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The Military Balance 1973

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    Военный баланс в 1973 году от Международного Института Стратегических Исследований. С русским переводом.


THE MILITARY BALANCE 1973

   The Military Balance 1972
   The Military Balance 1974

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Preface
USA and Soviet Union: USA, Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
NATO: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey
Europe: Albania, Austria, Eire, Finland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
Middle East: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan , Lebanon, Libia, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen North, Yemen South, Small states,.
Africa: Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Rhodesia, Somali, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Smal states.
China: China
Asia & Australia: Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Burma, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Cambodia, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippine, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, North Vietnam, South Vietnam.
Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Small states .
Tables
Balance NATO-WP, Statistic

PREFACE

   The Military Balance is an annual, quantitative assessment of the military power and defence expenditure of countries throughout the world.
   It examines the facts of military power as they, existed in July 1973 and no projections of force levels or weapons beyond this date have been included, except where explicitly stated. The study should not be regarded as a comprehensive guide to the balance of military power; in particular, it does not reflect the facts of geography, vulnerability or efficiency, except where these are touched upon in the section on the balance in Europe.
   In general, national entries are grouped geographically, but with special reference to the principal regional defence pacts and alignments. Information about some smaller countries, whose military forces are of a size which has not seemed to warrant fuller description at this stage, has been set out in tabular form. Other tables give comparative information on nuclear delivery vehicles, defence expenditure (with historical trends), gross national products, military manpower (active and reserve), divisional organizations and arms transfer agreements. There is a separate section assessing the European theatre balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact and summarizing the statistics of those forces and weapons in Europe which may be the subject of negotiations for mutual reductions.
   Notes, which follow this Preface, will help the reader to use the current edition of The Military Balance. It is important to read them as they amplify and give precision to the data in the national sections and tables. In addition, because some items have not appeared annually, an index is given on p. 96 which provides a guide to such occasional features in this and in the five previous editions.
   The Institute assumes full responsibility for the facts and judgments which this study contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and, in many cases, received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative and some figures have necessarily been estimated. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants, who have helped in compiling and checking material.
   The Military Balance is complemented by the Institute's other annual handbook, Strategic Survey, published each spring, which reviews the most significant issues of international security and strategic policy in every major country and area of the world during the previous calendar year and is designed to enable subsequent events to be followed.
   September 1973
  
   ВВЕДЕНИЕ
   The Military Balance представляет собой ежегодную количественную оценку военной мощи и оборонных расходов стран во всем мире.
   Он исследует факты военной мощи, на июль 1973 года и не даёт прогнозов уровней сил или вооружений за пределами этой даты, кроме случаев, когда явно указано. Исследование не следует рассматривать в качестве всеобъемлющего руководства по балансу военной мощи; в частности, оно не отражает факторов географии, уязвимости или эффективности, за исключением раздела, посвященном балансу в Европе.
   В целом страны сгруппированы географически, но с особым упором на основные региональные оборонные пакты и союзы. Информация о некоторых мелких странах, численность Вооруженных сил которых на данном этапе, как представляется, не требует более полного описания, приводится в табличной форме. В других таблицах приводится сравнительная информация о средствах доставки ядерного оружия, оборонных расходах (с историческими тенденциями), валовом национальном продукте, военном персонале (действующем и резервном), организациях дивизий и соглашениях о передаче оружия. Отдельный раздел посвящен оценке европейского баланса между NATO и Варшавским пактом и обобщению статистических данных о тех силах и вооружениях в Европе, которые могут стать предметом переговоров о взаимных сокращениях.
   Примечания, которые следуют за этим предисловием, помогут читателю использовать данные военного баланса. Важно ознакомиться с ними, поскольку они уточняют данные, содержащиеся в национальных разделах и таблицах. Кроме того, поскольку некоторые позиции не появляются ежегодно, индекс на с.96 предоставляет сведения по таким позициям в этом и в пяти предыдущих изданиях.
   Институт несет полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в настоящем исследовании. Правительства стремились к сотрудничеству и во многих случаях получали его. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают друг с другом, поэтому некоторые цифры оценочные. Институт благодарен ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые оказали помощь в сборе и проверке материалов.
   The Military Balance дополняется другим ежегодным справочником Института - Strategic Survey, который публикуется каждую весну и в котором рассматриваются наиболее важные вопросы международной безопасности и стратегической политики в каждой крупной стране и районе мира в течение предыдущего календарного года и который призван обеспечить возможность проведения последующих мероприятий.
   Сентябрь 1973 года.
  
   The International Institute for Strategic Studies was founded in 1958 as a centre for information and research on the problems of international security, defence and arms control in the nuclear age. It is international in its Council, staff and membership, the latter drawn from over fifty countries. It is independent of governments and is not the advocate of any particular interest. The Institute is concerned with strategic questions-not just with the military aspects of security but with the social and economic sources and political and moral implications of the use and existence of armed force: in other words with the basic problems of peace.
  
   Международный институт стратегических исследований был основан в 1958 году как Центр информации и исследований по проблемам международной безопасности, обороны и контроля над вооружениями в ядерном веке. Международный совет, персонал и членство, взятые из более чем пятидесяти стран. Он независим от правительств и не отстаивает каких-либо особых интересов. Институт занимается стратегическими вопросами - не только военными аспектами безопасности, но и социально-экономическими источниками и политическими и моральными последствиями применения и существования вооруженных сил, иными словами, основными проблемами мира.
  
   READERS' NOTES
   (1) Regions and Countries
   The main geographical regions are indicated in the Table of Contents on p. ii. An alphabetical list, showing where each country entry is to be found, is on p. viii, following these Notes. To the extent that national variations permit, each country entry (with the exception of those for some smaller countries) is arranged in a standard form: general information about population, military service, total military manpower strength, Gross National Product (GNP) and the current defence budget is followed by separate sections on the main armed services (army, navy, air force), each of which contains, where the information is available, sub-sections on reserves and, where relevant, on deployment.
   (2) Defence Pacts and Agreements
   A short description of multilateral and bilateral pacts and military aid agreements introduces each of the main regional sections of the study. Defence assistance given under less formal arrangements is also noted. Agreements which cover only economic aid are not included.
   (3) Defence Expenditure
   The figures quoted for defence expenditure are the latest available. Table 2 on pp. 74-75 provides a comparison with past expenditures, expressed in $ so as to afford international comparisons but, as many countries update these each year, the figures will riot necessarily correspond with those shown in previous editions of The Military Balance. In Table 3 there are comparisons of the expenditures for NATO countries for 1968-72 using a NATO definition of the items to be included (in all other cases a national definition of defence expenditure is used). In Table 4 there is a breakdown of the expenditures by functional categories for certain countries. The defence expenditures of the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China are estimates. The problem of arriving at Soviet defence expenditure is discussed on pp. 8-9, whilst a note on p. 47 gives an indication of the difficulty of arriving at a figure for China.
   (4) Gross National Product (GNP)
   GNP figures are usually quoted at current market prices. Where figures are not currently available from published sources, estimates have been made, and Table 2 uses both published and estimated GNP figures. For the Soviet Union Net Material Product (NMP) figures have been given because of the difficulty of arriving at a satisfactory estimate of GNP. For the People's Republic of China a range of estimates of GNP has been given in a note on p.47.
   (5) Currency Conversion Rates
   To make comparisons easier, national currency figures have been converted into United States dollars, using the rate prevailing on 1July of the relevant year, generally as reported to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In all cases the conversion rates used are shown in the country entry but may not always be applicable to commercial transactions. An exception to the foregoing is the Soviet Net Material Product, which has been converted to dollars at the rate of 0.72 roubles = $1. Further exceptions are certain East European countries which are not members of the IMF and Rumania, which is, for which the conversion rates used are those described in Estimates of GNP, Defense, Education, and Health Expenditures of East European Countries, 1960-70, United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington DC, December 1971 (ACDA/E-207).
   (6) Manpower
   The manpower figures given are, unless otherwise stated, those of regular forces. An indication of the size of militia, reserve and para-military forces is also included in the country entry where appropriate. Paramilitary forces are here taken to be forces whose equipment and training goes beyond that required for civil police duties and whose constitution and control suggest that they may be usable in support, or in lieu of, regular forces. Further information on reserves is also included in Table 5.
   (7) Equipment
   The equipment figures in the country entries cover total holdings, with the exception of combat aircraft, where front-line squadron strengths are normally shown. Except where the contrary is made clear, naval vessels of less than 100 tons structural displacement have been excluded. The term 'combat aircraft': comprises only bomber, fighter-bomber, strike, interceptor, reconnaissance, counter-insurgency and armed trainer aircraft (i.e. aircraft normally equipped and configured to deliver ordnance); it does not include helicopters. Basic technical details of the nuclear delivery vehicles (missiles, artillery and aircraft) available to NATO and Warsaw Pact countries are given in Table 1 on pp. 69-73. Where the term 'mile' is used when indicating the range or radius of weapon systems it means a statute mile.
   (8) Strength of Military Formations
   The table below gives the average establishment strength of the major military formations used in the text. The figures should be treated as approximate, since military organization is flexible and formations may be reinforced or reduced. The manning of formations may, of course, be well below these levels.
  
    []
   a. Army divisions only; a Marine Corps division has 19,000 men.
   b. Strength of a regiment, which is the equivalent formation in the Soviet and Chinese command structure. (The term 'regiment' is however often employed, particularly in West European countries, to describe a battalion-size unit, and it is so used in The Military Balance.)
  
   Divisional strengths cover organic units only and exclude support units or services outside the divisional structure. Warsaw Pact formations and squadrons have strengths similar to those of the Soviet Union. NATO formations and squadrons not included in the table have similar totals to those of Germany unless otherwise mentioned in the text. Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have tended to adopt American military organization, while Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore generally follow British practice. A detailed breakdown of the organization of Soviet, American, West German and British divisions is given in Table 7 on p. 80.
   (9) Arms Transfers
   Major arms supply agreements identified as being made during the year which ended on 1July 1973 are listed, under geographical regions, in Table 8 on pp. 81-86. Because the actual transfer of arms may take place outside that year, an indication is also given there of expected delivery dates, where these are known. Licensing arrangements, which are very widespread among the larger countries, are not normally included.
   (10) Abbreviations and Terms
   A list of the abbreviations used in the text is on p. (vi), immediately following these Notes. For the convenience of the reader, certain important abbreviations are explained again when first used. Where a S sign appears it refers, unless stated, to United States dollars. The term billion equals 1,000 million.
  
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЧИТАТЕЛЕЙ
   (1) Регионы и страны
   Основные географические регионы указаны в оглавлении на стр. ii. Алфавитный список, показывающий, где находится каждая страна, находится на стр. viii после этих Примечаний. Данные по каждой стране (за исключением небольших стран) осуществляется в стандартной форме: общие сведения о численности населения, военной службы, общей численности военных, валового национального продукта (ВНП) и нынешний оборонный бюджет, далее следуют отдельные разделы по основным вооруженным силам (армия, флот, ВВС), каждый из которых содержит, где эта информация доступна, подразделы: резервы и, когда это уместно, на развертывание.
   (2) Оборонные Пакты и соглашения
   Краткое описание многосторонних и двусторонних пактов и соглашений о военной помощи представляются в каждом из основных региональных разделов исследования. Помощь в обороне с менее формальными механизмами тоже отмечена. Соглашения, которые охватывают только экономическую помощь, не включены.
   (3) Расходы на Оборону
   Приведенные данные о расходах на оборону являются самыми последними. В таблице 2 на стр. 74-75 приводится сопоставление с прошлыми расходами, выраженными в $, с тем чтобы можно было проводить международные сопоставления, однако, поскольку многие страны ежегодно обновляют эти данные, цифры неизбежно будут соответствовать показателям, приведенным в предыдущих изданиях "военного баланса". В таблице 3 приводятся сопоставления расходов стран NATO за 1968-1972 годы с использованием определения NATO подлежащих включению статей (во всех других случаях используется национальное определение расходов на оборону). В таблице 4 приводится разбивка расходов по функциональным категориям для некоторых стран. Расходы на оборону Советского Союза и Китайской Народной Республики являются оценочными. Проблема получения данных советских оборонных расходов обсуждается на стр. 8-9, а статья на стр. 8-9. 47 дает представление о трудностях с получением данных по Китаю.
   (4) Валовой Национальный Продукт (ВНП)
   Показатели ВНП обычно котируются по текущим рыночным ценам. В тех случаях, когда данные из опубликованных источников в настоящее время отсутствуют, были сделаны оценки, а в таблице 2 используются как опубликованные, так и оценочные показатели ВНП. По Советскому Союзу данные о чистом материальном продукте (NMP) были приведены из-за трудностей с получением удовлетворительной оценки ВНП. По Китайской Народной Республике, то в примечании на стр. 47.
   (5) Курсы Валют
   Для облегчения сопоставления, данные в национальной валюте были пересчитаны в доллары США по курсу, действовавшему на 1 июля соответствующего года, как правило, сообщаемому Международным Валютным Фондом (МВФ). Во всех случаях используемые курсы пересчета показаны в записи страны, но не всегда могут быть применимы к коммерческим операциям. Исключением из вышесказанного является Советский чистый материальный продукт, который был конвертирован в доллары по курсу 0,72 рубля = $1. Другие исключения составляют некоторые восточноевропейские страны, которые не являются членами МВФ и Румыния, для которых используются коэффициенты пересчета, описанные в Estimates of GNP, Defense, Education, and Health Expenditures of East European Countries,1960-70, United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington DC, December 1971 (ACDA/E-207).
   (6) Личный состав
   Приведенные данные о численности личного состава, если не указано иное, относятся к регулярным силам. В соответствующих случаях в справке по стране указывается также численность ополченцев, резервных и полувоенных сил. Под военизированными формированиями здесь понимаются силы, оснащение и подготовка которых выходят за рамки обязанностей гражданской полиции и чей устав и контроль позволяют предположить, что они могут использоваться для поддержки регулярных сил или вместо них. Дополнительная информация о резервах также приводится в таблице 5.
   (7) Вооружение
   Данные о вооружении в справках по странам охватывают все вооружения, за исключением боевых самолетов, где обычно показаны действующие эскадрильи. За исключением случаев, когда четко указывается обратное, исключаются военно-морские суда водоизмещением менее 100 тонн. Термин ''combat aircraft': включает только бомбардировщики, истребители-бомбардировщики, штурмовики, перехватчики, разведывательные, противо-повстанческие и вооруженные учебно-тренировочные самолеты (т. е. самолеты, как правило, укомплектованные, и назначенные, доставлять боеприпасы); он не включает вертолеты. Основные технические данные о средствах доставки ядерного оружия (ракеты, артиллерия и самолеты), имеющихся в распоряжении стран NATO и Варшавского договора, приведены в Таблице 1 на стр. 69-73. Термин "миля" используется при указании дальности или радиуса действия оружейных систем, он означает статутную милю (1,6 км).
   (8) Численность воинских формирований
   В таблице ниже приводится средняя численность основных воинских формирований, использованных в тексте. Цифры следует рассматривать как приблизительные, поскольку военная организация является гибкой и формирования могут быть усилены или сокращены. Комплектование формирований может, конечно, быть значительно ниже этих уровней.
   Табл.
   В силы дивизий включаются только органические подразделения и исключаются вспомогательные подразделения или службы за пределами структуры дивизии. Формирования и эскадрильи Варшавского договора имеют силы, аналогичные Советскому Союзу. Формирования и эскадрильи NATO, не включенные в таблицу, имеют показатели, аналогичные показателям Германии, если в тексте не указано иное. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань, как правило, имеют американскую военную организацию, в то время как Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Малайзия и Сингапур в целом следуют британской практике. Подробная разбивка организации Советского, американского, западногерманского и британского отделов приведена в таблице 7 на стр.80.
   (9) Поставки оружия
   Основные соглашения о поставках оружия, заключенные в течение года, закончившегося 1 июля 1973 года, перечислены в разделе "географические регионы" в таблице 8 на стр.81-86. Поскольку фактическая передача оружия может иметь место и за пределами этого года, там же указываются предполагаемые сроки поставки, если они известны. Лицензионные соглашения, которые широко распространены в более крупных странах, обычно не включаются.
   (10) Сокращения и термины
   Список сокращений, используемых в тексте, приведен на стр. vi сразу же после этих Примечаний. Для удобства читателя некоторые важные аббревиатуры поясняются еще раз при первом использовании. Знак $ означает, если не указано, доллар США. Термин миллиард равен 1000 миллионам.
  
   ABBREVIATIONS
    []
  

COUNTRIES AND PRINCIPAL PACTS

  

The United States and the Soviet Union

   The year after the May 1972 Soviet-American Interim Agreement on the limitation of offensive missiles provided little evidence of super-power restraint in that field. Both governments seemed determined to reach the limits set by their Agreement as soon as possible, while also obtaining the maximum qualitative capability.
   The United States has deployed 350 Minuteman 3 ICBM, each with three MIRV, and is now moving towards completing that programme, involving 550 Minuteman 3 with up to 1,650 warheads by 1975. Meanwhile, all the 1,000 Minuteman silos are being substantially strengthened ('hardened') against nuclear attack and a new Command Data Buffer system is being installed to provide rapid ICBM retargeting. At sea, about 320 Poseidon SLBM, each with 10-14 MIRV, have been deployed in some 20 submarines. Conversion of another 11 submarines to Poseidon is in train and will be complete by 1975-76, at which time only 10 submarines with Polaris A3 SLBM will remain in service. Thereafter, the Trident 1 SLBM, with a 4,600-mile range, could become operational in late 1978, either in Poseidon submarines or in the new Trident boats, probably with 24 missile tubes each, which are being developed to enter service, apparently in the Pacific, in the same year. By using the freedom allowed by the Interim Agreement to replace Titan 2 ICBM with Trident SLBM, the United States could thus have 1,000 ICBM and 710 SLBM, carrying well over 8,000 warheads, by the end of the 1970s.
   The Soviet Union has also shown every sign of reaching the Interim Agreement's limits. On land, where 1,527 Soviet ICBM are already deployed, development has continued of three new ICBM types: the SS-16 (an improved version of the solid-fuel SS-13), the SS-17 (an improved SS-11) and the SS-18 (an improved SS-9). The last two have both been tested with re-entry systems of three MRV, and are reportedly being prepared to carry full MIRV systems at a later stage. The SS-18, tests of which began in 1968, is an obvious candidate for installation in the 25 large silos started in 1970 but still incomplete, thus bringing the Soviet total of 'heavy' ICBM to the 313 permitted by the Interim Agreement. The SS-17, which has been fired over a range of some 4,500 miles, may equip the remaining 66 incomplete silos, raising the overall ICBM total to the permitted ceiling of 1,618. At sea, the ceilings of 62 'modern' ballistic-missile submarines and 950 'modern' SLBM are further away. Some 31 Y-class submarines, each with 16 SS-N-6 SLBM (1,500-1,750 mile range), have been launched, as have about 3 of the new D-class boats, each with 12 SS-N-8 SLBM (4,600 mile range). Only these count against the submarine ceiling, although another 30 SLBM in older nuclear-powered submarines bring the current number of missiles relevant to the SLBM ceiling to about 560. Even if the Soviet Union decides to exercise her option to replace SS-7 and SS-8 ICBM with new SLBM, it thus seems likely, at expected building rates, to be at least 1977 before she could reach the two ceilings now established. No Soviet SLBM has as yet been tested with MRV.
   Soviet and American determination to build ABM systems up to the limits in the ABM Treaty of May 1972 is less certain. The United States is completing her one permitted Safeguard site for defence of ICBM silos at Grand Forks, to be operational in late 1974, and has also continued research on what is now known as the Site Defense (formerly Hard Site) ABM system for the more economical defence of ICBM silos with short-range missiles alone, but she has not yet taken any substantial step towards deploying ABM launchers around Washington. The Soviet Union has continued to develop a more effective ABM missile to replace the Galosh in the defence of the Moscow area, and has also showed signs of expanding that defence from 64 to 100 launchers, but there is no clear evidence that she has yet decided to construct the second permitted site for ICBM defence.
   In one of the areas still unconstrained by SALT, strategic bomber aircraft, the emphasis has been largely on development rather than deployment. The American force is actually to be reduced during 1973-74, from 30 squadrons to 28 (24 of B-52s and 4 of FB-11 Is), while the Soviet force is expected to remain at little more than a quarter of that strength. The United States, however, is pressing ahead with the B-l programme, which should bring that new supersonic bomber into service from 1978, while the Soviet Union has been actively testing her Backfire prototypes which, although not fully 'inter-continental', have a range comparable to that of the FB-111. The United States is also greatly increasing the striking power of her existing bombers by equipping them with the Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), a nuclear air-to-ground missile with a range of 35-100 miles. SRAM entered operational service in August 1972 and should be fully deployed, with 1,500 missiles in 21 bomber squadrons, by 1974-75. Meanwhile, air defence forces on both sides are also subjects for qualitative improvement. The American F-14 and F-15 fighters are moving towards full operational deployment, possibly to be followed in the early 1980s by a new Improved Manned Interceptor (IMI), while the Soviet Union is already introducing new types, including the MiG-25 Foxbat and the variable geometry MiG-23 Flogger into her fighter forces. Both countries are also seeking to improve static and mobile radar coverage, with equipment such as the American Over-The-Horizon Backscatter (OTH-B) radar and Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft.
   Qualitative improvement is, in fact, the keynote in all non-strategic forces. The United States, in particular, having ended her combat role in Vietnam in 1972, is moving towards all-volunteer armed forces by mid-1975 (when the last conscript will be released) amid doubts about her ability thereafter to maintain more than about 1.8 million men under arms: a prospect which demands qualitative excellence, something which the Soviet Union will, for its own reasons, clearly wish to match. In addition to new aircraft, development programmes for new armoured equipment, tactical missiles and naval vessels all show signs of acceleration. The Soviet Union has launched her first conventional aircraft carrier of 40,000 tons and is actively deploying new Kara-class cruisers, Krivak-class GM destroyers and C-class cruise-missile and V-class attack submarines. The United States has committed funds to her fourth nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, to 37 new DD-963 destroyers and to the first 28 688-class nuclear-powered hunter/killer submarines. Both are developing a range of new battlefield equipment, including new battle tanks: the Soviet M-1970 and the American XM-1. Further ahead, more exotic technical possibilities appear. Just as precision guided munitions, such as 'smart' bombs and remotely piloted vehicles (RPV), may change the calculus of tactical air/land warfare in the later 1970s, so, in the 1980s, laser weapons may begin to influence aerial combat. In the first year of strategic arms limitation, it was thus also possible to identify many of the elements which could figure in a continued strategic and tactical arms race if political constraints should prove inadequate.
  
   Соединенные Штаты и Советский Союз
   Прошедший год после заключения в мае 1972 года советско-американского временного соглашения об ограничении наступательных ракет практически не свидетельствовал о наличии сдержанности сверхдержав в этой области. Оба правительства, как представляется, преисполнены решимости как можно скорее достичь пределов, установленных в их соглашении, а также получить максимальный качественный потенциал.
   Соединенные Штаты развернули 350 МБР Minuteman 3, каждая из которых имеет три РГЧ ИН, и в настоящее время продвигаются к завершению этой программы, включающей 550 Minuteman 3 с 1650 боеголовками к 1975 году. Между тем, все 1000 шахт Minuteman существенно укрепляются против ядерного нападения, и устанавливается новая система буфера командных данных для обеспечения быстрой перенастройки МБР. На море около 320 БРПЛ Poseidon, каждая по 10-14 единиц MIRV, были развернуты примерно на 20 подводных лодках. Переоборудование еще 11 подводных лодок в Poseidon идет полным ходом и будет завершено к 1975-76 годам, когда на вооружении останутся только 10 подводных лодок с БРПЛ Polaris A3. После этого SLBM Trident 1 с дальностью действия 4 600 миль может начать функционировать в конце 1978 года либо на подводных лодках Poseidon, либо на новых лодках Trident, вероятно, с 24 ракетными трубами каждая, которые разрабатываются для ввода в эксплуатацию, по-видимому, на Тихом океане, в том же году. Используя свободу, предоставленную временным соглашением, для замены МБР Titan 2 на БРПЛ Trident, Соединенные Штаты могли бы, таким образом, к концу 1970-х годов иметь 1000 МБР и 710 БРПЛ с более чем 8000 боеголовок.
   Советский Союз также продемонстрировал все признаки достижения пределов временного соглашения. На суше, где уже развернуто 1527 советских МБР, продолжается разработка трех новых типов МБР: SS-16 (усовершенствованная версия твердотопливной SS-13), SS-17 (усовершенствованная SS-11) и SS-18 (усовершенствованная SS-9). Последние две были протестированы с системами трех РГЧ ИН и, как сообщается, готовятся к установке полных систем РГЧ ИН на более позднем этапе. SS-18, испытания которого начались в 1968 году, является очевидным кандидатом на установку в 25 больших шахтах, начатых в 1970 году, но все еще пустых, таким образом, доведя Советский общий объем "тяжелых" МБР до 313, разрешенного временным соглашением. SS-17, которые были испытаны на дальность около 4500 миль, могут быть установлены в оставшиеся 66 пустых шахт, подняв общую сумму МБР до разрешенного потолка в 1618. На море, потолки 62 'современных' ракетных подводных лодок и 950 'современных' БРПЛ. Около 31 подводных лодок типа Y, каждая с 16-ю БРПЛ SS-N-6 (1,500-1,750 мильная дальность), и были спущены 3 новых лодок типа D, каждая с 12 БРПЛ SS-N-8 (4,600 миль). Только они считаются в потолке подводных лодок, хотя еще 30 БРПЛ на старых атомных подводных лодках доводят текущее количество ракет, имеющих отношение к потолку БРПЛ, примерно до 560. Даже если Советский Союз решит использовать свой вариант замены МБР SS-7 и SS-8 новыми БРПЛ, представляется вероятным, что при ожидаемых темпах строительства, по крайней мере, в 1977 году, прежде чем она сможет достичь двух установленных в настоящее время потолков. Ни одна советская БРПЛ еще не была протестирована с MRV.
   Советская и американская решимость строить системы ПРО до пределов, установленных в майском договоре по ПРО 1972 года, менее очевидна. США завершают одну дозволенную базу Safeguard для защиты шахтных пусковых установок МБР в Гранд-Форкс, она будет введена в эксплуатацию в конце 1974 года, а также продолжают исследования того, что сейчас известна как Site Defense (бывший Hard Site) система ПРО более экономичной защиты шахтных пусковых установок МБР с ракетами малой дальности, но еще не принято каких-либо существенных шагов на пути развертывания пусковых установок ПРО вокруг Вашингтона. Советский Союз продолжает разрабатывать более эффективную ракету ПРО взамен Galosh для обороны Московской области, а также демонстрирует признаки расширения этой обороны с 64 до 100 пусковых установок, но нет четких доказательств того, что он все же решил построить второй разрешенный объект обороны МБР.
   В одной из областей, еще не стесненных договором ОСВ, стратегической бомбардировочной авиации, основное внимание уделяется развитию, а не развертыванию. Фактически американские силы должны быть сокращены в 1973-74 годах с 30 эскадрилий до 28 (24 из B-52 и 4 из FB-111), в то время как советские силы, как ожидается, останутся на уровне немногим более четверти этих сил. Соединенные Штаты, однако, продвигают программу B-l, по которой должны ввести этот новый сверхзвуковой бомбардировщик в эксплуатацию с 1978 года, в то время как Советский Союз активно тестирует свой прототип Backfire, который, хотя и не полностью "межконтинентальный", но имеет дальность, сопоставимую с FB-111. Соединенные Штаты также значительно увеличивают ударную мощь существующих бомбардировщиков, оснащая их ракетами малой дальности (SRAM), ядерными класса "воздух-земля" с дальностью 35-100 миль. SRAM поступил на оперативную службу в августе 1972 года и должен быть полностью развернут к 1974-1975 годам, 1500 ракет в 21 эскадрилье бомбардировщиков. Между тем, силы противовоздушной обороны с обеих сторон также подлежат качественному совершенствованию. Американские истребители F-14 и F-15 продвигаются к полному оперативному развертыванию, возможно, в начале 1980-х годов последует новый улучшенный пилотируемый перехватчик (IMI), в то время как Советский Союз уже вводит новые типы, включая МиГ-25 Foxbat и изменяемой геометрии МиГ-23 Flogger в свои истребительные силы. Обе страны также стремятся улучшить стационарное и мобильное радиолокационное покрытие с помощью такого оборудования, как американская загоризонтная радиолокационная станция (OTH-B) и воздушная система предупреждения и управления (AWACS).
   Качественное улучшение, по сути, является ключевым элементом всех нестратегических сил. Соединенные Штаты, в частности, завершив свою боевую деятельность во Вьетнаме в 1972 году, продвигаются к добровольческим вооруженным силам к середине 1975 года (когда будет отпущен последний призывник) на фоне сомнений в ее способности впоследствии поддерживать более 1,8 миллиона человек под ружьем: перспектива, которая требует качественного совершенства, то, чему Советский Союз, по своим собственным причинам, явно захочет соответствовать. В дополнение к новым самолетам все программы разработки новой бронетанковой техники, тактических ракет и морских кораблей демонстрируют признаки ускорения. Советский Союз спустил свой первый авианосец водоизмещением 40 тысяч тонн и активно развертывает новые крейсера Kara, эсминцы Krivak, ПЛА с крылатыми ракетами типа С и торпедные типа V. Соединенные Штаты выделили средства на четвертый атомный авианосец, 37 новых эсминцев DD-963 и первые 28 атомных подводных лодок-охотников типа 688. Оба расширяют ассортимент новой боевой техники, в том числе новые боевые танки: Советский М-1970 и американский XM-1. Дальше появляются более экзотические технические возможности. Точно так же, как высокоточные управляемые боеприпасы, такие как "умные" бомбы и дистанционно пилотируемые носители (ДПВ), могут изменить тактическую воздушно-наземную войну в конце 1970-х годов, так и в 1980-х годах лазерное оружие может начать влиять на воздушные бои. Таким образом, в первый год ограничения стратегических вооружений удалось также выявить многие элементы, которые могут фигурировать в продолжающейся гонке стратегических и тактических вооружений, если политические ограничения окажутся недостаточными.
  
   THE UNTIED STATES
Population: 210,900,000.
Military service: voluntary.* (*From 1July 1973.)
Total armed forces: 2,252,900.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1,151.8 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: S85.2 billion.* (*Budget authority (NOA); expected outlay is S79.0 billion.)
  
Strategic Nuclear Forces.* (*Manpower is included' in Army, Navy and Air Force totals.)
OFFENSIVE:
(A) Navy: 656 SLBM in 41 submarines.
   20 SSBN each with 16 Poseidon.
   21 SSBN each with 16 Polaris A1 or A3.
(B) Strategic Air Command:
ICBM:
1,054.
   140 Minuteman 1.
   510 Minuteman 2.
   350 Minuteman 3.
   54 Titan 2.
Aircraft:
   Bombers: 516.* (*2 B-52 and 1 KC-135 sqn-equivalents are rotated for duty in South-East Asia.)
   66 FB-111A in 4 sqns (some with SRAM)
   240 B-52G/H in 16 sqns (some with SRAM)
   142 B-52D in 9 sqns (to be reduced to 117 by the disbandment of 2 sqns in late 1973).
   15 B-52F in 1 sqn.
   Aircraft in active storage or reserve include 8 FB-111A and 45 B-52D/F/G/H.
   Tankers: 615 KC-135A in 38 sqns, plus 130 in reserve.
   Strategic Reconnaissance: SR-71A; 2 sqns.
DEFENSIVE:
   North American Air Defence Command (NORAD) - HQ Colorado Springs - is a joint American Canadian organization.
   US forces under NORAD are Aerospace Defense Command (ADC) and Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM),
   with a combined strength of 80,000.
Aircraft (excluding Canadian):
   Interceptors: 585.
   (i) Regular: 7 sqns with F-106A.
   (ii) Air National Guard: 6 sqns with F-101B; 10 sqns with F-102A; 4 sqns with F-106A.
   AEW aircraft: 3 sqns with EC-121.
SAM: 481.
   (i) Regular: 21Nike-Hercules batteries,
   (ii) Army National Guard: 27 Nike-Hercules batteries.
Warning Systems:
   (i) Satellite early warning system: capable of giving virtually immediate warning of launchings from SLBM, ICBM and
   Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) launch areas,
   (ii) Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line: 31 stations, roughly along the 70R N parallel,
   (iii) Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS); 3 stations in Alaska, Greenland and England.
   (iv) Pinetree Line: 23 stations in central Canada,
   (v) Over-the-Horizon, Forward Scatter (OTH): radar system with 9 sites capable of detecting, but not tracking, ICBM very early in flight,
   (vi) 474N: SLBM detection and warning net of 8 stations on the East, Gulf and West coasts of the United States; long-range radars have been
   added to the east coast net.
   (vii) USAF Spacetrack (7 sites) and USN SPASUR systems; Space Defense Centre (NORAD): satellite tracking, identification and
   cataloguing control.
   (viii) Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC): system for air defence command and control (all stations except one now on semi-active status).
   (ix) Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system for co-ordinating all surveillance and tracking of objects in North American airspace;
   14 locations; combined with BUIC.
   (x) Ground radar stations: some 55 stations manned by Air National Guard; augmented by the Federal Aviation Administration stations.
Army: 801,500 (16,000 women).
   3 armoured divisions.
   1 experimental (TRICAP) division.
   4 mechanized infantry divisions.
   3 infantry divisions.
   1 airmobile division.
   1 airborne division.
   3 armoured cavalry regiments.
   1 brigade in Berlin.
   1 school brigade.
   2 special mission brigades in Alaska and Panama.
   30 SSM batteries with Honest John, Pershing and Sergeant SSM (Lance is being introduced to replace Honest John and Sergeant).
   M-48, M-60 and M-60A1/A2 (Shillelagh) med tks;
   M-41, M-551 Sheridan lt tks with Shillelagh ATGW;
   M-114, M-113 APC;
   M-107 175mm SP guns; M-108 105mm, M-109 155mm and M-110 203mm SP how;
   M-56 90mm SP ATk guns; TOW and Dragon ATGW;
   Chaparral/Vulcan 20mm AA msl/gun system; Redeye and HAWK SAM.
Army Aviation; about 10,000 hel and 1,000 fixed wing ac.
DEPLOYMENT:
Continental United States
   (i) Strategic Reserve: 1 TRICAP div; 1 inf div; 1 airmobile div; 1AB div; 1 inf bde.
   (ii) To reinforce 7th Army in Europe: 1 armd div*; 1 mech div (less 1 bde)**; 1 mech div*; 1 armd cav regt.
   (*These divisions have equipment stockpiled in West Germany.)
   (** This division has two dual-based brigades whose heavy equipment is stored in West Germany.)
Europe
   (i) Germany: 7th Army: 2 corps incl 2 armd divs, 2 mech inf divs, 1 mech inf bde and 2 armd cav regts; 190,000; 2,100 medium tanks.*
   (*This figure includes those stockpiled for the dual based brigades and Strategic Reserve divisions.)
   (ii) West Berlin: HQ elements and 1 inf bde of 3,900 men.
   (iii) Italy: Task force of HQ elements and 1 SSM bn.
Pacific
   (i) South Korea: 1 inf div; 20,000.
   (ii) Hawaii: 1 inf div.
RESERVES: Authorized strength 663,600, actual strength 621,900.
   (i) Army National Guard: authorized 402,300, actual 386,700; capable some time after mobilization of manning
   2 armd, 1 mech and 5 inf divs and 18 indep bdes plus reinforcements and support units to fill regular formations; 27 SAM btys (ARADCOM).
   (ii) Army Reserves: authorized 261,300, actual 235,200; organized in 13 divs and 3 indep bdes; 48,000 a year undergo short active duty tours.
Marine Corps: 196,000.
   3 divs (each of 19,000 men), each supported by 1 tk bn.
   2 HAWK SAM bns.
   M-48 and M-103A2 tks; LVTP-5 and -7 APC;
   175mm guns; 105mm SP how; 105 and 155mm how; M-50 SP multiple 106mm recoilless rifles; 36 HAWK SAM.
   3 Air Wings; 550 combat aircraft.
   12 fighter sqns with F-4B/J (with Sparrow and Sidewinder AAM).
   11 attack sqns with A-4E/F/M and A-6A.
   2 close-support sqns with 36 AV-8A Harrier.
   3 recce sqns with RF-4B/C and EA-6A.
   3 observation sqns with OV-10A and AH-1G.
   6 heavy hel sqns with CH-53D.
   9 med assault hel sqns with CH-46A.
   3 assault tpt/tanker sqns with 46 KC-130F.
DEPLOYMENT:
(i) Continental United States: 2 divs/air wings.
(ii) Pacific Area: 1 div/air wing.
RESERVES: Authorized strength 45,000, actual strength 39,100.
   1 div and 1 air wing:
   4 fighter sqns with F-8J; 5 attack sqns with A-4E/L; 1 recce sqn with RF-4;
   1 observation sqn with OV-10A and AH-1G;
   1 tpt sqn with C-119G; 2 hy, 6 med, 1 lt hel sqn with CH-53, CH-46, UH-1E and AH-1; HAWK SAM bn.
Navy: 564,400 (9,000 women); 221 major combat surface ships, 84 attack submarines.
Submarines, attack: 60 nuclear, 24 diesel.
Aircraft carriers:
   (i) Attack: 15.
   1 nuclear-powered (USS Enterprise 76,000 tons); a second will be commissioned in 1973-74.
   8 Forrestal/Kitty Hawk-class (60,000 tons).
   3 Midway-class (52,000 tons).
   3 Hancock-class (33,000 tons).
   The larger carriers have a normal complement of 80-90 aircraft, and the smaller ones between 70-80.
   These are organized as an air wing of
   2 fighter sqns with F-4 (F-8 in the Hancock-class),
   2 lt attack/all weather attack sqns with A-4 or A-7;
   RA-5C or RF-8 recce; S-2E, SH-3A/G/H ASW hel; E-1B, E-2A AEW; EKA-3B tankers.
   (ii) Training: 1.
   1 Hancock-class.
Other surface ships:
   1 SAM cruiser (nuclear).
   3 SAM cruisers.
   1 gun cruiser.
   4 SAM light cruisers.
   3 SAM frigates (nuclear).
   25 SAM frigates.
   29 SAM destroyers.
   71 gun/ASW/radar picket destroyers.
   6 SAM destroyer escorts.
   62 gun/radar picket escorts.
   65 amphibious warfare ships.
   10 MCM ships (plus numerous small craft).
   150 logistics and operations support ships.
   Missiles include Standard, Tartar, Tabs, Terrier, Sea Sparrow SAM, ASROC and SUBROC ASW.
Aircraft:
   70 fighter/attack sqns with F-14A, F-4, F-8, A-4, A-6, A-7.
   10 recce sqns with RA-5C, RF-8.
   24 maritime patrol sqns with 216 P-3.
   20 ASW sqns with S-2E, SH-3A/G/H hel.
   5 helicopter sqns with UH-1/2, AH-1J, RH-53D.
   34 other sqns with C-l, C-2, 5 C-9B, C-54, and C-130.
DEPLOYMENT (average strengths of major combat ships; some ships in the Mediterranean and Western Pacific are selectively based overseas,
   the remainder are rotated from the US):
   Second Fleet (Atlantic): 4 carriers, 63 surface combatants, 1 amphibious ready gp.*
   Third Fleet (Eastern Pacific): 7 carriers, 52 surface combatants, 4 amphibious ready gps.*
   Sixth Fleet (Mediterranean): 2 carriers, 17 surface combatants, 1 amphibious ready gp.*
   Seventh Fleet (Western Pacific): 3 carriers, 29 surface combatants, 2 amphibious ready gps.*
   Middle East Force (Persian Gulf): 1 flagship, 2 surface combatants.
   (*Amphibious ready groups are 3-5 amphibious ships with a Marine battalion embarked.
   Only those in the Mediterranean and two in the Pacific are actually constituted.)
RESERVES: Authorized strength 129,000, actual strength 131,800; 3,500 a year undergo short active duty tours.
   Ships in commission with the Reserve include 30 destroyers, 4 destroyer escorts, and 20 MCM ships.
Aircraft:
   2 Reserve Air Wings: 9 fighter/attack sqns with F-8 and A-7; 24 MR sqns with P-2 and P-3A/B;
   25 ASW sqns with S-2.
   2 ASW groups: 12 patrol sqns with S-2, P-3.
Ships in reserve:
   8 submarines.
   6 aircraft carriers.
   4 battleships.
   12 heavy cruisers.
   2 SAM light cruisers.
   43 destroyers.
   2 frigates.
   33 destroyer escorts (all classes).
   8 rocket ships.
   74 amphibious warfare ships.
   82 MCM ships craft.
   75 logistics support ships.
Air Force: 691,000 (17,000 women); about 5,750 combat aircraft.
   72 fighter/attack sqns with F-4, F-105 and F-111; A-7D.
   13 tactical recce sqns with RF-4C.
   17 tactical airlift sqns with C-130E.
   11 special purpose sqns with A-1E, A-37, AC-47, AC-119, AC-130, EA-6B, EB-66, EB-57, EC-47, C-7 and C-123.
   17 hy tpt sqns, 4 with 72 C-5A, 13 with C-141.
   24 medical tpt, weather recce and SAR sqns.
DEPLOYMENT
Continental United States (incl Alaska and Iceland):
   (i) Tactical Air Command: 124,000; 2,200 combat aircraft. 9th, 12th and 19th Air Forces,
   (ii) Military Airlift Command (MAC): 90,000.
Europe, US Air Force, Europe (USAFE): 50,000.
   3rd Air Force (Britain), 16th Air Force (Spain),
   17th Air Force (West Germany), and a logistics group in Turkey.
   21 fighter sqns (plus 4 in the US on call) with 420 F-4C/D/E and 72F-l 1 IE.
   5 tactical recce sqns with 85 RF-4C.
Pacific, Pacific Air Forces (PACAF): 120,000.
   5th Air Force in Japan, Korea, Okinawa.
   7th Air Force in Thailand.
   13th Air Force in the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand.
RESERVES:
(i) Air National Guard: Authorized strength 87,600, actual 90,000; about 650 combat aircraft.
   20 fighter interceptor sqns (ADC);
   30 fighter sqns (21 with F-100C/D, 4 with F-105B/D, 1 with F-104, 1 with F-4C, 2 with A-37B, 1 with B-57);
   7 recce sqns (4 with RF-101, 3 with RF-4C);
   3 strategic tpt sqns with C-124C;
   13 tactical tpt sqns (11 with C-130 (A/B/E, 1 with C-123J, 1 with C-7);
   9 tanker gps with KC-97L;
   1 electronic warfare gp with EC-121 (ADC);
   3 special operations gps with C-l 19/U-10 and 5 tactical air support gps with O-2A.
(ii) Air Force Reserve: Authorized strength 51,300, actual strength 44,600; about 120 combat aircraft.
   4 fighter sqns with F-100, 3 with F-105D;
   24 tactical tpt sqns (18 with C-130A/B, 4 with C-123K, 2 with C-7);
   1 electronic warfare gp with EC-121;
   4 special operations gps with A-37B;
   5 SAR gps, 2 with HC-130, 3 with HH-34; and 1 medical tpt gp with C-9A.
  
