year (see explanation on p. 123).
   b. Based on (a) electric power costs, (b) capital charges (including amortisation), (c) labour costs and (d) running costs and contingencies.
   c. Theoretical figures, based upon constant application of maximum capacity to production at this enrichment.
   d. At present, US plants are operating at a total power level of only about 2,000 MW and with an output of only about 4,450,000 kgSW/yr (equivalent to a theoretical maximum of about 19,500 kg/yr of 90% U-235).
   e. The high enrichment stages of the Capenhurst plant were shut down in 1962. If they were reactivated, or if the plant were otherwise adapted to the production of 90% U-235, its maximum output would be likely to be 1,500-2,000 kg/yr.
   Примечания:
   a. kgSW / год = килограммы разделительной работы в год (см. пояснение на стр. 123).
   b. На основе а) затрат на электроэнергию, b) капитальных затрат (включая амортизацию), с) затрат на рабочую силу и d) эксплуатационных расходов и непредвиденных расходов.
   c. Теоретические показатели, основанные на постоянном применении максимальной мощности к производству при этом обогащении.
   d. В настоящее время электростанции в США работают на общем уровне мощности всего около 2000 МВт и с мощностью всего около 4 450 000 кгсвт/год (что эквивалентно теоретическому максимуму около 19 500 кг/год 90% U-235).
   e. В 1962 году были закрыты этапы высокого обогащения на заводе в Капенхерсте. Если они были реактивированы, или если завод был в противном случае приспособлен к продукции 90% U-235, то свой максимальный выпуск был бы правоподобн для того чтобы быть 1.500-2.000 кг/год.
  
   figures are enormous. The three plants in the United States, for example, would consume about 52,500 million kilowatt hours (kWh) a year when operating at full load, which is approximately equal to the total electricity consumption of Australia.
   Any enrichment plant is capable, in theory, of enriching natural uranium to the extent required for weapon purposes. The degree of enrichment needed in the fuel for most current power reactors (1-5 per cent of U-235) is, however, a great deal less than this, and enrichment plants intended only to provide the material for such fuel are likely to require adaptation before they can produce weapons-grade uranium.
   Because the extent to which any particular batch of uranium is enriched is a direct function of the number of plant stages through which the UF" gas has been passed, the total capacity of an enrichment plant cannot be expressed in quantities produced; a great deal more low-enriched uranium than high-enriched uranium can be produced in a given period. The capacity of enrichment plants is therefore stated in terms of `kilograms of separative work', which is not a measure of quantity but a measure of the effort expended in the plant in order to achieve a particular level of enrichment in a particular amount of uranium. A plant can produce in weapons-grade material only between one-fiftieth and one-hundredth of the quantity which it can produce of material suitable for a typical power reactor. In order to give some indication of the military utility of existing gaseous diffusion plants, the figures for their capacity in kilograms of separative work have therefore been accompanied by figures which show the theoretical maximum quantity of 90 per cent enriched uranium which each could produce in a year.
   Pu-239
   Plutonium is an element which does not exist in nature. It comes into being when the most common isotope of uranium, U-238, captures neutrons released during the fission process which takes place in a reactor. Before it can be used for any purpose, plutonium has to be extracted, in a specialised fuel reprocessing plant, from the fuel elements which have been irradiated in a reactor. If it is to be used in weapons, it must thereafter be converted, through a number of stages, into plutonium metal. These processes require elaborate and expensive equipment.
   Details of the principal fuel reprocessing plants in the non-Communist world are given in the Table on p. 124. (Again, no details are available of the plants in Warsaw Pact countries or in China.) All these plants have the ability to separate plutonium from the other materials in irradiated fuel elements. The capacity of each plant is given in terms of the quantity of irradiated fuel material which it can handle in a year, expressed in metric tons (MT). The amount of plutonium which this represents will vary widely with the nature of the fuel which is being reprocessed. In the first place, since plutonium is derived from U-238 but not from the fissile U-235, the maximum amount of plutonium in a given quantity of high-enriched uranium fuel will be less than the maximum amount in the same quantity of low-enriched fuel, and still less than that in natural uranium fuel. In the second place, the proportion of the U-238 converted to plutonium is a function of the period and intensity of the fuel's use (`burn-up') in the reactor. The higher the `bum-up', the greater will be the proportion of plutonium. As a rough guide, the fuel withdrawn from current power reactors operating at full power will yield between five and nine kilograms of plutonium for every metric ton of irradiated uranium reprocessed. For reasons explained below, fuel elements from special plutonium production reactors will yield much lower proportions, probably of the order of 1-l,5 kilograms per metric ton. Lower yields
   0x01 graphic
   Notes
   a Only operational plants with a capacity for plutonium extraction have been included.