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 250,500,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy and Border Guards, 2-3 years.
Total armed forces: 3,425,000.
Estimated NMP 1972: S439 billion.* (* NMP (Net Material Product) is used because of the difficulty of arriving at an estimate for GNP;
   it has been converted at the rate of 0.72 roubles=$1.)
Defence budget 1973: See p. 8.
  
Strategic Nuclear Forces:
OFFENSIVE
(A) Navy: 628 SLBM in 66 submarines.
   3 SSBN (D-class) each with 12 SS-N-8 missiles.
   31 SSBN (Y-class) each with 16 SS-N-6 missiles.
   10 SSBN (H-II-class) and 10 diesel (G-II-class) each with 3 SS-N-5 Serb missiles.
   12 diesel (G-I-class) each with 3 SS-N-4 Sark missiles.
(B) Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF): 350,000. (The Strategic Rocket Forces are a separate service with their own manpower.)
ICBM: 1,527.
   209 SS-7 Saddler and SS-8 Sasin.
   288 SS-9 Scarp.
   970 SS-11 (including about 100 with variable range capability sited within IRBM/MRBM fields).
   60 SS-13 Savage
IRBM
and MRBM: about 600.
   100 SS-5 Skean IRBM.
   500 SS-4 Sandal MRBM.
   (The majority are sited near the western border of the USSR, the remainder east of the Urals.)
(C) Air Force
Long Range Air Force (LRAF):
840 combat aircraft*.
   (*About 75% is based in the European USSR, with most of the remainder in the Far East;
   in addition it has staging and dispersal points in the Arctic.)
   Long range bombers: 140. 100 Tu-95 Bear and 40 Mya-4 Bison.
   Tankers: 50 Mya-4 Bison.
   Medium range bombers: 700. 500 Tu-16 Badger and 200 Tu-22Blinder.
DEFENSIVE
Air Defence Forces (PVO-Strany)
   form a separate command, comprising an early warning and control system, fighter-interceptor squadrons and SAM units.*
   (*Air Defence Forces have a total strength of 500,000, manpower being provided by the Army and Air Force.)
Aircraft: about 2,900.
   Interceptors: include about 950 MiG-17, MiG-19 and Yak-25; 800 Su-9; 1,150 Yak-28PFirebar, Tu-28P Fiddler,
   Su-11 Flagon A and MiG-25 Foxbat.
   AEW aircraft: 10 modified Tu-114 Moss.
Anti-ballistic Missiles (ABM):
   64 Galosh long-range missile launchers are deployed in four sites around Moscow, each with Try Add engagement radars
   (another radar of this type is under construction). Target acquisition and tracking is by a phased-array Dog House radar,
   and early warning is given by phased-array Hen House radar on the Soviet borders.
   The range of Galosh is believed to be over 200 miles, and its warheads are nuclear, presumably in the megaton range.
   Work has been resumed on previously uncompleted complexes in the Moscow area.
   A follow-on long-range ABM system is believed to be under development.
SAM: 10,000 launchers at about 1,600 sites.
   SA-2 Guideline: about 5,000; track-while-scan Fan Song radar; high-explosive warhead; slant range (launcher to target) about 25 miles;
   effective between 1,000 and 80,000 feet.
   SA-3 Goa: Two-stage, short range, low-level missile; slant range about 15 miles.
   SA-4 Ganef: Twin-mounted (on tracked carrier), air-transportable, long-range missile with solid fuel boosters and ram-jet sustainer.
   SA-5 Griffon: Two-stage,' boosted AA missile; slant range about 50 miles, with a capability against ASM.
   SA-6 Gainful: Triple-mounted (on tracked carrier), low-level missile.
Anti-Aircraft Artillery:
   14.5mm, 23mm, 57mm towed guns and ZSU-57-2 57mm twin-barrelled and ZSU-23-4 23mm four-barrelled tracked SP guns;
   85mm, 100mm and 130mm guns.
Army: 2,050,000.
   107 motorized rifle divisions.
   50 tank divisions.
   7 airborne divisions.
SSM: (nuclear capable): about 900 (units are organic to formations), including:
   (1) FROG-1-7,range 10-45 miles.
   (2) Scud A, range 50 miles.
   (3) Scud B, range 185 miles.
   (4) Scaleboard, range 500 miles.
SAM: SA-2, SA-4, SA-6 and possibly SA-7 Grail (man-portable).
Tanks: JS 2/3 hy; T-62 and T-54/55 med; PT-76 amphibious recce lt
   (most Soviet tanks are equipped for amphibious crossing by deep wading, and many carry infra-red night-fighting equipment).
   At full strength, tank divisions have 316 medium tanks and motorized rifle divisions 188.
   Production has begun on a new medium tank, the M-1970, and a light tank.
AFV: BTR-152, -60, -50P series; BMP APC; BRDM scout car.
Artillery: 100mm, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm and 203mm field guns; 122mm to 25mm multiple RL; 140mm RL;
   ASU-57 and ASU-85 SP and 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Sagger, Snapper, Swatter ATGW; AA guns.
DEPLOYMENT AND STRENGTH:
Central and Eastern Europe: 31 divs:
   20 divs (10 tank) in East Germany; 2 tank divs in Poland; 4 divs (2 tank) in Hungary; and 5 divs (2 tank) in Czechoslovakia; 7,850 medium tanks.*
   (*These are the tanks held in the divisions; there are known to be, in addition, some 1,000 T-54/55 tanks in reserve
   which have been replaced by T-62 but which have not yet been withdrawn.)
European USSR: 60 divs (about 20 tank).
Central USSR: (between the Volga and Lake Baikal): 5 divs (2 tank).
Southern USSR (Caucasus and West Turkestan) 23 divs (4 tank).
Sino-Soviet border area:45 divs, incl 2 in Mongolia (about 8 tank).
Soviet divisions have three degrees of combat readiness:
   Category 1, between three-quarters and full strength, with complete equipment;
   Category 2, between half and three-quarters strength, with complete fighting vehicles;
   Category 3, about one-third strength, possibly with complete fighting vehicles (though some may be obsolescent).
   The 31 divs in Eastern Europe are Category 1, as are about a third of those in the European USSR and the Far East and a few in the Southern USSR.
   The remaining divisions in European USSR, Southern USSR and the Far East are probably evenly divided between Categories 2 and 3.
   The divisions in Central USSR are likely to be in Category 3.
Outside the Warsaw Pact area:
   Instructors and advisers: Algeria 1,000, Cuba 1,000, Egypt 1,000, Iraq 1,500, North Vietnam 1,000, Somali Republic 1,000,
   Syria 2-3,000, Yemen Arab Republic 500, People's Democratic Republic of South Yemen 200.
Navy: 475,000 (incl Naval Air Force, 75,000, and Naval Infantry, 17,000); 212 major surface combat ships, 285 attack and cruise missile submarines.
Submarines:
   Attack: 35 nuclear (C-, V-, N-classes), 195 diesel (B-, F-, R-, Q-, Z-, W-classes).
   Long-range cruise missile: 30 nuclear-powered (E-class) and 25 diesel (J-, W-classes) with 2-8 450-mile range SS-N-3 missiles.
Surface ships:
   2 ASW helicopter cruisers, each with 2 twin SAM and about 20 Ka-25 hel.
   2 Kara-class cruisers with SSM and SAM.
   4 Kresta-I-class cruisers with SSM and SAM.
   5 Kresta-II-class cruisers with SSM and SAM.
   4 Kynda-class cruisers with SSM and SAM.
   11 Sverdlov-class (1 with SAM) and 4 older cruisers.
   4 Krivak-class destroyers with SSM and SAM.
   5 Kanin-class destroyers with SAM.
   3 Krupny-class destroyers with SSM.
   4 Kildin-class destroyers with SSM.
   18 Kashin-class destroyers with SAM.
   6 modified Kotlin-class destroyers with SAM.
   37 Kotlin-and Story-class destroyers.
   103 other ocean-going escorts.
   250 coastal escorts and submarine chasers.
   6 Nanuchka-class coastal escorts with SSM and SAM.
   117 Osa- and 10 Komar-class FPB with Styx SSM.
   200 torpedo boats.
   170 fleet minesweepers.
   125 coastal minesweepers.
   102 amphibious ships.
   131 landing craft.
   6 air cushion vehicles.
   (1 40,000-ton aircraft carrier has been launched, apparently designed to operate V/STOL aircraft and helicopters; a second may be building.)
   Some trawlers are used for electronic intelligence.
   All submarines and the larger surface vessels not fitted with SSM are equipped for minelaying.
   A proportion of the destroyers and smaller vessels may not be fully manned.
   Coasts are covered by a coast watch radar and visual reporting system.
   Approaches to naval bases and major ports are protected by SS-N-3 Shaddock coast defence missiles and heavy guns under naval command.
Shore-based aircraft: about 670 combat aircraft, (most based near the north-west and Black Sea coasts of the USSR).
   300 Tu-16 Badger with one Kipper or two Kelt ASM.
   60 Tu-22 Blinder strike and reconnaissance.
   40 Il-28 Beagle torpedo-equipped light bombers.
   50 Tu-95 Bear long-range naval reconnaissance.
   150 Tu-16 Badger reconnaissance and tanker.
   80 Be-2Mail ASW amphibians.
   40 Il-38 May ASW aircraft.
   240 Mi-4 and Ka-25 ASW helicopters.
   200 miscellaneous transports.
Naval infantry (marines): 17,000.
   Organized in brigades and assigned to fleets.
   Equipped with standard infantry weapons, T-54/55 med tks, PT-76 lt tks and APC.
DEPLOYMENT (average strengths only):
   Northern Fleet: 170 submarines, 45 major surface combat ships.
   Baltic Fleet: 43 submarines, 52 major surface combat ships.
   Black Sea Fleet: 31 submarines, 63 major surface combat ships.
   Pacific Fleet: 107 submarines, 52 major surface combat ships.
Air Force: 550,000; about 8,250 combat aircraft.
(i) Long Range Air Force (see pp. 5-6).
(ii) Tactical Air Force: about 4,500 aircraft, incl medium and light bombers and fighter-bombers, fighters, helicopters, transport and recce aircraft.
   Some obsolescent MiG-17, MiG-19 and Il-28 are still in service.
   The most notable high-performance aircraft are the MiG-21MF Fishbed J and MiG-23 Flogger fighters,
   the ground attack Su-7 Fitter and the Yak-28 Brewer light bomber.
(iii) Air Defence Forces (see p. 6).
(iv) Air Transport Force: about 1,700 aircraft.
   Il-14, An-8, An-24, some 800 An-12 and Il-18 medium tpts and 15 An-22 heavy tpts.
   1,750 hel (about 800 Mi-6, Mi-8, Mi-10 and Mi-12).
DEPLOYMENT:
   About half the Tactical Air Force is oriented towards Western Europe and a quarter towards China.
   Some 1,250 aircraft are actually deployed in Eastern Europe.
RESERVES: about 3,000,000 (500,000 with recent training earmarked for divisional reinforcements).
Para-Military Forces: 300,000.
   125,000 security troops; 175,000 KGB border troops.
   There are also about 1.5 million members of the part-time military, training organization (DOSAAF) who take part in such recreational activities
   as athletics, shooting and parachuting, but reservist training and refresher courses seem to be haphazard and irregular.
   However, DOSAAF assists in pre-military training given in schools, colleges and workers' centres to those of 15 and over.
  
   SOVIET DEFENCE EXPENDITURE
   No single figure of Soviet defence expenditure in dollar terms can be given, as precision is not possible on present knowledge.
   Budgetary information is lacking. The Soviet defence budget, which has remained implausibly static at just under 18 billion roubles a year since 1969, excludes a number of items: 'military R & D, stockpiling, civil defense, foreign military aid, as well as space and nuclear energy programs';1 and also frontier guards and other security troops.2 The largest of these missing items is military R & D, much of which is thought to be financed out of the growing votes for science. The Ail-Union science budget has grown at a rate of 9 per cent per year since 1969, equivalent to doubling over eight years, to reach an estimated level of 8.4 billion roubles in 1973. Between 1950 and 1957, a period for which detailed statistics were available, 56-75 per cent of the All-Union science budget was unidentified.3 Becker assumed all these unidentified items to be defence-related, justifying this on the grounds that even if this were an overstatement it would compensate for other defence-related R & D in the unidentified residuals of the budgets for Higher Education Institutions and Enterprises; he suggests that 25-75 per cent of such residuals might be defence-related. Anderson and Lee estimate that 50-80 per cent of Enterprises 'own funds' and 70-80 per cent of the All Union science budget are defence-related.4 Cohn gives a much wider range of 50-100 per cent of the AllUnion science budget as being defence-related.*
   An alternative method, which gives an insight into Soviet expenditure on defence equipment in particular, has been attempted by both Becker and Boretsky." They have each attempted to estimate the proportion of Soviet machine building which is defence-related and then to find a rouble exchange rate which, when applied to the rouble estimate of defence-related machine production, results in a dollar estimate of what it would cost to produce the equivalent machines in the United States. Such an estimate, in conjunction with an allowance for manpower costs, produces an impression of Soviet defence spending. Unfortunately most published data still relates to 1955, and it is difficult to up-date this. In particular Soviet prices are known to have been revised, notably in 1967. A controversy has centred on Boretsky's rouble estimate of defence related machine production, as well as on his exchange rate for converting the rouble value of machinery into dollars (0-32 roubles= $1).7
   The overall defence rouble exchange rate, as opposed to that for defence equipment, has ranged from 0.40 to 0.50 roubles to $1. Borastein suggests 0.40 roubles to $1 in 1955;8 Benoit and Lubell give 0-42 roubles to $1 in 1962; and Lee presents a set of rising ranges which reach 0-45-0-50 roubles to $1 by 1965.10 Lee's implicit growth rate of 1-2 per cent would suggest a range of 0-50-0-55 roubles to $1 by 1973. His rising trend was based on the belief that development costs for the Soviet Union were rising more rapidly than in the United States, but overall inflation in the United States (the wholesale price index has risen at the annual rate of 3 per cent since 1965) may have offset such a trend, if not actually reversed it. Lee himself acknowledges two schools of thought on this matter. There exists, therefore, a degree of uncertainty over the correct defence rouble exchange rate.
   An example will illustrate the cumulative impact of the several uncertainties. If the Cohn assumption (50-100 per cent of the All-Union science budget) is taken for 1973 and added to the official Soviet defence budget, it produces a range of 22.1-26.3 billion roubles, which gives a + or -- variation of 9% around the mid-point. The range is widened still further when a rouble exchange rate range of 0.40 to 0.55 roubles to $1 is taken. This gives a maximum range of $40.2-$65.8 billion, which gives a 24% + or -- variation around the mid-point. The defence expenditure figure at once becomes more speculative when converted into dollar terms.
   The Institute's own inclination is to base an estimate on a more precise allowance for manpower costs. For FY 1973 United States military manpower-related costs amount to 40 per cent of total Department of Defense outlays11 and National Guard, Reserves and Civilians ('others') accounted for an additional 16 per cent. Assuming the same percentages for FY 1974 this would give for the calendar year 1973 a military manpower cost of $30-8 billion and a total for 'others' of $12-3 billion. In mid-1973 there were 2,288,000 servicemen and 1,982,000 others,1* giving an average cost per serviceman of $13,444 and an average cost per head of other personnel of $6,208. Soviet military manpower in mid-1973 is estimated at 3,425,000. Security and border guards number around 300,000, and, in addition, there are reserves and some civilians. Though the organization and training of reserves in the Soviet Union differs from that in the United States, a figure of 700,000 would cover the number of reserves of comparable preparedness to those in the United States, as well as civilians. Using these figures the equivalent dollar costs of Soviet military manpower are $46-0 billion and of other personnel $6-2 billion.
   It has been asserted that 30-35% of the Soviet defence budget is personnel-related.1* To the remainder may be added 70-80 per cent of the All-Union science budget, assumed to cover defence-related R & D, producing a non-manpower cost range of 17.5-19.2 billion roubles. If this is converted at the rate of 0.5 roubles to $1 it gives $35.0-38.4 billion. When this is added to the dollar manpower costs arrived at above a total range of $87.2-$90.6 billion results. If 'others' were excluded from the calculation the range would be $81.0-584.4 billion. This would suggest that the equivalent dollar costs of Soviet resources devoted to defence may well be comparable to American spending and perhaps well above it. It must be borne in mind, however, that this method uses United States price weightings. The relationships could be very different if Soviet prices were used as weights instead.
   1. A. S. Becker, Soviet Military Outlays Since 1955(Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, July 1964), p. v.
   2. The Military Balance 1970-71, p. 11.
   3. Nancy Nimitz, Soviet Expenditure on Scientific Research (Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, January 1963), p.45.
   4. S. Anderson and W. Lee, Probable Trends and Magnitude of Soviet Expenditure for National Security Purposes (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, February 1969).
   5. Stanley H. Cohn, 'Economic Burden of Soviet Defense Expenditure', in Economic Performance and the Military Burden in the Soviet Union (Washington, D.C.: Congress of the United States, 1970), pp. 166-88.
   6. Michael Boretsky, 'The Technological Base of Soviet Military Power' in Economic Performance and the Military Burden in the Soviet Union, op.cit.,pp. 189-231.
   7. Survival. October 1971; July/August1972.
   8. Morris Bornstein, 'A Comparison of Soviet and United States National Product', in Sub-Committee on Economic Statistics of the Joint Economic Committee (Washington, D.C., 1960), pp.377-95.
   9. Emile Benoit and Harold Lubell, 'The World Burden of National Defense' in Emile Benoit, ed., Disarmament and World Economic Interdependence (New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1967).
   10. W. T. Lee, 'Calculating Soviet National Security Expenditures', in Sub-Committee in Government of the Joint Economic Committee, The Military Budget and National Economic Priorities, Part 3 (Washington, D.C.,June1969) pp. 932-33.
   11. Military Manpower Requirements Reportfor FY 1973(Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, February 1972), p.101.
   12 This is the total budgeted for; see Statement of Secretary of Defense Elliot L. Richardson FY 1974 Defense Budget and FY 1974-78 Program (Washington, D.C: The House Armed Services Committee, March 1973); see country entry for actual total.
   13. Secretary of Defense Melvin R. Laird's Annual Defense Department Report FY 1973 (Washington D.C.: The House Armed Services Committee, February 1972).
  
   РАСХОДЫ НА ОБОРОНУ СССР
   Ни одна цифра советских оборонных расходов в долларовом выражении не может быть дана, поскольку точность не представляется возможной при нынешних знаниях.
   Бюджетная информация отсутствует. Советский оборонный бюджет, который с 1969 года остается неправдоподобно статичным и составляет чуть менее 18 млрд рублей в год, исключает ряд статей :" военные НИОКР, накопление запасов, Гражданская оборона, иностранная военная помощь, а также космические и ядерно-энергетические программы ", а также пограничники и другие силы безопасности. Самой крупной из этих недостающих статей являются военные НИОКР, значительная часть которых, как считается, финансируется за счет растущих расходов за науку. С 1969 года союзный бюджет науки рос на 9% в год, что эквивалентно удвоению за восемь лет, и в 1973 году он достиг, по оценкам, 8,4 млрд рублей. Между 1950 и 1957 год, период, за который подробная статистика, 56-75% Всесоюзного научного бюджета была установлена. Беккер предположил, что все эти неопознанные статьи связаны с обороной, обосновывая это тем, что, даже если бы это было завышением, оно компенсировало бы другие связанные с обороной НИОКР в неопознанных остатках бюджетов высших учебных заведений и предприятий; он предполагает, что 25-75% таких остатков могут быть связаны с обороной. По оценкам Андерсона и Ли, 50-80% собственных средств предприятий и 70-80% общесоюзного бюджета науки связаны с обороной. Кон дает гораздо более широкий диапазон в 50-100% бюджета союзной науки как относящийся к обороне.*
   Альтернативный метод, который дает представление о советских расходах на оборонную технику, в частности, был предпринят Беккером и Борецким. Каждый из них попытался оценить долю советского машиностроения, которая связана с обороной, а затем найти обменный курс рубля, который, применительно к рублевой оценке производства машин, связанных с обороной, приводит к долларовой оценке стоимости производства эквивалентных машин в Соединенных Штатах. Такая оценка в сочетании с учетом расходов на рабочую силу дает картину расходов на советскую оборону. К сожалению, большинство опубликованных данных все еще относится к 1955 году, и обновить их трудно. В частности, советские цены, как известно, были пересмотрены, особенно в 1967 году. Споры велись вокруг рублевой оценки Борецким оборонного машиностроительного производства, а также его обменного курса для конвертации рублевой стоимости машин в доллары (0-32 рубля= 1 доллар).Семь
   Общий курс оборонного рубля, в отличие от курса оборонной техники, варьировался от 0,40 до 0,50 рублей к $1. Borastein предполагает 0,40 рублей за $1 в 1955 году; Бенуа и Либбель дают 0,42 рубля за $1 в 1962 году; у Ли достигают 0,45-0,50 рублей за $1 в 1965. Ли подразумевая темпы роста в 1-2%, предлагает 0,50-0,55 рублей за $1 по 1973. Его тенденция была основана на убеждении, что затраты на разработку для СССР росли более быстрыми темпами, чем в США, но в целом инфляция в США (индекс потребительских цен возрос в годовом исчислении на 3% с 1965 г.) возможно смещение такой тенденции, если не фактически отмена ее. Есть две школы мысли по этому вопросу. Существует, следовательно, неопределенность в отношении правильной защиты курса рубля.
   Пример иллюстрирует совокупное воздействие ряда факторов. Если взять предположение Кона (50-100% от общесоюзного бюджета науки) на 1973 год и добавить к официальному оборонному бюджету СССР, то получается диапазон 22,1-26,3 млрд рублей, что дает плюс-минус 9% к середине. Диапазон еще больше расширяется, когда принимается диапазон обменного курса рубля от 0,40 до 0,55 рубля за $1. Это дает максимальный диапазон $40,2 - $65,8 млрд, что дает 24% + или - вариации вокруг средней точки. Цифра расходов на оборону сразу же становится более спекулятивной при пересчете в долларовом выражении.
   Институт сам склоняется к тому, чтобы основывать смету на более точном учете расходов на живую силу. В 1973 финансовом году расходы Соединенных Штатов на живую силу составили 40% от общих расходов Министерства обороны, а на Национальную гвардию, резервы и гражданских лиц ("прочие") - еще 16%. Если же проценты за 1974 календарный год, 1973 военная стоимость содержания $30,8 млрд, а общая "других" $12,3 миллиарда. В середине 1973 года было 2,288,000 военнослужащих и 1,982,000 других, что дает среднюю стоимость одного военнослужащего в размере $13,444 и средней стоимости одного руководителя $6,208. Советские военные силы в середине 1973 оценивается в 3,425,000. Численность внутренних войск и пограничников составляет около 300 000 человек, кроме того, имеются резервы и некоторые гражданские лица. Хотя организация и подготовка резервов в СССР отличается от США, цифра в 700.000 будет охватывать количество резервов сопоставимой готовности к тем в США, а также мирных жителей. Используя эти цифры в эквиваленте доллар стоит в советских военных ресурсов $46,0 миллиардов и другой персонал $6,2 миллиардов.
   Утверждается, что 30-35% советского оборонного бюджета связано с кадровым обеспечением. К оставшейся части можно добавить 70-80% общесоюзного бюджета науки, который предполагается покрыть за счет оборонных НИОКР, производя затраты, не связанные с личным составом, в диапазоне 17,5-19,2 млрд рублей. Если это перевести из расчета 0,5 рубля в $ 1, то это даст $35,0-38,4 млрд. Когда к этому добавляются, затраты на личный состав то достигают уровня выше общего диапазона $87.2-$90.6 миллиардов. Если другие были исключены из расчета диапазон будет $81.0-$84.4 миллиардов. Это предполагает, что эквивалентные долларовые затраты советских ресурсов на оборону вполне могут быть сопоставимы с американскими расходами и, возможно, значительно выше. Однако следует иметь в виду, что в этом методе используются весовые коэффициенты цен Соединенных Штатов. Отношения могли бы быть очень разными, если бы советские цены использовались в измерении.
  

The Alliances and Europe

THE WARSAW PACT

   Treaties
   The Warsaw Pact is a multilateral military alliance formed by the 'Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Assistance and Co-operation' which was signed in Warsaw on 14 May 1955 by the Governments of the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Rumania; Albania left the Pact in September 1968. The Pact is committed to the defence only of the European territories of the member states.
   The Soviet Union is also linked by bilateral treaties of friendship and mutual assistance with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Rumania. Members of the Warsaw Pact have similar bilateral treaties with each other. The essence of East European defence arrangements is not therefore dependent on the Warsaw Treaty as such. The Soviet Union has concluded status-of-forces agreements with Poland, East Germany, Rumania and Hungary between December 1956 and May 1957 and with Czechoslovakia in October 1968; all these remain in effect except the one with Rumania which lapsed in June 1958 when Soviet troops left Rumania.
   Organization
   The Political Consultative Committee consists, in full session, of the First Secretaries of the Communist Party, Heads of Government and the Foreign and Defence Ministers of the member countries. The Committee has a joint Secretariat, headed by a Soviet official, consisting of a specially appointed representative from each country, and a Permanent Commission, whose task it is to make recommendations on general questions of foreign policy for Pact members. Both these bodies are located in Moscow. Since the 1969 re-organization of the Pact the non-Soviet Ministers of Defence are no longer directly subordinate to the Commander-in-Chief of the Pact, but form, together with the Soviet Minister, the Council of Defence Ministers, which is the highest military body in the Pact.
   The second body, the Joint High Command, is required by the Treaty 'to strengthen the defensive capability of the Warsaw Pact, to prepare military plans in case of war and to decide on the deployment of troops'. The Command consists of a Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C), and a Military Council. This Council meets under the chairmanship of the C-in-C, and includes the Chief of Staff (C of S) and permanent military representatives from each of the allied armed forces. It seems to be the main channel through which the Pact's orders are transmitted to its forces in peacetime and through which the East European forces are able to put their point of view to the C-in-C. The Pact also has a Military Staff, which includes non-Soviet senior officers. The posts of C-in-C and C of S of the Joint High Command have, however, always been held by Soviet officers and most of the key positions are still in Soviet hands.
   In the event of war, the forces of the other Pact members would be operationally subordinate to the Soviet High Command. The command of the air defence system covering the whole Warsaw Pact area is now centralized in Moscow and directed by the C-in-C of the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Among the Soviet military headquarters in the Warsaw Pact area are the Northern Group of Forces at Legnica in Poland; the Southern Group of Forces at Budapest; the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany at Zossen-Wunsdorf, near Berlin; and the Central Group of Forces at Milovice, north of Prague. Soviet tactical air forces are stationed in Poland, East Germany, Hungary and Czechoslovakia.
   The Soviet Union has deployed short-range surface-to-surface missile (SSM) launchers in Eastern Europe. Most East European countries also have short-range SSM launchers, but there is no evidence that nuclear warheads for these missiles have been supplied to them. Soviet longer-range missiles are all based in the Soviet Union.

ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   Договор
   Варшавский договор-это многосторонний военный союз, образованный на основе "Договора о дружбе, взаимной помощи и сотрудничестве", который был подписан в Варшаве 14 мая 1955 года правительствами Советского Союза, Албании, Болгарии, Чехословакии, Восточной Германии, Венгрии, Польши и Румынии; Албания вышла из договора в сентябре 1968 года. Пакт заключен для защиты только европейских территорий государств-членов.
   Советский Союз также связан двусторонними договорами о дружбе и взаимной помощи с Болгарией, Чехословакией, ГДР, Венгрией, Польшей и Румынией. Члены Варшавского договора имеют аналогичные двусторонние договоры друг с другом. Таким образом, суть восточноевропейских оборонных договоренностей не зависит от Варшавского договора как такового. Советский Союз заключил соглашения о статусе сил с Польшей, Восточной Германией, Румынией и Венгрией в период с декабря 1956 года по май 1957 года и с Чехословакией в октябре 1968 года; все они остаются в силе, за исключением Румынии, которая закончилась в июне 1958 года, когда советские войска покинули Румынию.
   Организация
   В состав политического консультативного комитета в полном составе входят первые секретари Коммунистической партии, главы правительств и министры иностранных дел и обороны стран-членов. Комитет имеет совместный Секретариат, возглавляемый Советским должностным лицом, в состав которого входят специально назначенные представители от каждой страны, и постоянную комиссию, в задачу которой входит вынесение рекомендаций по общим вопросам внешней политики для членов пакта. Оба эти органа находятся в Москве. После реорганизации пакта в 1969 году несоветские министры обороны уже не подчиняются непосредственно главнокомандующему пакта, а образуют вместе с Советским министром Совет министров обороны, который является высшим военным органом пакта.
   Второй орган, Объединенное Верховное Командование, требуется договором "для укрепления обороноспособности Варшавского договора, подготовки военных планов на случай войны и принятия решения о развертывании войск". Командование состоит из Верховного Главнокомандующего и Военного Совета. Этот совет заседает под председательством командующего и включает начальника штаба и постоянных военных представителей от всех вооруженных сил союзников. По-видимому, это основной канал, по которому приказы пакта передаются его силам в мирное время и по которому восточноевропейские силы могут изложить свою точку зрения командующему. В Пакте также есть военный штаб, в который входят не советские старшие офицеры. Однако должности командующего и начальника штаба объединенного Верховного командования всегда занимали советские офицеры, и большинство ключевых должностей все еще находятся в советских руках.
   В случае войны силы других участников пакта находились бы в оперативном подчинении Советского Верховного командования. Командование системой противовоздушной обороны, охватывающей весь район Варшавского договора, в настоящее время централизовано в Москве и управляется командующим Советских Войск Противовоздушной обороны. Среди советских военных штабов в районе Варшавского договора - Северная группа войск в Легнице в Польше; Южная группа войск в Будапеште; группа советских войск в Германии в Зоссен-Вунсдорфе, недалеко от Берлина; и Центральная группа сил в Миловице, к северу от Праги. Советские тактические ВВС дислоцируются в Польше, ГДР, Венгрии и Чехословакии.
   Советский Союз развернул пусковые установки ракет малой дальности класса "земля-земля" в Восточной Европе. Большинство восточноевропейских стран также имеют пусковые установки ракет малой дальности, но нет никаких доказательств того, что им были поставлены ядерные боеголовки для этих ракет. Советские ракеты большой дальности базируются в Советском Союзе.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 8,660,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy, 3 years.
Total regular forces: 152,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $11.1 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 422 billion leva ($301 million). 1.4 leva=$l.
Army: 120,000.
   8 motorized rifle divisions (3 cadre).*
   5 tank brigades.*
   (* East European Warsaw Pact formations are not all manned at the same level. They can be regarded as being in two categories:
   Category 1 formations up to three-quarters of establishment strength;
   Category 2 (shown here as cadre); unlikely to be at more man a quarter of establishment strength.)
   Some hy tks; about 2,000 med tks mainly T-54, with some T-34 and T-55; PT-76 lt tks;
   BRDM scout cars; BTR-50, BTR-60 and BTR-152 APC;
   85mm, 100mm, 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns; SU-100 SP guns; FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm and 85mm ATk guns; Sagger and Snapper ATGW;
   37mm and 57mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 250,000.
Navy: 10,000.
   2 W-class submarines.
   2 Riga-class escorts.
   8 SO-1- and Kronstadt-type coastal escorts.
   20 MCM ships.
   5 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   20 coastal patrol boats.
   15 motor torpedo boats (8 less than 100 tons).
   20 landing craft.
   6 Mi-4 helicopters.
RESERVES: 10,000.
Air Force: 22,000; 252 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with MiG-17.
   3 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21.
   3 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19.
   6 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Il-28.
   2 recce sqns with MiG-15, MiG-17 and MiG-21.
   4 Li-2, 6 An-2 and 10 H-14 transports.
   About 40 Mi-4 helicopters.
   SA-2 SAM.
   1 parachute regiment.
RESERVES: 20,000.
Para-Military Forces: 17,000, including border guards; security police; a volunteer People's Militia of 150,000.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 14,600,000.
Military service: Army 24 months; Air Force 27 months.
Total regular forces: 190,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $32.9 billion.
Defence budget 1973:16.7 billion koruny ($1,336 million). 12.5 koruny=$1.
Army: 150,000.
   5 tank divisions.*
   5 motorized rifle divisions* (2 cadre).
   1 airborne brigade.*
Some hy tanks; about 3,400 med tks, mostly T-55 and T-62 with some T-54 and T-34; OT-65 scout cars; OT-62 and OT-64 APC;
   SU-100, SU-122 and JSU-152 SP guns; 122mm how; 82mm and 120mm mor; FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Sagger, Snapper and Swatter ATGW; 23mm and 57mm AA guns.
   About 200 Mi-1 and Mi-4 hel.
RESERVES: 300,000.
Air Force: 40,000; 504 combat aircraft. (14 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   12 FGA sqns with Su-7, MiG-15 and MiG-17.
   18 interceptor squadrons with MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   6 recce sqns with MiG-21, Il-28 and L-29.
   About 50 An-24, Il-14 and Il-18 transports.
   About 90 Mi-1, Mi-4 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   SA-2 SAM.
RESERVES: 50,000.
Para-Military Forces: Border troops (Pohranicki straz), 35,000 (subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior).
   A part-time People's Militia of about 120,000 is being increased to 250,000.
  
   GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 17,000,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total regular forces: 132,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $35.3 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 8,328 million Ostmarks ($2,031 million). 4.1 Ostmarks=$l
Army: 90,000.
   2 tank divisions.*
   4 motorized rifle divisions.*
   Some hy tks; about 2,000 med tks, T-54, T-55 and T-62; several hundred T-34 (used for training); about 130 PT-76 lt tks;
   BRDM scout cars; BTR-50P, BTR-60P and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-100 SP guns; 85mm, 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns; FROG 7 and Scud B SSM;
   57mm and 100mm ATk guns; Sagger, Snapper and Swatter ATGW;
   23mm and 57mm SP AA guns and 100mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 200,000.
Navy: 17,000.
   2 Riga-type escorts.
   25 coastal escorts.
   12 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   26 SO-I and Hai-type submarine chasers.
   12 fleet and 45 medium minesweepers.
   63 motor torpedo boats (45 less than 100 tons).
   18 landing ships and craft.
   8 Mi-4 helicopters.
RESERVES: 20,000.
Air Force: 25,000; 320 combat aircraft. (16 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   2 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17.
   18 interceptor squadrons with MiG-21.
   30 transports, including An-2, Il-14 and Il-18.
   40 Mi-1, Mi-4 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   1 AD div of 9,000 (5 regiments), with about 120 57mm and 100mm AA guns and SA-2 SAM.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Para-Military Forces:80,000.
   46,000 Border Guards (Grenzschutz trupperi) including a Border Command separate from the regular Army.
   24,000 security troops plus 400,000 in armed workers' organizations (Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse).
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,450,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total regular forces: 103,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $15.3 billion.
Defence budget 1973:16,117 million forints ($695 million). 23.2 forints =$1.
Army: 90,000.
   1 tank division.*
   4 motorized rifle divisions (2 cadre).*
   Some hy tks; about 1,500 med tks, mainly T-55 and T-54; some T-34 for training; 50 PT-76 lt tks;
   FUG-M and OT-65 scout cars; FUG-M-1970, OT-64 and BTR-152 APC;
   76mm, 85mm and 122mm guns; 122mm and 152mm how; FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm ATk guns; Sagger, Snapper and Swatter ATGW; 57mm twin SP AA guns.
RESERVES: 150,000.
Navy: 500. Danube River Guard of small patrol craft.
Air Force: 12,500; 108 combat aircraft.
   9 interceptor sqns with 108 MiG-17 and MiG-21.
   About 25 An-2, Il-4 and Li-2 transport aircraft.
   About 15 Mi-1, Mi-4 and Mi-8 helicopters.
   2 SAM battalions with SA-2.
RESERVES: 13,000.
Para-Military Forces: 27,000 security and border guard troops; 250,000 workers militia.
  
   POLAND
Population: 33,725,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 2 years; Navy and special services, 3 years; internal security forces, 27 months.
Total regular forces: 280,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $44.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 39.21 billion zloty ($1,799 million). 21.8 zloty=$l.
Army: 200,000.
   5 tank divisions.*
   8 motorized rifle divisions. (2 cadre).*
   1 airborne division.*
   1 amphibious assault division.*
   Some hy tks; 3,400 med tks, T-54, T-55 and some T-62; some T-34 for training; about 250 PT-76 lt tks;
   FUG and BRDM scout cars; OT-62, OT-64 and BTR-152 APC;
   ASU-57 and ASU-85 AB assault guns; 122mm guns, 122mm how and 152mm gun/how; FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Sagger; Snapper and Swatter ATGW;
   23mm and 57mm SP AA guns.
RESERVES: 500,000.
Navy: 25,000 (including 1,000 marines).
   5 W-class submarines.
   4 destroyers (1 Kotlin-class with SA-N-1).
   30 coastal escorts/submarine chasers.
   24 fleet and 25 inshore minesweepers.
   12 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   20 torpedo boats.
   38 fast patrol boats.
   16 landing ships.
   55 naval aircraft, mostly MiG-17, with a few Il-28
   It bomber/recce and some helicopters.
RESERVES: 40,000.
Air Force: 55,000; 696 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   4 light bomber squadrons with Il-28.
   12 fighter-bomber sqns with MiG-17 and Su-7.
   36 interceptor squadrons with MiG-15, MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   6 recce sqns with MiG-15, MiG-21 and Il-28.
   About 45 An-2, An-12, An-24, Il-12, Il-14, Il-18 and Li-2 transports.
   40 helicopters, including Mi-1, Mi-4 and Mi-8.
   SA-2 SAM.
RESERVES: 60,000.
Para-Military Forces: 73,000 security and border troops, including armoured brigades of the Territorial Defence Force; 20 small patrol boats are operated.
  
   RUMANIA
Population: 20,900,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 16 months; Navy, 2 years.
Total regular forces: 170,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $26.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 7.92 billion lei ($528 million). 15.0 lei=$1.
Army: 141,000.
   2 tank divisions.*
   7 motorized rifle divisions.*
   1 mountain brigade.*
   1 airborne regiment.*
   Some hy tks; 1,700 T-34, T-54, T-55 and T-62 med tks;
   BTR-40, BTR-50P and BTR-I52 APC;
   SU-100 SP guns; 76mm, 122mm and 152mm guns; FROG and Scud SSM;
   57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Sagger, Snapper and Swatter ATGW;
   37mm, 57mm and 100mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 250,000.
Navy: 8,000.
   6 Poti- and Kronstadt-class coastal escorts.
   5 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   24 MCM ships.
   12 motor torpedo boats.
   4 Mi-4 helicopters.
RESERVES: 10,000.
Air Force: 21,000; 252 combat aircraft. (12 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   20 interceptor squadrons with MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with H-28.
   1 transport squadron with Il-14 and Li-2.
   10 Mi-4 helicopters.
   SA-2 SAM.
RESERVES: 25,000.
Para-Military Forces: 40,000, including border troops; a militia of about 500,000.
  
  

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

   Treaties
   The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in 1949 by Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States; Greece and Turkey joined in 1952 and West Germany in 1955. The Treaty unites Western Europe and North America in a commitment to consult together if the security of any one member is threatened, and to consider an armed attack against one as an attack against all, to be met by such action as each of them deems necessary, 'including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area'.
   The Paris Agreements of 1954 added a Protocol to the Treaty aimed at strengthening the structure of NATO, and revised the Brussels Treaty of 1948, which now includes Italy and West Germany in addition to its original members (Benelux countries, Britain and France). The Brussels Treaty signatories are committed to give one another 'all the military and other aid and assistance in their power' if one is the subject of 'armed aggression in Europe'.
   Since 1969 members of the Atlantic Alliance can withdraw on one year's notice; the Brussels Treaty was signed for 50 years.
   Organization
   The Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty is known as NATO. The governing body of the alliance, the North Atlantic Council, which has its headquarters in Brussels, consists of the Ministers of the fifteen member-countries, who normally meet twice a year, and of ambassadors representing each government, who are in permanent session.
   In 1966, France left the integrated military organization and the 14-nation Defence Planning Committee (DPC), on which France does not sit, was formed. It meets at the same levels as the Council and deals with questions related to NATO's integrated military planning and other matters in which France does not participate. The Secretary-General and an international staff advise on the politico-military, financial, economic and scientific aspects of defence planning.
   Two permanent bodies for nuclear planning were established in 1966. The first, the Nuclear Defence Affairs Committee (NDAC), is open to all NATO members (France, Iceland and Luxembourg do not take part); it normally meets at Defence Minister level once or twice a year, to associate non-nuclear members in the nuclear affairs of the alliance. The Secretary-General is Chairman of the NDAC.
   The second, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG), derived from and subordinate to the NDAC, has seven or eight members, and is intended to go further into the details of topics raised there. The composition consists, in practice, of Britain, Germany, Italy and the United States, plus three or four other member countries serving in rotation each for a term of 18 months. On 1July 1973 there were four such members: Canada, Greece, The Netherlands and Norway. The Secretary General also chairs the NPG.
   The Council's military advisers are the Military Committee, which gives policy direction to the NATO military commands. The Military Committee consists of the Chiefs of Staff of all member countries, except France, which maintains a liaison staff, and Iceland, which is not represented; in permanent session, the Chiefs of Staff are represented by Military Representatives who are located in Brussels together with the Council. The Military Committee has an independent Chairman and is served by an integrated international military staff. The major NATO commanders are responsible to the Military Committee, although they also have direct access to the Council and heads of Governments.
   The principal military commands of NATO are Allied Command Europe (ACE), Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) and Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN).
   The NATO European and Atlantic Commands participate in the Joint Strategic Planning System at Omaha, Nebraska, but there is no Alliance Command specifically covering strategic nuclear forces. As for ballistic-missile submarines, the United States has committed a small number and Britain all hers to the planning control of SACEUR, and the United States a larger number to SACLANT.
   The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) have always been American officers; and the Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCCHAN) and Deputy SACEUR and Deputy SACLANT British. SACEUR is also Commander-in-Chief of the United States Forces in Europe.
   (i) ALLIED COMMAND EUROPE (ACE) has its headquarters, known as SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers in Europe), at Casteau, near Mons, in Belgium. It is responsible for the defence of all NATO territory in Europe except Britain, France, Iceland and Portugal, and for that of all Turkey. It also has general responsibility for the air defence of Britain.
   The European Command has some 7,000 tactical nuclear warheads in its area. The number of delivery vehicles (aircraft, missiles and howitzers) is over 2,000, spread among all countries, excluding Luxembourg. The nuclear explosives themselves, however, are maintained, with the exception of certain British weapons, in American custody. (There are additionally French nuclear weapons in France.) Tactical nuclear bombs and missile warheads are all fission. There is a very wide range in the kiloton spectrum, but the average yield of the bombs stockpiled in Europe for the use of NATO tactical aircraft is about 100 kilotons, and of the missile warheads, 20 kilotons.
   About 60 division equivalents are available to SACEUR in peacetime. The Command has some 2,750 tactical aircraft, based on about 150 standard NATO airfields and backed up by a system of jointly financed storage depots, fuel pipelines and signal communications. The majority of the land and air forces stationed in the Command are assigned to SACEUR, while the naval forces are normally earmarked.
   The 2nd French Corps of two divisions (which is not integrated in NATO forces) is stationed in Germany under a status agreement reached between the French and German Governments. Cooperation with NATO forces and commands has been agreed between the commanders concerned.
   The ACE Mobile Force (AMF) has been formed as a NATO force with particular reference to the northern and south-eastern flanks. Found by eight countries, it comprises eight infantry battalion groups, an armoured reconnaissance squadron and ground-support fighter squadrons, but has no air transport of its own.
   The following Commands are subordinate to Allied Command Europe:
   (a) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) has command of both the land forces and the air forces in the Central European Sector. Its headquarters are at Brunssum in the Netherlands, and its Commander (CINCENT) is a German general.
   The forces of the Central European Command include 22 divisions, assigned by Belgium, Britain, Canada, West Germany, the Netherlands and the United States, and about 1,600 tactical aircraft.
   The Command is sub-divided into Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) and Central Army Group (CENTAG). NORTHAG, responsible for the defence of the sector north of the Gottingen-Liege axis, includes the Belgian, British and Dutch divisions and four German divisions and is supported by 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force (ATAF), composed of Belgian, British, Dutch and German units. The American forces, seven German divisions and the Canadian battle group are under the Central Army Group, supported by the 4th ATAF, which includes American, German and Canadian units and an American Army Air Defense Command.
   (b) Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) has its headquarters at Kolsaas, Norway, and is responsible for the defence of Denmark; Norway, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic Approaches. The commander has always been a British general. Most of the Danish and Norwegian land, sea and tactical air forces are earmarked for it, and most of their active reserves assigned to it. Germany has assigned one division, two combat air wings and her Baltic fleet. Apart from exercises and some small units, US naval forces do not normally operate in this area.
   (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) has its headquarters at Naples, and its commander (CINCSOUTH) has always been an American admiral. It is-responsible for the defence of Italy, Greece and Turkey, and for safeguarding communications in the Mediterranean and the Turkish territorial waters of the Black Sea. The formations available include 17 divisions from Turkey, 8 from Greece and 11 from Italy, as well as the tactical air forces of these countries. Other formations from these three countries have been earmarked for AFSOUTH, as have the United States 6th Fleet and naval forces from Greece, Italy, Turkey and Britain. The ground-defence system is based on two separate commands: Southern, comprising Italy and the approaches to it, under an Italian commander, and South-Eastern, comprising Greece and Turkey, under an American commander. There is, however, an overall air command and there is a single naval command (NAVSOUTH), responsible to AFSOUTH with headquarters in Naples.
   A special air surveillance unit, Maritime Air Forces Mediterranean (MARAIRMED), is now operating Italian, British and American patrol aircraft from bases in Greece, Turkey, Sicily and Italy; French aircraft are participating in these operations. Its commander, an American rear admiral, is immediately responsible to CINCSOUTH.
   The Allied On-Call Naval Force for the Mediterranean (NAVOCFORMED) has consisted of at least three destroyers, contributed by Italy, Britain and the United States, and three smaller ships provided by other Mediterranean countries, depending upon the area of operation.
   (ii) ALLIED COMMAND ATLANTIC (ACLANT) has its headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia, and is responsible for the North Atlantic area from the North Pole to the Tropic of Cancer, including Portuguese coastal waters. The commander is an American admiral.
   In the event of war, its duties are to participate in the strategic strike and to protect sea communications. There are no forces'assigned to the command in peacetime except Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT), which normally consists, at any one time, of four destroyer-type ships. However, for training purposes and in the event of war, forces which are predominantly naval are earmarked for assignment by Britain, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal and the United States. There are arrangements for co-operation between French naval forces and those of SACLANT. There are five subordinate commands; Western Atlantic Command, Eastern Atlantic Command, Iberian Atlantic Command, Striking Fleet Atlantic and Submarine Command. The nucleus of the Striking Fleet Atlantic has been provided by the American 2nd Fleet with up to six attack carriers; carrier-based aircraft share the nuclear strike role with missile-firing submarines.
   (iii) ALLIED COMMAND CHANNEL (ACCHAN) has its headquarters at Northwood, near London. The wartime role of Channel Command is to exercise control of the English Channel and the southern North Sea. Many of the smaller warships of Belgium, Britain and the Netherlands are earmarked for this Command, as are some maritime aircraft. There are arrangements for co-operation with French naval forces. The commander is a British admiral. A Standing Naval Force, Channel (STANAVFORCHAN) was formed on 2 May 1973, to consist of mine counter-measures ships from Belgium, the Netherlands and Britain; other interested nations might participate on a temporary basis. Its operational command is vested in the Commander-in-Chief, Channel Command.
   Policy
   Political guide-lines agreed between NATO members in 1967 include the concept of political warning time in a crisis and the possibility of distinguishing between an enemy's military capabilities, and his political intentions. The strategic doctrine defined by the DPC in December 1967 envisaged that NATO would meet attacks on its territory with whatever force levels were appropriate, including nuclear weapons.
   In June 1968, at the Ministerial Meeting at Reykjavik, the Council called on the countries of the Warsaw Pact to join in discussions of mutual force reductions, reciprocal and balanced in scope and timing. Preliminary talks on negotiating procedures and agendas took place in the first half of 1973 and further negotiations, for which guidelines but no agenda have been agreed, are to begin in Vienna on 30 October 1973. The aim is to secure practical arrangements that will ensure undiminished security for all parties at lower levels of forces in Central Europe.

СЕВЕРОАТЛАНТИЧЕСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   Договоры
   Североатлантический договор подписали в 1949 году: Бельгия, Великобритания, Канада, Дания, Франция, Исландия, Италия, Люксембург, Нидерланды, Норвегия, Португалия и США; Греция и Турция вступили в 1952 и Западной Германии в 1955 году. По договору страны Западной Европы и Северной Америки взяли на себя обязательство консультироваться друг с другом, если безопасность любой члена находится под угрозой, и рассматривать вооруженное нападение на одну как нападение на всех, когда должны быть выполнены такие действия, какие каждый из них сочтет необходимым, включая применение вооруженной силы с целью восстановления и последующего сохранения безопасности Североатлантического региона.
   В Парижских соглашениях 1954 г. был принят Протокол к Договору, направленный на укрепление структуры NATO, и пересмотрен Брюссельский договор 1948 г., в который в настоящее время помимо первоначальных членов входят Италия и Западная Германия (страны Бенилюкса, Великобритания и Франция). Стороны, подписавшие Брюссельский договор, обязуются оказывать друг другу "всю военную и иную помощь и содействие, какая в их власти", если они являются объектом "вооруженной агрессии в Европе".
   С 1969 года члены Атлантического Альянса могут выйти из него с уведомлением за один год; Брюссельский договор был подписан за 50 лет.
   Организация
   Организация Североатлантического договора - NATO. Руководящий орган Североатлантического союза - Североатлантический совет, штаб-квартира которого находится в Брюсселе, состоит из министров пятнадцати стран-членов, которые обычно встречаются два раза в год, и послов, представляющих каждое правительство, которые находятся на постоянной сессии.
   В 1966 году Франция покинула объединенную военную организацию, и был создан 14-Национальный комитет по оборонному планированию (DPC), в состав которого Франция не входит. Он заседает на тех же уровнях, что и Совет, и занимается вопросами, связанными с комплексным военным планированием NATO и другими вопросами, в которых Франция не участвует. Генеральный секретарь и международный персонал консультируют по военно-политическим, финансовым, экономическим и научным аспектам оборонного планирования.
   В 1966 году были созданы два постоянных органа по ядерному планированию. Во-первых, Комитет по вопросам ядерной обороны (NDAC) открыт для всех членов NATO (Исландия, Люксембург и Франция не принимают в нем участия); он обычно собирается на уровне министров обороны один или два раза в год, чтобы привлечь неядерных членов к участию в ядерных делах Североатлантического союза. Генеральный секретарь является председателем NDAC.
   Во-вторых, группа ядерного планирования (NPG), созданная на основе NDAC и подчиняющаяся ему, состоит из семи или восьми членов и призвана более подробно рассмотреть поднятые там темы. На практике в его состав входят Великобритания, Германия, Италия и Соединенные Штаты, а также три или четыре другие страны-члена, работающие поочередно в течение 18 месяцев. 1 июля 1973 года таких членов было четыре: Греция, Канада, Нидерланды и Норвегия. Кроме того, генеральный секретарь является председателем NPG.
   Военные советники Совета являются военным комитетом, который осуществляет политическое руководство военным командованиям NATO. Военный комитет состоит из начальников штабов всех государств-членов, за исключением Франции, которая имеет персонал связи, и Исландии, которая не представлена; на постоянной сессии начальники штабов представлены военными представителями, которые находятся в Брюсселе вместе с Советом. Независимый председатель Военного комитета Хасан Андис служил в объединенном международном военном штабе. Командующие NATO несут ответственность перед Военным комитетом, хотя они также имеют прямой доступ к Совету и главам правительств.
   Главными военными командованиями NATO являются командования ОВС NATO в Европе (ACE), командование NATO на Атлантике (ACLANT) и союзное командование канала (ACCHAN).
   Европейское и Атлантическое командования NATO участвуют в совместной системе стратегического планирования в Омахе, штат Небраска, но нет командования Североатлантического союза, специально охватывающего стратегические ядерные силы. Что касается подводных лодок с баллистическими ракетами, то Соединенные Штаты Америки обязались предоставить небольшое число, а Великобритания - все свои, под планированием SACEUR, а Соединенные Штаты - большее число для SACLANT.
   Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС NATO в Европе (SACEUR) и Верховный главнокомандующий ОВС NATO на Атлантике (SACLANT) всегда были американские офицеры, командующий силами Канала (CINCCHAN) и заместитель верховного главнокомандующего и заместителя ВГК ОВС NATO на Атлантике английские. SACEUR также является Главнокомандующим Вооруженными силами Соединенных Штатов в Европе.
   (i) СОЮЗНОЕ КОМАНДОВАНИЕ В ЕВРОПЕ (ACE) имеет штаб-квартиру, известную под названием SHAPE (Верховный штаб союзных держав в Европе), в Касто, недалеко от Монса, в Бельгии. Он отвечает за защиту всей территории NATO в Европе, кроме Англии, Франции, Исландии и Португалии, и Турции. Он также несет общую ответственность за противовоздушную оборону Великобритании.
   Европейское командование имеет около 7000 тактических ядерных боеголовок в своем районе. Количество средств доставки (самолетов, ракет и гаубиц) составляет более 2000, распределенных между всеми странами, за исключением Люксембурга. Однако сами ядерные заряды, за исключением некоторых видов британского оружия, содержатся под контролем в Америки. (Кроме того, во Франции имеется французское ядерное оружие.) Тактические ядерные бомбы и ракетные боеголовки на принципе деления. Существует очень широкий спектр в килотоннах, но средняя мощность бомб, накопленных в Европе для использования тактической авиацией NATO составляет около 100 килотонн, и ракетных боеголовок, 20 килотонн.
   Около 60 эквивалентных дивизий подчинены SACEUR в мирное время. Командование располагает примерно 2750 тактическими самолетами, базирующимися примерно на 150 стандартных аэродромах NATO и обеспеченными системой совместно финансируемых складов, топливопроводов и связи. Большая часть сухопутных и военно-воздушных сил, дислоцированных в командовании, закреплена за SACEUR, в то время как военно-морские силы обычно выделяются.
   2-й французский корпус из двух дивизий (который не интегрирован в силы NATO) дислоцируется в Германии в соответствии с соглашением о статусе, достигнутым между правительствами Франции и Германии. Между соответствующими командующими было согласовано сотрудничество с силами и командованиями NATO.
   Мобильные силы ACE (AMF) были сформированы в качестве сил NATO с уделением особого внимания северным и юго-восточным флангам. Набранные в восьми странах, они состоит из восьми пехотных батальонных групп, броневого разведывательного эскадрона и эскадрилий истребителей наземного обеспечения, но не имеют собственного воздушного транспорта.
   В подчинении командования ОВС NATO в Европе находятся:
   (a) Союзные Силы в Центральной Европе (AFCENT) включают как сухопутные, так и военно-воздушные силы в центрально-европейском секторе. Штаб-квартира находится в Брунссуме в Нидерландах, а его командующий (CINCENT) - немецкий генерал.
   Силы Центрально-европейского командования включают 22 дивизии, выделенные Бельгией, Великобританией, Канадой, Западной Германией, Нидерландами и Соединенными Штатами, и около 1600 тактических самолетов.
   Командование подразделяется на Северную группу войск (NORTHAG) и Центральную группу войск (CENTAG). NORTHAG, несет ответственность за оборону сектора севернее оси Геттенген-Льеж, включает бельгийские, английские и голландские дивизии и четыре немецкие дивизии и поддерживается 2-ми союзническими тактическими ВВС (ATAF), состоящими из бельгийских, английских, голландских и немецких частей. Американские войска, семь немецких дивизий и канадская боевая группа находятся в Центральной армейской группе, поддерживаемой 4-м ATAF, в которую входят американские, немецкие и канадские подразделения и командование ПВО американской армии.
   (b) Союзные Силы в Северной Европе (AFNORTH) имеют штаб-квартиру в Кольсаасе, Норвегия, и отвечают за оборону Дании; Норвегии, Шлезвиг-Гольштейна и Балтийских проходов. Командующий всегда был британским генералом. Большая часть сухопутных, морских и тактических военно-воздушных сил Дании и Норвегии предназначена для них, и большая часть их активных резервов закреплена за ними. Германия выделила одну дивизии, два боевых воздушных крыла и свой Балтийский флот. Помимо учений и некоторых небольших подразделений, американские военно-морские силы обычно не действуют в этом районе.
   (c) Союзные Силы в Южной Европе (AFSOUTH) штаб-квартира находится в Неаполе, а их командующий (CINCSOUTH) всегда был американским адмиралом. Они отвечают за оборону Италии, Греции и Турции, а также за охрану коммуникаций в Средиземном море и турецких территориальных водах Черного моря. В состав соединений входят 17 дивизий из Турции, 8 из Греции и 11 из Италии, а также тактические военно-воздушные силы этих стран. Другие формирования из этих трех стран были предназначены для AFSOUTH, а также 6-й флот Соединенных Штатов и военно-морские силы из Греции, Италии, Турции и Великобритании. Система наземной обороны базируется на двух отдельных командованиях: Южном, включающем Италию и подходы к ней, под командованием итальянского командующего, и Юго-Восточном, включающем Грецию и Турцию, под командованием американского командующего. Существует, однако, общее воздушное командование, и есть одно военно-морское командование (NAVSOUTH), ответственное за AFSOUTH со штабом в Неаполе.
   Специальное подразделение воздушного наблюдения, военно-морские силы Средиземноморья (MARAIRMED), в настоящее время использует итальянские, британские и американские патрульные самолеты с баз в Греции, Турции, Сицилии и Италии; в этих операциях участвуют французские самолеты. Его командир, американская контр-адмирал, отвечает на CINCSOUTH.
   Союзные военно-морские силы по вызову для Средиземноморья (NAVOCFORMED) состояли по крайней мере из трех эсминцев, предоставленных Италией, Великобританией и Соединенными Штатами, и трех меньших кораблей, предоставленных другими средиземноморскими странами, в зависимости от района операции.
   (ii) СОЮЗНОЕ КОМАНДОВАНИЕ НА АТЛАНТИКЕ (ACLANT) имеет штаб-квартиру в Норфолке, штат Вирджиния, и отвечает за Североатлантический район от Северного полюса до Тропика Рака, включая прибрежные воды Португалии. Командующий - американский адмирал.
   В случае войны в его обязанности входит участие в стратегических ударах и защита морских коммуникаций. Нет никаких сил, назначенных командованию в мирное время, кроме постоянных Военно-Морских Сил Атлантики (STANAVFORLANT), которые обычно состоят из четырех кораблей типа эсминца. Однако для целей подготовки и в случае войны, силы, которые в основном являются военно-морскими, выделяются Великобританией, Канадой, Данией, Нидерландами, Португалией и Соединенными Штатами. Есть договоренности о сотрудничестве между французскими военно-морскими силами и ВГК ОВС NATO на Атлантике. Есть пять подчиненных командований; Командования Западной Атлантики и Восточной Атлантики, Командование Иберийской Атлантики, ударный флот Атлантики и Командование подводными силами. Ядро ударного флота Атлантики было обеспечено американским 2-ым флотом с до 6 ударными авианосцами; палубная авиация делит роль ядерного удара с ракетными подводными лодками.
   (iii) СОЮЗНОЕ КОМАНДОВАНИЕ В КАНАЛЕ (ACCHAN) находится в Нортвуде, недалеко от Лондона. Роль Командования Канала в военное время заключается в осуществлении контроля над проливом Ла-Манш и южной частью Северного моря. Многие из небольших военных кораблей Бельгии, Великобритании и Нидерландов, а также некоторые морские самолеты предназначены для этого командования. Есть договоренности о сотрудничестве с французскими военно-морскими силами. Командир - британский адмирал. Постоянные военно-морские силы, канал (STANAVFORCHAN) были сформирован 2 мая 1973 года, они состоят из противоминных судов Бельгии, Нидерландов и Великобритании; другие заинтересованные страны могут участвовать на временной основе. Оперативное командование возложено на главнокомандующего, командования канала.
   Политика
   Политические ориентиры, согласованные между членами NATO в 1967 г., включают концепцию времени политического предупреждения в условиях кризиса и проведения различия между военным потенциалом противника и его политическими намерениями. Стратегическая доктрина, определенная DPC в декабре 1967 года, предусматривала, что NATO будет отвечать на нападения на своей территории с любым необходимым уровнем силы, включая ядерное оружие.
   В июне 1968 года на совещании министров в Рейкьявике совет призвал страны Варшавского договора присоединиться к обсуждению вопроса о взаимных сокращениях сил, взаимных и сбалансированных по охвату и срокам. В первой половине 1973 года состоялись предварительные переговоры по переговорным процедурам и повесткам дня, а 30 октября 1973 года в Вене должны начаться дальнейшие переговоры, в отношении которых были согласованы руководящие принципы, но не повестка дня. Цель состоит в том, чтобы обеспечить практические механизмы, которые обеспечат не нанесение ущерба безопасности для всех сторон на более низких уровнях сил в Центральной Европе.
  
   BELGIUM
Population: 9,800,000.
Military service: 12-15 months.* (* Conscripts serve 12 months if posted to Germany, 15 months if serving only in Belgium.
   A reduction to 10 and 12 months respectively is being studied.)
Total armed forces: 89,600.
Estimated GNP 1972: $35.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 35,648 million francs ($990 million). 43.8 francs=$1 1July 1972. 35.99 francs = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 65,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   3 mechanized infantry brigades.
   3 reconnaissance battalions.
   3 motorized infantry battalions.
   1 para-commando regiment.
   3 artillery battalions.
   3 combat engineer battalions.
   2 SSM battalions with 8 Honest John launchers.
   2 SAM battalions with 24 HAWK launchers.
   4 air sqns with 75 Alouette II hel and 11 Do-27.
   334 Leopard and 148 M-47 med tks; 90 M-41 lt tks;
   1,000 M-75 and AMX APC (there is a programme for procurement of 700 light armoured vehicles, including Scorpion lt tks);
   106 M-108 105mm, M-44 and M-109 155mm and M-110 203mm SP how; 203mm how; Honest John SSM (being replaced by Lance);
   HAWK SAM.
DEPLOYMENT: Germany:2 div HQ, 1 armd bde and 3 mech inf bdes.
RESERVES: 8,000 trained: 1 mech inf bde and one inf bde.
Navy: 4,600.
   7 ocean minesweepers/minehunters.
   9 coastal minesweepers/minehunters.
   12 inshore minesweepers.
   2 support ships.
   2 S-58 and 3 Alouette III helicopters.
RESERVES: 7,600 trained.
Air Force: 20,000; 144 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron normally has 18 aircraft.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mirage-VBA.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with Mirage-VBR.
   2 tpt sqns with 12 C-130 Hercules, 4 DC-3, 12 Pembroke and 4 DC-6.
   5 HSS-1 and 6 S-58 hel.
   8 SAM squadrons with 16 Nike-Hercules.
Para-Military Forces: 15,000 Gendarmerie.
  
   BRITAIN
Population: 56,250,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 361,500 (including 9,300 enlisted outside Britain).
Estimated GNP 1972: $151 billion
Defence budget 1973-74: £3,365 million ($8,673 million). £0.413= $1 1July 1972. £0.388= $1 1July 1973.
Strategic Forces:
   SLBM: 4 SSBN each with 16 Polaris A-3 missiles.
   Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales.
Army: 177,000 (incl 7,900 enlisted outside Britain).
   13 armoured regiments.
   5 armoured reconnaissance regiments.
   47 infantry battalions.
   3 parachute battalions.
   5 Gurkha battalions.
   1 special air service (SAS) regiment.
   2 regts with Honest John SSM launchers and 203mm SP how.
   23 other artillery regiments.
   1 SAM regiment with 12 Thunderbird launchers.
   14 engineer regiments.
   59 of the above units are organized in 5 armd, 10 mech or inf, 1 para and 1 Gurkha bdes.
   900 Chieftain and Centurion med tks; Scorpion lt tks;
   Saladin armd cars; Ferret scout cars; FV 432, Saracen APC;
   105mm Abbot and M-107 175mm SP guns; M-109 SP how; 12 M-110 203mm SP how; Model 56 105mm pack how;
   Honest John SSM (Lance on order); Carl Gustav, Vigilant and Swingfire ATGW;
   L-40/70 AA guns; Thunderbird SAM (Rapier on order);
   2 SRN-6, 2 CC-7 hovercraft.
   2 Army Aviation wings of 17 sqns and 8 indep flights with
   24 Beaver lt ac; 120 Scout, 12 Alouette AH-2, 175 Sioux hel (150 Lynx, 30 Gazelle on order).
DEPLOYMENT:
   United Kingdom: Land element of United Kingdom Mobile Force (UKMF) (1 div, 4 bdes and 1 para bde); 1 SAS regt, 1 Gurkha inf bn.
   HQ Northern Ireland with 3 bde HQ, 1 armd recce regt, 3 armd recce sqns, 3 field engr sqns, 17 units, and 4 army aviation sqns.
   Germany*: British Army of the Rhine (BAOR), of 54,900, includes
   1 corps HQ, 3 div HQ, 5 armd bdes, 1 mech bde, 2 arty bdes (incl the Thunderbird SAM regt) and 2 armd recce regts.
   In Berlin there is one 3,000-strong inf bde.
   Singapore: 1 inf bn group (part of the ANZUK force).
   Brunei: 1 Gurkha bn.
   Hong Kong: 2 bdes with 2 British and 3 Gurkha inf bns; 1 arty regt.
   Cyprus: 1 inf bn and 1 airportable recce sqn with UN force (UNFICYP); 1 inf bn and 1 armd recce sqn in garrison at Sovereign Base Areas.
   Gibraltar:1 inf bn.
   British Honduras: 1 bn HQ and 2 inf coys.
RESERVES: 300,000 Regular reserves, 59,300 Volunteer reserves; 9,200 Ulster Defence Regiment.
Navy: 81,000 (including Fleet Air Arm, Royal Marines and 800 enlisted outside Britain); 78 major surface combat vessels.
Submarines, attack:
   6 nuclear (1 more to come into service in 1973, a second in 1974); 22 diesel.
Surface ships:
   1 aircraft carrier.
   2 commando carriers'.
   2 assault ships.
   2 cruisers with Seacat SAM.
   9 destroyers (8 with Seaslug I and Seacat II SAM,
   1 with Sea Dart SAM and Ikara ASW msls), each with 1 ASW hel.
   35 general purpose frigates (12 with Seacat, 1 with Ikara), each with 1 ASW hel.
   20 ASW frigates (9 with Seacat and 1 ASW hel).
   3 AA and 4 aircraft direction frigates.
   38 coastal minesweepers/minehunters.
   6 inshore minesweepers.
   5 coastal patrol vessels.
   6 patrol/seaward defence boats.
   (Included in the above are the following ships in reserve or undergoing refit or conversion:
   6 diesel submarines, 1 destroyer, 10 frigates, 2 minesweepers.)
THE FLEET AIR ARM: 30 combat aircraft.
   1 strike squadron with 12 Buccaneer S2 with Martel ASM.
   1 air defence squadron with 12 F-4K.
   1 AEW sqn with 6 Gannet.
   8 hel sqns with Wessex.
   3 hel sqns with Sea King.
   * Some units from BAOR are serving on short tours in Northern Ireland, being away from Germany for up to six months. Numbers involved averaged 3,500.
   3 hel sqns with Wasp and Whirlwind.
   (100 Lynx hel on order.)
THE ROYAL MARINES: 8,000.
   1 commando bde with 3 commandos; SRN 6 Mk.5 hovercraft
DEPLOYMENT:
   Malta: 1 commando.
   Falkland Islands: 1 detachment.
   Gibraltar: 1 detachment.
RESERVES (naval and marines): 27,500 regular and 7,000 volunteers.
Air Force: 103,500 (incl 600 enlisted outside Britain); about 500 combat aircraft. (Combat squadrons have 6-18 aircraft.)
   6 medium bomber squadrons with Vulcan B2.
   3 strike squadrons with Buccaneer.
   1 FGA squadron with Hunter (a second forming).
   7 strike/attack/recce sqns with F-4M.
   4 close support squadrons with Harrier.
   8 air defence squadrons with Lightning.
   1 air defence squadron with F-4K.
   1 recce squadron with 15 Victor SR2.
   4 recce squadrons with Canberra.
   1 AEW squadron with Shackleton.
   6 maritime patrol squadrons with Nimrod.
   3 tanker squadrons with 56 Victor K1/K1A/K2.
   4 strategic transport squadrons with 14 VC-10,
   10 Belfast and 15Britannia.
   7 tactical tpt sqns with C-130 Hercules.
   2 light communication squadrons with HS-125.
   7 hel sqns with 60 Wessex, 75 Whirlwind and 40 SA-330 Puma.
   There are 11 ground defence and air defence squadrons of the Royal Air Force Regiment, some with Bloodhound and Tigercat SAM,
   And L40/70 AA guns (Rapier SAM on order).
DEPLOYMENT: The Royal Air Force includes one operational home command - Strike Command
   and two smaller overseas commands - RAF Germany (8,600), and Near East Air Force.
   Squadrons are deployed overseas as follows:
   Germany: 4 F-4; 2 Buccaneer; 2 Lightning; 3 Harrier: 1 Wessex; 2 sqns RAF Regt.
   Gibraltar: Hunter detachment.
   Near East: (a) Cyprus: 2 Vulcan; 1 Lightning; 1 Hercules; 1 Whirlwind; 2 sqns RAF Regt; (b) Malta: 1 Nimrod; 1 Canberra.
   Singapore: detachments Nimrod and Wessex hel (in ANZUK force).
   Hong Kong: hel and RAF Regt detachments.
   British Honduras: RAF Regt detachment.
RESERVES: 31,800 regular; about 200 volunteer.
  
   CANADA
Population: 22,300,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 83,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $102.9 billion.
Defence expenditure 1973-74: $Can. 2.13 billion ($US 2,141 million). $Can.1=$US 1 1July 1972. $Can. 0.995= $US 1 1July 1973.
* The Canadian Armed Forces have been unified since February 1968. The strengths shown here for Army, Navy and Air Force are only approximate.
Army: (Land)*: 33,000.
IN CANADA: Mobile Command (about 20,000).
   1 airborne regiment.
   3 combat groups each comprising:
   3 infantry battalions.
   1 reconnaissance regiment.
   1 reduced light artillery regiment (of 2 batteries).
   Support units.
   M-113 APC, Ferret armd cars; Model 56 105mm pack how; 106mm recoilless rifles.
   One group is intended for operations in Europe; part of it, an air transportable bn gp, for use with the AMF.
   The other groups contribute to North American ground defence and UN commitments.
IN EUROPE: One mech battle group of 2,800 men, with 32 Centurion med tks, 375 M-113 APC and 18 M-109 155mm SP how.
IN CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 580 men.
RESERVES: about 19,000.
Navy (Maritime): 14,000.
   4 submarines.
   10 ASW hel destroyer escorts, 4 with Sea Sparrow SAM (2 hel destroyers under construction).
   11 ASW destroyer escorts.
   3 support ships with Sea Sparrow SAM and 2 CHSS-2 hel.
   The Maritime Air Element consists of:
   4 maritime patrol squadrons with Argus.
   1 maritime patrol squadron with S-2 Tracker.
   1 ASW squadron with SH-3 Sea King helicopters.
RESERVES: about 2,900.
Air Force (Air): 36,000; 162 combat aircraft.
IN CANADA:
   Mobile Command:
   2 CF-5 tactical fighter sqns (for use with AMF).
   6 helicopter squadrons.
   Air Defence Command (Canadian component of NORAD).
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-101C.
   28 surveillance and control radar squadrons.
   1 SAGE control centre.
   1 CF-100 electronic warfare training squadron.
   Air Transport Command:
   1 sqn with 5 Boeing 707-320C transport/tankers.
   2 sqns with C-130E Hercules.
   4 sqns with CC-115 Buffalo, CC-138 Twin Otter and CH-113 Labrador SAR hel.
   1 sqn with CC-109 Cosmopolitan; Falcon and Dakota.
IN EUROPE:
   Germany: 2,300; 3 attack sqns with CF-104.
RESERVES: 1,300.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 5,020,000.
Military service: 12 months (to be reduced to 9 months from October 1973).
Total armed forces: 39,800.t
Estimated GNP 1972: $20.3 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 3,196 million kroner ($568 million). 7.0 kr=$l 1July 1972. 5.63 kr=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 24,000.
   4 brigades each of 2 mechanized infantry battalions,
   1 tank battalion, 1 artillery battalion and support units.
   1 battalion group.
   1 artillery battalion.
   250 Centurion med tks; M-41 lt tks; M-113 APC;
   M-109 155mm SP how; 203mm how; Honest John SSM; 12 Hughes 500M (OH-6A) hel.
RESERVES: 80,000, including 2 mech inf bdes and support units to be formed from reservists within 72 hours;
   local defence units form 15 inf bn gps and 15 arty btys. Volunteer Home Guard 51,500.
Navy: 6,300.
   6 coastal submarines.
   2 destroyers.
   4 frigates.
   4 coastal escorts (corvettes).
   9 seaward defence craft.
   12 fast patrol boats.
   6 coastal minelayers.
   12 minesweepers (4 inshore).
   8 Alouette III helicopters.
RESERVES: 4,000. Volunteer Home Guard 4,300 with small patrol boats.
Air Force: 9.500; 112 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 16 F-35XD Draken.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 32 F-100D/F..
   2 interceptor squadrons with 32 F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron with 16 Hunter.
   1 recce sqn with 16 RF-35XD Draken.
   1 transport squadron with 8 C-47 and 5 C-54. (3 C-130 on order.)
   1 SAR squadron with 8 S-61 helicopters.
   4 SAM squadrons with Nike-Hercules launchers.
   4 SAM squadrons with HAWK launchers.
RESERVES: 7,000. Volunteer Home Guard 11,500.
  
   FRANCE
Population: 52,000,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 503,600 (Conscripts 271,200).
Estimated GNP 1972: $202 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 34,800 million francs ($8.488 million). 5.00 francs=$l 1July 1972. 4.10 francs=$1 1July 1973.
Strategic Forces:
SLBM: 2 SSBN each with 16 MSBS M-l msls (a third scheduled to become operational in 1974).t
IRBM: 2 squadrons, each with 9 SSBS S-2 msls.
Aircraft:
   9 squadrons with 36 Mirage IVA bombers.
   3 squadrons with 12 KC-135F tankers.
   20 Mirage IVA bombers are in reserve.
Army: 332,400 (conscripts 216,000) (including Aviation).
   5 mechanized divisions.
   1 airborne division (2 brigades).
   1 airportable motorized brigade.
   2 alpine brigades.
   9 armoured car regiments.
   2 motorized infantry regiments.
   1 parachute battalion.
   21 infantry battalions.
   15 SSBN are due to be built in all.
   5 SSM battalions with 20 Honest John launchers.* (* The nuclear warheads held under double-key arrangements with the United States
   were withdrawn in 1966. The tactical nuclear SSM Pluton is due to enter service in 1973-74.)
3 SAM regiments with 54 HAWK launchers.
   820 AMX-30 med tks; AMX-13 lt tks; Panhard EBR hy and AML It armd cars; AMX APC;
   AMX SP 105mm guns and 155mm how; Model 56 105mm pack how; 30mm twin SP AA guns;
   SS-11, Harpoon ATGW; Honest John SSM and HAWK SAM.
Army Aviation (ALAT): 4,500.
   70 Bell, 175 Alouette II, 60 Alouette III and 80 SA-330 Puma hel (30 Puma, 50 Gazelle on order).
   150 light fixed-wing aircraft.
DEPLOYMENT (incl Navy and Air Force):
Strategic Reserve (Force d'Intervention):
   2 airborne and 1 airportable motorized brigades.
Manoeuvre Forces(Forcede Manoeuvre):
   1st Army: 2 mech divs and 4 SSM bns in Germany; 58.000; 3 mech divs in support in France.
   About 2,000 men in Berlin.
French Territory of the Afars and Issas:2 battalions.
Elsewhere in Africa: about 4,000.
Malagasy (until Sept 1973): 3,000; 2 battalions, 2 minesweepers, 2 FGA squadrons, 6 tpt ac.
Pacific Territories: 2 battalions.
Caribbean: 1 battalion.
   The remaining troops are stationed in France for territorial defence (Defense Operationelle du Territoire-DOT).
   Their strength is about 52,000 including 2 alpine bdes, 21 inf bns, 3 armd cav regts and 1 arty regt.
   Mobilization of reserves would bring the force up to a total of 80 bns.
RESERVES: about 450,000.
Navy: 69,000 (conscripts 16,500) (including Naval Air Force); 47 major surface combat vessels.
   19 attack submarines (diesel).
   2 aircraft carriers.
   1 helicopter carrier.
   2 cruisers (1 SAM, 1 hel).
   17 destroyers (2 with Masurca SAM and Malafon ASW msls. 4 with Tartar SAM, 6 ASW, 4 aircraft direction, 1 command).
   25 frigates.
   7 fleet minesweepers.
   42 coastal minesweepers.
   4 inshore minesweepers.
   14 patrol vessels.
   7 landing ships.
   13 landing craft.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: 12,000: 150 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with Etendard IVM.
   2 interceptor sqns with F-8F Crusaders.
   2 ASW sqns with Alize.
   5 maritime recce sqns with Atlantic and P-2.
   1 reconnaissance sqn with Etendard IVP.
   1 ASW helicopter sqn with Super Frelon.
   2 helicopter sqns with HSS-1.
RESERVES: about 90,000.
Air Force: 102,000; 500 combat aircraft.
Air Defence Command (CAFDA):
   3 interceptor sqns with Mirage IIIC.
   2 AWX sqns with 30 Vautour IIN. (Mirage F-1 being delivered.)
   3 interceptor sqns with Super Mystere B-2.
   (Automatic STR1DA II air defence system.)
Tactical Air Force (FATAC- divided into 1st and 2nd CATAC):
   8 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mirage IIIE.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mirage V.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with Mirage IIIB.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with Mystere IVA and Jaguar.
   2 light bomber sqns with 30 Vautour II-IB.
   3 recce sqns with Mirage IIIR/RD.
.Air Transport Command (COTAM):
   7 tactical transport sqns; 3 with 40 C-160F Transall and 4 with 130 Nord 2501 Noratlas.
   1 heavy transport sqn with 4 DV-6B.
   1 heavy transport squadron with 3 DC-8.
   1 tpt sqn with 5 DC-6 and 2 Br 763.
   4 helicopter tpt sqns with H-34 and Alouette II.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 70,000; CRS (Compagnies Ripublicaines de Sicurite) 15,000 (subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior).
  
   FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
Population: 60,100,000 (excluding West Berlin).
Military service: 15 months.
Total armed forces: 475,000 (conscripts 228,000).
Estimated GNP 1972: $259 billion.
Defence budget 1973: DM 26,600 million ($11,083 million). DM 3.2= $1 1July 1972. DM 2.40= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 334,000 (conscripts 183,500).
   13 armoured brigades.
   12 armoured infantry brigades.
   3 motorized infantry brigades.
   2 mountain brigades.
   3 airborne brigades.
   (The above are organized in 12 divisions.)
   2 tank regts (a third being formed).
   11 SSM battalions with Honest John launchers.
   4 SSM battalions with Sergeant launchers.
   Territorial Army: organized into 9 geographical commands for home defence, communications, engineers, police and service support units;
   Also contains units for expansion on mobilization.
   1,050 M-48A2 Patton and 2,200 Leopard med tks;
   750 HS-30, 1,300 Marder, 1,800 Hotchkiss and 3,170 M-113 APC; 1,100 tank destroyers;
   280 105mm how, 70 155mm and 75 203mm how; 580 155mm, 150 175mm SP guns; 200 multiple RL;
   500 40mm SP AA guns; ATGW;
   86 Honest John, 19 Sergeant SSM (to be replaced by Lance);
   200 UH-1D Iroquois, 30 CH-53G and 235 Alouette II hel and 18 Do-27 lt ac.
RESERVES: 510,000 on immediate recall.
Navy: 37,000 (including 9,500 conscripts) (including Naval Air Arm).
   8 coastal submarines.
   11 destroyers (3 with Tartar SAM).
   6 fast frigates.
   5 fleet utility vessels.
   12 fast combat support ships.
   61 minesweepers.
   38 fast patrol boats.
   2 landing ships.
   22 landing craft.
NAVAL AIR ARM: 6,000; 84 combat aircraft.
   4 fighter-bomber/recce squadrons with 72 F-104G.
   2 MR squadrons with 12 Br-1150 Atlantic.
   23 S-58 SAR helicopters (being replaced by 20 SH-3D Sea King Mk 41).
   20 Do-28 liaison aircraft.
RESERVES: 35,000 on immediate recall.
Air Force: 104,000 (conscripts 35,000); 456 combat aircraft.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with 108 F-104G.
   4 fighter-bomber/interceptor sqns with 60 F-104G.
   8 lt FGA/recce squadrons with 168 G-91.
   4 interceptor squadrons with 60 F-104G.
   4 heavy reconnaissance squadrons with 60 RF-4E.
   4 transport squadrons with Transall C 160.
   4 helicopter squadrons with 80 UH-1D, 50 Bell 47 and 54 Alouette II.
   2 Pershing SSM wings with 72 launchers.
   24 Nike-Hercules SAM batteries with 216 launchers.
   36 HAWK SAM batteries with 216 launchers.
RESERVES: 80,000 on immediate recall.
Para-Military Forces: 20,000 Border Police with Saladin armoured cars and coastal patrol boats.
  
  GREECE
Population: 8,900,000.
Military service: 24 months.
Total armed forces: 160,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $12.2 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 17,366 million drachmas ($580 million). 30 drachmas= $1 1July 1972. 29.94 drachmas = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 120,000.
   1 armoured division.
   11 infantry divisions (8 at cadre strength).
   10 independent brigades (at cadre strength).
   1 commando brigade.
   2 SSM battalions with 8 Honest John launchers.
   1 SAM battalion with 12 HAWK launchers.
   300 M-47, 320 M-48 and 30 AMX-30 med tks (20 more AMX-30 on order); M-24, M-26 and M-41 lt tks;
   M-8 and M-20 armd cars; M-2, M-3, M-59 and M-113 APC;
   175mm SP guns; 25-pdr, 105mm, 155mm and 203mm how;
   40mm, 75mm and 90mm AA guns; Honest John SSM; HAWK SAM;
   Bell 47G hel.
RESERVES: about 160,000.
Navy: 18,000.
   7 submarines.
   9 destroyers.
   4 destroyer escorts.
   7 coastal patrol vessels.
   2 minelayers.
   14 coastal minesweepers.
   13 fast torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   4 fast missile patrol boats with Exocet SSM.
   8 tank landing ships.
   5 medium landing ships.
   1 dock landing ship.
   8 landing craft.
RESERVES: about 20,000.
Air Force: 22,000; 225 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has up to 18 aircraft.)
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-84F.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   3 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.
   1 interceptor squadron with F-102A.
   1 recce sqn with RF-84F (40 F-4 on order).
   1 maritime recce squadron of 12 HU-16.
   3 tpt sqns of 27 C-47 and 30 Noratlas.
   1 helicopter squadron with 14 H-19 and 6 AB-205.
   1 helicopter squadron with 10 Bell 47G.
   1 SAM battalion with Nike-Hercules.
RESERVES: about 25,000.
Para-Military Forces: 30,000 Gendarmerie; 69,000 National Guard.
  