   b MT U/yr = metric tons of contained uranium, in irradiated fuel elements, per year. Actual throughput
varies widely with different fuel types.
   c Except in the case of pilot plants (Buenos Aires, Moncloa) and purely military plants (Savannah River, Hanford, Marcoule) figures are based on 8 kg. of plutonium per metric ton of uranium processed.
   d The Mol plant (Eurochemic) is owned jointly by 13 member countries of the European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA).
   e The Dounreay plant reprocesses fuel from fast breeder reactors; its plutonium production will depend upon the nature of the fuel involved
   Примечания
   a. Включены только действующие установки, способные извлекать плутоний.
   b. МТ U/год = метрических тонн урана, содержащегося в облученных топливных элементах, в год. Фактическая пропускная способность широко варьируется в зависимости от типа топлива.
   c. За исключением экспериментальных установок (Буэнос-Айрес, Монклоа) и чисто военных установок (река Саванна), Hanford, Marcoule) цифры основаны на 8 кг. плутония на метрическую тонну обработанного урана.
   d. Завод Mol (Eurochemic) находится в совместном владении 13 стран-членов европейской ядерной энергетики Агентства (ENEA).
   е. Dounreay добавит растение топлива быстрых реакторов; производство плутония будет зависеть по характеру используемого топлива
  
   will also be obtained from fuel used in running a commercial reactor up to full power, because such fuel is normally withdrawn more quickly than in the case of subsequent loadings.
   The plutonium isotope which produces explosive power in a fission weapon is u-239. Irradiated reactor fuels also, however, contain other isotopes of plutonium, and especially the Pu-240 isotope. The proportions in which these different isotopes are present will vary, primarily as a function of the degree of 'burn-up' to which the fuel has been subjected. In general, fuel from current power reactors running economically and at full power will yield plutonium which contains up to 20 per cent
of Pu-240, almost all the remainder being Pu-239. Fuel elements withdrawn more quickly, after a lesser degree of 'burn-up', will contain a smaller proportion of Pu-240 (but will also contain smaller total amounts of plutonium). Pu-240, in addition to being intensely toxic, has other undesirable properties. In particular, it is subject to a degree of spontaneous fission. For that reason, the most efficient plutonium for weapon purposes is that which contains the minimum proportion of Pu-240 possible. The natural uranium fuel elements used in special plutoniumproduction reactors within existing nuclear weapon programmes are therefore withdrawn after a very low `burn-up', at which stage the inevitably small quantity of plutonium they contain is almost pure Pu-239.
   Although Pu-240 is an undesirable constituent of plutonium for weapon purposes, the common belief that any significant proportion of Pu-240 makes the material unusable in weapons is mistaken. From the point of view of efficiency, explosive yield and ease and safety of handling, pure Pu-239 is the ideal, and the existing nuclear weapon states, with special production reactors, will always aim for this objective. Provided some compromise on these characteristics is acceptable, however, there is no reason why weapons should not be made from plutonium containing proportions of plutonium as high as the 20 per cent yielded by some current power reactors or the 30 per cent which may be yielded by future reactors. For this reason, the Table on p. 124 shows estimated quantities of plutonium of all grades which might be produced from the reprocessing plants listed. The actual quantity produced will depend, in large part, upon the output of irradiated fuel from reactors. It has been estimated that reactors in the non-Communist world will generate over 5,500 kilograms of plutonium during 1970.
   NUCLEAR WEAPONS .