   ITALY
Population: 54,400,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 15 months; Navy, 24 months.
Total armed forces: 427,500 (excluding Carabinieri).
Estimated GNP 1972: $118.1 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 2,294.5 billion lire ($3,964 million). 582 lire=$l 1July 1972. 579 lire=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 306,500.
   2 armoured divisions.
   5 infantry divisions.
   1 independent cavalry brigade.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   5 alpine brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   1 amphibious regiment.
   1 SSM brigade with 2 bns of Honest John launchers and 2 bns of 203mm SP how.
   4 SAM battalions with HAWK launchers.
   800 M-47, 200 M-60 and 200 Leopard med tks (600 more Leopard on order);
   3,300 M-113, some LVT-4 APC;
   155mm guns; M-107 175mm SP guns; Model 56 105mm pack how; 105mm, 155mm how; M-44 155mm, M-109 155mm, M-55 203mm SP how;
   M-42 40mm SP AA guns; Mosquito, Cobra, SS-11 ATGW (TOW on order); 8 Honest John (to be replaced by Lance);
   68 HAWK.
ARMY AVIATION: 21 units with 50 Piper L-18, L-19, L-21B, some SM.1019 lt ac (100 SM.1019, 20 AM-3C on order);
   over 250 hel, incl 125 AB-47G/J, 49 AB-204B, 29 AB-205A, 60 AB-206A/B-1 and 6 CH-47C
   (20 more CH-47C, 12 Augusta 101G, 30 more AB 206 on order).
RESERVES: 450,000.
Navy: 44,500 (incl air arm and marines).
   9 submarines.
   3 cruisers each with Terrier SAM and 4 ASW hel (1 ship with ASROC ASW msls).
   3 destroyers with Tartar SAM and ASW hel.
   5 ASW destroyers.
   10 frigates.
   8 corvettes.
   4 ocean minesweepers.
   37 coastal and 20 inshore minesweepers.
   7 torpedo boats.
   5 motor gunboats.
   4 amphibious transports.
   4 landing ships, tank.
   1 marine infantry battalion.
NAVAL AIR ARM.
   3 MR sqns, 2 with 20 S-2 Tracker, 1 with 6 Atlantic.
   24 SH-3D, 30 AB-204B and A-106 hel.
RESERVES: 65,000.
Air Force: 76,500; 330 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has 12-18 aircraft.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104S.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with G-91Y.
   3 light attack squadrons with G-91R.
   1 AWX squadron with 15 F-86K.
   5 AWX squadrons with F-104S.
   3 recce squadrons with RF-104G.
   3 tpt sqns with 25 C-119 (to be replaced by 32 of 44 G.222 on order) and 14 C-130E Hercules.
   2 tpt sqns with Convair 440 and DC-6.
   12 SAM groups with 96 Nike-Hercules launchers.
   2 SAR sqns with 12 HU-16 ac and 15 AB-204 hel.
   Helicopters include 60 AB-204B, 90 AB-205, 2 AB-206A and some AB-47G/J.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Para-Military Forces: 80,700 Carabinieri.
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 345,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 550.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.3 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 529 million francs ($15 million). 43.8 francs =$1 1July 1972. 35.99 francs =$1 1 My 1973.
Army: 550.
   1 light infantry battalion.
   1 independent company.
   106mm recoilless rifles and mortars.
Para-Military Forces: 350 Gendarmerie.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 13,500,000.
Military service: Army, 16-18 months; Navy and Air Force, 18-21 months.
Total armed forces: 112,200.
Estimated GNP 1972: $44.8 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 5,465 million guilders ($2,102 million). 3.19 guilders=$l 1July 1972. 2.60 guilders =$1 1July 1973.
Army: 70,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   4 mechanized infantry brigades.
   2 SSM battalions with Honest John.
   400 Centurion and 485 Leopard med tks; 700 YP-408, M-106, M-113 and M-577 (amphibious) APC;
   M-107 175mm SP guns; AMX 105mm, M-109 155mm and M-110 203mm SP how;
   8 Honest John SSM (TOW on order).
DEPLOYMENT:
   Germany:1 mech bde, 1 recce bn.
RESERVES: about 300,000, of which 40,000 are on immediate recall.
   1 inf div and corps troops, incl 1 indep inf bde, would be completed by call-up of reservists.
   A number of infantry brigades could be mobilized, if needed for territorial defence.
Navy: 20,000 (including 2,800 marines and 2,000 naval air arm).
   6 submarines.
   6 frigates with Seacat SAM; 1 lt ASW hel.
   12 destroyers.
   6 corvettes.
   3 MCM support ships.
   5 patrol vessels.
   26 coastal minesweepers.
   16 inshore minesweepers.
   1 fast combat support ship.
   2 marine commandos.
NAVAL AIR ARM: 2,000; 44 combat aircraft.
   3 MR sqns; 2 with 9 BR-1150 Atlantic and 17 P-2 Neptune and 1 with 18 S-2N.
   6 Sikorsky H-34J, 7 AB-204B and 11 Wasp hel (1 Wasp on order).
DEPLOYMENT:
   Surinam: 1 destroyer; 1 marine commando.
RESERVES: about 20,000, 9,000 on immediate recall; 6 frigates; one hel sqn.
Air Force: 22,200; 144 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 36 F-104G.
   3 fighter-bomber squadrons with 54 NF-5A.
   2 interceptor squadrons with 36 F-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 18 RF-104G.
   1 transport squadron with 12 F-27.
   30 NF-5B trainers.
   3 observation and communication squadrons (under Army command) with 70 Alouette III hel;
   60 Piper L-21 and 9 DHC-2 Beaver lt ac.
   8 SAM squadrons with 32 Nike-Hercules.
   11 SAM squadrons with 66 HAWK.
RESERVES: about 20,000.
Para-Military Forces: 3,200 Gendarmerie.
  
   NORWAY
Population: 4,000,000.
Military service: Army, 12 months; Navy and Air Force, 15 months.
Total armed forces; 35,400.
Estimated GNP 1972: $15.1 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 3,485 million kroner ($665 million). 6.51 kroner=$l 1July 1972. 5.24 kroner=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 18,000.
   The peacetime establishment includes 1 brigade group in North Norway, independent battalions and supporting elements and training units.
   78 Leopard and 80 M-48 med tks; 45 M-24 lt tks; M-8 armd cars; M-113 and BV-202 APC;
   M-109 155mm SP how; Bofors L-40/70 AA guns;
   L-18 and L-19 lt aircraft.
RESERVES: mobilization would produce 11 Regimental Combat Teams (brigades) of 5,000 men each,
   supporting units and territorial forces totalling 135,000.
Navy: 8,000 (incl 1,600 coastal artillery).
   15 coastal submarines.
   5 frigates.
   2 coastal escorts.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 minelayers.
   20 fast patrol boats (with Penguin SSM).
   20 torpedo boats (6 with Penguin SSM).
   2 support ships.
   7 landing craft.
   A number of coastal artillery batteries.
RESERVES: 12,000.
Air Force: 9,400; 135 combat aircraft
   5 FGA squadrons each with 16 F-5A.
   1 AWX fighter squadron with 16 F-104G.
   1 interceptor squadron-with 13 CFT-104G.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 16 RF-5A.
   1 MR squadron with 5 P-3B; some HU-16.
   1 transport squadron with 6 C-130 and 4 C-47.
   2 hel sqns with 32 UH-1B and 10 Sea King.
   4 SAM batteries with Nike-Hercules
RESERVES: 10,600, providing 12 airfield defence lt AA bns. Home Guard (all services), 80,000.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 9,200,000.
Military service: Army, 24 months; Air Force, 36 months; Navy, 48 months.
Total armed forces: 204,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $8.3 billion.
Defence budget 1972: 11,468.7 million escudos ($425 million). 27 escudos= $1 1July 1972. 22.77 escudos=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 170,000.
   2 tank regiments.
   8 cavalry regiments.
   25 infantry regiments.
   13 artillery regiments.
   1 coastal artillery regiment.
   3 AA artillery regiments.
   8 engineer battalions.
   8 signals battalions.
   M-47 and M-4 med tks; M-41 lt tks;
   Humber Mark IV and EBR-75 armd cars; AML-60 scout cars; FV-1609 and M-16 half-track APC;
   105mm and 140mm how; coast and AA arty.
DEPLOYMENT: some of the above units form 2 infantry divisions, at or below half-strength, in Portugal.
   About 25 infantry battalions and supporting units are located in the African provinces.
   (The numbers of all armed forces in each province, including locally enlisted, are:
   Angola: 55,000.
   Mozambique: 55,000.
   Portuguese Guinea: 27,000.)
RESERVES: 306,000.
Navy: 18,000 (including 3,300 marines).
   4 submarines.
   8 frigates. .
   6 corvettes.
   25 coastal patrol vessels.
   4 ocean and 12 coastal minesweepers.
   24 patrol launches (less than 100 tons).
   66 landing craft.
RESERVES: 12,000.
Air Force: 16,000; 152 combat aircraft.
   2 lt bbr sqns with 6 B-26 Invader and 10 PV-2.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 20 F-84G.
   2 FGA squadrons with 40 G-91.
   2 interceptor squadrons with 40 F-86F.
   6 COIN flights with 24 armed T-6K.
   1 maritime patrol squadron with 12 P-2V5.
   24 Noratlas, 20 C-47, 10 DC-6 and 15 C-45 tpts.
   13 T-33, 25 T-37 and 35 T-6 recce/trainers.
   Other aircraft include 11 Do-27 and about 100 Alouette II/III and 12 SA-330 Puma helicopters.
   1 parachute regiment of 4,000.
Para-Military Forces: 9,700 National Republican Guard.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 37,900,000.
Military service: 20 months.
Total armed forces: 455,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $15.8 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 11,100 million liras ($812 million). 14.17 liras= $1 1July 1972. 13.67 liras=$l July 1973.
Army: 365,000.
   1 armoured division.
   2 mechanized infantry divisions.
   11 infantry divisions.
   4 armoured brigades.
   3 mechanized infantry brigades.
   3 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 armoured cavalry regiment.
   2 SSM battalions with Honest John.
   1,400 M-47 and M-48 med tks; M-24, M-26 and M-41 lt tks; M-36 tank destroyers; M-8 armd cars; M-59 and M-113 APC;
   105mm and 155mm SP guns; 105mm, 155mm and 203mm how;
   SS-11 and Cobra ATGW; 40mm, 75mm and 90mm AA guns; 8 Honest John SSM;
   Do-27, Do-28D-1 Sky Servant and U-l Beaver lt ac;
   20 AB-206 and 20 Bell 47G hel. (250 M-48 med tks on order.)
RESERVES: 750,000.
Navy: 40,000.
   15 submarines.
   14 destroyers.
   8 coastal escorts.
   11 motor torpedo boats (2 less than 100 tons).
   14 fast patrol boats.
   20 minesweepers.
   7 minelayers.
   A number of landing craft.
   3 AB-205A ASW helicopters.
RESERVES: 50,000.
Air Force: 50,000; 288 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has an average of 18 aircraft.)
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-104G.
   5 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-100D.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with F-5A.
   2 interceptor squadrons with F-5A.
   2 AWX squadrons with F-102A.
   3 recce squadrons with RF-84F and RF-5A.
   (40 F-4 on order.)
   3 tpt sqns with 14 C-47, 10 C-130 and 20 Transall.
   10 Bell UH-1D, 10 Sikorsky UH-19D and some AB-204B hel.
   2 SAM battalions (8 batteries) with Nike-Hercules.
Para-Military Forces: 75,000 Gendarmerie (including 3 mobile brigades).
  
  

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

   ALBANIA
Population: 2,400,000.
Military service: Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units 3 years.
Total regular forces: 38,000.
Estimated GNP 1971: $1.04 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 589 million leks ($118 million). 5 1eks=$l.
Army: 30,000.
   1 tank brigade.
   6 infantry brigades.
   Some light coastal batteries.
   70 T-34, 15 T-54 and T-59 med tks; T-62 lt tks; 20 BA-64, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APC;
   SU-76 SP guns; 122mm and 152mm gun/how; 45mm, 57mm, 76mm and 85mm ATk guns;
   37mm, 57mm and 85mm AA guns.
Navy: 3,000.
   4 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   4 coastal escorts.
   40 MTB and patrol boats.
   8 MCM ships (2 ex-Soviet T-43, 6 T-301 class).
   Coastal defence SSM deployed around Durazzo and Valona.
Air Force: 5,000; 96 combat aircraft.
   2 FB squadrons with 24 MiG-17/F-4 (Chinese). .
   2 fighter squadrons with 24 MiG-15/F-2 (Chinese).
   2 interceptor squadrons with 36 MiG-19 and 12 MiG-21 (Chinese).
   1 transport squadron with 3 An-2 and 3 Il-14.
   2 squadrons with 20 Mi-1 and Mi-4 helicopters.
   SA-2 SAM.
Para-Military Forces: 15,000: Internal security force 5,000; frontier force 10,000.
  
   AUSTRIA
Population: 7,500,000.
Military service: 6 months, followed by 60 days reservist training.
Total armed forces: 12,000 regular, 40,000 conscript (total mobilizable strength 150,000).
Estimated GNP 1972: $20.4 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 5,080 million schilling ($291 million). 23 schilling= $1 1July 1972. 17.46 schilling= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 10,250 regulars, 38,050 conscripts.
   3 armoured brigades.
   7 infantry brigades.
   16 territorial regiments.
   3 independent air defence battalions.
   153 M-47, 120 M-60 med tks; 100 Kuerassier tk destroyers; 470 Saurer APC;
   108 105mm, 38 M-109 155mm and 31 SFK M-2 155mm SP how; 18 130mm Praga V3S multiple RL;
   301 80mm med mortars; 107 107mm and 82 120mm heavy mortars;
   299 20mm Oerlikon, 44 35mm Super Bat and 60 40mm Bofors AA guns.
DEPLOYMENT: 1 400-man battalion and 1 field hospital in Cyprus (UNFICYP).
RESERVES: 100,000 Landwehr, Frontier Guard and area militia.
Air Force: 1,750 regulars, 1,950 conscripts; 38 combat aircraft.*
   (* Austrian air units are an integral part of the army, but have been listed separately for purposes of comparison.)
   3 fighter-bomber sqns with 38 SAAB 105OE.
   1 sqn SAAB 105OE and 1 sqn SAAB Safir trainers.
   1 tpt sqn with 19 Cessna L-19, 3 Beaver L-20, 2 Skyvan.
   6 hel sqns with 23 AB-204B, 18 AB-206A and H-13, 22 Alouette II/III and 2 S-65OE.
Para-Military Forces: 11,250 Gendarmerie.
  
   EIRE
Population: 3,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 10,570.
Estimated GNP 1972: $5.62 billion.
Defence budget 1973: £34.2 million ($88 million). £0.413=$1 1July 1972. £0.388=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 9,600.
   7 infantry battalions (one coy in UNFICYP).
   1 tank squadron.
   1 recce squadron.
   6 field artillery batteries.
   1 AA battery.
   8 Comet, 3 Churchill med tks; 20 Panhard armd cars (incl 4 AML-90); 17 Unimog and 13 Panhard AML APC;
   48 25-pdr guns; 447 84mm Carl Gustav and 96 90mm IIIO ATGW; 72 120mm mortars; 26 40mm Bofors AA guns.
RESERVES: 19,800:Regular Reserve 1,500; Territorial Army; 18,300.
Navy: 400.
   1 corvette.
   3 coastal minesweepers.
Air Force: 570; 7 combat aircraft.
   3 Vampire, 4 BAC Provost, 8 Chipmunk and 8 Cessna F-172; 2 Dove lt tpt; 6 Alouette III hel.
  
   FINLAND
Population: 4,710,000.
Military service: 8-11 months.
Total armed forces: 39,500.
Estimated GNP 1972: $12.6 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 843.2 million markkaa ($231 million). 4.1 markkaa= $1 1July 1972. 3.65 markkaa=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 34,000.
   1 armoured brigade (at about half strength).
   6 infantry brigades (at about 35 per cent strength).
   7 independent infantry battalions.
   3 field artillery regiments.
   4 independent field artillery batteries.
   7 coastal artillery battalions.
   4 anti-aircraft battalions.
   T-54, T-55 and Charioteer med tks; PT-76 lt tks; BTR-50P APC;
   105mm, 122mm and 130mm guns; 122mm and 152mm how; Vigilant and SS-11 ATGW;
   ZSU-57-2, ZU-23-2, 35mm Oerlikon and 40mm Bofors AA guns.
Navy: 2,500.
   3 frigates (one used as training ship).
   2 gunboats.
   1 patrol boat with SSM (training ship).
   15 fast patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 coastal minelayers.
   5 inshore minesweepers.
Air Force: 3,000; 47 combat aircraft.
   3 fighter sqns with MiG-21F, 12 SAAB J-35BS Broken and Fouga Magister.
   About 10 DC-3 transports.
   60 Magister, 30 Safir and 4 MiG-15/21UTI trainers.
   3 Mi-4, 1 Alouette II and 1 AB-204B hel.
RESERVES: 685,000.
Para-Military Forces: 4,000 frontier guards.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 34,700,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 293,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $46.2 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 65.7 billion pesetas ($1,132 million). 63 pesetas=$1 1July 1972. 58.06 pesetas=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 210,000
   1 armoured division.
   1 mechanized infantry division.
   1 motorized infantry division.
   2 mountain divisions.
   1 armoured cavalry brigade.
   12 independent infantry brigades.
   (All above are about 70% strength.)
   1 mountain brigade.
   1 airportable brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   2 artillery brigades (1 coast artillery).
   1 SAM battalion with HAWK.
   20 AMX-30, 350 M-47 and M-48 med tks; 250 M-24 and M-41 lt tks; Greyhound armd cars;
   AML-60/90 and M-3 scout cars; 50 M-113 APC;
   130 105mm and 175mm SP guns; 200 105mm, 155mm and 203mm how; 90mm SP ATk guns;
   40mm L/70 and 90mm AA guns; 88mm coastal guns;
   Cessna O-1E, CASA 127 lt ac; 6 Bell 47G, 12 UH-1B, 16 UH-1H and 16 AB-206A hel (6 CH-47C tpts on order);
   HAWK SAM.
Navy: 44,000 (incl 8,000 marines).
   6 submarines (4 Daphne-class on order).
   1 helicopter carrier.
   1 cruiser.
   19 destroyers/fast frigates (5 more on order).
   5 frigates.
   5 corvettes.
   3 ASW launches.
   3 torpedo boats.
   26 minesweepers.
   14 landing ships/craft.
   3 ASW hel and 1 lt hel sqns with 6 SH-30, 12 AB-204B, 9 H-19, 5 Hughes 500, 16 Bell 47H-1G, Bell 212 and Sikorsky CH-47.
Air Force: 39,000; 151 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 36 F-4C.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 24 Mirage IIIEE.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 36 F-5A.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 44 HA-200 Saeta.
   1 ASW sqn with 11 SA-16.
   Tpt ac include C-47, DC-4, CASA 207 Azor, Caribou; KC-137 tankers.
   Trainers include 6 Mirage IIIBE and 6 F-5B.
   Hel include AB-205 and AB-47.
   (15 Mirage F-l, 4 C-130H, up to 20 C-212 Aviocar, 8 Chinook and 8 Cobra on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 65,000 Guardia Civil.
DEPLOYMENT (outside mainland Spain): 41,000.
   Balearic Islands: 6,000.
   Canary Islands: 8,000.
   Ceuta: 8,000, incl 1 regt of Foreign Legion.
   Melilla: 9,000, incl 1 regt of Foreign Legion.
   Spanish Sahara: 10,000, incl 2 regts of Foreign Legion.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 8,200,000.
Military service: Army and Navy, 7-15 months; Air Force, 9-14 months.
Total armed forces: 20,500 regulars, 18,300 reservists and 54,300 conscripts, plus 99,600 conscripts on annual refresher training.
   (Total mobilizable strength 750,000.)
Estimated GNP 1972: $42.3 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 7,550 million kroner ($1,883 million). 4.72 kroner = $1 1July 1972. 4.01 kroner= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 10,700 regulars, 13,400 reservists and 40,500 conscripts, plus 83,000 conscripts on 18-40 days annual refresher training.
   6 armoured brigades.
   20 infantry brigades.
   4 Norrlands winter brigades.
   50 independent battalions.
   23 Local Defence Districts with 100 independent battalions and 400-500 independent companies.
   49 non-operational armoured, infantry and artillery training units to provide basic arms training for conscripts.
   Strv 101, 102 (Centurion)and 103B med tks; Strv 74 lt tks (Ikv 91 on order); Pbv 301, 302A, SKPF APC;
   Ikv 102, Ikv 103 105mm and Bk 1A (L/50) and other 155mm SP guns; 75mm, 105mm and 155mm how;
   75mm SP and 90mm ATK guns; SS-11, Bantam, Carl Gustav and Miniman ATGW;
   20mm, 40mm and 57mm AA guns; Redeye and HAWK SAM;
   20 Sk 61 (Bulldog), 18 Fpl 51 (Piper Super Cub), 4 Fpl 53 (Do.27) lt ac; Hkp-3 (AB-204B), 22 Hkp-6 (Jet Ranger) hel.
Navy: 4,400 regulars, 2,900 reservists and 7,500 conscripts, plus 12,000 conscripts on annual refresher training.
   22 submarines.
   8 destroyers, 2 with Rb-08 SSM, 4 with Seacat SAM.
   5 fast ASW frigates.
   19 heavy torpedo boats.
   25 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   1 fast patrol boat.
   2 minelayer/submarine depot ships.
   18 coastal minesweepers.
   20 inshore minesweepers (8 less than 100 tons).
   20 mobile and 45 static coastal artillery batteries with 75mm, 105mm, 120mm, 152mm and 210mm guns and Rb-08 and Rb-52 (SS-11) SSM.
   7 Hkp-2 (Alouette II), 3 Hkp-4B (Vertol 107), 7 Hkp-4C (Kawasaki-Vertol 107/11), and 10 Hkp-6 (Jet Ranger) hel.
Air Force: 5,400 regulars, 2,000 reservists and 6,300 conscripts, plus 4,600 conscripts on annual refresher training; 600 combat aircraft.
   (A combat sqn has up to 18 aircraft.)
   9 attack sqns with A-32A Lansen (with Rb-04E ASM) and AJ-37 Viggen (replacement of Lansen by Viggen started in 1971).
   1 FGA sqn with SAAB S/T-60B.
   13 AWX sqns with J-35 Draken F.
   6 AWX sqns with J-35 Draken A/D.
   2 recce-fighter sqns with S-32C.
   3 recce/day fighter sqns with S-35E.
   2 tpt sqns with 2 C-130E and 7 C-47, Norseman and BAC Pembroke.
   5 comm sqns with 110 SAAB 105 and 78 Sk 61 (Bulldog) (suitable for light ground attack duties).
   5 hel groups (up to 3-4 aircraft each) with 1 Hkp-2 (Alouette II), 6 Hkp-3 (AB-204B) and 4 Hkp-4B (Vertol 107).
   6 SAM sqns with Bloodhound 2.
   There is a fully computerized, fully automatic control and air surveillance system, Stril 60, co-ordinating all air defence components.
RESERVES: Voluntary defence organizations, 500,000.
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 6,500,000.
Military service: 4 months initial training, followed by refresher training of three weeks a year for 8 years, two weeks for 3 years and one week for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 3,500 regulars and 30,000 conscripts (total mobilizable strength 600,000; militia can be fully mobilized within 48 hours).
Estimated GNP 1972: $30.6 billion.
Defence budget 1973:2,309 million francs ($799 million). 3.75 francs =$1 1July 1972. 2.89 francs= $1.1July 1973.
Army: 1,500 regular cadre (including Air Defence troops): 27,500 conscripts; 526,500 militia.
   1 corps (Alpine defence) of 3 mountain divisions.
   3 corps, each of an armoured division and 2 infantry divisions.
   17 frontier, fortress or 'redoubt' brigades.
   300 Centurion and 260 Pz-61/68 med tks; 200 AMX-13 lt tks; 1,250 M-113 APC; 150 155mm SP how; 900105mm guns and how.
Air Force:* 2,000 regular; 2,500 conscripts; 40,000 militia (maintenance is by civilians); 285 combat aircraft.
   * Swiss Air Force and Air Defence Troops are an integral part of the army, but are listed separately for purposes of comparison.
   11 FB squadrons with 165 Venom FB 50.
   2 interceptor squadrons with 30Mirage IIIS.
   5 FGA squadrons with 75 Hunter F-58 (with Sidewinder AAM). (30 more Hunters on order.)
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 15 Mirage IIIRS.
   28 transport aircraft.
   100 Alouette II/III hel.
   2 SAM battalions with Bloodhound.
   45 AA batteries with Oerlikon twin 35mm cannon.
RESERVES: 566,500.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 21,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 15 months; Navy, 18 months.
Total armed forces: 240,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $12.83 billion.
Defence budget 1973:12.8 billion dinars ($826 million). 16.5 dinars=$1 1July 1972. 15.5 dinars = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 200,000.
   1 tank division.
   10 infantry divisions.
   9 armoured brigades.
   24 independent infantry brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   Several hundred T-54/55, T-34 and M-47 and about 650 M-4 med tks; some PT-76 lt tks;
   M-3, BTR-50P, BTR-60P, BTR-152 and M-590 APC;
   SU-100 SP guns; 105mm and 155mm how;
   50mm, 57mm, 75mm and 76mm ATk guns;
   ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SA-2 SAM.
Navy: 20,000.
   5 submarines.
   1 destroyer.
   19 coastal escorts.
   30 MCM ships.
   10 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   80 patrol torpedo boats (55 less than 100 tons).
   30 landing craft.
   1 marine infantry brigade.
   25 coastal artillery batteries.
Air Force: 20,000; 342 combat aircraft. (A combat squadron has about 15 aircraft.)
   12 FGA sqns with F-84, Kraguj and Jastreb.
   8 fighter sqns with 50 F-86D/E and 82 MiG-21.
   2 reconnaissance sqns with RT-33.
   25 Li-2,Beaver and C-47 and 13 Il-14 tpts.
   60 Galeb trainers.
   15 Whirlwind, 18 Mi-4 and Mi-8, and 5 Alouette III helicopters (130 SA-341 Gazelle on order).
   8 SAM batteries with SA-2.
Para-Military Forces: 19,000 Frontier Guards;
   1,000,000 Territorial defence force (planned to increase to 3,000,000).
  

The Middle East and the Mediterranean

   Bilateral Agreements with External Powers
   The Soviet Union has military assistance agreements and a 15-year treaty of friendship and co-operation, signed in May 1971, with Egypt. A similar treaty, though with less comprehensive defence provisions, was concluded with Iraq in April 1972. Important military assistance has also been provided to Algeria, Sudan, Syria and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. The United States has varying types of security assistance agreements and provides significant military aid on either a grant or credit basis to Greece, Turkey, Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Israel. She provides, in addition, a significant amount of military equipment on a cash sales basis to many countries, notably Spain, Israel, Iran and Jordan. For grant military aid purposes Turkey is considered a forward defence area, and Spain is considered a base rights country under a basing agreement concluded in August 1970. A naval facilities agreement was signed with Bahrain in late 1971. Communications bases are maintained in Morocco under informal arrangements.
   Britain has defence commitments to Cyprus and is responsible for the defence of Gibraltar. A new seven-year agreement with Malta, signed on 26 March 1972, permits Britain to base forces on the island for British and NATO purposes. Britain concluded treaties of friendship with Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates in August 1971 and is also an important arms supplier for Iran, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman and Jordan. The People's Republic of China has supplied arms to Albania and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.
   France has a pilot-training agreement with Morocco and supplies arms to a number of countries, particularly Libya.
   Multilateral Agreements including External Powers
   The members of the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) are Britain, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, with the United States as an associate. All sit on the Military, Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees and on the Permanent Military Deputies Group. The Treaty provides for mutual cooperation for security and defence but has no central command structure nor forces allocated to it. For the local powers, the economic organization of Regional Co-operation for Development (RCD), which has evolved independently out of CENTO, could become more important.
   Arrangements within the Region (between Arab States)
   Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen are members of the League of Arab States. Among its subsidiary bodies are the Arab Defence Council, set up in 1950, and the Unified Arab Command, organized in 1964.
   Defence agreements were concluded by Egypt with Syria in November 1966 and Jordan in May 1967, to which Iraq later acceded. These arrangements provided for the establishment of a Defence Council and a Joint Command. The loosely associated Eastern Front Command, comprising Iraq, Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Army and Syria, was reorganized in December 1970 into separate Jordanian and Syrian commands. Iraq and Syria concluded defence pacts in May 1968 and July 1969. The Federation of Arab Republics formed by Libya, Syria and Egypt in April 1971, provides for a common defence policy and a Federal Defence Council. The proposed union between Egypt and Libya, announced in August 1972 and to be effective in September 1973, could, if it takes place, presumably affect existing defence arrangements.

Ближний Восток и Средиземноморье

   Двусторонние соглашения с внешними державами
   Советский Союз имеет соглашения о военной помощи и 15-летний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве, подписанный в мае 1971 года с Египтом. Аналогичный договор, хотя и с менее всеобъемлющими оборонными положениями, был заключен с Ираком в апреле 1972 года. Важная военная помощь была также оказана Алжиру, Судану, Сирии и Йеменской Народно-Демократической Республике. Соединенные Штаты имеют различные виды соглашений об оказании помощи в обеспечении безопасности и предоставляют значительную военную помощь на безвозмездной или кредитной основе Греции, Турции, Португалии, Испании, Марокко, Тунису, Ливану, Иордании, Саудовской Аравии и Израилю. Кроме того, они предоставляет значительное количество военного оборудования на основе продажи многим странам, в частности Испании, Израилю, Ирану и Иордании. Для целей предоставления военной помощи Турция считается передовой зоной обороны, а Испания считается страной с базовыми правами в соответствии с соглашением о базировании, заключенным в августе 1970 года. В конце 1971 года с Бахрейном было подписано соглашение о военно-морских объектах. В Марокко базы связи поддерживаются в рамках неофициальных договоренностей.
   Великобритания имеет оборонные обязательства перед Кипром и отвечает за оборону Гибралтара. Новое семилетнее соглашение с Мальтой, подписанное 26 марта 1972 года, позволяет Великобритании базировать силы на острове для британских целей и целей NATO. В августе 1971 года Великобритания заключила договоры о дружбе с Бахрейном, Катаром и Объединенными Арабскими Эмиратами, а также является важным поставщиком оружия для Ирана, Кувейта, Бахрейна, Катара, Объединенных Арабских Эмиратов, Саудовской Аравии, Омана и Иордании. Китайская народная республика поставила оружие Албании и Йеменской Народно-Демократической Республике.
   Франция заключила с Марокко соглашение о подготовке и поставляет оружие в ряд стран, в частности в Ливию.
   Многосторонние соглашения, включая внешние державы
   Членами Организации Центрального Договора (CENTO) являются Великобритания, Иран, Пакистан и Турция, с Соединенными Штатами в качестве ассоциированного члена. Имеются военный, экономический и борьбы с подрывной деятельностью комитеты и постоянная военная группа депутатов. Договор предусматривает взаимное сотрудничество в области безопасности и обороны, но не имеет центральной структуры командования и выделенных ему сил. Для стран экономическая организация регионального сотрудничества в целях развития (RCD), возникшая в результате деятельности CENTO, может сегодня иметь более важное значение.
   Договоренности в регионе (между арабскими государствами)
   Алжир, Бахрейн, Египет, Ирак, Иордания, Йемен, Катар, Кувейт, Ливан, Ливия, Марокко, Объединенные Арабские Эмираты, Оман, Саудовская Аравия, Судан, Сирия, Тунис и Народно-Демократическая Республика являются членами Лиги арабских государств. В число его вспомогательных органов входят Совет обороны арабских государств, созданный в 1950 году, и Объединенное арабское командование, созданное в 1964 году.
   Оборонные соглашения были заключены Египтом с Сирией в ноябре 1966 года и Иорданией в мае 1967 года, к которым позднее присоединился Ирак. Эти меры предусматривали создание Совета обороны и Объединенного командования. Свободно ассоциированное командование Восточного фронта в составе Ирака, Иордании, Армии Освобождения Палестины и Сирии было реорганизовано в декабре 1970 года в отдельные иорданские и сирийские командования. Ирак и Сирия заключили договоры об обороне в мае 1968 года и июле 1969 года. Федерация арабских республик, образованная Ливией, Сирией и Египтом в апреле 1971 года, предусматривает общую оборонную политику и Федеральный Совет обороны. Предложенный союз между Египтом и Ливией, объявленный в августе 1972 года и вступивший в силу в сентябре 1973 года, может, если он будет иметь место, предположительно, влиять на существующие оборонные договоренности.
  
   ALGERIA
Population: 15,700,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 63,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $5.5 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1972: 450 million dinars ($100 million). 4.5 dinars=$1 1July 1972. 3.72 dinars = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 55,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   4 motorized infantry brigades.
   3 independent tank battalions.
   50 independent infantry battalions.
   1 parachute battalion.
   12 companies of desert troops.
   5 independent artillery battalions,
   5 AA battalions.
   3 engineer battalions.
   100 T-34, 300 T-54/55 med tks; 50 AMX-13 lt tks; 350 BTR-152 APC; 85 SU-100 and 15 JSU-152 SP guns;
   85mm guns; 122mm and 152mm how; 140mm and 240mm RL; 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 50,000.
Navy: 3,500.
   6 SO-1 submarine chasers.
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   6 Komar- and 3 Osa-class FPB with Styx SSM.
   12 P-6 torpedo boats.
RESERVES: 9,000.
Air Force: 4,500; 206 combat aircraft.
   2 lt bomber sqns with 30 Il-28.
   2 interceptor sqns with 35 MiG-21.
   1 FGA sqn with 20 Su-7.
   4 FGA sqns with 70 MiG-17.
   2 FGA sqns with 25 MiG-15.
   2 COIN sqns with 26 Magister.
   1 transport sqn with 8 An-12 and 5 Il-18.
   4 hel sqns with 4 Mi-1, 42 Mi-4, 6 Hughes 269A and 5 SA-330.
   1 SAM battalion with SA-2.
RESERVES: 3,000.
Para-Military Forces:10,000 Gendarmerie with 50 AML armoured cars.
  
   EGYPT
Population: 35,700,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 298,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $7.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74; £E 700 million ($1,737 million). £E 0.43=$1 1July 1972. £E 0.403=$1 1July1973.
Army: 260,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   3 mechanized infantry divisions.
   5 infantry divisions.
   2 independent armoured brigades.
   2 independent infantry brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   6 artillery brigades.
   26 commando battalions.
   30 JS-3 hy tks; 1,650 T-54/55, 100 T-62 and 100 T-34 med tks; 75 PT-76 lt tks;
   2,000 BTR-40, BTR-50P, BTR-60P, OT-64 and BTR-152 APC;
   about 150 SU-100 and JSU-152 SP guns; about 750 122mm, 130mm and 152mm guns and how; 40 203mm how;
   about 900 57mm, 85mm and 100mm ATk guns; Snapper ATGW; 24 FROG-3, some FROG-7 and 100 Samlet SSM;
   ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SA-7 Strela SAM.
RESERVES: about 500,000.
Navy: 15,000 (including coastguard).
   12 submarines (6 W- and 6 R-class - ex-Soviet).
   5 destroyers (including 4 ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   4 escorts (ex-British).
   1 corvette (ex-Soviet).
   12 SO-1 submarine chasers (ex-Soviet).
   10 fleet minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   12 Osa- and 7 Komar-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   36 motor torpedo boats (most less than 100 tons).
   14 landing craft.
   RESERVES: about 14,000.
Air Force: 23,000; 620 combat aircraft.* (* Including 200 aircraft estimated to be in storage.)
   25 Tu-16 Badger medium bombers.
   5 Il-28 Beagle light bombers.
   210 MiG-21 Fishbed interceptors.
   80 Su-7 Fitter fighter-bombers.
   100 MiG-17 Fresco fighter-bombers.
   200 MiG, Yak and L-29 trainers.
   About 50 Il-14 It and 20 An-12 med tpts.
   190 Mi-1, Mi-4, Mi-6 and Mi-8 helicopters.
Air defence is provided by 130 SAM sites, each of 6 SA-2, SA-3 and some SA-6 launchers;
   20mm, 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns;
   all integrated, through a warning and command network, with 9 Air Force squadrons of MiG-21MF interceptors.
RESERVES: about 20,000.
Para-Military Forces: about 100,000 National Guard, including Frontier Corps, Defence and Security.
  
   IRAN
Population: 30,805,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 211,500.
Estimated GNP 1972: $15.09 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 136,340 million rials ($2,010 million). 76.6 rials =$1 1July 1972. 67.83 rials = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 160,000.
   3 armoured divisions.
   2 infantry divisions.
   4 indep bdes (2 inf, 1 AB, 1 special force).
   1 SAM battalion with HAWK.
   60 Chieftain,400 M-47 and 460 M-60A1 med tks; about 2,000 M-113, BTR-50 and BTR-60 APC;
   130mm and 155mm guns; 75mm, 105mm and 155mm how; 40mm, 57mm and 85mm AA guns;
   SS-11, SS-12, TOW ATGW; HAWK SAM;
   (740 Chieftain tks; 155mm, 175mm SP guns and 203mm how on order.)
   About 30 lt ac, incl C-45, Li-8, Cessna 185, O-2A.
   20 Huskie, 59 AB-206A and 3 CH-47C hel (46 AB-205A on order).
RESERVES: 300,000.
Navy: 11,500.
   3 destroyers.
   4 frigates with Seakiller SSM and Seacat SAM.
   4 corvettes (2 in reserve).
   10 patrol boats.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   4 landing craft.
   8 SRN-6 and 2 BH-7 Wellington hovercraft.
   1 sqn with 4 AB-205A, 6 AB-212 and 6 SH-3D hel.
   (6 P-3C Orion MR ac, 202 AH-1J hel and 4 BH-7 hovercraft on order.)
Air Force: 40,000; 159 combat aircraft.
   2 FB sqns with 64 F-4D/E with Sidewinder and Sparrow AAM (70 more F-4E on order.)
   6 FB sqns with 80 F-5A (141 F-5E on order.)
   1 recce sqn with 15 RT-33.
   1 med tpt sqn with 35 C-130E. (20 C-130H, 4 F.28 and 6 Boeing 707-320C tankers on order.)
   2 lt tpt sqns with 12 F-27 and 6 DHC-2 Beaver.
   20 Huskie, 5 AB-206A, 5 AB-212 and 4 CH-47C hel (287 UH-1H/214A Huey Plus on order).
RESERVES: 15,000.
Para-Military Forces: 70,000 Gendarmerie with armoured cars, light aircraft and helicopters; one naval battalion with 40 patrol boats.
  
   IRAQ
Population: 10,142,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 101,800.
Estimated GNP 1972: $3.5 billion.
   Estimated defence expenditure 1972: 102 million dinars ($338 million). 0.33dinars=$1 1July 1972. 0.302 dinars =$1 J July 1973.
Army: 90,000.
   1 armoured division of 2 armd bdes and 1 mech bde.
   2 inf divs, each of 1 mech and 3 inf bdes.
   1 Republican Guard mech bde.
   2 special forces bdes.
   900 T-54/55 and 90 T-34 med tks; 45 PT-76, 30 M-24 lt tks; about 1,300 APC, incl 600 BTR-152;
   700 75mm, 85mm, 100mm, 120mm, 130mm and 152mm guns; 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 250,000.
Navy: 2,000.
   3 SO-1 submarine chasers.
   2 minesweepers.
   3 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   12 P-6 torpedo boats. .
   10 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 9,800; 224 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber sqn with 8 Tu-16.
   3 fighter-bomber sqns with 60 Su-7.
   2 FGA sqns with 36 Hunter.
   5 interceptor sqns with 90 MiG-21.
   3 fighter sqns with 30 MiG-17.
   2 tpt sqns with 27 An-2, An-12, An-24, Il-14, Tu-124 and Heron.
   35 Mi-4, 29 Mi-8 and 5 Alouette III hel.
   SA-2 and SA-3 SAM.
RESERVES: 18,000.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000 National Guard, 4,800 security troops and 4-5,000 others.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 3,180,000.
Military service: men 36 months, women 20 months (Jews and Druse only; Moslem and Christian may volunteer).
   Annual training for reservists thereafter to age limits.
Total armed forces: 30,000 regular, 85,000 conscripts; (mobilization to about 300,000 in 72 hours).
Estimated GNP 1972: $6.85 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 6,180 million Israeli pounds (51,474 million). 4.25 Israeli pounds= $1 1July 1972. 4.19 Israeli pounds=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 11,500 regular, 83,000 conscripts (including 12,000 women); 275,000 on mobilization.
   10 armoured brigades.*
   9 mechanized brigades.*
   9 infantry brigades.*
   5 parachute brigades.*
   (* 7 (2 armd, 3 inf, 2 para) at full strength; 5 (1 armd, 4 mech) at about 50%; rest at cadre strength.)
   3 artillery brigades.
   About 1,700 med tks, incl 400 M-48 (with 105mm guns), 250 Ben Gurion (Centurion with French 105mm gun), 600 Centurion,
   200 Merman (with 105mm gun) and Super Sherman, 100 TI-67 (T-54/55 with 105mm gun) and some 150 M-60 med tks;
   about 3,000 AFV, incl AML-60, 15 AML-90 and some Staghound armd cars;
   about 1,000 M-2 and M-3 half-tracks, and 450 M-113 APC;
   350 105mm and 155mm, and some 175mm SP how; 155mm how on Sherman chassis; 900 120mm and 160mm mortars on AMX chassis;
   122mm guns and how; 130mm guns; 240mm RL (captured equipment);
   About 50 90mm SP ATk guns and 106mm jeep mounted recoilless rifles; Cobra, and weapons carrier-mounted SS-10/11 ATGW;
   about 300 20mm, 30mm and 40mm AA guns.
   (The 280-mile range MD-660 Jericho SSM is believed to be in production, but has not yet been reported deployed operationally.)
RESERVES: 180,000.
Navy: 3,500 regular, 1,000 conscripts; 5,000 on mobilization.
   3 submarines (2 in reserve, 3 more on order).
   1 destroyer (plus 1 awaiting disposal).
   1 Reshef-class FPB (with Gabriel SSM).
   12 Saar-class FPB (with Gabriel SSM).
   9 motor torpedo boats.
   23 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   9 landing craft (3 less than 100 tons).
   Naval commandos: 300.
Air Force: 15,000 regular, 1,000 conscripts; 20,000 on mobilization; 488 combat aircraft.
   12 Vautour light bombers (in storage).
   95 F-4E fighter-bomber/interceptors.
   35 Mirage IIIB/C fighter-bomber/interceptors (some with R530 AAM).
   160 A-4E/H Skyhawk fighter-bombers.
   24 Barak fighters.
   18 Super Mystere B.2 interceptors.
   6 RF-4E reconnaissance aircraft.
   23 Mystere IV A fighter bombers (in reserve).
   30 Ouragan FB (used mainly for training).
   85 Magister trainers (limited FGA capability).
   10 Stratocruiser transports (incl 2 tankers).
   20 Noratlas, 10 C-47, 2 C-130E transports.
   12 Super Frelon, 12 CH-53G, 20 AB-205A, 25
   UH-1D Iroquois and 5 Alouette II helicopters.
   10 SAM batteries with 60 HAWK.
Para-Military Forces: 4,000 Border Guards and 5,000 Nahal militia.
  
   JORDAN
Population: 2,560,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 72,850.
Estimated GNP 1972: $686 million.
Defence budget 1972: 42.9 million dinars ($1 19.2 million). 0.36 dinar=$1 1July 1972. 0.32 dinar= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 68,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   1 mechanized division.
   2 infantry divisions.
   1 independent infantry brigade.
   1 special forces battalion.
   3 artillery regiments.
   200 M-47, M-48 and M-60 and 220 Centurion med tks; 130 Saladin armd cars; 140 Ferret scout cars;
   280 M-113 and 120 Saracen APC; 110 25-pdr, 50 105mm and 155mm how; 10 155mm guns; 350 81mm mor;
   200 M-42 40mm SP AA guns.
Navy: 250.
   8 small patrol craft.
Air Force: 4,600; 52 combat aircraft.
   2 FGA squadrons with 32 Hunter.
   1 interceptor squadron with 20 F-104A.
   (36 F-5E on order.)
   4 C-47, 2 Dove, 2 Packet and 1 Falcon tpts.
   3 Whirlwind and 6 Alouette III helicopters.
RESERVES: 20,000.
Para-Military Forces: 22,000: 7,000 Public Security Force; 15,000 Civil Militia.
  
   LEBANON
Population: 3,009,000.
Military service: voluntary (proposals have been made to introduce compulsory military training).
Total armed forces: 15,250.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.88 billion.
   Estimated defence expenditure 1972: PL 225 million ($75 million). PL 3= $1 1July 1972. PL 2.38= $1 1July 1973..
Army: 14,000.
   1 infantry brigade with 3 infantry battalions,
   1 tank battalion, 1 artillery battalion.
   1 tank battalion.
   2 reconnaissance battalions.
   1 commando battalion.
   6 infantry battalions.
   2 artillery battalions.
   1 AA battalion.
   60 Charioteer med tks; 40 AMX-13 and 20 M-41 lt tks; about 100 M-706, M-6 and AEC Mk 3 armd cars; 20 M-113, some M-59 APC;
   6 75mm guns; 24 122mm, 20 155mm how; 80 81mm, 25 120mm mor; 15 M-42 40mm SP AA guns.
Navy: 250.
   1 patrol vessel.
   4 small inshore patrol craft.
   1 landing craft.
Air Force: 1,000; 18 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA sqn with 8 Hunter.
   1 interceptor squadron with 10 Mirage IIID with R-530 AAM.
   1 hel sqn with 4 Alouette II and 10 Alouette III.
   Some French early warning/ground control radars.
Para-Military Forces:5,000 Gendarmerie.
  
   LIBYA
Population: 2,160,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 25,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $4.59 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 43 million Libyan dinars ($145 million). 0.33 Libyan dinar="$1 1July 1972. 0.296 Libyan dinar= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 20,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   2 mechanized infantry brigades.
   1 National Guard brigade.
   1 commando battalion.
   3 artillery battalions.
   2 anti-aircraft artillery battalions.
   6 Centurion Mk5, 200T-54/55 and 15 T-34 med tks;
   40 Saladin armd cars; Shorland and Ferret scout cars; BTR-60, Saracen and 170 M-113A1 APC;
   70 122mm, 75 105mm and 30 155mm how; 300 Vigilant ATGW; L40/70 Bofors AA guns.
   5 AB-206, 7 OH-13 and 4 Alouette III helicopters.
Navy: 2,000.
   1 frigate.
   1 corvette.
   3 FPB each with 8 SS-12 (M) SSM.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   8 patrol craft.
   1 logistics support ship.
Air Force: 3,000; 44 combat aircraft.
   1 interceptor squadron with 9 F-5A.
   2 fighter squadrons with 35 Mirage IIIB/E.
   8 C-130E and 9 C-47 medium transports.
   3 T-33 trainers.
   2 AB-206 3 OH-13, 10 Alouette III and 9 Super Frelon helicopters.
   (About 65 of a total order of 110 Mirage IIIB/E/R and Khave been delivered.).
  
   MOROCCO
Population: 16,300,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 56,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $4.46 billion.
Defence budget 1972: 568 million dirham ($123.5 million). 4.6 dirham= $1 1July 1972. 3.9 dirham= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 50,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   3 motorized infantry brigades.
   1 light security brigade.
   1 parachute brigade.
   9 independent infantry battalions.
   1 Royal Guards battalion.
   5 camel corps battalions.
   3 desert cavalry battalions.
   5 artillery groups.
   2 engineer battalions.
   120 T-54 med tks; 120 AMX-13 lt tks; 36 EBR-75, 50 AML-245 and M-8 armd cars; 40 M-3 halftrack and 95 Czech APC;
   25 SU-100, AMX-105 and 50 M-56 90mm SP guns; 100 76mm, 85mm and 105mm guns; 75mm and 105mm how;
   82mm and 120mm mortars; 50 37mm and 100mm AA guns; 3 Alouette III hel.
   DEPLOYMENT: Syria: armd bde elements.
Navy: 2,000 (including 500 marines).
   1 frigate.
   2 coastal escorts.
   1 patrol boat.
   12 patrol boats (less than 100tons).
   1 landing craft.
Air Force: 4,000; 48 combat aircraft.
   2 interceptor sqns with 20 F-5A and 4 F-5B.
   2 FGA sqns with 24 Magister.
   2 transport sqns with 10 C-47 and 11 C-119.
   35 T-6 and 25 T-28 trainers.
   12 AB-205A, 4 HH-43B and 4 Alouette III hel.
   (12 MiG-17 fighter-bombers are in storage.)
Para-Military Forces: 23,000: 8,000 Gendarmerie, including 2 mobile security battalions; 15,000 Auxiliaries.
  
   OMAN
Population: 710,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 9,600.* (* Including some 600 expatriate personnel of several nationalities serving on contract or on secondment.)
Defence budget 1973: 25.5 million rial saidi ($77.5 million). 0.413 rial saidi= $1 1July 1972. 0.329 rial saidi= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 9,000.
   4 infantry battalions.
   1 frontier force battalion.
   1 armoured cavalry squadron.
   1 artillery regiment.
   Saladin armoured cars; 75mm pack how; 25-pdr and 5.5 inch guns.
Navy: 200.
   1 fast patrol boat (2 more to be delivered in 1973).
   3 armed motorized dhows.
   1 patrol vessel (yacht).
Air Force: 400 (including 160 contract personnel); 12 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA squadron with 12 BAC-I67.
   1 air support squadron with 3 Caribou and 10 Skyvan (2 more Skyvan on order.)
   1 hel sqn with 8 AB-205 and 4 AB-206A (3 more AB-205A on loan from Iran).
   1 transport flight with 3 Viscount.
Para-Military Forces: 2,000; about 900 gendarmerie; about 1,000 irregulars.
  
   SAUDI ARABIA
Population: 8,400,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 42,500.
Estimated GNP 1972: $5.2 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: saudi riyals 3,990 million ($1,090 million). 4.2 riyals = $1 1July 1972. 3.66 riyals = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 36,000.
   4 infantry brigades.
   1 armoured battalion.
   1 reconnaissance battalion.
   1 parachute battalion.
   1 Royal Guard battalion.
   3 artillery battalions.
   3 AA battalions.
   10 SAM batteries with HAWK.
   25 M-47 med tks; 60 M-41 lt tks; 200 AML-60 and AML-90, some Staghound and Greyhound armd cars; Ferret scout cars;
   field guns; AA guns; HAWK SAM.
   (30 AMX-30 tks on order.)
   DEPLOYMENT: 4,000 in Jordan.
Navy: 1,000. .
   2 torpedo boats.
   1 motor gunboat.
   2 utility craft.
   9 patrol boats (coastguard).
   8 SRN-6 hovercraft (coastguard).
Air Force: 5,500; 70 combat aircraft.
   2 FB sqns with 15 F-86F (140 F-5 and 30 F-4 on order).
   2 FGA sqns with 20 BAC-167 (10 more on order).
   2 interceptor sqns with 35 F-52/F-53 Lightning.
   2 tpt sqns with 10 C-130 and 2 C-140B (4 C-130E on order).
   2 hel sqns with 1 Alouette III, 1 AB-204, 8 AB-205 and 20 AB-206.
   1 T-33 trainer, 1 Cessna 310K and 6 172G lt ac.
   37 Thunderbird Mk. 1 SAM.
Para-Military Forces: 3,500 National Guard (formerly known as the 'White Army'), organized into regular and semi-regular battalions;
   6,500 Coastguard and Frontier Force.
  
   SUDAN
Population: 17,000,000
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 38,600.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.9 billion.
Defence budget 1971T72: £Sudan 50 million ($143 million). £Sudan 0.35=$1 1 July 1971. £Sudan 0.35=$1 1 July 1972.
Army: 37,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   7 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   3 artillery regiments.
   3 air defence artillery regiments.
   1 engineer regiment.
   20 T-34/85, 60 T-54, 50 T-55 and some T-59 med tks; 16 T-62 lt tks (Chinese);
   50 Saladin and 45 Commando armd cars; 60 Ferret scout cars;
   50 BTR-50 and 50 BTR-152, 49 Saracen and 60 OT-64 APC; 55 25-pounder,
   40 105mm and some 122mm guns and how; 30 120mm mortars; some 85mm ATk guns;
   80 Bofors 40mm and some Soviet 37mm and 85mm AA guns.
Navy: 600.
   6 coastal patrol boats
   2 landing craft Hex-Yugoslav).
Air Force: 1,000; 50 combat aircraft.
   20 MiG-21 interceptors.
   17 MiG-17 fighter-bombers (ex-Chinese).
   5 BAC-145 Mk 5 and 8 Jet Provost Mk 52 light attack aircraft.
   3 Pembroke and 5 AN-24 transports.
   10 Mi-8 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 5,000: 500 National Guard; 4,500 Border Guard.
  
   SYRIA
Population: 6,775,000.
Military service: 30 months.
Total armed forces: 132,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.93 billion.
Defence budget 1973: £Syr 800 million ($216 million). £Syrian 4.32=$1 1 July 1972. £Syrian 3.71=$1 1 July 1973.
Army: 120,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   3 infantry divisions.
   1 armoured brigade.
   1 mechanized brigade.
   1 infantry brigade.
   2 commando brigades.
   1 reconnaissance battalion.
   3 parachute battalions.
   7 artillery regiments.
   12 SAM batteries with SA-2 and SA-3.
   About 30 JS-3 hy tks; 240 T-34 and 900 T-54/55 med tks; 100 PT-76 lt tks; 75 SU-100 SP guns;
   1,000 BTR-50/60, BTR-152 APC; 122mm, 130 mm and 152mm guns; ATGW;
   37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns; SA-2, SA-3 and SA-7 Strela SAM.
   RESERVES: 200,000.
Navy: 2,000.
   3 minesweepers (ex-Soviet T-43 class).
   2 submarine chasers (ex-French CH-class).
   2 coastal patrol vessels.
   6 Komar-and Osa-class FPB with Styx SSM.
   12 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   (1 destroyer, 2 submarines and some torpedo and patrol boats to be delivered.)
RESERVES: 3,500.
Air Force: 10,000 men; 326 combat aircraft.
   Some Il-28 lt bombers.
   80 MiG-17 day fighter/ground attack aircraft.
   30 Su-7 fighter-bombers.*
   200 MiG-21 interceptors.* (* Some are in storage.)
   8 Il-14 and 3 C-47 transports.
   About 50 hel, including 4 Mi-1, 8 Mi-4 and 22 Mi-8.
Para-Military Forces: 9,500: 8,000 Gendarmerie; 1,500 Desert Guard (Frontier Force).
  
   TUNISIA
Population: 5,500,000.
Military service: 1 year (selective).
Total armed forces: 24,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $2.08 billion.
Defence budget 1972:13.8 million dinars. ($28.7 million). 0.48 dinars=$1 1July 1972. 0.386 dinars = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 20,000.
   1 armoured battalion.
   5 infantry battalions.
   1 commando battalion.
   1 Sahara battalion.
   1 artillery battalion.
   1 engineer battalion.
   About 30 AMX-13 and 20 M-41 lt tks; 20 Saladin and some M-8 armd cars;
   10 105mm SP and 10 155mm guns; 60mm and 81mm mortars; 40mm Bofors AA guns.
Navy: 2,000.
   1 corvette.
   3 coastal escorts.
   4 patrol boats with SS-12 (M) SSM.
   8 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 2,000; 12 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter sqn with 12F-86.
   3 Flamant light transports.
   8 MB-326,12 T-6 and 12 SAAB 91D trainers.
   6 Alouette II and 8 Alouette III hel.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000; 5,000 Gendarmerie organized in 6 battalions; 5,000 National Guard.
  
   YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 7,000,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total regular forces: 20,900.
Estimated GNP 1970: $460 million.
   Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 16.3 million riyals ($13 million). 1.25 riyal=$1 1July 1970.
Army: 20,000.
   6 infantry brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   1 commando brigade.
   2 armoured battalions.
   1 Republican Guard battalion.
   2 artillery battalions.
   1 AA battalion.
   30 T-34 med tks; 70 BTR-40 APC; 50 76mm guns; 50 SU-100 SP guns; 100 AA guns.
Navy: 300.
   5 P-4 class FPB (ex-Soviet).
   2 landing craft.
Air Force: 600; 28 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter sqn with 12 MiG-17.
   1 light bomber sqn with 16 Il-28.
   1 tpt sqn with C-47, Il-14.
   1 hel sqn with Mi-4.
Para-Military Forces
:20,000 tribal levies.
  
   YEMEN--PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (SOUTH)
Population: 1,560,000.
Military service: conscription, term unknown.
Total armed forces: 9,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $140 million.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 6.5 million South Yemeni dinar ($ 15.5 million). SYD 0.417=511July 1970. SYD 0.417= $11July 1971.
Army: 8,800.
   6 infantry brigades, each of 3 battalions.
   1 armoured battalion.
   1 artillery brigade.
   1 signals unit.
   1 training battalion.
   50 T-34, T-54 med tks; some artillery.
Navy: 200 (subordinate to Army).
   2 submarine chasers (ex-Soviet SO-I-class).
   2 minesweepers.
   3 landing craft (medium).
Air Force: 500; about 20 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 15 MiG-17.
   1 COIN sqn with 4 BAC-167 and 8 Jet Provost.
   1 tpt sqn with 4 C-47 and 4 DHC Beaver.
   1 hel sqn with 6 Bell 47G.
   (12 MiG-21 on order.)
   For the armed forces of smaller states see table overleaf.
  
   OTHER MIDDLE EAST
    []
  

Sub-Saharan Africa*

   Multilateral Agreements
   The Organization of African Unity (OAU), constituted in May 1963, includes all internationally recognized independent African states except South Africa. It has a Defence Commission responsible for defence and security co-operation, and the defence of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence of its members, but this has rarely met.
   There is a regional defence pact between France, Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic and Chad, and a five-party defence agreement between France, Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Niger and Upper Volta which has set up the Conseil de defense de VAfrique equatoriale.
   Bilateral Agreements
   The United States has varying types of security assistance agreements and provides significant military aid on either a grant or credit basis to Ethiopia and Zaire. For grant military assistance purposes, Ethiopia, where the United States has a large communications centre, is considered a base rights country.
   Though the Soviet Union is not known to have defence agreements with countries in the area, Soviet military assistance has been given to Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria and the Somali Republic.
   China has a military assistance agreement with Congo (Brazzaville) and may have formal arrangements covering military assistance and training with Tanzania.
   Britain maintains defence agreements with Kenya and Mauritius, and an agreement with South Africa covering the use of the Simonstown naval base. France has defence agreements with Cameroon, Gabon, Malagasy Republic, Senegal and Togo; technical military assistance agreements with Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Malagasy Republic, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo and Upper Volta; and mutual facilities agreements with Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mauritania and Niger.
   Portugal directly assures the defence of Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea, and Spain of Spanish Sahara, Ceuta and Melilla. All of these are administratively regarded as overseas provinces except Ceuta and Melilla, which are treated as integral parts of Spain.

Страны Африки к югу от Сахары*

   Многосторонние договора
   В состав Организации африканского единства (ОАЕ), учрежденной в мае 1963 года, входят все международно-признанные независимые африканские государства, за исключением Южной Африки. У нее есть комиссия по обороне, отвечающая за сотрудничество в области обороны и безопасности, а также за защиту суверенитета, территориальной целостности и независимости его членов, но она редко собирается.
   Есть региональный оборонительный пакт между Францией, Конго (Браззавиль), Центральноафриканской Республикой и Чадом, и пятистороннее соглашение об обороне между Францией, Дагомеей, Кот д'Ивуаром, Нигером, Верхней Вольтой, которое создало Совет обороны Экваториальной Африки.
   Двусторонние соглашения
   Соединенные Штаты имеют различные виды соглашений об оказании помощи в обеспечении безопасности и предоставляют значительную военную помощь Эфиопии и Заиру на безвозмездной или кредитной основе. Для целей предоставления военной помощи Эфиопия, где Соединенные Штаты имеют крупный центр связи, считается страной, обладающей базовыми правами.
   Хотя Советский Союз, как известно, не имеет соглашений об обороне со странами региона, советская военная помощь была оказана Гвинее, Мали, Мавритании, Нигерии и Сомалийской Республике.
   Китай имеет соглашение о военной помощи с Конго (Браззавиль) и может иметь официальные договоренности, охватывающие военную помощь и подготовку с Танзанией.
   Великобритания поддерживает оборонные соглашения с Кенией и Маврикием, а также соглашение с Южной Африкой, охватывающее использование военно-морской базы Симонстаун. Франция оборонных соглашений с Камеруном, Габоном, Малагасийской Республикой, Сенегалом и Того; военно-технической помощи соглашения с Камеруном, Центральноафриканской Республикой, Чадом, Конго (Браззавиль), Дагомеей, Габоном, Кот-д'Ивуаром, Малагасийской Республикой, Мавританией, Нигером, Сенегалом, Того и Верхней Вольтой; и договоры о взаимных услугах с Дагомеей, Габоном, Кот-д'Ивуаром, Мавританией и Нигером.
   Португалия непосредственно обеспечивает оборону Анголы, Мозамбика и португальской Гвинеи, а Испания - испанской Сахары, Сеуты и Мелильи. Все они административно рассматриваются как заморские провинции, за исключением Сеуты и Мелильи, которые рассматриваются как неотъемлемые части Испании.
  
   ETHIOPIA
Population: 26,500,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 44,570.
Estimated GNP1972: $US 2.07 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72: $E93 million ($US 40.5 million). $E2.5=$1 1July 1971. $E2.3=$1 1July 1972.
Army: 40,940.
   4 infantry divisions of 8,000 men each (incl Imperial Guard).
   1 tank battalion.
   1 airborne infantry battalion.
   4 armoured car squadrons. .
   4 artillery battalions.
   5 air defence batteries.
   2 engineer battalions.
   50 M-41 med tks; 20 M-24 lt tks; about 40 APC; 30 M-9, M-20 and 56 AML-245 armd cars;
   146 M-30 4.2inch mortars; 36 75mm pack how; 52 105mm, 12 155mm guns;
   6 Bell UH-1H hel.
Navy: 1,380.
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   1 training ship (ex-seaplane tender).
   5 patrol boats.
   4 harbour defence craft (less than 100 tons).
   4 landing craft (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 2,250; 37 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber squadron with 4 Canberra B-2.
   1 fighter-bomber squadron with 12 F-86F.
   1 COIN squadron with 6 T-28A.
   1 fighter squadron with 15 F-5A.
   1 tpt sqn with 6 C-47, 2 C-54, 5 C-119G and 3 Dove.
   3 trg sqns with 20 Safir, 15 T- 28A and 11 T-33A.
   5 Alouette II, 2 Mi-6, 2 Mi-8 and 5 AB-204B helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 20,400. Territorial Army active strength, 9,200; mobile emergency police force 6,800; frontier guards 1,200; commando force 3,200.
  
   GHANA
Population: 9,086,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 18,900.
Estimated GNP1972: $2.97 billion.
Defence budget 1971-72:39.5 million cedi ($30,400,000). 1.02 cedi=$l 1July 1971. 1.3 cedi = $1 1July 1972.
Army: 16,000.
   2 brigades comprising 7 inf bns and support units.
   1 mortar regt.
   2 reconnaissance squadrons.
   Saladin armd cars; Ferret scout cars; 76mm guns; heavy mortars.
Navy: 1,300.
   2 corvettes.* (*There is a substantial shortage of spares for all naval craft.)
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   2 inshore minesweepers.
   2 seaward defence vessels.
   3 P-20 class (Soviet-built) patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 1,600; 6 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter sqn with 6 MB-326.
   1 transport squadron with 7 Otter.
   1 transport squadron with 8 Caribou and 3 Heron.
   1 comms and liaison squadron with 11 Beaver.
   1 hel sqn with 5 Whirlwind, 2 Wessex, 3 Sikorsky
   H-19 and 3 Hughes 269A.
   9 Chipmunk trainers.
Para-Military Forces: 3,000; 3 Border Guard bns.
  
   NIGERIA
Population: 59,400,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 157,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $7.6 billion.
   Defence budget 1971-72: £N 87 million ($242,000,000). £N 0.36=$1 1 July 1971. £N 0.33= $1 1 July 1972.
Army: 150,000.
   3 infantry divisions, including 3 reconnaissance regiments, 3 artillery regiments and support units.
   Saladin and 20 AML-60/90 armd cars; Ferret scout cars; Saracen APC; 25-pdr, 76mm, 105mm and 122mm guns.
RESERVES: 100,000.
Navy: 3,000.
   1 ASW frigate.
   2 corvettes
   5 seaward defence boats.
   1 landing craft.
RESERVES: 2,000.
Air Force: 4,000; 38 combat aircraft.
   6 Il-28 medium bombers.
   12 MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   10 L-29 Delfin and 10 P-149D armed trainers.
   2 MiG-15UTI trainers (20 Bulldog on order).
   6 C-47, 6 Fokker F-27 Friendship med tpts; 20
   Do-27/28 comms aircraft.
   8 Whirlwind and Alouette II hel.
  
   RHODESIA
Population: 5,900,000 (260,000 white population).
Military service: 12 months (white population).
Total armed forces: 4,700.
Estimated GNP 1972: $US 1.57 billion.
Defence budget 1972-73: $R 25,917,000 ($US 32 million). $R0.81 =$1 1July 1972. $R 0.672= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 3,500 Regular; 10,000 Territorial Force.
   2 infantry battalions (one has Ferret scout cars).
   2 Special Air Service squadrons.
   1 artillery battery.
   1 engineer squadron.
   20 Ferret scout cars; 25-pdr gun/how, Model 56 105mm pack how.
   There is an establishment for 3 brigades, 2 based on regular infantry battalions, which would be brought up to strength by
   mobilizing the Territorial Force.
Air Force: 1,200;45 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber sqn with 10 Canberra B-2.
   1 FGA sqn with 12 HunterFGA-9.
   1 FGA sqn with 11 Vampire FB-9.
   1 recce sqn with 12 T-52 Jet Provost.
   1 COIN sqn with 7 AL-60 FS and 7 AM-3C.
   1 transport sqn with 4 C-47 and 1 Beech 55Baron.
   3 Canberra T-4 trainers.
   1 helicopter sqn with 8 Alouette III.
RESERVES: 10,000 Territorial Force.
   The white population completing conscript service is assigned for three years' part-time training to territorial units,
   which include active territorial battalions based on the cities and reserve territorial battalions based on country districts.
   Army Reserves; 8 infantry battalions, 1 field artillery regiment and 1 engineer squadron.
   Ground personnel servicing regular Air Force units are reservists or non-white civilians.
Para-Military Forces: The British South African Police (BSAP) 8,000 active; 35,000 reservists.
   The white population forms only about a third of the active strength but nearly three-quarters of the Police Reserves.
  
   SOMALI DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 3,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 17,300.
Estimated GNP 1970: $182 million.
Defence budget 1971: 81.3 million shillings ($11.4 million). 7.14 Somali shillings=$l 1July 1970. 7.14 Somali shillings = $1 1July 1971.
Army: 15,000.
   4 tank battalions.
   9 mechanized infantry battalions.
   1 commando battalion.
   2 field arty battalions.
   5 AA arty battalions.
   About 150T-34 med tks; 60 BTR-40 and 250 BTR-152 APC; 76mm and 100mm guns; 122mm how;
   14.5mm, 37mm and 100mm AA guns.* (* Spares are short and not all equipment is serviceable.)
Navy: 300.*
   4 P-6 and 6 P-4 MTB (ex-Soviet).
Air Force: 2,000; 21 combat aircraft.*
   Some Il-28 light bombers.
   2 MiG-15 and 19 MiG-17 fighters.
   Tpts include 1 C-45, 3 C-47, 3 An-2 and 1 An-24
   2 MiG-15/-17, 10 Piaggio P-148 and Yak trainers.
Para-Military Forces: 3,500; 500 border guards; 3,000 People's Militia.
  
   SOUTH AFRICA
Population: 23,000,000 (4,000,000 white population).
Military service: 9-12 months in Citizen Force.
Total armed forces: 18,000 regular; 92,000 Citizen Force.
Estimated GNP 1972: $21.4 billion.
Defence budget: 1973-74: 481 million rand ($716 million). 0.81 Rand=$1 1July 1972. 0.672 Rand= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 10,000 regular.
   100 Centurion Mark 5, 20 Comet med tks;
   800 AML-60 and AML-90 and 50 M-3 armed cars; 50 Ferret scout cars; 250 Saracen APC.
   3 batteries of Cactus (Crotale) short-range SAM system may now be operational.
RESERVES: 80,000 Citizen Force, in 9 territorial commands.
Navy: 2,500 regular.
   3 submarines.
   2 destroyers with Wasp ASW helicopters.
   6 ASW frigates (3 with Wasp ASW helicopters).
   1 escort minesweeper.
   10 coastal minesweepers.
   5 seaward defence boats.
   1 fleet replenishment tanker.
RESERVES: 9,000 trained reserves in Citizen Force (with 2 frigates and 7 minesweepers).
Air Force: 5,500 regular; 100 combat aircraft.
   1 bbr sqn with 6 Canberra B(I) Mk 12, 3 T Mk 4.
   1 It bomber sqn with 13 Buccaneer SMk.50.
   1 fighter sqn with 18 CL-13B Sabre Mk.6 (being replaced by Mirage).
   1 fighter sqn with 16 Mirage IIIEZ and 4 IIIDZ.
   1 fighter/recce sqn with 16 Mirage IIICZ, 4 IIIBZ and 4 IIIRZ.
   2 MR sqns with 7 Shackleton MR3, 9 Piaggio P-166S Albatross (9 more P-166S on order).
   4 tpt sqns with 7 C-130B, 9 Transall C-160Z, 23 C-47, 5 C-54, 1 Viscount 781 medium and 4 HS-125 Mercurius.
   4 hel sqns: 2 with 20 Alouette III each; 1 with 20 SA-330 Puma; 1 with 15 SA-321L Super Frelon. 1 flight of 5 Wasp (naval-assigned).
   1 lt ac sqn (army-assigned) with Cessna 185A/D and Al 85E (AM-3C will replace).
   Trainers incl Harvard; MB-326M Impala (some armed in a COIN role); Vampire FB Mk 6, Mk 9, T Mk 55; C-47 and Alouette II/III.
RESERVES: 3,000 Active Citizen Force.
   7 sqns with 20 Impala, 100 Harvard IIA, III, T-6G (Texan); 20 Cessna 185A/D,A185E.
   12 Air Kommando sqns (private aircraft).
Para-Military Forces: 75,000 Kommandos organized and trained as a Home Guard.
  
   TANZANIA
Population: 14,380,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 11,600.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.51 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 361 million shillings. ($51.4 million). 7.1 shillings= $1 1July 1972. 7.02 shillings = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 10,000.* (* Spares are short and not all equipment is serviceable.)
   3 infantry battalions.
   20 Chinese T-59 med tks; 14 Chinese T-62 lt tks; some BTR-40 and -152 APC; Chinese mortars;
   6 ex-Soviet 76mm guns; 8 122mm how.
Navy: 600.
   6 patrol boats (ex-Chinese P-6 and Swatow-class).
Air Force: 1,000; no combat aircraft.
   1 An-2, and 12 DHC-4 Caribou transports.
   7 Piaggio P-149D trainers.
   (1 sqn of 12 MiG-17 to be delivered in 1973.)
Para-Military Forces: A police marine unit.
  
   UGANDA
Population: 10,750,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 12,600.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.44 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971-73: 187,255,000 shillings ($26.4 million). 7.1 shillings = $1 1July 1972. 7.02 shillings=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 12,000.
   2 brigades each of 3 infantry battalions.
   1 border guard battalion.
   1 mechanized battalion.
   2 parachute/commando battalions.
   1 artillery regiment.
   12 M-4 med tanks; 15 Ferret scout cars; 20 BTR-40, BTR-152, 36 OT-64B APC (perhaps half are operational).
Air Force: 600; 21 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter squadron with 7 MiG-15 and MiG-17.
   14 Magister armed trainers.
   1 Caribou transport; P-149D and 12 L-29 Delfin trainers; 10 Piper light aircraft.
   2 AB-206 and 2 Scout helicopters.
  
   ZAIRE REPUBLIC
Population: 24,400,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 50,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $2.3 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 42 million zaires ($84 million). 0.5 zaires =$1 1July 1970. 0.5 zaires = $1 1July 1972.
Army:49,000.
   1 armoured car regiment.
   1 mechanized battalion.
   14 infantry battalions.
   7 parachute battalions.
   4 other battalions.
   The above, together with support units, form
   1 parachute division and 7 brigade groups.
   60 AML armd cars; M-3 and 30 Ferret scout cars (less than half operational).
Coast, River and Lake Guard: 200.
   1 river boat.
   1 patrol boat.
   6 patrol craft.
Air Force: 800; 28 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter wing with 15 MB-326GB, 8 AT-6G and
   5 T-28 armed trainers.
   1 logistics wing with 9 C-47, 4 C-54, 3 C-130 and some Caribou transports.
   1 training wing with 8 T-6 and 12 SF-260MC (12 more SF-260MC on order).
   1 helicopter sqn with 7 Bell 47-G, 8 Alouette III and 7 SA-330 Puma (23 Puma being delivered).
Para-Military Forces: 8 National Guard and 6 Gendarmerie battalions.
  
   ARMED FORCES OF OTHER AFRICAN STATES*
    []
    []
  

Asia and Australia

CHINA

   Chinese defence policy operates at the two extremes of nuclear deterrence and Peoples' War. The former aims to deter strategic attack and the latter, by mass-mobilization of the country's population, to deter or repel any conventional land invasion.
   Nuclear Weapons
   The build-up of the Chinese nuclear force continued during the year. One nuclear test, in the MT range, was carried out in June, the first recorded since March 1972 and the 15th since tests started in 1964. The production of fissionable materials was expanded; there may now be sufficient for more than 200 fusion and fission weapons, and the stockpile could grow rapidly in the next few years. A variety of delivery systems, aircraft and missiles, are available. For tactical missions the F-9 fighter would be suitable and for longer ranges there are some 100 Tu-16 medium bombers with a radius of action of about 1,600 miles. MRBM and IRBM have been deployed operationally in at least four locations at soft sites above ground, though some are reported to be in silos or caves. A multi-stage IRBM with a longer range, perhaps 3,500 miles (sufficient to reach Moscow and most parts of Asia), has been produced and may be ready for operational deployment. A small missile force is now thought to be under the control of the Second Artillery, which appears to be the PLA's missile arm. An ICBM capable of reaching most major targets in the United States is also being developed. Its testing at full range would require impact areas in the Indian or Pacific Oceans and an instrumentation ship which could be used for monitoring such a test has been built. China has one G-class diesel-powered submarine with ballistic missile launching tubes, but does not appear to have missiles for it. All the present missiles are liquid-fuelled. Work has been going on on the development of solid fuel missiles, but these are unlikely to be available for deployment before 1975.
   Conventional Forces
   China's 3 million regular forces, the People's Liberation Army (PLA), are generally equipped and trained for the environment of People's War, but increasing effort is being made to arm a proportion of the formations with modern weapons, now becoming available from the growing armament industry. Infantry units account for most of the manpower and 120 of the 150 divisions; there are only 5 armoured divisions. The naval and air elements of the PLA have only about one seventh of the total manpower compared with over a third for their counterparts in the Soviet Union, but their influence is increasing as more new equipment reaches them. The PLA is essentially a defensive force and lacks the facilities and logistic support for protracted large-scale military operations outside China. It is, however, gradually acquiring greater logistic capacity.
   Major weapons systems in series production include the Tu-16 medium bomber, the MiG-19, -21 and F-9 fighters (the latter Chinese designed); type-59 medium, type-62 light, type-60 amphibious tanks and APCs (the last three also being Chinese designed). R-class medium-range diesel submarines in some numbers, together with a new class of submarines, SSM destroyers and fast patrol boats are being produced for the navy. A nuclear-powered attack submarine (armed with conventional torpedos) has been under test for two years.
   Deployment and Command
   The PLA is organized in 11 Military Regions, but is not deployed evenly throughout them. The major concentrations are in the coastal provinces, in the Yangtse and the Yellow River basins, and in the North-East (Peking and Manchuria). Some shift of forces northward toward the Sine--Soviet frontier occurred in 1969-70, following the border incidents, and it is likely that further re-alignment of Chinese forces in the same direction took place in the past year. 20,000 to 30,000 construction troops and engineers are reported still to be in the northern border regions of Labs and North Vietnam.
   Although the PLA continues to have a wide range of administrative and other non-military duties, its active role in provincial government appears to have declined somewhat in the past year. The Public Security System, which came under the PLA during the Cultural Revolution, seems in particular to have re-established some degree of autonomy. No Defence Minister was officially designated during the year to succeed Lin Piao and the PLA remained without a Chief of Staff or Air Force Commander.
   Bilateral Agreements
   China has a 30-year Treaty of Alliance and Friendship with the Soviet Union, signed in 1950, which contains mutual defence obligations, but this may no longer be in force. There is a mutual defence agreement with North Korea, dating from 1961,and an agreement to provide free military aid. There is probably a well-defined, though unpublicized, defence commitment to North Vietnam, and certainly a long-standing and recently renewed agreement to give military aid. There are nonaggression pacts with Afghanistan, Burma and Cambodia (though this latter does not apply to the newly-established Khmer Republic; China has given military aid to the forces supporting Prince Sihanouk against the government of Prime Minister Lon Nol.) Chinese military equipment and logistic support has been offered to an increasing number of countries, particularly in Africa. Major recipients of arms in recent years have been Albania, Pakistan and Tanzania.

КИТАЙ

   Китайская оборонная политика основана на двух крайностях: ядерное сдерживание и народная война. Первая направлена на сдерживание стратегического нападения, а вторая на массовую мобилизацию населения страны в целях сдерживания или отражения любого вторжения на территорию.
   Ядерное оружие
   Наращивание китайских ядерных сил продолжалось в течение года. Одно ядерное испытание в мегатонном диапазоне было проведено в июне, первое с марта 1972 года и 15-е с начала испытаний в 1964 году. Было расширено производство расщепляющихся материалов; в настоящее время их может быть достаточно для производства более 200 единиц оружия синтеза и деления, и в ближайшие несколько лет их запасы могут быстро увеличиться. Доступны различные системы доставки, самолеты и ракеты. Для тактических задач подойдет истребитель F-9, а для дальних дистанций - около 100 средних бомбардировщиков Ту-16 с радиусом действия около 1600 миль. БРСД и БРПД были развернуты в оперативном порядке по крайней мере в четырех местах на незащищённых площадках над землей, хотя некоторые из них, как сообщается, находятся в бункерах или пещерах. Многоступенчатая БРСД с большей дальностью действия, возможно, 3500 миль (достаточно для достижения Москвы и большинства районов Азии), была произведена и может быть готова к оперативному развертыванию. Малые ракетные силы находятся под контролем второй артиллерии, которые, по-видимому в НОАК оснащены ракетами. МБР, способная достичь самых главных целей в США также разрабатывается. Полный испытательный комплекс потребует зон падения в Индийском или Тихом океанах и корабли с приборами, которые могут быть использованы для мониторинга таких испытаний. У Китая есть одна дизельная подводная лодка G-класса с пусковыми трубами для баллистических ракет, но, похоже, для нее нет ракет. Все нынешние ракеты на жидком топливе. Ведется работа по созданию ракет на твердом топливе, однако они вряд ли будут готовы к развертыванию до 1975 года.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   3 миллиона человек в регулярных вооруженных сил Китая. Народно-освободительная армия (НОАК), как правило, оснащена и обучена для условий народной войны, но все больше усилий прилагается для вооружения части формирований современным оружием, которое теперь становится доступным от растущей оружейной промышленности. Пехотные подразделения составляют большую часть живой силы 120 из 150 дивизий; есть только 5 бронетанковых дивизий. Военно-морские и воздушные элементы НОАК имеют лишь около одной седьмой от общей численности личного состава по сравнению с более чем одной третью для своих коллег в Советском Союзе, но их влияние возрастает по мере поступления к ним новой техники. НОАК по существу является оборонительной силой и не располагает средствами и материально-техническим обеспечением для проведения длительных крупномасштабных военных операций за пределами Китая. Вместе с тем они постепенно наращивают свой логистический потенциал.
   Основные системы вооружения серийного производства включают средний бомбардировщик Ту-16, истребители МиГ-19, МиГ-21 и F-9 (последний разработан китайцами); средний танк Тип-59, легкий танк Тип-62, танки-амфибии Тип-60 и БТР (последние три также разрабатываются китайцами). Для Военно-морского флота выпускаются дизельные подводные лодки средней дальности типа R в некоторых количествах, а также новый класс подводных лодок, ракетные эсминцы и быстроходные патрульные катера. Атомная ударная подводная лодка (вооруженная обычными торпедами) испытывалась в течение двух лет.
   Развертывание и командование
   НОАК организована в 11 военных районах, но развернута не равномерно по всей территории. Основные концентрации наблюдаются в прибрежных провинциях, в бассейнах рек Янцзы и Хуанхэ, а также на северо-востоке (Пекин и Маньчжурия). Некоторое смещение сил на север в сторону изгиба советской границы произошло в 1969-70 годах, после пограничных инцидентов, и вполне вероятно, что в прошлом году произошла дальнейшая передислокация китайских сил в том же направлении. Сообщается, что от 20 000 до 30 000 строительных войск и инженеров все еще находятся в северных пограничных районах Северного Вьетнама.
   Хотя НОАК по-прежнему выполняет широкий круг административных и других невоенных обязанностей, ее активная роль в управлении провинциями, как представляется, несколько снизилась в прошлом году. Система общественной безопасности, которая вошла в состав НОАК во время Культурной революции, похоже, в частности, восстановила некоторую степень автономии. В течение года ни один министр обороны не был официально назначен преемником Линь Бяо, а НОАК осталась без начальника штаба и командующего Военно-воздушными силами.
   Двусторонние соглашения
   У Китая есть 30-летний договор о союзе и дружбе с Советским Союзом, подписанный в 1950 году, который содержит взаимные оборонные обязательства, но он больше не действует. Есть договор о взаимной обороне с Северной Кореей, начиная с 1961 года и соглашение о предоставлении бесплатной военной помощи. Существует, вероятно, хорошо определенная, хотя и неопубликованная, оборонная приверженность Северному Вьетнаму и, конечно, давнее и недавно возобновленное соглашение о предоставлении военной помощи. Существуют соглашения о ненападении с Афганистаном, Бирмой и Камбоджой (хотя последнее не относится к недавно созданной Кхмерской Республике; Китай предоставил военную помощь силам, поддерживающим принца Сианука против правительства премьер-министра Лона Нола.) Все большему числу стран, особенно в Африке, предлагается китайская военная техника и материально-техническая поддержка. Основными получателями оружия в последние годы были Албания, Пакистан и Танзания.
  