   Although estimates exist in published literature, there is no simple figure for the minimum quantity of U-235 or Pu-239 which could initiate a fission explosion. A great deal depends upon the quality of the engineering available. The quantity of U-235 necessary is likely to be about 16 kilograms, whereas, using efficient compression and neutron reflection, about 3 kilograms of Pu-239 might be enough. In general, however, lesser skill and experience will make larger quantities necessary.
   Because, with present technology, a U-235 or Pu-239 fission device is needed to trigger a fusion weapon (`H-bomb'), the attention has here been focused on these materials. It must be remembered, however, that fusion itself requires deuterium and either tritium or lithium. Deuterium and lithium are readily available and relatively cheap, but tritium has to be produced, by special techniques, in a reactor or atomic pile.
   INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE IN FISSILE MATERIAL
   No country can make nuclear weapons without access to the product of either a uranium enrichment plant or a fuel reprocessing plant suitable for the extraction of plutonium. Without such access, a country's natural uranium reserves and the size, number and output of its power reactors are all irrelevant to military purposes.
   Many countries which do not have enrichment plants require enriched uranium for their power or research reactors. In almost all cases, however, the proportion of U-235 present in their fuel is between 1 and 5 percent. The material is thus useless for weapons purposes.
   0x08 graphic
Any country which operates a reactor must have its irradiated fuel reprocessed and, if this has to be done outside its own jurisdiction, will normally expect the products of reprocessing, including plutonium, to be returned to it. It must therefore be assumed that any country operating a reactor will have access to some quantity of fissile material, in the form of plutonium, within six months of withdrawing irradiated fuel from it.
   In these circumstances, the primary guarantee against illicit diversion of such material to weapons purposes lies in the safeguards which operators of enrichment and reprocessing plants have applied to their exports. For practical reasons, safeguards may have to be imposed at a number of stages in the handling of fissile material. The critical stages will always, however, be the enrichment and reprocessing plants themselves, from which the primary materials for a weapons programme must originate.
  
   ДОБАВЛЕНИЕ: РАСЩЕПЛЯЮЩИЕСЯ МАТЕРИАЛЫ
   ФОН
   Расщепляющийся материал, первичное сырье ядерной энергии, имеет много гражданских применений. В некоторых его формах он также является основой военных программ. Без него производство ядерного оружия в настоящее время невозможно, равно как и поддержание двигательных реакторов подводных лодок или надводных кораблей.
   Оружие синтеза ("H-бомба') требует оружия деления ("А-бомба"), чтобы вызвать его взрывную энергию. Оружие деления или пусковые механизмы деления для ядерного оружия требуют достаточного количества либо расщепляющегося урана, либо расщепляющегося плутония. Из двух основных изотопов урана, которые могут быть использованы для инициирования деления (U-233, U-235), U-233, который не существует в природе, до сих пор не вызывает большого интереса в оружейных целях. Из двух основных изотопов плутония (Pu-239, Pu-240), ни один из которых не существует в природе, Pu-240 непригоден для инициирования взрыва деления. Поэтому основное внимание в военных целях уделяется U-235 и Pu-239. В нынешних обстоятельствах ни одна страна не может начать или поддерживать ядерную оружейную программу без доступа к одному из этих изотопов.
   U-235
   Только около семи атомов из каждой тысячи в уране, найденном в природе, являются U-235. Прежде чем уран может быть использован в оружии, эта доля должна быть значительно увеличена, обычно до более чем 90 процентов урана-235, на специализированной обогатительной фабрике.
   Почти все работы по обогащению урана до сих пор осуществляется с помощью процесса, известного как газодиффузионных. В этом методе, рафинированный природный уран преобразуется в газообразный гексафторид урана (UF6) и затем диффундирует через ряд мембран, которые пропускают более легкие молекулы, богатые U-235, легче, чем более тяжелые молекулы, богатые U-238. Из-за числа большого числа этапов мембраны должно быть много чтобы достигнуть значительного обогащения, и из-за количества вспомогательного оборудования которое они требуют, заводы газообразной диффузии очень большие. Они также потребляют очень большое количество электроэнергии. Более того, их строительство и эксплуатация становятся неэкономичными ниже очень высокого уровня мощности. По всем этим причинам они являются прерогативой богатых стран, которые нуждаются в большом обогатительном потенциале. Тем не менее, единственными полномасштабными заводами по обогащению урана в мире являются заводы газодиффузионного типа, существующие в Соединенных Штатах, Советском Союзе, Великобритании, Франции и Китае, и все они являются государствами, обладающими ядерным оружием. Подробная информация об этих странах в Соединенных Штатах, Великобритании и Франции приводится в таблице на стр. 122. Подробности о заводах в Советском Союзе и Китае отсутствуют.
   В таблице на с.122 также приводятся данные в мегаваттах (МВт) об уровнях мощности, на которых работают газодиффузионные установки. С точки зрения потребления электроэнергии, эти цифры огромные. Например, три электростанции в Соединенных Штатах будут потреблять около 52 500 миллионов киловатт-часов в год при полной нагрузке, что примерно равно общему потреблению электроэнергии в Австралии.
   Любая обогатительная фабрика теоретически способна обогащать природный уран в объеме, необходимом для целей оружия. Однако степень обогащения топлива, необходимого для большинства нынешних энергетических реакторов (1-5% урана-235), значительно ниже, и обогатительные установки, предназначенные только для обеспечения такого топливного материала, вероятно, потребуют адаптации, прежде чем они смогут производить оружейный уран.
   Поскольку степень обогащения какой-либо конкретной партии урана напрямую зависит от количества этапов установки, через которые был пройден UF-газ, общая мощность обогатительной фабрики не может быть выражена в произведенном количестве; за данный период может быть произведено гораздо больше низкообогащенного урана, чем высокообогащенного урана. Таким образом, мощность обогатительных фабрик выражается в "килограммах работы по разделению", что является не мерой количества, а мерой усилий, затраченных на заводе для достижения определенного уровня обогащения в определенном количестве урана. Завод может производить оружейный материал только в количестве от одной пятидесятой до одной сотой того количества, которое он может произвести из материала, пригодного для типичного энергетического реактора. Таким образом, для того чтобы дать определенное представление о военной полезности существующих газодиффузионных установок, данные об их мощности в килограммах работы по разделению сопровождаются цифрами, которые показывают теоретически максимальное количество обогащенного урана в 90 процентов, которое каждый из них может производить в год.
   Pu-239
   Плутоний-это элемент, которого нет в природе. Он возникает, когда наиболее распространенный изотоп урана, U-238, захватывает нейтроны, высвобождающиеся в процессе деления, которое происходит в реакторе. Прежде чем его можно будет использовать в каких-либо целях, плутоний должен быть извлечен на специализированной установке по переработке топлива из топливных элементов, облученных в реакторе. Для того чтобы его можно было использовать в оружии, его необходимо впоследствии преобразовать через ряд этапов в металл плутония. Эти процессы требуют сложного и дорогостоящего оборудования.
   Подробная информация об основных заводах по переработке топлива в некоммунистическом мире приведена в таблице на стр. 124. (Опять же, нет подробной информации о заводах в странах Варшавского договора или в Китае.) Все эти установки обладают способностью отделять плутоний от других материалов в облученных топливных элементах. Мощность каждой установки выражается в количестве облученного топливного материала, с которым она может работать в год, выраженном в метрических тоннах (МТ). Количество плутония, которое это представляет, будет сильно варьироваться в зависимости от характера перерабатываемого топлива. Во-первых, поскольку плутоний получают из U-238, а не из расщепляющегося U-235, максимальное количество плутония в данном количестве высокообогащенного уранового топлива будет меньше максимального количества в том же количестве низкообогащенного топлива и все же меньше, чем в природном урановом топливе. Во-вторых, доля U-238, преобразованного в плутоний, зависит от периода и интенсивности использования топлива ("выгорания") в реакторе. Чем выше "выгорание", тем больше будет доля плутония. В качестве приблизительного ориентира, топливо, изъятое из существующих энергетических реакторов, работающих на полной мощности, даст от пяти до девяти килограммов плутония на каждую метрическую тонну переработанного облученного урана. По причинам, изложенным ниже, топливные элементы из специальных реакторов по производству плутония будут давать гораздо меньшую пропорцию, вероятно порядка 1-l,5 килограммов на метрическую тонну. Снижение выхода также будет получено из топлива, используемого в коммерческом реакторе до полной мощности, потому что такое топливо обычно выводится быстрее, чем в случае последующей загрузки.