   CHINA
Population: 750-850,000,000.
Military service: Army, 2 years; Air Force, 3 years; Navy, 4 years.
Total regular forces: 2,900,000 (including construction engineer troops).
GNP and defence expenditure--see note facing. 2.27 yuan= $1 1July 1972. 1.88 yuan= $1 1July 1973.
Strategic Forces
   IRBM: 15-20.
   MRBM: about 50.
   Aircraft: about 100 Tu-16 medium bombers.
Army: 2,500,000 (including construction engr tps).
   5 armoured divisions.
   120 infantry divisions.
   3 cavalry divisions.
   2 airborne divisions.
   About 20 artillery divisions.
   These are supported by signals, engineer, railway and motor transport units.
   Heavy equipment consists of Soviet items supplied up to 1960 including
   JS-2 tks and 152mm and 203mm artillery; Soviet T-34 and T-54, and Chinese T-59 (version of T-54) med tks;
   T-60 (PT-76 type) amphibious tks; T-62 lt tks and APC; SP arty incl SU-76, SU-100 and JSU-122.
DEPLOYMENT:
   China is divided into 11 Military Regions (MR) in turn divided into Military Districts (MD), with usually two or three Districts to a Region.
   It is believed that basically one Army is assigned to each MD, with a total of about 30 Armies.
   An Army generally consists of 3 infantry divisions, 3 artillery regiments and, in some cases, 3 armoured regiments.
   Of the 5 armoured divisions in the PLA, two or three are probably kept in the Peking and Shenyang Regions.
   The geographical distribution of the divisions (excluding artillery) is believed to be:
   North and North-East China (Shenyang* and Peking* MR): 45 divisions.
   East and South-East China (Tsinan, Nanking and Foochow MR): 20 divisions.
   South-Central China (Canton (Includes Hainan island) and Wuhan MR): 20 divisions.
   Mid-West China (Lanchow MR): 15 divisions.
   West and South-West China (Sinkiang,* Chengtu* and Kunming* MR): 30 divisions.
   Laos and North Vietnam (northern border regions): Some construction engineer troops and supporting elements, in all 20-30,000 men.
   * There are in addition, 2 or 3 divisions of border troops in each of these MR.
Navy: 180,000 (including Naval Air Force and
   28,000 Marines).
   1 G-class submarine (with ballistic missile tubes)*. (* China is not known to have any missiles for this boat.)
   39 fleet submarines. (Also about 6 older, training vessels.)
   3 coastal submarines.
   6 SSM destroyers.
   9 destroyer escorts.
   11 patrol escorts.
   20 submarine chasers.
   25 Osa- and Komar-type FPB with Styx SAM.
   27 minesweepers.
   40 landing ships.
   45 auxiliary minesweepers.
   220 MTB and hydrofoils (less than 100 tons).'
   320 motor gunboats (many less than 100 tons).
   530 landing ships/landing craft (many less than 100 tons).
DEPLOYMENT:
North Sea Fleet: 240 vessels.
   The main bases are at Tsingtao and Lushun; deployed along the coast from the mouth of the Yalu river in the north to Lienyunkang in the south.
East Sea Fleet: 700 vessels.
   Bases are at Shanghai and Chou Shan; deployed along the coast from Lienyunkang in the north to Chaoan Wan in the south.
South Sea Fleet: 300 vessels.
   Bases are at Huangpu and Chanchiang; deployed from Chaoan Wan in the north to the North Vietnamese frontier in the south.
NAVAL AIR. FORCE: 25,000, over 500 shore-based combat aircraft, including about
   100 Il-28 torpedo-carrying and some Tu-2 light bombers and
   some 400 fighters including MiG-15, MiG-17 and MiG-19.
   Though under Navy command, the fighters are fully integrated into the air defence system.
Air Force: 220,000 (including strategic forces and 85,000 air defence personnel); about 3,800 combat aircraft.
   About 100 Tu-16 and a few Tu-4 medium bombers.
   200 Il-28 and 100 Tu-2 light bombers.
   About 1,700 MiG-15 and MiG-17; at least 1,000 MiG-19, 75 MiG-21 and up to 300 F-9 fighters.
   About 400 transport aircraft and 300 helicopters, including some An-2, Il-14 and Il-18 transports and Mi-4 helicopters
   (these could be supplemented by about 350 aircraft of the Civil Air Bureau).
   There is an air-defence system, initially developed to defend the eastern seaboard of China and now greatly expanded,
   based on early warning/control radar, interceptor aircraft and several hundred SA-2 SAM deployed in up to 50 sites.
Para-Military Forces:
   About 300,000 security and border troops, including 19 infantry-type divisions and 30 independent regiments stationed in the frontier areas;
   the public security force and a civilian militia with an effective element of probably not more than 5 million;
   production and construction corps in a number of Military Regions, including those adjoining the northern frontier.
  
   GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT AND DEFENCE EXPENDITURE
   Gross National Product
   Estimates of China's GNP have varied greatly. The Chinese Prime Minister mentioned a figure of $120 billion in 1970, as the gross value of industrial, transport and agricultural production, but this is not the same as gross national product, since it excludes certain items and probably includes some double-counting. A Japanese estimate in 1971 was $75 billion. This appears to have been calculated from a yuan figure, converted at the official rate of exchange, which is perhaps not the most suitable, and would seem to be on the low side. Another more recent estimate placed the net domestic product in 1971- which is a little less than the GNP -at 182.5 billion yuan in 1952 yuan. Converting this figure also at the official exchange rate for 1971,which assumes no inflation between 1952 and 1971,a figure of $74 billion is reached. A paper presented to the Joint Economic Committee of the Congress of the United States gave a GNP figure for 1971 of $128 billion in 1970 dollars. It is difficult to choose from this wide range of economic indicators, so variously defined and calculated.
   Defence Expenditure
   China has not made public any budget figures since 1960, and there is no general agreement on the resources that are devoted to defence. Such estimates as there have been are only speculative. An Australian estimate suggests a range of $4-$5 billion, whilst British estimates have been in the region of $10-$12 billion.
  
   ВАЛОВОЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ПРОДУКТ И РАСХОДЫ НА ОБОРОНУ
   Валовой национальный продукт
   Оценки ВНП Китая сильно различались. Премьер-министр Китая упомянул цифру в 120 миллиардов долларов в 1970 году, как валовую стоимость промышленного, транспортного и сельскохозяйственного производства, но это не то же самое, что валовой национальный продукт, поскольку он исключает определенные статьи и, вероятно, включает в себя некоторый двойной счет. По японским оценкам, в 1971 году она составляла 75 млрд. долл. Это, по-видимому, было рассчитано на основе показателя юаня, конвертированного по официальному обменному курсу, который, возможно, не является наиболее подходящим и, как представляется, находится на низкой стороне. Еще одна более поздняя оценка показала, что чистый внутренний продукт в 1971 году - что немного меньше ВНП - составил 182,5 млрд. юаней в 1952 году. При пересчете этой цифры также по официальному обменному курсу 1971 года, который не предполагает инфляции в период с 1952 по 1971 год, была достигнута цифра в 74 млрд. долл.США. В документе, представленном Объединенному экономическому комитету Конгресса Соединенных Штатов, показатель ВНП за 1971 год составил 128 млрд. долл. Трудно выбрать из этого широкого диапазона экономических показателей, столь по-разному определенных и рассчитанных.
   Оборонные расходы
   Китай не публиковал никаких бюджетных показателей с 1960 года, и нет общего согласия в отношении ресурсов, выделяемых на оборону. Такие оценки были только умозрительными. Австралийская оценка предполагает диапазон $ 4 - $ 5 млрд, в то время как британские оценки были в районе $ 10 - $ 12 млрд.
  

OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES AND AUSTRALASIA

   Bilateral Agreements
   The United States has bilateral defence treaties with Japan, the Republic of China (Taiwan), the Republic of Korea and the Philippines. She has a number of military arrangements with other countries of the region. She provides military aid on either a grant or credit basis to Taiwan, the Khmer Republic (Cambodia), Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, thePhilippines, Thailand and South Vietnam. She sells military equipment to many countries, notably Australia, Taiwan and Japan. For grant military assistance purposes, the Khmer Republic, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan are considered forward defence areas. Laos, the Khmer Republic, Thailand and South Vietnam receive grant military aid assistance direct from the US Department of Defense budget, the only countries in the world to do so. There are military facilities agreements with Australia, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Philippines. There is a major base at Guam. A new communications station is being constructed on Diego Garcia Island in the Chagos Archipelago under exchanges of notes signed with Britain in 1966 and 1972.
   The Soviet Union has treaties of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance with India, Bangladesh, Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Military assistance agreements exist with Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and the People's Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Important Soviet military aid is also given to Nepal and Afghanistan.
   Australia has supplied a small amount of defence equipment to Malaysia and Singapore and is giving defence equipment and assistance to Indonesia, including the provision of training facilities.
   Multilateral Agreements
   In 1954 the United States, Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand signed the South-East Asia Collective Defence Treaty, which came into force in 1955 and brought SEATO into being. They committed themselves to consult with a view to joint defence in the event of direct or indirect aggression against a member country or against the so-called 'protocol states' of Cambodia, Laos and South Vietnam. However, since 1955 and 1956 respectively, Cambodia and Laos have not accepted the protection of SEATO. The treaty area is the general area of SouthEast Asia and the South-West Pacific, below latitude 21R 30' North. SEATO has no central command structure and forces remain under national control. In 1969 Britain ceased to declare ground forces to the contingency plans for SEATO. France has no forces declared and has recently announced her intention of withdrawing from all financial commitments by 1974. New Zealand has said that, while she will remain a member, she is phasing down her participation in SEATO activities to a much lower level, particularly on the military side. Australia has recently given indications of taking a similar attitude. Pakistan had already announced her progressive disengagement before the Indo-Pakistan War of December 1971, as a result of which Bangladesh became an independent state, and withdrew from membership in July 1972.
   Australia, New Zealand and the United States are the members of a tripartite treaty known as ANZUS, which was signed in 1951 and is of indefinite duration. Under this treaty each agrees to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of armed attack on either metropolitan or island territory of any one of them, or on armed forces, public vessels, or aircraft in the Pacific. Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and Britain have agreed five-power defence arrangements relating to the defence of Malaysia and Singapore, which came into effect on 1 November 1971. These arrangements, which replaced the Anglo-Malaysian Defence Agreement of 1957, state that, in the event of any armed attack or threat of attack externally organized or supported against Malaysia or Singapore, the five governments would consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken, jointly or separately. Britain, Australia and New Zealand maintain land, air and naval forces in Singapore (the ANZUK force) and Australia Air Forces in Malaysia (part of the integrated air defence system).
   *For bilateral agreements between China and other Asian countries, see p.46.

ДРУГИЕ АЗИАТСКИЕ СТРАНЫ И АВСТРАЛИЯ

   Двусторонние соглашения
   Соединенные Штаты имеют двусторонние договоры об обороне с Японией, Китайской Республикой (Тайвань), Республикой Корея и Филиппинами. Имеет ряд военных договоренностей с другими странами региона. Они предоставляют военную помощь на безвозмездной или кредитной основе Тайваню, Кхмерской Республике (Камбоджа), Индонезии, Республике Корея, Лаосу, Малайзии, Филиппинам, Таиланду и Южному Вьетнаму. Они продают военную технику во многие страны, в частности в Австралию, Тайвань и Японию. Для целей предоставления военной помощи Кхмерская Республика, Республика Корея и Тайвань считаются передовыми районами обороны. Лаос, Кхмерская Республика, Таиланд и Южный Вьетнам получают безвозмездную военную помощь непосредственно из бюджета Министерства обороны США - единственные страны мира, которые делают это. Имеются соглашения о военных объектах с Австралией, Республикой Корея, Филиппинами и Японией. На Гуаме находится крупная база. Новая станция связи строится на острове Диего-Гарсия архипелага Чагос в рамках обмена нотами, подписанными с Великобританией в 1966 и 1972 годах.
   Советский Союз имеет договоры о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи с Индией, Бангладеш, Монголией и Корейской Народно-Демократической Республикой. Существуют соглашения о военной помощи со Шри-Ланкой (Цейлон) и Народно-Демократической Республикой Вьетнам. Важная советская военная помощь оказывается также Непалу и Афганистану.
   Австралия поставила небольшое количество военной техники Малайзии и Сингапуру и поставляет оборонную технику и помощь Индонезии, включая предоставление учебных помещений.
   Многосторонние договоры
   В 1954 году Соединенные Штаты, Австралия, Великобритания, Франция, Новая Зеландия, Пакистан, Филиппины и Таиланд подписали Договор о коллективной обороне в Юго-Восточной Азии, который вступил в силу в 1955 году и положил начало SEATO. Они обязались проводить консультации в целях совместной обороны в случае прямой или косвенной агрессии против страны-члена или против так называемых "протокольных государств" Камбоджи, Лаоса и Южного Вьетнама. Однако, в 1955 и 1956 годах соответственно, Камбоджа и Лаос не приняли покровительство SEATO. Договорным районом является общая территория Юго-Восточной Азии и юго-западной части Тихого океана, расположенная ниже 21 R 30' северной широты. SEATO не имеет центральной структуры командования, и силы остаются под национальным контролем. В 1969 году Великобритания прекратила выделять сухопутные войска для SEATO. Франция не имеет сил и недавно объявила о своем намерении выйти из всех финансовых обязательств, к 1974 году. Новая Зеландия заявила, что, хотя она и останется ее членом, она постепенно сокращает свое участие в деятельности SEATO до гораздо более низкого уровня, особенно в военной области. Австралия недавно указала на аналогичную позицию. Пакистан уже объявил о своем постепенном выходе до индо-пакистанской войны в декабре 1971 года, в результате которой Бангладеш стала независимым государством, и вышел из состава членов в июле 1972 года.
   Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Соединенные Штаты являются членами трехстороннего договора, известного как ANZUS, который был подписан в 1951 году и действует бессрочно. В соответствии с этим договором каждый из них соглашается "действовать в ответ на общую опасность" в случае вооруженного нападения либо на метрополию, либо на островную территорию любого из них, либо на вооруженные силы, суда или самолеты в Тихом океане. Австралия, Малайзия, Новая Зеландия, Сингапур и Великобритания согласовали оборонные договоренности по пяти державам, касающиеся обороны Малайзии и Сингапура, которые вступили в силу 1 ноября 1971 года. Эти меры, которые заменили англо-малазийской оборонной договора 1957 г., что, в случае какого-либо вооруженного нападения или угрозы нападения извне организованные или поддержанные против Малайзии или Сингапуре, пять правительства будут консультироваться друг с другом, чтобы решить, какие меры должны быть приняты совместно или отдельно. Великобритания, Австралия и Новая Зеландия поддерживают сухопутные, воздушные и военно-морские силы в Сингапуре (силы ANZUK) и австралийские Военно-воздушные силы в Малайзии (часть интегрированной системы противовоздушной обороны).
   * Двусторонние соглашения между Китаем и другими азиатскими странами см. 46.
  
   AFGHANISTAN
Population: 18,300,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 84,000.
Estimated GNP 1970: $1.5 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 1,600 million afghanis. 45 afghanis= $1.
Army: 78,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   4 infantry divisions.
   1 infantry brigade group.
   200 T-34 and T-54 med tks; PT-76 lt tks; 144 lt and med guns; Snapper ATGW; AA guns.
RESERVES: 200,000.
Air Force: 6,000; 112 combat aircraft.
   3 light bomber squadrons with 10 Il-28.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 24 Su-7.
   4 fighter-bomber squadrons with 48 MiG-15/17.
   3 interceptor squadrons with 30 MiG-21.
   2 transport squadrons with Yak-12, An-2, Il-14.
   1 helicopter squadron with Mi-1 and Mi-4.
   SA-2 SAM.
RESERVES: 12,000.
Para-Military Forces: 21,000 Gendarmerie; 200,000 tribal levies.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 13,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 73,330.
Estimated GNP 1972: $US 43.46 billion.
Defence budget 1972: $A 1,323 million. ($US 1,575 million). $A 0.84= $US 1 1July 1972. $A 0.706= $US 1July 1973.
Army: 33,100.
   1 infantry division HQ.
   1 tank regiment.
   3 cavalry regiments.
   9 infantry battalions.
   2 battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment (PIR).
   1 Special Air Service (SAS) regiment.
   1 medium artillery regiment.
   3 field artillery regiments.
   1 light anti-aircraft regiment.
   1 aviation regiment.
   6 signals regiments.
   3 field engineer regiments.
   7 construction and field survey squadrons.
   1 logistic support force.
   143 Centurion med tks; 265 Ferret scout cars;
   758 M-113 APC; 254 105mm how including M-56 105mm pack how;
   47 Sioux and Kiowa hel; 25 light aircraft; 57 watercraft.
DEPLOYMENT: Singapore: 1 bn gp, 1 sig regt and logistic units; Papua-New Guinea: 2 PIR bns.
RESERVES: 24,500. The Citizen Military Force of 24,000 is intended to form 24 infantry battalions with supporting arms and services;
   Emergency Reserve 500.
Navy: 17,460.
   4 Oberon-class submarines.
   1 aircraft carrier.
   3 ASW destroyers with Tartar SAM and Ikara ASW msls.
   4 destroyers (2 training).
   6 destroyer escorts with Ikara.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 minehunters.
   20 patrol boats.
   1 fast troop transport (ex-aircraft carrier).
   1 destroyer tender.
   5 landing craft (3 more on order).
FLEET AIR ARM
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with A-4G Skyhawk.
   1 ASW sqn with S-2E Tracker and C-47 Dakota.
   2 ASW helicopter sqns with Wessex 31B.
   1 helicopter sqn with Iroquois and Scout.
   1 training sqn with Aermacchi MB-326H, TA-4G and A-4G.
   (10 Sea King ASW hel on order.)
RESERVES: 6,625. Navy Citizen Military Force: 5,525; Emergency Reserve 1,100.
Air Force: 22,770; 210 combat aircraft.
   1 bomber squadron with Canberra B-20.
   1 fighter squadron with 6 F-111C (18 more to be delivered by end-1973).
   4 interceptor/FGA squadrons with Mirage IIIO.
   1 MR squadron with 10 P-3B Orion and 1 MR squadron with 12 SP-2H Neptune.
   80 MB-326 and 41 CA-25 Winjeel trainers.
   2 tpt sqns with 24 C-130, 1 tpt sqn with 2 BAC-111 10 HS-748 and 3 Mystere 20 and 2 tpt sqns with 24 Caribou and 23 Dakota.
   2 helicopter squadrons with Iroquois.
DEPLOYMENT: 2 sqns of Mirage IIIO in Malaysia/Singapore.
RESERVES: 1,215. Citizen Air Force 570; Emergency Reserve 645.
  
   BANGLADESH
Population: 76,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total regular forces: 17,900.
Estimated GNP 1972: $3.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973: Taka 470 million ($US 65 million). Taka 7.3= $1 1July 1972. Taka 7.24= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 17,000.
   5 inf bdes with 17 inf bns.
   1 artillery brigade.
   1 engineer group.
   1 signals battalion.
Navy: 500.
   3 patrol boats.
   1 seaward defence boat.
Air Force: 400; 13 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter sqn with 8 MiG-21.
   5 F-86 Sabre.
   1 DHC-4 Caribou,1 DC-6 and 2 F-27 tpts.
   2 MiG-21UTI trainers.
   3 Alouette III.
   (2 Wessex hel on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 13,000 Bangladesh militia/Rakhi Bahini.
  
   BURMA
Population: 29,150,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 149,000.
Defence budget 1971-72: 490 million kyat ($91 million). 5.4 kyat=$1 1July 1972. 4.7 kyat=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 135,000.
   6 regional commands comprising approximately
   70 infantry battalions.
   3 infantry divisions.
   The forces as a whole consist of
   5 armoured, 112 infantry, 5 artillery and 1 engineer battalions, and are organized chiefly for counter-insurgency and internal security duties.
   Comet med tks; Humber armd cars; Ferret scout cars; 25-pdr guns; 75mm, 105mm, 155mm how.
Navy: 7,000 (including 800 marines).
   1 frigate.
   1 escort minesweeper.
   2 coastal escorts.
   5 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   34 river and patrol gunboats.
   7 motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   About 100 river craft.
Air Force: 7,000; 19 combat aircraft.
   2 COIN sqns with 18 AT-33 and 1 Vampire.
   18 C-47, 8 Otter, 6 Beech-18 and 5 Cessna tpts.
   5 Sioux, 9 Huskie, 6 Alouette III, 10 Shawnee and 3 KV 107 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 25,000 armed village defence and militia.
  
   REPUBLIC OF CHINA (TAIWAN)
Population: 15,135,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 503,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $9.7 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1972-73: 28 billion new Taiwan dollars ($700 million). $NT 40=$1 1July 1972. $NT 38 = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 350,000.
   2 armoured divisions.
   12 infantry divisions.
   6 light divisions.
   1 armoured cavalry regiment.
   2 airborne brigades.
   4 special forces groups.
   1 SSM battalion with Honest John.
   1 SAM battalion with HAWK.
   1 SAM bn and 1 SAM bty with Nike-Hercules.
   M-47 and M-48 med tks; 500 M-24 and M-41 lt tks; M-18 tk destroyers; LVT-4 and M-113 APC;
   105mm and 155mm guns; AA guns; Honest John SSM; HAWK, Nike SAM;
   15 UH-1H, 7 H-34, 2 KH-4 hel (59 UH-1H on order).
DEPLOYMENT: Quemoy: 60,000; Matsu: 20,000.
RESERVES: 750,000.
Navy: 38,000.
   1 submarine (training).
   14 destroyers.
   16 destroyer escorts.
   6 torpedo boats.
   3 patrol vessels.
   1 minelayer.
   14 coastal minesweepers.
   9 minesweeping launches.
   21 tank landing ships.
   4 medium landing ships.
   21 landing craft.
RESERVES: 60,000.
Marines:35,000.
   2 divisions.
RESERVES: 65,000.
Air Force: 80,000; 210 combat aircraft.
   6 fighter-bomber sqns with 90 F-100A/D.
   2 fighter sqns with 30 F-5A (40 F-5E on order).
   4 interceptor sqns with 63 F-104A/G.
   1 recce sqn with 8 RF-104G and 4 RF-101C.
   1 SAR sqn with 9 S-2A and 6 HU-16B.
   40 C-46, 30 C-47, 50 C-119 and 10 C-123 tpts.
   100 trainers.
   6 Hughes 500, 7 UH-19 and 10 Bell 47G hel (24 UH-1H on order).
RESERVES: 130,000.
Para-Military Forces:175,000 militia.
  
   INDIA
Population: 578,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 948,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $61.53 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 17,296 million rupees ($2,386 million). 7.75 rupees = $1 1July 1972. 7.25 rupees = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 826,000.
   1 armoured division (a second is being formed).
   5 independent armoured brigades.
   14 infantry divisions.
   11 mountain divisions.
   6 independent infantry brigades.
   1 parachute brigade.
   About 20 AA artillery units.
   200 Centurion Mk 5/7, 1,000 T-54 and T-55 and 500 Vijayanta med tks; 150 PT-76 and 140 AMX-13 lt tks;
   OT-62 and Mk 2/4A APC;
   about 3,000 guns, mostly towed and SP 25-pounders, but incl Model 56 105mm pack how,
   Abbott 105mm SP and about 350 100mm and 350 130mm guns;
   RL; SS-11 and ENTAC ATGW; AA guns; 40 Tigercat SAM.
RESERVES: 100,000. Territorial Army 45,000; Reserves 55,000.
Navy: 30,000 (including naval air).
   1 16,000-ton aircraft carrier.
   4 submarines (ex-Soviet F-class).
   2 cruisers.
   1 destroyer.
   8 destroyer escorts (incl 7 ex-Soviet Petya-class).
   9 frigates (2 GP with Seacat SAM, 3 AA, 4 ASW).
   8 Osa-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   9 patrol boats (4 less than 100 tons).
   8 minesweepers (4 inshore).
   1 landing ship.
   3 landing craft.
   10 seaward defence boats (6 less than 100 tons).
NAVAL AIR FORCE: 1,500.
   35 Sea Hawk attack, 11 Alize MR ac;
   2 Sea King,18 Alouette III, 2 Alouette II and 10 Hughes 269 hel.
   10 Sea Hawk, 5 Alize and 2 Alouette can be carried in the aircraft carrier at any one time.
   (17 HS 748 MR ac and 3 Sea King are on order.)
Air Force: 92,000; 842 combat aircraft.
   4 light bomber squadrons with 80 Canberra.
   6 fighter-bomber squadrons with 96 Su-7.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 50 HF-24 Marut 1A.
   7 fighter-bomber squadrons with 150 Hunter F-56.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 30 Mystere IV.
   8 interceptor squadrons with 220 MiG-21PFM.
   8 interceptor squadrons with 200 Gnat F.I.
   1 reconnaissance squadron with 8 Canberra PR-57.
   1 maritime recce sqn of 8L-1049 Super Constellation.
   13 tpt sqns with 55 C-47, 60 C-119G, 20 Il-14, 34 An-12,30 Otter, 27 HS-748 and 20 Caribou.
   About 12 sqns with Mi-4, Alouette III, 16 Mi-8, SA 315 Cheetah, S-62 and Bell 47 hel.
   About 20 SA-2 SAM sites.
Para-Military Forces: About 100,000, in Border Security Force (not on Defence budget).
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 132,400,000.
Military service: selective.
Total armed forces: 322,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $10.73 billion.
   Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 119 billion rupiahs ($286,700,000). 378 rupiahs= $1 1July 1971. 415 rupiahs = $1 1July 1972.
Army: 250,000.
   15 inf bdes, with over 100 inf bns and some para and armd units.
   8 armoured battalions.
   1 para commando regiment (RPKAD).
   The KOSTRAD (Strategic Reserve Command) consists of about 6 bdes and includes paratroops and armour.
   About one-third of the army is engaged in civil and administrative duties.
   Stuart, AMX-13 and PT-76 lt tks; Saladin armd cars; Ferret scout cars; Saracen and BTR-40 APC;
   artillery includes 76mm, 105mm and 25-pdr; Soviet 57mm AA guns and associated radar;
   Alouette III hel.
Navy: 39,000 (incl naval air and 14,000 Marines).* (*Only a very small part of the navy is operational.)
   10 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   1 cruiser (ex-Soviet Sverdlov-class, being sold).
   4 destroyers (ex-Soviet Skory-class).
   8 frigates (including 4 ex-Soviet Riga-class).
   18 coastal escorts (14 ex-Soviet, 4 ex-USA).
   12 Komar-class patrol boats with Styx SSM.
   9 patrol boats (8 more being delivered).
   21 motor torpedo boats (14 ex-Soviet P-6-class).
   6 fleet minesweepers (ex-Soviet T-43-class).
   20 coastal minesweepers (6 ex-USA).
   18 motor gunboats (ex-Soviet BK-class).
   25 seaward defence boats (less than 100 tons).
   9 landing ships (8 ex-US LST).
   9 landing craft.
   2 Marine brigades.
NAVAL AIR ARM: 6 C-47; 3 Alouette III hel; (4 MR ac on order).
Air Force: 33,000; 89 combat aircraft.*
   (*Most of the Soviet-supplied combat aircraft and the SA-2 have not been used for some years. Few of these aircraft can be regarded as operational.)
   22 Tu-16 and 10 Il-28 bombers.
   5 B-25 Mitchell and 4 B-26 Invader light bombers.
   5 F-51D Mustang fighter-bombers.
   16 F-86 Sabre (CA-27)fighters.
   4 MiG-15, 8 MiG-17 and 15 MiG-21 interceptors (mostly in storage).
   60 tpts, incl 10 Il-14; 8 C-130B, C-47 and Skyvan.
   3 hel sqns with 16 Mi-4, 6 Mi-6 and 4 Bell 47G,
   2 AB-204B and 10 Alouette II/III.
   At least 3 SA-2 sites (non-operational).
Para-Military Forces: A police Mobile Brigade of about 20,000; about 100,000 Militia.
  
   JAPAN
Population: 107,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 266,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $316.8 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 935.5 billion yen ($3,530 million). 301 yen= $1 1July 1972. 265 yen= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 180,000.
   1 mechanized division.
   12 infantry divisions (7,000-9,000 men each).
   1 airborne brigade.
   1 artillery brigade.
   1 signal and 5 engineer brigades.
   1 helicopter brigade.
   1 mixed brigade.
   6 SAM groups with HAWK (160 launchers).
   520 Type 61 med tks; 30 M-24 and 140 M-41 lt tks;
   440 Type 60 APC; 30 M-52 105mm and 10 M-44 155mm SP how; 203mm how; Type 30 SSM;
   Type 60 twin 106mm SP recoilless rifles; Type 64 ATGW; 120 L-19, LM1, LR1, T-34 lt ac;
   230 UH-1B, KV 107, H-19, KH OH-6J, Hughes TA-55J and H-13KH hel.
RESERVES: 39,000.
Navy: 41,400.
   13 submarines.
   1 SAM destroyer with Tartar.
   28 destroyers.
   14 destroyer escorts/frigates.
   20 submarine chasers.
   3 minelayers.
   42 coastal minesweepers.
   5 motor torpedo boats (2 less than 100 tons).
   4 tank landing ships.
   1 medium landing ship.
   6 landing craft.
   42 small landing craft (less than 100 tons).
NAVAL AIR: 110 combat aircraft.
   7 MR sqns with P2V-7, P2-J, S2F-1 and PS-1.
   60 hel incl S-61A, KV 107A, HSS-1N and HSS-2.
RESERVES: 300.
Air Force: 44,600; 386 combat aircraft. (18-25 aircraft in a combat squadron.)
   4 FGA sqns with 120 F-86F (F-4EJ being introduced).
   10 interceptor sqns with 150 F-104J, 20 F-4EJ and 80 F-86F.
   1 recce sqn with 16 RF-86F (being replaced by RF-4EJ in 1973; 14 are on order).
   2 transport sqns with 20 C-46 and 10 YS-11.
   360 T-1, T-33, T-34 and F-104DJ trainers.
   5 SAM bns with Nike-J.
   A Base Air Defence Ground Environment with 28 control and warning units.
  
   THE KHMER REPUBLIC (CAMBODIA)
Population: 7,500,000.
Military service: voluntary; conscription authorized, but not yet in force.
Total armed forces: 187,200.
Estimated GNP 1971: $1.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973:17,800 million riels ($98 million). 55.5 riels= $1 1July 1971. 182 riels= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 180,000.
   9 static and 3 mobile divs (each of 3 bdes of 4 bns).
   300 inf and cdo 'battalions' (companies).
   1 tank regiment.
   1 armoured car battalion.
   3 parachute battalions.
   12 field artillery batteries.
   20 M-24 and 40 AMX-13 lt tks; 20 M-8 and M-20 armd cars; M-3 scout cars; BTR-40, BTR-152 APC;
   M-109 105mm SP how and Soviet 76mm and 122mm guns; 40mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns;
   Cessna O-1 lt ac.
Navy: 3,400 (including marines).
   2 coastal escort vessels.
   2 support gunboats.
   2 motor torpedo boats (less than 100 tons).
   6 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   3 landing craft.
Air Force: 3,800; 40 combat aircraft.
   40 T-28 Trojan ground-attack aircraft.
   20 C-47 and 1 C-54 transport aircraft.
   2 Alouette II and 30 UH-1 helicopters.
Para-Military Forces: 150,000.
  
   KOREA--DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 15,000,000.
Military service: Army 3 years, Navy and Air Force 4 years.
Total armed forces: 470,000.
Estimated GNP 1972-73: $3.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973:1,282 million won ($620 million). 2.05 won= $1.
Army: 408,000.
   3 armoured divisions.
   21 infantry divisions.
   4 independent infantry brigades.
   7 independent armoured regiments.
   20 SAM battalions with SA-2 (50 sites).
   380 T-34, 650 T-54/55 med tks; 150 PT-76 lt tks; 200 BA-64, BTR-40 and BTR-152 APC;
   200 SU-76 and SU-100 SP guns; 6,000 guns and mor up to 152mm; 24 FROG-5/-7 SSM;
   2,000 AA guns, incl ZSU-57; SA-2 SAM.
RESERVES: 750,000.
Navy: 17,000.
   3 submarines (ex-Soviet W-class).
   10 Komar-and 8 Osa-class FPB with Styx SSM;
   80 torpedo boats (some less than 100 tons).
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   35 patrol vessels (some ex-Soviet SO-I-class).
   60 motor gunboats.
   Samlet SSM (6 sites).
RESERVES: 15,000.
Air Force: 45,000; 598 combat aircraft.
   70 Il-28 light bombers.
   28 Su-7 fighter-bombers.
   300 MiG-15 and MiG-17 fighter-bombers.
   130 MiG-21 and 50 MiG-19 interceptors.
   20 Il-28 and MiG-17 recce aircraft.
   About 60 An-2, 15 Li-2, Il-12 and 4 Il-14 tpts.
   20 Mi-4 helicopters.
   70 Yak-11, Yak-18, MiG-15 and Il-28 trainers.
RESERVES: 40,000.
Para-Military Forces: 50,000 security forces and border guards; a civilian militia with a claimed strength of 1,450,000.
  
   KOREA - REPUBLIC OF KOREA (SOUTH)
Population: 32,665,000.
Military service: Army/Marines, 2 years; Navy and Air Force, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 633,500.
Estimated GNP 1972: $9.3 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 184.8 billion won ($476 million). 400 won=$l 1July 1972. 388 won = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 560,000.
   29 infantry divisions (10 cadre only).
   2 armoured brigades.
   80 artillery battalions.
   1 SSM battalion with Honest John.
   2 SAM bns with HA WK and 1 with Nike-Hercules.
   750 M-47, M-48 and M-60 med tks; Stuart and M-24 lt tks; M-10 and M-36 tk destroyers; M-8 armd cars and M-113 APC;
   1,000 guns up to 203mm; Honest John SSM; HAWK and Nike SAM.
RESERVES: 1,000,000.
Navy: 18,900.
   5 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   4 frigates.
   15 coastal escorts.
   21 patrol boats.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   6 escort transports.
   20 landing ships.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Marines: 29,600.
   1 division.
RESERVES: 60,000.
Air Force: 25,000; 195 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 18 F-4D.
   5 fighter-bomber sqns with 110 F-86F.
   3 fighter-bomber sqns with 37 F-5A (about 40 F-5E on order).
   1 AWX sqn with 20 F-86D (with Sidewinder AAM).
   1 recce sqn with 10 RF-86F.
   35 transports including C-46, C-47 and C-54.
   Hel incl 6 H-19,2 Bell 212, 5 UH-1D and 2 KH-4.
RESERVES: 35,000.
Para-Military Forces: A local defence militia, Homeland Reserve Defence Force, 2,000,000.
  
   LAOS
Population: 3,150,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $211 million. 500 kip =$1 1July 1972. 600 kip = $1 1July 1973.
1. ROYAL LAO FORCES
Military service: conscription, term unknown.
Total strength: 74,200.
Defence budget 1973:10.29 billion kip ($17,000,000).
Army: 72,000.
   24 mobile infantry battalions.
   33 garrison infantry battalions.
   1 parachute battalion.
   1 artillery regt of 4 bns.
   M-24 and PT-76 lt tks; M-8 armd cars; M-3 scout cars; BTR-40 and M-113 APC;
   85mm guns and 75mm, 105mm and 155mm how.
Navy: about 500.
   4 river squadrons consisting of:
   22 patrol craft; 26 landing craft/transports (all under 100 tons, most not operational).
Air Force: 1,700; about 73 combat aircraft.
   63 T-28A/D light attack aircraft.
   10 AC-47 gunships.
   20 C-47,1 Aero Commander transports.
   About 18 UH-34D and 6 Alouette II/III hel.
Para-Military Forces and Irregulars: 40,000.
2. PATHET-LAO FORCES
   Total strength about 40,000 men (incl dissident neutralists).
   PT-76 lt tks; BTR-40 armd cars; 105mm how.
   The Pathet-Lao are believed to be integrated with about 60,000 regular North Vietnamese combat and logistics troops and have received arms
   and ammunition of Soviet and Chinese origin.
   The Pathet-Lao and North Vietnamese control all the eastern half of Laos, and most of the north.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 11,500,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 56,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $US 4.64 billion.
Defence budget 1973: $M 680.1 million ($US 287 million). $M2.78=$US1 1July 1972. $M2.37=$US1 1July 1973.
Army: 46,500.
   8 infantry brigades, consisting of:
   28 infantry battalions.
   3 reconnaissance regiments.
   3 artillery regiments.
   1 special service unit.
   3 signals regiments.
   engineer and administrative units.
   Ferret scout cars; 100 Commando APC; 105mm how; 40mm AA guns.
RESERVES: about 50,000.
Navy: 4,800.
   1 ASW frigate with Seacat SAM.
   1 training frigate.
   6 coastal minesweepers.
   8 FPB; 4 with SS-11/12 and 4 with Exocet SSM.
   24 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
   1 landing ship.
RESERVES: 600.
Air Force: 4,700; 38 combat aircraft.
   2 fighter-bomber sqns with 18 CA-27 Sabre.
   2 COIN sqns with 20 CL-41G Tebuan.
   4 transport and liaison sqns, incl 12 DHC-4A Caribou, 10 Herald 401, 5 Dove and 2 Heron.
   4 hel sqns with 16 S-61A and 25 Alouette III.
   1 training sqn with 16 SA Bulldog.
   (16 F-5B and E and 14 DHC-4 on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 54,000; 10 bns field police.
  
   MONGOLIA
Population: 1,300,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 29,000.
Estimated GNP 1971: $0.84 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 170 million tugrik ($42,500,000). 4 tugrik=$l.
Army: 28,000.
   2 infantry divisions.
   40 T-34 and 100 T-54/55 med tks; 10 SU-100 SP guns; 40 BTR-60 and 50 BTR-152 APC;
   100mm and 130mm guns; 152mm gun/how; Snapper ATGW; 37mm and 57mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Air Force: 1,000 men; 10 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA sqn with 10 MiG-15.
   30 An-2, Il-14 and An-24 transports.
   Yak-11 and Yak-18 trainers.
   10 Mi-1 and Mi-4 helicopters.
   1 SAM battalion with SA-2.
Para-Military Forces: about 18,000 frontier guards and security police.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 2,961,869.
Military service: voluntary, supplemented by
   Territorial service of 12 weeks for the Army.
Total armed forces: 12,789.
Estimated GNP 1972: $US 8.50 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: $NZ 132 million ($US 175 million). $NZ 0.84= $US 1 1July 1972. $NZ 0.754= $US 1 1July 1973..
Army: 5,498.
   1 infantry battalion.
   1 artillery battery.
   Regular troops also form the nucleus of a combat brigade group, a logistic group and a reserve brigade group.
   These units would be completed by the mobilization of Territorials.
   10 M-41 lt tks; 9 Ferret scout cars; 59 M-113 APC;
   1625-pdr guns; 10 5.5-inch med guns; 28 105mm how.
DEPLOYMENT: Singapore: 1 inf bn (less 1 coy).
RESERVES: 6,708 Regular, 3,155 Territorial.
Navy: 2,972.
   4 frigates with Seacat SAM (2 with Wasp hel).
   2 escort minesweepers.
   1 survey ship.
   1 research ship.
   10 patrol craft (less than 100 tons).
RESERVES: 2,191 Regular, 209 Territorial.
Air Force: 4,319; 29 combat aircraft.
   1 FB sqn with 10 A-4K and 4 TA-4K Skyhawk.
   1 FB sqn with 10 BAC 167.
   1 MR sqn with 5 P-3B.
   4 med tpt sqns with 5 C-130H, 9 Bristol Freighter, 6 Dakota and Devon.
   13 UH-1D/H Iroquois 11 OH-13H Sioux hel.
DEPLOYMENT: Singapore: 1 transport squadron (Bristol Freighter tpts and Iroquois hel).
  
   PAKISTAN*
Population: 64,800,000.
Military service: 2 years selective.
Total armed forces: 402,000.* (*Including some 75,000 military POW (army 55,000).)
Estimated GNP 1972: $4.7 billion.
Defence budget 1973-74: 4,230 million rupees ($433 million). 11 rupees= $1 1July 1972. 9.77 rupees=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 300,000 (including 25,000 Azad Kashmir troops).
   2 armoured divisions.
   12 infantry divisions.
   1 independent armoured brigade.
   1 air defence brigade.
   3 sqns army aviation.
   300 M-47/48; 50 T-55 and 500 T-59 med tks; 140 M-24, 50 M-41 and 20 PT-76 lt tks; 250 M-113 APC;
   about 900 guns incl 25-pounder, 105mm and 155mm how and 130mm guns;
   Cobra ATGW; Cessna O-1E lt ac; 12 Mi-8,
   15 Sioux and 8 Alouette III hel.
RESERVES: 500,000.
Navy: 10,000.
   3 submarines.
   1 light cruiser/training ship.
   4 destroyers.
   2 fast frigates.
   7 coastal minesweepers.
   7 patrol boats.
   2 UH-19 SAR hel (6 Sea King on order).
RESERVES: 5,000.
Air Force: 17,000; 248 combat aircraft.
   2 light bomber squadrons with 10 B-57B.
   2 fighter-bomber squadrons with 20 Mirage IIIEP.
   6 fighter-bomber/interceptor sqns with 90 F-86.
   7 FGA sqns with 112 MiG-19/F6.
   1 interceptor squadron with 6 F-104A/B.
   1 recce squadron with 4 RT-33A, 2 RB-57 and 4 F-104B.
   Transports include 4 C-130B, 1 C-46 and 1 F-27.
   10 Huskie, Alouette III and UH-19 hel.
RESERVES: 8,000.
  
   PHILIPPINES
Population: 40,200,000.
Military service: selective.
Total armed forces: 42,700.
Estimated GNP 1972: $8.2 billion.
Defence budget 1972-73: 648 million pesos ($95 million). 6.8 pesos=$1 1July 1972. 6.79 pesos=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 19,300.
   2 light infantry divisions (under strength).
   5 independent infantry brigades (under strength).
   1 artillery group.
   13 engineer construction battalions.
   1 HAWK battalion.
   M-4 med tks; M-24 and M-41 lt tks; M-113 APC; 105mm and 155mm guns; HAWK SAM.
Navy: 12,200 (incl marines and naval engineers).
   1 destroyer escort.
   11 patrol vessels.
   9 patrol gunboats.
   4 hydrofoil patrol vessels.
   18 patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   9 landing ships.
   1 marine brigade.
   2 engineer construction battalions.
Air Force: 11,200; 62 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA sqn with 16 F-5A/B.
   1 fighter sqn with 24 F-86F.
   2 COIN sqns with 12 T-28 and 10 T-33.
   2 transport sqns with 27 C-47, 8 F-27 and 4 YS-11.
   12 UH-1D, 2 MS-62A and 2 H-34 hel.
   (31 SF-260 MX trainers on order.)
RESERVES: 218,500.
Para-Military Forces: 27,180 Philippine Constabulary, organized in 7 bns and 1 bn combat group, deployed to 68 provincial centres;
   20,000 in armed civilian self-defence units; 37,000 security forces.
  
   SINGAPORE
Population: 2,200,000.
Military service: 24-36 months.
Total armed forces: 20,600.
Estimated GNP 1972: $US 2.64 billion.
Defence budget 1972-73: $S 693 million ($US 249,300,000). $S2.78=$1 1July 1972. $S 2.36=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 19,000.
   1 armoured brigade (3 armoured regiments).
   3 infantry bdes, incl 7 infantry, 3 artillery, 3 engineer and 1 signals bns.
   75 AMX-13 tks; V-200 Commando APC; 25-pdr guns; 32 106mm recoilless rifles; 120mm mor.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Navy: 1,000.
   6 fast patrol boats.
   1 seaward defence boat.
   1 landing ship.
   2 landing craft.
   (Gabriel SSM on order.)
Air Force: 600; 48 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA/recce squadron with 16 Hunter (a further
   12, and 40 A-4 Skyhawk on order).
   1 COIN sqn with 16 BAC-167 and 16 SF-260.
   1 tpt/liaison sqn with 8 Cessna-170 and 2 Airtower (6 Skyvan, incl 3 SAR, on order).
   1 helicopter SAR sqn with 8 Alouette III.
   Trainers include Hunter T7, Provost, 6 WA-7,
   4 Airtower and 16 SF-260MS.
   28 Bloodhound SAM launchers (Rapier on order).
Para-Military Forces: 2 police companies; 9,000 People's Defence Force.
  
   SRI LANKA (CEYLON)
Population: 13,300,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 12,500.
Estimated GNP 1972: $2.07 billion.
Defence budget 1970-71: 170 million rupees (S29 million). 5.9 rupees=$l 1July 1970. 6.4 rupees=$l 1July 1972.
Army: 8,500.
   2 brigades, each of 3 battalions.
   6 Saladin armed cars; 12 Ferret scout cars.
RESERVES: 12,000.
Navy: 2,300.
   1 frigate.
   29 small patrol craft.
   1 hydrofoil.
Air Force: 1,700; 5 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter sqn with 5 MiG-17.
   1 trg sqn with 1 MiG-15UTI and 6 Jet Provost.
   4 hel sqns with 7 Bell 206, 6 Bell 47G and 2 KA-26.
Para-Military Forces: 16,000.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 36,714,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 180,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $7.3 billion.
Defence budget 1972-73: 6,158.4 million baht ($293 million). 21.1 baht= $1 1July 1972. 20.48 baht= $1 1July 1973.
Army: 125,000.
   4 infantry divisions (including 4 tank battalions).
   1 regimental combat team.
   1 SAM battalion with 40 HAWK.
   M-24 and M-41 lt tks; M-8 armd cars; M-3A1 scout cars; M-2, M-16 and about 200 M-113 APC;
   200 105mm and 155mm how; HAWK SAM;
   16 FH-1100, 3 Jet Ranger, 14 UH-1H, 2 CH-47 and 6 OH-23F hel.
RESERVES: 300,000.
Navy: 20,000 (including 6,500 marines).
   1 destroyer escort.
   3 frigates (1 more on order).
   1 escort minesweeper.
   17 patrol vessels.
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   2 coastal minelayers.
   11 gunboats (1 less than 100 tons).
   15 patrol boats.
   8 landing ships.
   8 landing craft.
   1 MR sqn with 2 HU-16B and 5 S-2.
Air Force: 35,000; 160 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 11 F-5A and F-5B.
   1 fighter sqn with 20 F-86F.
   2 RT-33A reconnaissance aircraft.
   6 COIN sqns with 55 T-28D, 40 T-6 and 32 OV-10.
   2 tpt sqns with 25 C-47 and 13 C-123B.
   2 hel sqns with 35 CH-34 and 23 UH-1H.
   4 battalions of airfield defence troops.
   (30 A-4, 44 COIN ac and 25 hel on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 10,000 Volunteer Defence Corps; 8,000 Border Police; Village Militia.
   The Border Police control 45 hel, incl 11 Bell 205, 10 204B and 13 FH-1100.
  
   VIETNAM--DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 22,000,000.
Military service: 2 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 578,000.
Estimated defence expenditure 1970: 2,150 million dong ($584 million). 3.68 dong=$1 1July 1970. 3.6 dong= $1 1July 1972.
Army: 564,750.
   15 infantry divisions* plus an additional 2 training divisions.
   (* Infantry divisions normally total about 12,000 men, including 3 infantry regiments and 1 support regiment.)
   1 artillery division (of 10 regiments).
   3 armoured regiments.
   About 20 independent infantry regiments.
   46 SAM battalions (each with 6 SA-2 launchers).
   12 AA artillery regiments.
   T-34 and T-54 med tks; PT-76 Type 60 lt tks; BTR-40 APC; SU-76 and JSU-122 SP guns;
   75mm, 105mm, 122mm, 175 130mm and 152mm guns; 57mm, 75mm, 82mm and 107mm recoilless rifles;
   82mm, 100mm, 107mm, 120mm and 160mm mortars; 107mm, 122mm and 140mm RL; Sagger ATGW;
   6,000 12.7mm, 14.5mm, 37mm, 57mm, KS-12 85mm and KS-19 100mm AA guns and ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns;
   SA-2, SA-3 and SA-7 Strela SAM, Firecan AA radar.
DEPLOYMENT: About 145,000 in South Vietnam, 60,000 in Laos and 40,000 in Cambodia.
Navy: 3,250.
   3 coastal escorts (ex-Soviet SO-I type).
   28 ex-Chinese motor gunboats (less than 100 tons).
   13 motor torpedo boats (1 Chinese P-6, 12 Soviet P-4).
   About 12 small patrol boats (less than 100 tons).
   Some landing craft.
   10 Mi-4 SAR helicopters.
Air Force: 10,000; 178 combat aircraft.
   1 light bomber sqn with 8 Il-28.
   4 interceptor sqns with 40 MiG-21F/PF with Atoll AAM.
   2 interceptor sqns with 30 MiG-19 (ex-Chinese).
   7 fighter-bomber sqns with 100 MiG-15/17.
   20 An-2, 4 An-24, 12 H-14 and 20 Li-2 transports.
   12 Mi-4 and 5 Mi-6 helicopters.
   About 50 training aircraft.
Para-Military Forces: 20,000 Frontier, Coast Security and People's Armed Security Forces; about 425,000 Regional Armed Militia.
  
   VIETNAM - REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (SOUTH)
Population: 20,000,000.
Military service: 2 years minimum.
Total armed forces: 572,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $2.5 billion.
Defence budget 1973:189.4 billion piastres ($379 million). 420 piastres = $1 1July 1972. 500 piastres = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 460,000.
   11 infantry divisions.
   1 airborne division (3 brigades).
   7 independent armoured cavalry regiments.
   3 independent infantry regiments.
   27 ranger battalions.
   1 special forces group.
   35 artillery battalions.
   450 M-47 and M-48 med tks; M-24, M-41 and AMX-13 lt tks;
   Commando and Greyhound armd cars; M-3 scout cars; M-59 and M-113 APC;
   1,500 105mm and 155mm guns; 155mm SP guns; 175mm how; AA guns; TOW ATGW.
Navy: 45,000.
   9 frigates (2 radar picket).
   9 patrol vessels.
   46 patrol gunboats.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   21 landing ships.
   19 landing craft, utility.
   800 riverine craft; inshore patrol, patrol boats, assault support patrol boats, monitors (105mm how), armoured troop carriers,
   command and control boats, minesweepers and support ships.
   About 250 diesel junks.
Marines: 17,000.
   1 division.
Air Force: 50,000; 309 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA sqn with 18 F-5A (plus 90 in storage).
   7 FB sqns with 168 A-37B (plus 60 in storage).
   3 FB sqns with 60 A-1H/J.
   1 recce sqn with 10 RC-47 and 7 RF-5A.
   1 gunship sqn with 16 AC-47.
   2 gunship sqns with 30 AC-119G.
   8 tpt sqns with 40 C-47, 43 C-119, 56 C-123 and 32 C-130E.
   9 lt tpt sqns with 53 C-7,10 U-6A and 80U-17A/B.
   8 lt observation sqns with 248 O-l.
   18 hel sqns with 625 Bell UH-1 and 60 CH-47.
   250 miscellaneous training aircraft.
Para-Military Forces:
   Regional Forces - 285,000, forming about 1,700 rifle companies, at the disposal of the provincial governors.
   Popular Forces - 250,000, a home guard of about 7,500 platoons, with light arms.
   People's Self Defence Force -1,400,000; part-time village militia.
   Police Field Force - 35,000, including special internal security units with armoured vehicles and helicopters.
  

Latin America

   Continental Treaties and Agreements
   In March and April 1945, the Act of Chapultepec was signed by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. This Act declared that any attack upon a member-party would be considered an attack upon all, and provided for the collective use of armed force to prevent or repel such aggression.
   In September 1947 all the parties to the Chapultepec Act-except Ecuador and Nicaragua - signed the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, otherwise known as the Treaty of Rio (Cuba withdrew from the Treaty in March 1960). This Treaty constrained signatories to the peaceful settlement of disputes between themselves, and provided for collective self-defence should any member-party be subject to external attack.
   The Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS), drawn up in 1948, embraced declarations based upon the Treaty of Rio. The member-parties* - the signatories to the Act of Chapultepec plus Barbados, El Salvador, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago-are bound to peaceful settlement of internal disputes, and to collective action in the event of external attack upon one or more signatory states.
   The United States is also a party to two multilateral defence treaties: the Act of Havana, 1940, signed by representatives of all the then 21 American Republics, which provides for the collective trusteeship, by American nations, of European colonies and possessions in the Americas, should any attempt be made to transfer the sovereignty of these colonies from one non-American power to another; and the Havana Convention, which corresponds with the Act of Havana, signed in 1940by the same states, with the exception of Bolivia, Chile, Cuba and Uruguay.
   A Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America*(The Tlatelolco Treaty) was signed in February 1967 by 22 Latin American countries; 20 countries have now ratified or acceded to it. An Agency has been set up by the contracting parties to ensure compliance with the treaty.
   Other Agreements
   In July 1965, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua agreed to form a military bloc for the co-ordination of all resistance against possible Communist aggression.
   The United States has bilateral military assistance agreements with Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. She also has a bilateral agreement with Cuba, for jurisdiction and control over Guantanamo Bay.f
   The Soviet Union has no defence agreements with any of the states in this area, although in recent years she has supplied military equipment to Cuba. .
   Britain assures the defence of Belize, France of French Guiana and the Netherlands of Surinam (Dutch Guiana).
   * Legally, Cuba is a member of the OAS, but has been excluded - by a decision of OAS Foreign Ministers - since January 1962. Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago signed the Charter in 1967.
   t. This agreement was confirmed in 1934. In 1960 the United States stated that it could be modified or abrogated only by agreement between the parties, and that she had no intention of agreeing to modification or abrogation.

Латинская Америка

   Континентальные договоры и соглашения
   В марте и апреле 1945 года Акт Чапультепека был подписан Аргентиной, Боливией, Бразилией, Венесуэлой, Гватемалой, Гаити, Гондурасом, Доминиканской Республикой, Колумбией, Коста-Рикой, Кубой, Мексикой, Никарагуа, Панамой, Парагваем, Перу, Соединенными Штатами, Уругваем, Чили и Эквадором. В этом Акте провозглашалось, что любое нападение на участника будет считаться нападением на всех, и предусматривалось коллективное применение вооруженной силы для предотвращения или отражения такой агрессии.
   В сентябре 1947 года все участники закона Чапультепека, за исключением Никарагуа и Эквадора, подписали Межамериканский договор о взаимной помощи, известный также как Договор Рио (Куба вышла из договора в марте 1960 года). Этот договор сдерживал подписавших его участников в мирном урегулировании споров между собой и предусматривал коллективную самооборону в случае, если какой-либо член организации подвергнется внешнему нападению.
   Устав Организации Американских Государств (ОАГ), составленный в 1948 году, принял заявления, на основании договора от Рио. Стороны-члены* - подписавшие закон О Чапультепеке плюс Барбадос, Сальвадор, Тринидад и Тобаго и Ямайка - обязаны добиваться мирного урегулирования внутренних споров и предпринимать коллективные действия в случае внешнего нападения на одно или несколько подписавших его государств.
   США также является участником двух многосторонних оборонных договоров: акт Гаване, 1940, подписанный представителями всех 21 Американских Республик, который предусматривает коллективную опеку, американских наций, европейских колоний и владений в Америке, если будет предпринята попытка передача суверенитета этих колоний от одного неамериканского государства другому; и Гаванскую Конвенции, которой соответствует акт Гаване, подписанного в 1940 теми же странами, за исключением Боливии, Чили, Куба и Уругвай.
   Договор о запрещении ядерного оружия в Латинской Америке (договор Тлателолко) был подписан в феврале 1967 года 22 латиноамериканскими странами; в настоящее время 20 стран ратифицировали его или присоединились к нему. Договаривающиеся стороны создали агентство для обеспечения соблюдения договора.
   Другие договоры
   В июле 1965 года, Сальвадор, Гватемала, Гондурас и Никарагуа договорились создать военный блок для координации сопротивления против возможной коммунистической агрессии.
   Соединенные Штаты имеют двусторонние соглашения об оказании военной помощи с Аргентиной, Боливией, Бразилией, Венесуэлой, Гватемалой, Гондурасом, Доминиканской Республикой, Колумбией, Мексикой, Никарагуа, Панамой, Парагваем, Перу, Сальвадором, Уругваем и Чили. Они также заключила двустороннее соглашение с Кубой о юрисдикции и контроле над заливом Гуантанамо.**
   Советский Союз не имеет оборонных соглашений ни с одним из государств в этой области, хотя в последние годы он поставлял военную технику Кубе. .
   Великобритания обеспечивает оборону Белиза, Франция - Французской Гвианы и Нидерланды Суринама (голландская Гвиана).
  
   * Юридически Куба является членом ОАГ, но была исключена - по решению министров иностранных дел ОАГ - с января 1962 года. Барбадос и Тринидад и Тобаго подписали Хартию в 1967 году.
   **. Это соглашение было подтверждено в 1934 году. В 1960 году Соединенные Штаты заявили, что оно может быть изменено или аннулировано только по соглашению между сторонами и что они не намерена соглашаться на изменение или аннулирование.
  
   ARGENTINA
Population: 24,300,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force, 1 year, Navy, 14 months.
Total armed forces: 135,000.
Estimated GNP 1971: $46.8 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 4.434 billion pesos ($889 million). 5 pesos= $1 1July 1972. 4.99 pesos=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 85,000.
   2 armoured brigades.
   1 horsed cavalry brigade.
   2 mechanized infantry brigades.
   1 infantry brigade.
   3 mountain brigades.
   1 airborne brigade.
   10 artillery regiments.
   5 anti-aircraft artillery regiments.
   120 M-4 Sherman medium tks; 120 AMX-13 lt tks; 250 M-113 APC;
   105mm and 155mm guns; 105mm pack how and 24 French Mk F3 and 155mm SP how;
   recoilless rifles; Cobra ATGW; Tigercat SAM;
   3 DHC-6 Twin Otter; 7 Bell UH-7H and 7 FH-1100 hel.
RESERVES: 250,000; 200,000 National Guard and 50,000 Territorial Guard.
Navy: 33,000 (including the Naval Air Force and Marines).
   1 aircraft carrier.
   4 submarines (2 more under construction).
   3 cruisers.
   10 destroyers (2 more under construction).
   2 patrol vessels.
   6 coastal minesweepers/minehunters.
   2 torpedo boats.
   2 fast patrol boats.
   1 landing ship.
   4 LST.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: 3,000; 35 combat aircraft.
   15 A-4Q Skyhawk fighter-bombers.
   7 MB-326GB armed trainers.
   7 S-2A Tracker, 6 P-2V5 Neptune MR aircraft.
   3 HU-16B Albatross SAR aircraft.
   6 Alouette III and 4 Sea King ASW/SAR hel.
   7 C-47 and C-54 transport aircraft.
   32 T-28 Fennec trainers.
   Some Beech B-80 (Queen Air), C-45; HS-125, PC-6 and DHC-6 general purpose aircraft.
   (2 Westland Sea Lynx on order.)
   1 field artillery battalion (105mm how.)
   1 AA battalion.
   20 LUT P-7 and 15 LARC 5 APC; 105mm, 155mm how; recoilless rifles; Bantam ATGW; Tigercat SAM; 30mm AA guns.
Air Force: 17,000;91 combat aircraft.
   10 B-62 and 2 T.Mk64 Canberra bombers.
   47 A-4P Skyhawk fighter-bombers.
   12 Mirage IIIE and IIIB fighters.
   20 F-56F Sabre fighters.
   40 MS-760 and 60 T-34 trainers.
   5 C-130E, 5 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 11 F-27Mk400/600, 10 C-47, 6 C-45 and 4 DC-6 med tpts;
   20 Dove, 16 Dinfia Guaranill, 14 Aero Commander, Beaver and Huanquero lt tpts.
   14 Hughes 500M; 6 Bell UH-1H; 4 UH-1D; 6 UH-19 and 4 Bell 47 hel.
   (50 IA-58 Pucara COIN acon order.)
Para-Military Forces: 19,000. Gendarmerie: 11,000 men, 10 hel, under Army command, mainly for frontier duties;
   the National Maritime Prefecture: 8,000, 1 frigate, 8hel, 5 Skyvan, subordinate to the Navy, performs coastguard duties.
  
   BOLIVIA
Population: 5,340,000.
Military service: 12 months' selective.
Total armed forces: 21,800.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.32 billion.
Defence expenditure 1972: 307 million pesos ($25.8 million). 11.88 pesos = $l 1July 1972.
Army: 20,000.
   12 infantry regiments.
   2 motorized regiments.
   3 ranger battalions.
   1 paratroop regiment.
   3 artillery regiments.
   5 engineer battalions.
   VM-706 and M-113 APC; light mor and arty.
Navy: Some lake patrol craft.
Air Force: 1,800: 29 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter sqn with 10F-51D Mustang.
   1 COIN sqn with 13 AT-6D and 6 T-28A armed trainers.
   20 tpts, incl C47, 1C-54 and 6 CV-440.
   6 Cessna 172, 7 PT-19, 8 Fokker T-21 and 7 Cessna 185 communication aircraft.
   13 T-33A trainers.
   12 Hughes 500M and Hiller OH-23C/D helicopters.
MARINES: 4,800. 4 marine battalions.
Para-Military Forces: About 5,000 armed police and frontier guards.
  
   BRAZIL
Population: 100,760,000.
Military service: 1year.
Total armed forces: 208,000.
Estimated GNP1972: $50.4 billion.
Defence budget 1972: 6.517 billion cruzeiros ($1,105 million). 5.9 cruzeiros = $1 1July 1972. 6.05 cruzeiros = $1 1July 1973.
Army: 130,000.
   1 armoured division.*
   4 mechanized divisions.*
   7 infantry divisions.*
   1 airborne division.
   (* Some of these divisions are being re-organized into independence brigades.)
   150 M-4 Sherman and 40 M-47 Patton med tks;
   M-3 Stuart and 100 M-41 Walker Bulldog lt tks;
   120 Veteli Al Cutia APC/armd car; 40 M-113 and M-59 APC; M-7 105mm SP how;
   HAWK SAM (4Roland SAM on order.)
Navy: 43,000 (including Naval Air Force, Marines and Auxiliary Corps).
   4 submarines (3 more on order).
   1 ASW aircraft carrier.
   2 cruisers.
   12 destroyers (1 with Seacat SAM).
   5 destroyer escorts.
   10 corvettes (rescue ships).
   4 coastal minesweepers.
   6 coastal patrol gun-boats.
   2 river patrol boats (3 more on order).
   2 LST.
   (6 frigates on order; 2 with twin Exocet SSM, 4 with Ikara ASW).
NAVAL AIR FORCE:
   3 SH-3D, 4 SH-1-5-58 (Sikorsky S-58), 3 UH-2 (Westland Wasp), 4 UH-4 (Hiller FH-1100), 5 UH-5 (Westland Whirlwind),
   10 IH-2A (Hughes 200) and 1 IH-2B (Hughes 300).
Air Force: 35,000; 216 combat aircraft.
   1 lt bomber sqn with 15B-26K Invader.
   1 interceptor sqn with 16Mirage IIIEBR.
   6 COIN sqns with 90 AT-6G, 40 AT-37C (112 AF-26 Xavante on order) (operate with Army).
   13 Tracker, 12 Neptune, 13 Albatross, 8 PBY-5 Catalina and 9 RC-130E Hercules MR aircraft.
   40 L-42 Regente, O-l Bird Dog and L-6 Paulistinha observation/liaison aircraft (with Army).
   About 180 transports, incl 56 C-47, DC-6B, 4 C-118, 12 C-119F, 10 C-130E, 5 HS-125, 6 HS-748, 2 BAC-111, 24 DHC-5 and 5 Pilatus Porter.
   (C-45 and C-47 being replaced by 80 C-95 Bandeirante; 12 Fokker F27/F28 on order.)
   70 T-23 Uirapuru,150 T-25 Universal, 63 Cessna T-37C, 7 Magister and Fokker S-11/12 trainers.
   43 H-13J, 16 UH-1D and 6 OH-4A/5A hel.
   (48 F-5E, 30 Gazelle and 22 UH-1H on order.)
Para-Military Forces: Various public security forces total about 150,000. There are State militias in addition.
  
   CHILE
Population: 9,200,000.
Military service: 1 year.
Total armed forces: 60,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $7.07 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 8,000 million escudos ($174 million). 28 escudos= $1 1July 1972. 46 escudos= $l 1July 1973.
Army: 32,000.
   5 divisions incl:
   6 cavalry regiments (2 armoured, 4 horsed).
   16 infantry regiments (incl 10 motorized).
   5 artillery regiments.
   Some anti-aircraft and support detachments.
   76 M-4 Sherman med tks; 10 M-3 Stuart lt tks; some APC; Model 56 105mm pack how; AA arty.
RESERVES: 200,000.
Navy: 18,000.
   2 submarines.
   3 cruisers.
   4 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   4 motor torpedo boats.
   1 patrol vessel.
   5 landing ships.
   (2 Oberon-class submarines and 2 Leander-class frigates with Seacat SAM are on order.)
   1 HU-16C Albatross.
   5 C-45 and 5 C-47 tpts; 4 Jet Ranger helicopters.
Air Force: 10,000; 41 combat aircraft.
   1 lt bomber sqn with 12 B-26 Invader.
   2 fighter sqns with 18 Hunter F-71 and 11 F-80C.
   About 90 transports, including 20 C-45, 8 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 9 Beechcraft 99A, 25 C-47, 4 C-118, 4 DC-6 and 2 C-130E Hercules.
   5 Twin Bonanza, 10 Cessna 180, 4 Cessna O-l and 20 T-6 liaison aircraft.
   45 T-34, 10 T-37B, 8 T-33A and 5 Vampire trainers.
   30 helicopters, including 7 Bell OH-13H, 2 Sikorsky UH-19, 16 Hiller OH-23G and 2 Bell UH-1D.
Para-Military Forces: Carabineros 30,000.
  
   COLOMBIA
Population: 23,200,000.
Military service: 1 year.
Total armed forces: 63,200.
Estimated GNP 1972: $7.59 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1973: 2,035 million pesos ($92 million). 22 pesos= $1 1July 1972. 22 pesos=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 50,000 (300,000 on full mobilization).
   8 infantry brigades.
   1 Presidential Guard anti-guerrilla battalion.
   Motorized infantry, artillery and engineer units.
   M-3A1 Stuart light tanks; M-8 armoured cars; 105mm how; mortars.
RESERVES: 250,000.
Navy: 7,200.
   2 submarines.
   5 destroyers.
   4 destroyer/transports.
   8 coastal patrol vessels.
   5 river gunboats.
   14 patrol motor launches (less than 100 tons).
Air Force: 6,000; 18 combat aircraft.
   14 Mirage V and 4 Mirage IIIR/D. (F-5 on order.)
   About 50 transport aircraft incl 2 C-130, C-47,
   C-54, DHC-2 Beaver, DHC-3 Otter, Aero Commander, 1 Fokker F-28 and 4 HS-748.
   About 50 trainers incl 10 A-37, 30 T-41D, some AT-33 and Beech T-34.
   16 Bell 47, 12 Hughes OH-6A, 6 Kaman Huskie, 6 TH-55,1 Bell UH-1B and 4 Hiller H-23.
Para-Military Forces: 35,000 National Police Force.
  
   CUBA
Population: 8,850,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 108,500.
Estimated GNP 1970: $4.5 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1971: 290 million pesos ($290 million). 1 peso = $1 1July 1970. 1 peso = $l 1July 1971.
Army: 90,000.
   15 infantry 'divisions' (brigades).
   2 armoured brigades.
   8 independent 'brigades' (battalion groups).
   Over 600 tks including hy tks, T-34 and T-54/55 med tks and PT-76 lt tks; 200 BTR-40, BTR-60 and BTR-152 APC;
   100 SU-100 assault guns; 122mm and 152mm guns; 30 FROG-4 and 20 Salish SSM;
   57mm, 76mm and 85mm ATk guns; Snapper ATGW.
RESERVES: 90,000.
Navy: 6,500.
   2 frigates (ex-US).
   2 escort patrol vessels (ex-US).
   18 submarine chasers (ex-Soviet SO-1, Kronstadt).
   2 Osa- and 18 Komar-class FPB with Styx SSM.
   24 MTB (ex-Soviet P-4 and P-6).
   18 Mi-4 hel.
   50 Samlet coastal defence SSM.
Air Force: 12,000 (including the Air Defence Forces); 215 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 20 MiG-15.
   5 interceptor sqns with 80 MiG-21.
   2 interceptor sqns with 40 MiG-19.
   4 interceptor sqns with 75 MiG-17.
   About 70 Il-14, An-24 and An-2 tpt ac.
   Trainers include 30 MiG-15UTI and Zlin-326.
   About 24 Mi-4 and 30 Mi-1 helicopters.
   24 SAM bns with 144 SA-2.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000 State Security troops; 3,000 border guards; 200,000 People's Militia.
  
   DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Population: 4,400,000.
Military service: selective.
Total armed forces: 15,800.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.85 billion.
Estimated defence expenditure 1972: 33 million pesos ($33 million). 1 peso=$1 1July 1972. 1 peso=$l 1July 1973.
Army: 9,000.
   3 infantry brigades.
   1 artillery regiment.
   1 anti-aircraft regiment.
   Reconnaissance, engineer and signals units.
   20 AMX-13 lt tks; some APC, armd cars and light artillery.
Navy: 3,800.
   3 frigates.
   2 corvettes.
   2 fleet minesweepers.
   3 patrol vessels.
   1 landing ship.
   2 landing craft.
Air Force: 3,000; 35 combat aircraft.
   3 B-26 Invader light bombers.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 10 Vampire Mark I.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 20 F-51D Mustang.
   2 PBY-5A Catalina maritime patrol aircraft.
   1 tpt sqn with 6 C-46, 6 C-47,3 DHC-2 Beaver and 3 Cessna 170.
   30 trainers, including T-6 Texan, T-11 Kansan, BT-13 Valiant and PT-17 Kaydet.
   2 Bell OH-13, 2 Sikorsky H-19, 2 Hiller UH-12, 7 Hughes 0H-6A and 3 Alouette II/III hel.
Para-Military Forces: 10,000 Gendarmerie.
  
   ECUADOR
Population: 6,600,000.
Military service: selective for 2 years.
Total armed forces: 22,200.
Estimated GNP 1972: $1.83 billion.
Estimated defence budget 1973: 1,221 million sucres ($49 million). 25 sucres=$l 1July 1972. 24.71 sucres=$l 1My 1973.
Army: 15,000.
   11 infantry battalions.
   1 parachute battalion.
   3 reconnaissance squadrons.
   4 horsed cavalry squadrons.
   10 independent inf coys.
   3 artillery groups.
   1 anti-aircraft battalion.
   2 engineer battalions.
   15 M-3Stuart and M-41 Bulldog and 41 AMX-13 lt tks; Panhard AML-245 armd cars; some APC incl amphibians.
   1 Skyvan, 1 Cessna T-41 and 3 Piper Cub.
Navy: 3,700.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 coastal escorts.
   2 motor gunboats.
   3 motor torpedo boats.
   6 patrol craft.
   2 landing ships.
Air Force: 3,500; 15 combat aircraft.
   5 Canberra bombers.
   8 Meteor FR-9 interceptors.
   2 PBY-5 Catalina maritime patrol aircraft.
   1 tpt sqn with 6 C-45, 8 C-47, 4 DC-6B, 1 Skyvan 3M and 3 HS-748.
   25 trainers including T-28, T-33 and 12 T-41.
   3 Bell 47G and 1 FH-1100 hel.
   (8 BAC-167 fighters and 6 Alouette III hel on order.)
Para-Military Forces: 5,800.
  
   MEXICO
Population: 53,450,000.
Military service: voluntary, with part-time conscript militia.
Total armed forces: 71,000 regulars; 250,000 conscripts.
Estimated GNP 1972: $39.45 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 4,409 million pesos ($352 million). 12.5 pesos=$1 1July 1972. 12.52 pesos= $1 1July 1973..
Army: 54,000, plus 250,000 part-time conscripts.
   1 mechanized brigade group (Presidential Guard).
   1 infantry brigade group.
   1 parachute brigade.
   Zonal Garrisons including:
   21 independent cavalry regiments.
   50 independent infantry battalions.
   2 artillery battalions.
   Anti-aircraft, engineer and support units.
   M-3 Stuart lt tks; APCs; 100 armd cars; 75mm and 105mm how.
Navy: 11,000 (including Naval Air Force and Marines).
   2 destroyers.
   8 frigates.
   2 gunboats.
   15 escort and fleet minesweepers.
   10 patrol boats.
   1 troop transport.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: 336; 5 combat aircraft.
   5 PBY-5 Catalina MR; 4 Bell 47G, 1 Bell 47J and 4 Alouette III hel.
MARINES: 1,900 men; organized in 16companies.
Air Force: 6,000; 27 combat aircraft.
   1 fighter-bomber sqn with 12 Vampire.
   1 COIN sqn with 15 T-33A.
   1 SAR sqn with 18 LASA-60 lt ac.
   130 trainers, including 45 T-6 Texan, 13 AT-11 Kansan, 32 T-28 Trojan and 10 T-34 Mentor.
   (The T-6, AT-11, T-28 and T-34 aircraft can be used for ground support.)
   About 50 transports, including 6 C-47, 5 C-54, 20 C-45, 2 C-118, 3 Islander and 1 Jetstar.
   About 30 helicopters: 14 Bell 47, 1 Bell 212, 3 Puma,
   5 Jet Ranger, 6 Alouette III and 1 Hiller UH-12E.
   1 parachute battalion.
  
   PARAGUAY
Population: 2,520,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 14,900.
Estimated GNP 1972: $708 million.
Defence budget 1973: 2,335.9 million guaranies ($19 million). 130 guaranies =$1 1July 1972. 125 guaranies=$1 1July 1973.
Army:11,000.
   1 cavalry brigade.
   6 infantry regiments.
   5 motorized engineer battalions.
   3 artillery batteries.
   9 M-4 Sherman med tks; APCs; 75mm and 105mm how.
Navy: 1,900 (including marines).
   1 support ship (LSM) with 2 UH-13 hel.
   2 river gunboats.
   3 patrol boats.
   2 patrol launches.
   3 river patrol boats.
Air Force: 2,000; 6 combat aircraft.
   About 20 trainers incl 6 T-6 Texan (some fitted for bombs), PT-17 Kaydet and MS-760.
   10 C-47, 2 C-54 and 1 DHC-6 Twin Otter tpts.
   20 helicopters, including 4 Bell 47C, 3 Hiller UH-12E and 12 Bell UH-13.
Para-Military Forces: 8,500 security forces.
  
   PERU
Population: 14,900,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 54,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $7.11 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 10,193 million soles ($240 million).* 45.5 soles=$1 1July 1972. 42.44 soles= $1 1July 1973.
   (* Peru now uses a biennial defence budget system.
   This estimate represents the 1973 portion of a total 20,125 million soles budget for 1 Jan. 1972-31 Dec. 1974.)
Army: 39,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   7 infantry brigades.
   1 commando brigade.
   Mountain, parachute,. artillery and engineer battalions.
   60 M-4 Sherman med tks; 100 AMX-13 lt tks;
   50 M-3A1 White scout cars; some 105mm and 155mm guns. 8 Bell 47G hel.
Navy: 8,000.
   4 submarines.
   3 light cruisers (1 more being delivered).
   4 destroyers.
   3 destroyer escorts.
   2 submarine chasers.
   6 fast patrol craft.
   2 coastal minesweepers.
   3 patrol boats.
   4 landing ships.
   2 Bell 47G and 2 Alouette III helicopters.
Air Force: 7,000; 85 combat aircraft. (The above aircraft form three combat groups of two or three squadrons each.)
   15 Canberra light bombers.
   14 Mirage V fighters (more on order).
   10 F-86F and 6 Hunter F-52 fighters.
   20 T-33A armed trainers.
   1 photo-recce squadron with 10 C-60.
   1 maritime recce squadron with 6 PV-2 Harpoon.
   4 HU-16A Albatross maritime patrol aircraft.
   Tpt and comms aircraft, incl 9 C-130, 4 C-54, 6 DC-6, 19 C-47, 12 DHC-6 Twin Otter, 21 Beech Queen Air and 16 DHC-5Buffalo.
   Trainers incl 2 Hunter T-62, 2 Mirage MB, 8 T-33, 26 T-37B and 19 Cessna T-41A.
   Helicopters include 4 Bell 47G, 10 Alouette III, 4 Mi-8, 2 Bell 212, 13 UH-1H, 9 UH-1D and 2 Hiller UH-12B.
Para-Military Forces: 20,000 Guardia Civil.
  
   URUGUAY
Population: 3,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 21,000.
Estimated GNP 1972: $2.36 billion.
Defence budget 1972: 43,964 million pesos ($77 million). 570 pesos=$1 1July 1972. 895 pesos=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 16,000.
   2 armoured regiments.
   5 infantry regiments (of 3 battalions each).
   9 cavalry sqns.
   4 artillery groups.
   5 engineer battalions.
   8 M-24 lt tks; 10 M-3A1 scout cars; 18 M-113A1
   APC; 105mm how.
RESERVES: 100,000.
Navy: 3,000.
   2 destroyer escorts.
   1 corvette (training).
   1 escort vessel.
   2 patrol vessels.
   1 coastal minesweeper.
   3 S-2A Tracker maritime patrol aircraft.
   2 Bell 47G and 4 UH-12 helicopters.
Air Force: 2,000; 10 combat aircraft.
   About 30 trainers incl 20 T-6 Texan and 6 T-33A (some of which are armed).
   Tpt ac incl 14 C-47, 2 Fokker F-27, 1 DHC-2 Beaver, 2 Beech Queen Air and 2 F-227.
   2 Bell UH-1H and 2 Hiller UH-12 hel.
Para-Military Forces: 22,000.
  
   VENEZUELA
Population: 11,500,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 37,500.
Estimated GNP 1972: $11.97 billion.
Defence budget 1973: 1,396 million bolivares ($325 million). 4.4 bolivares=$1 1July 1972. 4.30 bolivares=$1 1July 1973.
Army: 24,000.
   1 armoured brigade.
   1 cavalry regiment.
   1 tank battalion group.
   13 infantry battalions.
   11 ranger battalions.
   6 artillery groups.
   5 engineer and anti-aircraft battalions.
   16 AMX-30 med tks; AMX-13 lt tks; M-18 tank destroyers and some armd cars (161 AMX-30 and 20 AMX-155 SP guns on order).
Navy: 7,500 (including 4,000 marines).
   3 submarines.
   4 destroyers.
   6 destroyer escorts.
   10 submarine chasers,
   4 landing ships.
   (6 FPB with Otomat SSM are on order.)
Air Force: 6,000; 129 combat aircraft.
   30 B-2 Canberra bombers.
   15 B-25 Mitchell light bombers.
   18 CF-5A fighters.
   50 F-86F/K fighters.
   16 OV-10A COIN aircraft.
   47 tpt ac incl 12 C-47; 18 C-123B and 4 C-130H.
   38 trainers incl 2 Mirage IIID, T-34 Mentor, T-52 Jet Provost and HS-748.
   24 hel include Alouette III and UH-1D.
   (F-5 and 16 Mirage III fighters on order.)
Para-Military Forces: The National Guard, a volunteer force with a total strength of 10,000, employed chiefly on internal security duties.
  
   OTHER LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES
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TABLES

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   NOTES
   a. ICBM = inter-continental ballistic missile (range 4,000 + miles);
   IRBM = intermediate-range ballistic missile (range 1,500-4,000 miles);
   MRBM = medium-range ballistic missile (range 500-1,500 miles);
   SRBM = short-range ballistic missile (range under 500 miles);
   SLBM = submarine-launched ballistic missile. Long-range cruise missile range over 250 miles.
   b. Operation range depends upon the payload carried; use of maximum payload may reduce missile range by up to 25 per cent.
   c. MT = megaton = million tons of TNT equivalent (MT range = 1 MT or over); KT = kiloton thousand tons of TNT equivalent (KT range = less than 1 MT); figures given are estimated maxima.
   d. Numerical designations of Soviet missiles (e.g. SS-7) are of US origin; names (e.g., Saddler) are of NATO origin.
   e. SS-9 missiles have also been tested with (i) three warheads of 4-5 MT each, (ii) a modified payload for use as a depressed trajectory ICBM (DICBM) or fractional orbit bombardment system (FOBS).
   f. There are also 25 large silos under construction, possibly to receive SS-18 missiles, an improved version of the SS-9, fitted with MRV.
   g. There are also 66 smaller silos under construction, which are expected to receive SS-16 missiles, an improved version of the SS-13; or SS-17 missiles, an improved version of the SS-11, with MRV.
   h. SS-11 missiles have also been tested with three smaller warheads.
   i. Including those deployed within IRBM/MRBM fields.
   j. A mobile IRBM (SS-XZ Scrooge) has been displayed and tested but is not known to be deployed operationally.
   k. A mobile missile (SS-14 Scapegoat), apparently with MRBM range, has been displayed and tested but is not known to be deployed operationally.
   l. Dual capable (i.e., capable of delivering conventional explosives or nuclear warheads).
   m. To be replaced by Lance, an SRBM with a maximum range of 70 miles and a warhead in the KT range.
   n. Most Polaris A3 missiles have been modified to carry three warheads.
   o. All aircraft listed are dual-capable and many, especially in the categories of strike aircraft, would be more likely to carry conventional than nuclear weapons.
   p. Long-range bomber = maximum range over 6,000 miles; medium-range bomber = maximum range 3,500-6,000 miles, primarily designed for bombing missions.
   q. Theoretical maximum range, with internal fuel only, at optimum altitude and speed. Ranges for strike aircraft assume no weapons load. Especially in the case of strike aircraft, therefore, range falls sharply for flights at lower altitude, at higher speed or with full weapons load (e.g., the combat radius of A-7 at operational height and speed, with typical weapons load, is approximately 620 miles).
   r. Mach 1 (M=1.0 = speed of sound).
   s. Names of Soviet aircraft (e.g., Bear) are of NATO origin.
   t. Including approximately 8 FB-111A and 45 B-52 aircraft in active storage.
   u. Excluding approximately 50 Mya-4 aircraft configured as tankers.
   v. Including approximately 300 Tu-16 aircraft in the Naval Air Force, configured for attacks on shipping, which could, in theory, deliver nuclear weapons.
   w. These aircraft are nuclear-capable but may not necessarily have a nuclear role.
  
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   NOTES
   a. IRBM - intermediate-range ballistic missile (range 1,500-4,000 miles);
   SRBM = short-range ballistic missile (range under 300 miles);
   SLBM = submarine-launched ballistic missile.
   b. All NATO vehicles are of American origin, with the exception of the SSBS IRBM and the MSBS SLBM, which are of French origin.
   с. BR = Britain, FR - France, GE = West Germany, BU = Bulgaria, CZ=Czechoslovakia, EG = East Germany, PO = Poland.
   d. Operational range depends upon the payload carried; use of maximum payload may reduce missile range by up to 25 per cent.
   e. KT -" kiloton - thousand tons of TNT equivalent (KT range = less than 1 MT;) figures given are estimated maxima.
   f. All Warsaw Pact vehicles are of Soviet origin. Numerical designations (e.g., SS-lb) are of American origin; names (e.g. Scud A) are of NATO origin.
   g. These SRBM are operated by West Germany but the nuclear warheads for them are in American custody. Sergeant is dual-capable (i.e., capable of delivering conventional or nuclear weapons).
   h. These dual-capable systems are operated by the countries shown but nuclear warheads for them are in Soviet custody.
   i. Honest John is dual-capable and is operated by Belgium, Britain, Denmark, West Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey, but with the nuclear warheads held in American custody. In the case of Denmark, there are no nuclear warheads held on Danish soil. France also operates Honest John but the nuclear warheads for it were withdrawn in 1966 and its nuclear role is to be taken over by the French SRBM Pluton, which will have a French nuclear warhead.
   j. The 203mm how is dual-capable and is operated by Belgium, Britain, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and Turkey but any nuclear warheads for it are in American custody.
   k. The 155mm how is primarily a conventional artillery weapon but is dual-capable. It is operated by Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, West Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Turkey but in very few cases is it likely to have a nuclear role, certainly not in the case of Canada. Any nuclear warheads would be in American custody, none on Danish or Norwegian soil.
  