   Изотоп плутония, который производит взрывную мощность в оружии деления U-239. Однако облученные реакторные топлива также содержат другие изотопы плутония, и особенно изотоп Pu-240. Пропорции, в которых присутствуют эти различные изотопы, будут варьироваться, главным образом, в зависимости от степени "выгорания" топлива. В целом топливо из действующих энергетических реакторов, работающих экономично и на полной мощности, будет давать плутоний, содержащий до 20% Pu-240, остатfkmyjt Pu-239. Топливные элементы, изъятые быстрее, после меньшей степени "выгорания", будут содержать меньшую долю Pu-240 (но также будут содержать меньшее общее количество плутония). Pu-240, кроме того, что сильно токсичен, имеет другие нежелательные свойства. В частности, он подвержен спонтанному делению. По этой причине, наиболее эффективным для оружейных целей, будет та, которая содержит минимальное возможное количество плутония-240. Таким образом, природные урановые топливные элементы, используемые в специальных реакторах производства плутония в рамках существующих программ ядерного оружия, изымаются после очень низкого "выгорания", на котором неизбежно небольшое количество плутония, содержащегося в них, является почти чистым Pu-239.
   Хотя Pu-240 является нежелательным компонентом плутония для оружейных целей, общее мнение о том, что любая значительная доля Pu-240 делает этот материал непригодным для использования в оружии, ошибочно. С точки зрения эффективности, взрывонрй силы, простоты и безопасности обращения, чистый Pu-239 является идеальным, и ядерные державы, имеющие специальные производственные реакторы, всегда будут стремиться к этой нему. Однако при условии приемлемости определенного компромисса по этим характеристикам нет никаких причин, по которым оружие не должно производиться из плутония, содержащего доли плутония, достигающие 20%, производимых некоторыми нынешними энергетическими реакторами, или 30%, которые могут быть получены будущими реакторами. По этой причине таблица на с.124 приведены расчетные количества плутония всех марок, который может быть получен на перечисленных заводах по переработке. Фактическое количество произведенного топлива будет в значительной степени зависеть от выхода облученного топлива из реакторов. Согласно оценкам, реакторы некоммунистического мира в 1970 году произведут более 5500 килограммов плутония.
   ЯДЕРНОЕ ОРУЖИЕ.
   Хотя в опубликованной литературе имеются оценки, нет точныхцифр для минимального количества U-235 или Pu-239, котороее могли бы инициировать взрыв делением. Многое зависит от качества. Необходимое количество U-235, вероятно, составит около 16 килограммов, тогда как при эффективном сжатии и отражении нейтронов может быть достаточно около 3 килограммов Pu-239. В целом, однако, меньшие навыки и опыт сделают большее количество необходимым.
   Поскольку при нынешней технологии для запуска термоядерного оружия ("Н-бомбы") требуется устройство деления U-235 или Pu-239, внимание здесь было сосредоточено на этих материалах. Однако следует помнить, что для самого синтеза необходим дейтерий и либо тритий, либо литий. Дейтерий и литий легко доступны и относительно дешевы, но тритий должен производиться специальными методами в реакторе или атомном котле.
   МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ТОРГОВЛЯ РАСЩЕПЛЯЮЩИМСЯ МАТЕРИАЛОМ
   Ни одна страна не может производить ядерное оружие, не имея доступа к продукции завода по обогащению урана, к заводу по переработке топлива, пригодного для извлечения плутония. Без такого доступа запасы природного урана страны, а также размеры, количество и мощность ее энергетических реакторов не имеют отношения к военным целям.
   Многие страны, не имеющие обогатительных фабрик, нуждаются в обогащенном уране для своих энергетических или исследовательских реакторов. Однако почти во всех случаях доля U-235, присутствующего в их топливе, составляет от 1 до 5 процентов. Материал, таким образом, бесполезен для целей оружия.
   Любая страна, эксплуатирующая реактор, должна перерабатывать облученное топливо и, если это необходимо сделать за пределами ее собственной юрисдикции, обычно ожидает возвращения ей продуктов переработки, включая плутоний. Поэтому следует предположить, что любая страна, эксплуатирующая реактор, будет иметь доступ к некоторому количеству расщепляющегося материала в виде плутония в течение шести месяцев после изъятия из него облученного топлива.
   В этих обстоятельствах главная гарантия против незаконного переключения такого материала на оружейные цели заключается в гарантиях, которые операторы обогатительных и перерабатывающих предприятий применяют к своему экспорту. По практическим соображениям гарантии, возможно, придется вводить на ряде этапов обращения с расщепляющимся материалом. Однако критическими этапами всегда будут сами заводы по обогащению и переработке, из которых должны исходить основные материалы для оружейной программы.
   See the Annex on pp. 10-12 for tin explanation of the calculation of the figures used for the rate of exchange, GNP and defence expenditure.
   t Calculated at the median exchange rate of 0.45 roubles = SI.
   t Code names of Soviet-made aircraft and missiles are of NATO origin. Their characteristics are given on p. 107ff.
   Ether party may now terminate the treaty by giving one year's notice to the other, t As has the Republic of Korea.
   North Vietnamese infantry divisions normally comprise 3 infantry regiments and one support regiment each of some 2,700 men; divisional strength varies between 10,000 and 12,000 men.
   Legally, Cuba is a member of the OAS, but has been excluded - by a decision by OAS Foreign Ministers - since January 1962. Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, signed the Charter in 1967.
   t This agreement was confirmed in 1934. In 1960 the United States stated that it could be modified or abrogated only by agreement between the parties, and that it had no intention of agreeing to modification or abrogation.
   Medium-range bombers are defined as having a maximum theoretical range, without refuelling, of 3,500-6,000 statute miles. ,
   t IRBMs are defined as having a maximum range of 1,500-4,000 miles and MRBMs of 500-1,500 miles.
   t Because most estimates of NDVs come from official American sources, which stress those able to reach the United States, much more information is available about the numbers of ICBMs, SLBMs and long-range bombers than about SRBMs and cruise missiles and strike aircraft, for which, as the Table on pp. 105-6 shows, it is often only possible to give tentative figures. This does not necessarily reflect the relevance of the types of NDV to the `strategic balance' as seen by powers other than the United States.
   Alternative methods, which have not yet emerged from research and development, include the use of gas centrifuges and of separation 'nozzles'. There have been rumours that China has used a variety of enrichment methods, including gas centrifugation, but these cannot be substantiated. South Africa claimed in July 1970 to have developed a `unique' enrichment process, but no details of it have been revealed.
   will also be obtained from fuel used in running a commercial reactor up to full power, because such fuel is normally withdrawn more quickly than in the case of subsequent loadings.
   The plutonium isotope which produces explosive power in a fission weapon is Pu-239. Irradiated reactor fuels also, however, contain other isotopes of plutonium, and especially the Pu-240 isotope. The proportions in which these different isotopes are present will vary, primarily as a function of the degree of `bum-up' to which the fuel has been subjected. In general, fuel from current power reactors running economically and at full power will yield plutonium which contains up to 20 per cent of Pu-240, almost all the remainder being Pu-239. Fuel elements withdrawn more quickly, after a lesser degree of `bum-up', will contain a smaller proportion of Pu-240 (but will also contain smaller total amounts of plutonium).
   Pu-240, in addition to being intensely toxic, has other undesirable properties. In particular, it is subject to a degree of spontaneous fission. For that reason, the most efficient plutonium for weapon purposes is that which contains the minimum proportion of Pu-240 possible. The natural uranium fuel elements used in special plutonium-
   For technical reasons, U-23S has normally been used for the fission trigger of fusion weapons.
   Three power reactors in the United States use uranium enriched to over 90 per cent in U-235. Elsewhere, the only power reactor using uranium enriched to such a high level is a pilot reactor at Jtilich in the Federal German Republic, the fuel for which is obtained, under safeguards, from the United States. A number of reactors for research or the testing of materials also use highly enriched uranium fuels, although the quantities involved are small.

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