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   NOTES
   a. All aircraft listed are dual-capable and many would be more likely to carry conventional than nuclear weapons.
   b. Medium-range bomber = maximum range 3,500-6,000 miles, primarily designed for bombing missions.
   c. Vulcan and Buccaneer are of British origin; F-104 and F-4 are of American origin; Mirage is of French origin.
   d. BR - Britain, FR = France, GE = West Germany, BU = Bulgaria, CZ = Czechoslovakia, PO "Poland, RU = Rumania.
   e. Theoretical maximum range, with internal fuel only, at optimum altitude and speed. Ranges for strike aircraft assume no weapons load. Especially in the case of strike aircraft, therefore, range falls sharply for flights at lower altitude, at higher speed or with full weapons load (e.g., combat radius of F-104, at operational height and speed, with typical weapons load, is approximately 420 miles).
   f. Mach 1 (M = 1.0 = speed of sound).
   g. All Warsaw Pact aircraft are of Soviet origin. Names (e.g., Beagle) are of NATO origin.
   h. The dual-capable F-104 is operated by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, West Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Turkey, but the Canadian aircraft no longer have a nuclear role. The warheads of these aircraft are held in American custody.
   i. Nuclear warheads for these dual-capable aircraft are held in Soviet custody.
   j. The absence of figures here reflects the uncertainty as to how many of these nuclear-capable aircraft actually have a nuclear role.
  
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   NOTES
   a. GNP figures are given for 1970, since this is the latest year in which there is wide coverage of official standardized statistics, permitting comparison of the size of national economies.
   b. Percentages have been calculated in local currency. Where official figures for GNP are not available estimates have been made.
   c. For the Soviet Union Net Material Product (NMP)is used instead of GNP. Defence expenditures have been derived by adding 75% of the All-Union science budget to the defence budget; they are then expressed as a percentage of NMP. Conversion of NMP and defence expenditure into $ is at a constant rate of 0.72 roubles=$1. This method of calculation and conversion is used here simply to enable a trend to be discerned; for a note on Soviet defence expenditure see pp. 8-9.
   d. Percentages for 1969 and 1970 include the former East Pakistan.
   e. Gross Domestic Product at factor cost, not GNP.
   n.a.=Not available.
  
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   a. The defence expenditure figures follow the NATO definition which is comprehensive and common to all NATO countries. These figures differ from those in Tables 2 and 4 which follow national definitions.
   b. Forecast. e Annual average compound growth of expenditure between 1968 and 1972.
   c. Annual rate derived from consumer price indices.
  
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   a. Defence expenditure follows the national definitions as presented in national budgets but excludes pensions. The figures are based on current budget data and additional information supplied by countries.
   b. Financial year figures: Britain, Canada and Japan, 1 April-31 March; France and Germany, 1 January -31December; USA, 1July-30June.
   c. The functional categories do not include precisely the same items, since accounting procedures and military organization differ between countries.
   d. Includes military and civilian personnel but excludes civilian staff engaged in R & D, and pensioners. In the case of Canada, includes 'other personnel costs ($C 84.5 m.) and $C 2.9m. for salaries and wages relating to capital expenditure.
   e. Includes maintenance of personnel, equipment and property plus grants to outside bodies.
   f. Includes civilians.
   g. Excludes civilians.
   h. Defence Research Board only; includes civilians.
   i. Includes expenditure on Emergency Measures Programme (15.7m).
  
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   6. COMPARATIVE DEFENCE EXPENDITURE, GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT AND MANPOWER FIGURES, 1952-1972
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   a. Expenditure figures are presented in local currency, so as to permit a comparison over time, and then in dollars at the exchange rates ruling in each year (except for USSR), to permit a comparison between countries.
   b. NATO definition of defence expenditure. NATO forecasts for 1972.
   c. Soviet expenditure is derived in this table by adding 75% of the -Union Science budget to the defence budget and has not been converted to $ because of the difficulty of establishing a suitable conversion rate. This method of arriving at defence expenditure is adopted here purely for the purpose of showing a trend. For a fuller discussion of the problems of establishing a figure for Soviet defence expenditure and the dollar equivalent see pp. 8-9.
  
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   NOTES
   a. Countries tend to have more than one establishment for a division, as for example peacetime and wartime establishments, or variations to fit the requirements of different theatres. The figures used in this table are those applicable to Central Europe and to operations rather than to peacetime.
   b. British divisions are shown here as identical, but their composition can vary.
   c. The number of brigades in a division and, in particular, the number of battalions in a brigade, will vary with operational needs. Organizations are flexible and regrouping of units would be normal. The figures given here are thus only a guide to standard peacetime dispositions.
   d. There are 11 battalions, flexibly assigned to the 3 brigades.
   e. The reconnaissance and anti-tank role is allotted by some countries to company-sized units within the brigade and by others to battalion-sized units within the divisional rather than brigade structure. The figures here thus represent battalion equivalents.
   f. Excluding weapons carried on the tanks shown in this table or ATGW on aircraft.
   g. Some of the guns and SSM can fire conventional or nuclear munitions. (See Table 1, pp. 69-73.)
   h. Medium artillery includes calibres of 105mm to 155mm; anything above this is classified, for the purpose of this particular table, as heavy.
  
   8. MAJOR IDENTIFIED ARMS AGREEMENTS, JULY 1972-JUNE 1973
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BALANCES

APPENDIX I. The Theatre Balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact

   Any assessment of the military balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact involves comparison of the strengths of both men and equipment, consideration of qualitative characteristics such as geographical advantages, deployment, training and logistic support, and differences in doctrine and philosophy.
   Certain qualitative factors are of special importance. For a variety of reasons the Soviet Union is likely to have within the theatre, or nearby, forces which closely reflect her doctrine and strategy; on the other hand NATO, bound as it is by a multi-national political process and by public pressures that do not exist in the Soviet Union, has tended to compromise on its military requirements. Warsaw Pact equipment is, though much of it might not meet NATO qualitative standards, standardized whereas that of NATO is not, imposing limits on interchange and flexibility. There is little depth in the NATO central area and this presents problems in its defence.
   The appraisal which follows should be regarded as primarily a quantitative guide since there are difficulties in giving values, in so short a space, to qualitative factors and deciding on their relevance. It is military only and thus one-dimensional. Furthermore the situation is not a static one: any single presentation must have inadequacies. The comparisons necessarily over-simplify what is by its nature a complex problem.
   The characteristics of the military balance are central to any consideration of Mutual Force Reductions (MFR), but the geographical area and the forces covered in any negotiations may be, at least initially, more narrowly defined than in the appraisal here. Accordingly a separate study follows this one; singling out the forces and weapon systems with which substantive MFR discussions may be concerned.
   Land and air forces
   The three major NATO subordinate commands, Northern, Central and Southern Europe, at first seem to offer a convenient basis for making a direct comparison with the opposing forces of the Warsaw Pact, but there are problems. The Northern European Command covers not only Norway but also the Baltic area, including Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic Approaches. It is not possible to make precise calculations as to the Soviet or Warsaw Pact formations that would be committed to the Baltic area rather than towards the NATO Central European Command, since in both land and air forces there is a considerable degree of flexibility to do either. For the Warsaw Pact this sector is a coherent front though a number of Soviet divisions, notably in the Leningrad area and in the Kola Peninsula, would undoubtedly be directed towards Norway. Northern and Central Europe are therefore grouped together in the tables which follow, and Southern Europe is shown separately.
   GROUND FORMATIONS
   A traditional basis of comparison is the number of combat divisions that the two sides have. This is far from an adequate guide by itself, since not only do divisions vary greatly in their organization, size and equipment, as the detailed comparisons in Table 7 on p. 80 show, but there are a number of combat units
  
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   outside divisions as well. As a broad indication of the front-line combat resources available it has some utility, taken in conjunction with the various tables which follow it but to read too much into this divisional count could be misleading.
   French formations are not in the above figures; if included they would add two mechanized divisions to the NATO totals.* Though these divisions are stationed in Germany and there has been some joint planning with NATO military commanders, they are not committed to NATO and there has been no agreement on the military strategy under which they might be employed. On the other hand, all the appropriate forces of the Warsaw Pact countries are included, though the military value of some of them might be suspect for political reasons, dependent on circumstances. Offsetting advantages to NATO are the facts that most of the NATO strength is in West Germany, where it is wanted, while about a third of the Soviet divisions shown here are some distance away in the western military district of the Soviet Union (see the later comparisons in Appendix) The figures show, therefore, from a NATO viewpoint, what is the worst case.
   The table conceals a marked imbalance in North Norway. In Norway there are only Norwegian forces in peacetime, a brigade group being located in the north. The Soviet forces facing them, or which could be brought against them from north-western Russia, probably amount to at least four divisions. This wide disparity highlights the problem of the defence of North Norway against surprise attack. To meet this difficulty a system of self-defence, based on a powerful Home Guard and rapid mobilization, has been designed to take maximum advantage of the ruggedness of the country and the poor road and rail communications, but it is clear that defence against attack of any size depends on timely external assistance.
   Two further imbalances are worth noting. The first, a legacy from the post-war occupation zones, is a certain mal deployment in the NATO Central European Command, where the well-equipped and strong American formations are stationed in the southern part of the front, an area which geographically lends itself to defence, while in the north German plain, across which the routes to allied capitals run, where there is little depth and few major obstacles, certain of the forces are less powerful. The second is that the whole of the Italian land forces, which are included in the table under Southern Europe, are stationed in Italy and thus are at some distance from the areas of potential confrontation both in the South-East and the Centre.
   MANPOWER
   A comparison of front-line manpower deployed on the ground in normal circumstances, that is, before any reinforcement, fills out the picture further. The figures shown reflect the variations in divisional establishments mentioned above but also include combat troops in formations higher than divisions and those men who directly support them. They take account of under-manning as well - many NATO and Warsaw Pact divisions are kept well below strength in peacetime. Figures calculated on this basis can only be approximate. They give the following comparison (figures are in thousands) :
  
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   a. Includes, on the NATO side, the commands for which AFCENT and AFNORTH commanders have responsibility (see introduction to NATO section). France is not included, nor are any allied ground forces in Portugal or Britain. On the Warsaw Pact side it includes the command for which the Pact High Commander has responsibility, but excludes the armed forces of Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania. Certain Soviet units normally stationed in western USSR and such troops as might be committed to the Baltic and Norwegian theatre of operations have, however, been included on the Warsaw Pact side.
   b. Includes, on the NATO side, the Italian, Greek, and Turkish land forces (including those in Asian Turkey) and such American and British units as would be committed to the Mediterranean theatre of operations, and on the Warsaw Pact side, the land forces of Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania and such Soviet units normally stationed in Hungary and southern USSR as might be committed to the Mediterranean theatre.
   c. Divisions, brigades and similar formations, a brigade being counted as one-third of a division.
   d. These are the two divisions stationed in Germany. There are four more in France, outside the NATO area.
  
   The figures do not include French forces; if those stationed in Germany are counted, the NATO figure for Northern and Central Europe might be increased by perhaps 50,000.
   The table still reveals an advantage to the Warsaw Pact in Northern and Central Europe (subject to the caveat above about the value to be placed on the forces of the East European Pact countries). It does not, of course, include the men in the American dual-based brigades, because they are not physically present in Europe, but does include on the Warsaw Pact side some 200,000 in divisions in the western Soviet Union, since these formations are clearly designed for operations in Central Europe, though they are at some distance in time and space from the area.
   In Southern Europe the figures favour NATO but conceal the fact that the forces are widely separated, with Italian troops deployed at a very considerable distance from those of Greece and Turkey.
   REINFORCEMENTS'
   The movement of reinforcements to the theatre and the mobilization of first-line reserves would materially alter the above figures. NATO might get its earliest reinforcements from West Germany and Britain, but these would be designed mainly to increase manning strengths rather than to increase materially the number of formations. The three mechanized divisions in eastern France might also be made available, but NATO would rely principally on the United States for major reinforcement with extra divisions. There are in the United States the two dual-based brigades and a further two divisions specially earmarked for Europe, all with their equipment stockpiled in Germany. The personnel of these formations could be moved very quickly, using the very considerable airlift which exists. There are then a further 4 divisions in the active Army and two in the Marines in the Strategic Reserve in the United States but, although they might be available very early, some of their equipment would have to be moved by sea. This would also be the case with the 8 divisions and some 18 independent brigades in the National Guard that could nominally be ready for movement some five weeks after mobilization but might need further training (as might Soviet reinforcements).
   Warsaw Pact reinforcement plans follow a rather different pattern. Soviet divisions are kept at three different manning levels and other Warsaw Pact formations at two (see pp. 6 and 11 respectively). Reinforcement depends on filling out these divisions by mobilization and then on moving them forward. As far as can be judged, mobilization by the Soviet Union in particular could be very speedy, since many of the formations likely to be used in Central Europe are kept at the higher manning levels. It has been estimated that the 27 Soviet divisions in Eastern Europe could be increased to perhaps 70 in about a month - if mobilization were unimpeded. Of course it might not be. If hostilities had already started, movement by rail and road could be interdicted and the build-up be slowed down considerably. Nonetheless, the Soviet Union, a European power operating on interior lines, should be able in the early weeks to move reinforcements with heavy equipment faster overland than the United States could by sea. American ability to bring back the men of the dual-based brigades in days by air has been demonstrated on exercises, and for the two divisions with equipment in Germany the airlift of personnel would be a matter of another week or so. As with Soviet Forces, this would depend on movement not being hindered, on a secure air environment and safe airfields to fly into; and quick dispersal from airfields could be difficult once fighting had started. The increase of manpower strengths in combatant units could take place rapidly, both from the United States and from the European NATO countries, but the real problem for a fast build-up lies in the inevitable time lag there would be before the American follow-up formations dependent for their heavy weapons on sealift, could be ready for operations.
   Implicit in Western defence plans is the concept of political warning time, that there will be sufficient warning of a possible attack to enable NATO forces to be brought to a higher state of readiness and for reinforcement and mobilization to take place. This does, of course, assume the willingness - this applies to both sides - to reinforce in a crisis situation at the risk of heightening tension by doing so. Advantage here will generally lie with an attacker, who can start mobilization first, hope to conceal his intentions and finally achieve some degree of tactical surprise. The point of attack can be chosen and a significant local superiority built up. The defender is likely to start more slowly and will have to remain on guard at all points.
   A fair summary of the reinforcement position might be that the Warsaw Pact is intrinsically capable of a faster build up of formations in the early weeks, particularly if local surprise is achieved; that NATO can only match such an initial build up if it has, and takes advantage of, sufficient warning time; that the subsequent rate of build up favours the Warsaw Pact unless the crisis develops slowly enough to permit full reinforcement ; in this last case the West could eventually reach an advantageous position. Alliance countries maintain more men under arms than the Warsaw Pact. For Army/Marines the figures (in thousands) are: NATO 3,025 (including France 3,357); Warsaw Pact 2,859. And the Soviet Union has a large proportion of her forces not available for Europe but on her border with China.
   EQUIPMENT
   In a comparison of equipment one point stands out: the Warsaw Pact is armed almost completely with Soviet or Soviet-designed material and enjoys the flexibility, simplicity of training and economy that standardization brings. NATO forces have a wide variety of everything from weapons systems to vehicles, with consequent duplication of supply systems and some difficulties of inter-operability ; they do, however, have many weapons qualitatively superior. As to numbers of weapons, there are some notable differences, of which that in tanks is perhaps the most significant. The relative strengths are:
  
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   Again, French forces are not included in the above figures. If the two divisions stationed in Germany are taken into account, 325 should be added to the NATO total; if the three divisions in eastern France are counted, the NATO figures go up by a further 485.
   It will be seen that in Northern and Central Europe NATO has little more than a third as many operational tanks in the Warsaw Pact, though NATO tanks are generally superior (even to the T-62, now increasingly coming into service in the Pact forces). This numerical weakness in tanks (and in other armoured fighting vehicles) reflects NATO's essentially defensive role and is offset to some extent by a superiority in antitank weapons, a field in which new missiles coming into service may increasingly give more strength to the defence. NATO probably also has more effective airborne anti-tank weapons carried by fighter aircraft and helicopters. In conventional artillery the Warsaw Pact is stronger, though this advantage is partly redressed by the greater lethality of NATO ammunition and its greater logistic capability to sustain higher rates of fire. This capability stems from a significantly higher transport lift, about half as high again in a NATO division as compared with a Warsaw Pact one. NATO has, however, an inflexible logistic system, based almost entirely on national supply lines with little central co-ordination. It cannot now use French territory, and has many lines of communication running north to south near the area of forward deployment. Certain NATO countries are, furthermore, short of supplies for sustained combat but Warsaw Pact countries may be no better off.
   (g. These are tanks with formations, or which are earmarked for the use of dual-based or immediate reinforcing formations (some 750).They do not include those in reserve, or to replace tanks damaged or destroyed. In this latter category NATO has perhaps 1,500 tanks in Europe. The Soviet Union has recently replaced about 1,000 T-54/55 tanks with T-62s in its divisions in East Germany but has not withdrawn the older ones. These extra tanks are not included above. There may perhaps be other tanks in reserve in the Warsaw Pact area but in general in the Pact reinforcement system the tanks in formations form the reserves.)
  
   AIRCRAFT
   If NATO ground formations are to be able to exploit, by day as well as by night, the mobility they possess, they must have a greater degree of air cover over the battlefield than they now have. Such cover is provided by a combination of rapid warning and communications systems, surface-to-air weapons and fighter aircraft. In much of this ground-air environment NATO is well prepared; in numbers of aircraft it is inferior.
   NATO has, however, a higher proportion of multi-purpose aircraft of good performance over their full mission profiles, especially in range and payload; considerable power can be deployed in the ground attack role in particular. Both sides are modernizing their inventories, and the US forces in Europe in
  
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   particular can now be assumed to have available the very advanced air-delivered weapons, such as the laser-guided bombs and other precision-guided munitions, of the types used in South-East Asia. The two air forces have rather different roles: long range and payload have lower priority for the Warsaw Pact. NATO, for example, has maintained a long-range deep-strike tactical aircraft capability; the Soviet Union has chosen to build a MRBM force which could, under certain circumstances, perform analogous missions, though not in a conventional phase of any battle.
   The Warsaw Pact enjoys the advantage of interior lines of communication, which makes for ease of command and control and logistics. It has a relatively high capability to operate from dispersed natural airfields serviced by mobile systems, far more airfields with more shelters and the great advantage of standard ground support equipment which stems from having only Soviet-designed aircraft. These factors make for greater flexibility than NATO has, with its wide variety of aircraft and support equipment. NATO undoubtedly has superiority in sophistication of equipment, the capability of its air crews, which have in general higher training standards and fly more hours, and the versatility of its aircraft, which give operational flexibility of a different kind. NATO's real advantage, however, is that it has more reinforcement aircraft. Since squadrons can be moved quickly the NATO numerical inferiority shown above could rapidly be turned into superiority if enough airfields are available. The total American tactical aircraft inventory, for example (excluding training or home air defence) is 5,100; that for the Soviet Union is 4,500.
   h. The area covered here is slightly wider than for ground troops as described in note a. Many aircraft have a long-range capability and in any case can be re-deployed very quickly. Accordingly, the figures here include the appropriate British and American aircraft in Britain, American aircraft in Spain and Soviet aircraft in western USSR. They do not, however, include the American dual-based squadrons, which would add about 100 fighter-type aircraft to the NATO totals, nor French squadrons with perhaps another 500 fighters. Carrier-borne aircraft of the US Navy are excluded but so, on the other hand, are the medium bombers in the Soviet Air Force, which could operate in a tactical role.
  
   THEATRE NUCLEAR WEAPONS
   NATO has some 7,000 nuclear warheads, deliverable by a variety of vehicles, over 2,000 in all, aircraft, short-range missiles and artillery of the types listed in Table 1 on pp. 69-73*.
   (*. These nuclear weapons are in general designed for use against targets within the battlefield area or directly connected with the manoeuvre of combatant forces, which could be described as a 'tactical' use. The figure of 7,000 warheads includes however, a substantial number carried by, for example, aircraft such as the F-4 or F-104, which could be delivered on targets outside the battlefield area or unconnected with the manoeuvre of combatant forces and thus put to 'strategic' use. There is inevitably some overlap when describing delivery vehicles, aircraft and missiles, capable of delivering conventional or nuclear warheads as 'tactical' or 'strategic'. The total of 7,000 also includes nuclear warheads for certain air-defence missiles.)
   There are also nuclear mines. Yields are variable but are mainly in the low kiloton range. The ground-based missile launchers and guns are in formations down to divisions and are operated both by American and allied troops, but in the latter case warheads are under double key. The figure for Soviet warheads is probably about 3,500, similarly delivered by aircraft and missile systems (again, see Table 1). Soviet warheads are thought to be somewhat larger, on average, than those of NATO. Some of the delivery vehicles, but not the warheads, are in the hands of non-Soviet Warsaw Pact forces.
   This comparison of nuclear warheads must not be looked at in quite the same light as the conventional comparisons preceding it, since on the NATO side the strategic doctrine is not, and cannot be, based on the use of such weapons on this sort of scale. These numbers were accumulated to implement an earlier, predominantly nuclear, strategy and an inventory of this size now has the chief merit of affording a wide range of choice of weapons, yield and delivery system if controlled escalation has to be contemplated. A point that does emerge from the comparison, however, is that the Soviet Union has the ability to launch a battlefield nuclear offensive on a massive scale if she should choose, or to match any NATO escalation with broadly similar options.
   CHANGES OVER TIME
   The comparisons above are not very different from those of a few years ago, but over a longer period the effect of small and slow changes can be marked, and the balance can alter. In 1962 the American land, sea and air forces in Europe totalled 434,000; now the figure is around 300,000. There were 26 Soviet divisions in Eastern Europe in 1967; now there are 31. The numerical pattern over the years so far has been a gradual shift in favour of the East; qualitatively NATO has more than held its own. In future the advent of new weapon systems, particularly precision-guided munitions and anti-tank and air defence missiles, may cut into the Warsaw Pact's advantage in tank and aircraft numbers. The extent to which negotiated force reductions may change the balance also remains to be seen.
  

ДОБАВЛЕНИЕ I. Баланс между NATO и Варшавским договором на ТВД

   Любая оценка военного баланса между NATO и Варшавским договором предполагает сопоставление сил сторон как людей, так и техники, рассмотрение качественных характеристик, таких как географические преимущества, развертывание, подготовка и материально-техническое обеспечение, а также различия в доктрине и философии.
   Особое значение имеют определенные качественные факторы. По ряду причин Советский Союз, вероятно, будет иметь на ТВД или поблизости силы, которые близко отражают его доктрину и стратегию; с другой стороны, NATO, будучи связанной многонациональным политическим процессом и общественным давлением, которого не существует в Советском Союзе, склонна идти на компромисс в отношении своих военных потребностей. Вооружение Варшавского пакта, хотя и во многом не соответствует качественным стандартам NATO, стандартизировано, в отличие от NATO, где имеются ограничения на обмен и гибкость. В центральной зоне NATO малая глубина обороны создает проблемы.
   Нижеследующая оценка должна рассматриваться в первую очередь как количественное руководство, поскольку существуют трудности с определением ценности качественных факторов и с определением их актуальности. Она только военная и поэтому однобокая. Кроме того, ситуация не является статичной: любая презентация имеет недостатки. Сравнения неизбежно чрезмерно упрощают то, что по своей природе является сложной проблемой.
   Характеристики военного равновесия занимают центральное место в любом обсуждении сокращения взаимных сил (МFR), но географические зона и силы в переговорах, могут быть, по крайней мере первоначально, более узкими, чем в данной оценке. Соответственно, за этим следует отдельное исследование, в котором выделяются силы и оружейные системы, с которыми могут быть связаны предметные дискуссии по вопросам MFB.
   Сухопутные и воздушные силы
   Три основных подчиненных NATO командования - Северная, Центральная и Южная Европа - поначалу кажутся удобной основой для проведения прямого сравнения с противостоящими силами Варшавского договора, но есть проблемы. Североевропейское командование охватывает не только Норвегию, но и Прибалтику, включая Данию, Шлезвиг-Гольштейнский и Балтийский проходы. Невозможно произвести точные расчеты в отношении советских формирований или формирований Варшавского договора, которые были бы предназначены Балтийскому региону, а не центрально-европейскому командованию NATO, поскольку и в сухопутных, и в воздушных силах существует значительная степень гибкости. Для Варшавского договора этот сектор является единым фронтом, хотя ряд советских подразделений, особенно в Ленинградской области и на Кольском полуострове, несомненно, будет направлен в сторону Норвегии. Поэтому Северная и Центральная Европа сгруппированы в нижеследующих таблицах, а Южная Европа показана отдельно.
   НАЗЕМНЫЕ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ
   Традиционной основой сравнения является количество боевых дивизий, которые имеют обе стороны. Это далеко не адекватно само по себе, поскольку дивизии не только сильно различаются по своей организации, размерам и оснащению, как это подробно показано в таблице 7 на стр. 80, но есть ряд боевых единиц
  
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   вне дивизий. В качестве общих сведений на имеющиеся боевые ресурсы они имеет некоторую полезность, взятую в сочетании с различными таблицами, которые следуют за этой, но придание слишком большого значения в подсчете дивизий может ввести в заблуждение.
   Французские формирования не учтены; они добавили бы две механизированные дивизий в итоги NATO.* Хотя эти подразделения, дислоцированы в Германии и имеется совместное планирование с военным командованием NATO, они не принадлежат NATO и не было соглашения о военной стратегии, по которому они могут быть использованы. С другой стороны, включены все соответствующие силы стран Варшавского договора, хотя военная ценность некоторых из них может быть сомнительной по политическим причинам, зависящим от обстоятельств. Преимущества в NATO фактически, что большинство натовских сил в Западной Германии, в то время как около трети советских дивизий, показанные здесь, на некотором расстоянии в Западных военных округах СССР (см. последующие сравнения приложения) Цифры показывают однако, что NATO, что в худшем положении.
   Таблица скрывает заметный дисбаланс в Северной Норвегии. В Норвегии есть только норвежские силы в мирное время, бригадная группа находится на севере. Противостоящие им советские силы, или те, которые могут быть привлечены к ним с северо-запада России, составляют, вероятно, не менее четырех дивизий. Это большое неравенство высвечивает проблему защиты Северной Норвегии от внезапного нападения. Для решения этой проблемы была разработана система самообороны, основанная на мощном ополчении и быстрой мобилизации, с тем чтобы в максимальной степени использовать возможности страны и слабое дорожное и железнодорожное сообщение, однако ясно, что защита от нападения любого масштаба зависит от своевременной внешней помощи.
   Следует отметить еще два дисбаланса. Первый, унаследованный от послевоенных оккупационных зон, развертывания в NATO Центрально-европейском командовании, где хорошо оснащенные и сильные американские формирования, дислоцированы на южном участке фронта, в районе, который территориально благоприятен для обороны, в то время как в Северогерманская низменность, на которой расположены столицы союзных сторон, небольшой глубины и где мало серьезных препятствий, силы менее мощные. Во-вторых, все итальянские сухопутные войска, которые включены в таблицу по Южной Европе, дислоцированы в Италии и, таким образом, находятся на некотором расстоянии от районов потенциальной конфронтации как на юго-востоке, так и в центре.
   ЛИЧНЫЙ СОСТАВ
   Сравнение численности личного состава, развернутого на местах в обычных условиях, т. е. до получения какого-либо подкрепления, позволяет получить более полную картину. Показанные цифры отражают различия в дивизионных учреждениях, упомянутых выше, но также включают боевые подразделения в формациях выше дивизий и тех людей, которые непосредственно их поддерживают. Они также учитывают численность личного состава - многие подразделения NATO и Варшавского договора в мирное время находятся на значительно более низком уровне. Показатели, рассчитанные на этой основе могут быть только приблизительными. Они дают следующее сравнение (цифры в тысячах) :
  
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   a. Включает, со стороны NATO, командования, за которые несут ответственность AFCENT и AFNORTH (см. введение в раздел NATO). Франция не включена, как и союзнические сухопутные войска в Португалии и в Великобритании. Со стороны Варшавского договора включает командование, за которое отвечает Верховный Главнокомандующий пактом, но исключает вооруженные силы Болгарии, Венгрии и Румынии. Однако некоторые советские подразделения, дислоцированные в западном СССР, и войска, которые могли бы быть преданы Балтийскому и норвежскому театрам военных действий, были включены в Варшавский договор.
   b. Включает, со стороны NATO, итальянские, греческие и турецкие сухопутные силы (в том числе в азиатской части Турции), и такие американские и британские подразделения, которые на Средиземноморском театре операций, и в Варшавском договоре сухопутные войска Болгарии, Венгрии и Румынии, и такие советские подразделения, которые находятся в Венгрии и на юге СССР и могут быть брошены на Средиземноморский ТВД.
   с. Дивизии, бригады и аналогичные формирования, бригада считается одной третью дивизии.
   d. Это два подразделения, дислоцированные в Германии. Еще четыре находятся во Франции, за пределами зоны NATO.
  
   Эти цифры не включают французские силы; если подсчитать силы, дислоцированные в Германии, то показатель NATO для Северной и Центральной Европы может быть увеличен, возможно, на 50 000.
   Таблица показывает преимущество Варшавского договора в Северной и Центральной Европе (при условии размещения сил стран Восточной Европы). В неё, конечно, не входят бойцы американских бригад двойного базирования, потому что они физически не присутствуют в Европе, но включают на стороне Варшавского договора около 200 000 дивизий в западной части Советского Союза, поскольку эти формирования явно предназначены для операций в Центральной Европе, хотя они находятся на некотором расстоянии во времени и пространстве от этого района.
   В Южной Европе цифры в пользу NATO, но скрывают тот факт, что силы широко разделены, а итальянские войска развернуты на очень значительном расстоянии от Греции и Турции.
   ПОДКРЕПЛЕНИЯ'
   Переброска подкреплений на театр и мобилизация резервов первой линии существенно изменили бы вышеуказанные цифры. NATO может получить свои самые ранние подкрепления из Западной Германии и Великобритании, но они будут предназначены в основном для увеличения численности личного состава, а не для увеличения числа формирований. Три механизированных дивизии в восточной Франции также могут быть предоставлены, но NATO будет полагаться главным образом на Соединенные Штаты для большого подкрепления дополнительными дивизиями. В Соединенных Штатах имеются две бригады двойного базирования и еще две дивизии, специально предназначенные для Европы, все со своим оборудованием, размещенным в Германии. Личный состав этих формирований можно было бы перемещать очень быстро, используя значительные воздушные перевозки. Есть еще 4 дивизии в активном армейском и две морской пехоты в стратегическом резерве в Соединенных Штатах, но, хотя они могут быть доступны очень рано, часть их оборудования придется перевозить по морю. Это также относится к 8 дивизиям и примерно 18 отдельным бригадам Национальной гвардии, которые могут номинально быть готовы к переброске примерно через пять недель после мобилизации, но, возможно, нуждаются в дальнейшей подготовке (как и советские подкрепления).
   Планы подкреплений Варшавского договора следуют несколько иной схеме. Советские дивизии находятся на трех разных уровнях комплектования, а другие формирования Варшавского договора - на двух (см. стр. 6 и 11 соответственно). Усиление зависит от пополнения этих подразделений по мобилизации, а затем от их выдвжения вперед. Насколько можно судить, мобилизация, в частности, Советским Союзом, может быть очень быстрой, поскольку многие формирования, которые, вероятно, будут использоваться в Центральной Европе, сохраняются на более высоких уровнях укомплектования. Было подсчитано, что 27 советских дивизий в Восточной Европе могут быть увеличены примерно до 70 примерно за месяц - если бы мобилизация была беспрепятственной. Конечно, это не может быть. Если боевые действия уже начались, то движение по железным и автомобильным дорогам можно было бы пресечь, и наращивание значительно замедлить. Тем не менее, Советский Союз, европейская держава, работающая на внутренних линиях, должна быть в состоянии в первые недели переместить подкрепления с тяжелой техникой быстрее по суше, чем Соединенные Штаты могли бы по морю. На учениях была продемонстрирована американская способность перебрасывать личный состав бригад двойного базирования в течение нескольких дней по воздуху, а для двух дивизий с оборудованием в Германии переброска персонала будет вопросом еще одной недели или около того. Как и в случае с советскими войсками, это будет зависеть от беспрепятственного передвижения, безопасной воздушной среды и безопасных аэродромов для полетов; и быстрого ухода с аэродромов, что может быть затруднено после начала боевых действий. Увеличение численности личного состава воюющих подразделений может происходить быстро, как из Соединенных Штатов, так и из европейских стран NATO, но реальная проблема для быстрого наращивания заключается в неизбежном временном лаге до того, как американские последующие формирования, зависящие от их тяжелого оружия в морских перевозках, могут быть готовы к операциям.
   В западных оборонных планах имплицитно заложена концепция времени политического предупреждения о том, что будет достаточно предупреждения о возможном нападении, чтобы силы NATO могли быть приведены в более высокую степень готовности, а также для усиления и мобилизации. Это, конечно, предполагает готовность - это относится к обеим сторонам - обострять кризисную ситуацию, рискуя тем самым усилить напряженность. Преимущество здесь, как правило, будет за атакующим, который может начать мобилизацию первым, надеясь скрыть свои намерения и, наконец, достичь некоторой степени тактической внезапности. Место атак можно выбрать и создать значительное местное превосходство. Обороняющийся, скорее всего, начнет медленнее и должен будет оставаться на страже во всех местах.
   Справедливый итог в том, что Варшавский договор является, по сути, способен быстрее наращивать формирования в начале недели, особенно если местная внезапность будет достигнута; то, что NATO может соответственно только начать наращивание, если достаточное время предупреждения; что последующее наращивания сил Варшавского договора, если кризис будет развиваться достаточно медленно, чтобы позволить получить полные подкрепления ; в этом последнем случае Запад мог бы в конечном итоге достичь выгодной позиции. Страны Североатлантического союза имеют больше вооруженных людей, чем Варшавский договор. Для армии/морской пехоты цифры (в тысячах): NATO 3 025 (включая Францию 3357); Варшавский Договор 2 859.И Советский Союз имеет большую долю своих сил, не доступных для Европы, на его границе с Китаем.
   ВООРУЖЕНИЕ
   При сравнении вооружения выделяется один момент: Варшавский договор практически полностью вооружен советским или по советским проектам изготовленным вооружением и пользуется гибкостью, простотой обучения и экономичностью, которые приносит стандартизация. Силы NATO имеют широкий спектр всего - от систем вооружения до транспортных средств, что приводит к дублированию систем снабжения и некоторым трудностям в плане оперативной совместимости ; вместе с тем они обладают многими видами оружия более высокого качества. Что касается количества оружия, то есть некоторые заметные различия, из которых, пожалуй, наиболее существенны в танках.
  
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   Опять же, французские войска не включены в вышеуказанные цифры. Если принять во внимание два дивизиона, дислоцированных в Германии, то к общей численности NATO следует добавить 325; если подсчитать три дивизии в восточной Франции, то показатели NATO увеличатся еще на 485.
   Видно, что в Северной и Центральной Европе NATO имеет немногим более трети оперативных танков Варшавского договора, хотя танки NATO в целом превосходят (даже Т-62, в настоящее время все чаще поступающий на вооружение сил пакта). Эта численная слабость танков (и других боевых бронированных машин) отражает, по сути, оборонительную роль NATO и в некоторой степени компенсируется превосходством в противотанковых вооружениях - области, в которой новые ракеты, поступающие на вооружение, могут все больше усиливать оборону. NATO, вероятно, также обладает более эффективным воздушным противотанковым оружием, несущихся истребителями и вертолетами. В обычной артиллерии Варшавский договор сильнее, хотя это преимущество частично компенсируется большей смертоносностью боеприпасов NATO и ее большей материально-технической способностью выдерживать более высокие темпы огня. Этот потенциал обусловлен значительно более высокой транспортной обеспеченностью, примерно в два раза выше в подразделении NATO по сравнению с подразделением Варшавского договора. В NATO, однако, негибкая система логистики, основанная почти исключительно на национальных линиях снабжения с небольшой центральной координацией. В настоящее время не может использовать французскую территорию и имеет много линий связи, проходящих с севера на юг вблизи района передового развертывания. Кроме того, некоторым странам NATO не хватает поставок для ведения постоянных боевых действий, но страны Варшавского договора могут быть не лучше.
   (g. Это танки в формированиях, которые предназначены для использования в двойного базирования или в быстро перебрасываемых формированиях (около 750). Не включают в резерв или на замену поврежденных или уничтоженных. В этой последней категории NATO имеет, возможно, 1500 танков в Европе. Советский Союз недавно заменил около 1000 танков Т-54/55 на Т-62 в дивизиях в Восточной Германии, но не вывел старые. Эти дополнительные танки не включены. Возможно, в Варшавском договоре есть и другие танки в резерве, но в целом в системе усиления пакта танки в формированиях резервов.)
   АВИАЦИЯ
   Для того чтобы наземные формирования NATO могли использовать как днем, так и ночью мобильность, которой они обладают, они должны иметь большую степень прикрытия с воздуха над полем боя, чем сейчас. Такое прикрытие обеспечивает сочетание быстрого оповещения и связи, зенитные оружия и истребителей. Во многом в этой наземно-воздушной среде NATO хорошо подготовлена, но по количеству самолетов уступает.
   Однако NATO имеет более высокую долю многоцелевых самолетов хорошими характеристиками, особенно по дальности и полезной нагрузке; в частности, значительная мощь может быть развернута в роли наземного нападения. Обе стороны модернизируют свои вооружения, а силы США в Европе
  
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   в частности, как можно предположить, что в настоящее время имеют в наличии весьма современное авиационное оружие, такое, как бомбы с лазерным наведением и другие высокоточные боеприпасы, типов, используемых в Юго-Восточной Азии. Военно-воздушные силы сторон имеют довольно разные роли: большая дальность и полезная нагрузка имеют более низкий приоритет для Варшавского договора. NATO, например, сохранила потенциал дальней тактической авиации для нанесения глубоких ударов; Советский Союз решил создать силы БРСД, которые могли бы при определенных обстоятельствах выполнять аналогичные миссии, хотя и не в обычной фазе сражения.
   Варшавский договор имеет преимущество внутренних линий связи, которая обеспечивает легкость управления и логистики. Он имеет относительно высокую способность работать с полевых аэродромов, обслуживаемых мобильными системами, гораздо больше аэродромов с укрытиями и большим преимуществом стандартного наземного оборудования, которое проистекает от использования чисто советских самолетов. Эти факторы обеспечивают большую гибкость, чем NATO, с ее широким спектром самолетов и вспомогательного оборудования. NATO, несомненно, имеет превосходство в совершенстве техники, в возможностях своих экипажей, которые имеют в целом более высокие стандарты подготовки и летают больше часов, и в универсальности своих самолетов, которые дают оперативную гибкость иного рода. Реальное преимущество NATO, однако, заключается в том, что она имеет больше самолетов подкрепления. Поскольку эскадрильи можно быстро перемещать, численная неполноценность NATO, показанная выше, может быстро превратиться в превосходство, если будет достаточно аэродромов. Например, общее количество американских тактических самолетов (за исключением учебно-тренировочных средств или средств ПВО) составляет 5100 единиц; для Советского Союза - 4500 единиц.
   h. Охватываемый здесь район несколько шире, чем для сухопутных войск, как это описано в примечании a. Многие самолеты обладают большой дальностью полета и в любом случае могут быть переброшены очень быстро. Соответственно, цифры здесь включают соответствующие британские и американские самолеты в Великобритании, американские самолеты в Испании и советские самолеты в западе СССР. Они, однако, не включают американские эскадрильи двойного базирования, которые добавили бы около 100 самолетов истребительного типа к общим показателям NATO, ни французские эскадрильи с, возможно, еще 500 истребителями. Авианосные самолеты ВМС США исключены, но таковыми, с другой стороны, являются средние бомбардировщики ВВС СССР, которые могли бы действовать в тактической роли.
  
   ЯДЕРНОЕ ОРУЖИЕ ТВД
   NATO располагает примерно 7000 ядерными боеголовками, которые могут быть доставлены различными носителями, всего более 2000 единиц самолетов, ракет малой дальности и артиллерия типов, перечисленных в Таблице 1 на стр. 69-73*.
   (*. Это ядерное оружие, как правило, предназначено для применения против целей в зоне боевых действий или непосредственно связано с маневром боевых сил, которое можно охарактеризовать как "тактическое" применение. Однако цифра в 7000 боеголовок включает значительное число, перевозимых, например, самолетами типа F-4 или F-104, которые могут доставляться по целям за пределами района боя или не связанным с маневром боевых сил и, таким образом, использоваться в "стратегических целях". При описании средств доставки, самолетов и ракет, способных доставлять обычные или ядерные боеголовки, как "тактические" или "стратегические" неизбежно возникает определенное дублирование. В общей сложности 7000 включают также ядерные боеголовки для некоторых ракет ПВО.)
   Есть и ядерные мины. Мощности являются переменными, но в основном в нижнем диапазоне килотонн. Наземные ракетные установки и орудия находятся в строю вплоть до дивизий и управляются как американскими, так и союзными войсками, но в последнем случае боеголовки находятся под двойным ключом. Число советских боеголовок, вероятно, составляет около 3500, аналогично несущихся самолетами и ракетными системами (см. таблицу 1). Советские боеголовки считаются в среднем несколько большими, чем боеголовки NATO. Некоторые из средств доставки, но не боеголовки, находятся в руках несоветских сил Варшавского договора.
   Это сопоставление ядерных боеголовок не должно рассматриваться в том же свете, что и предшествующие ему сопоставления обычных вооружений, поскольку со стороны NATO стратегическая доктрина не основывается и не может основываться на применении такого рода оружия в таких масштабах. Это количество было накоплены для осуществления более ранней, преимущественно ядерной, стратегии, и в настоящее время главным достоинством инвентаризации такого размера является предоставление широкого спектра выбора оружия, средств и систем доставки, если необходимо предусмотреть контролируемую эскалацию. Однако из сравнения следует, что Советский Союз имеет возможность начать ядерное наступление на поле боя в массовом масштабе, если он решит, или проводить эскалацию NATO с разными вариантами.
   ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ СО ВРЕМЕНЕМ
   Приведенные выше сравнения не очень отличаются от тех, что были несколько лет назад, но за более длительный срок эффект мелких и медленных изменений может быть отмечен, и баланс может измениться. В 1962 году американские сухопутные, морские и воздушные силы в Европе насчитывали 434 000 человек; сейчас эта цифра составляет около 300 000 человек. В 1967 году в Восточной Европе насчитывалось 26 советских дивизий, сейчас - 31. Численная структура на протяжении многих лет до сих пор была постепенным сдвигом в пользу Востока; качественно NATO сохранялось. В будущем появление новых систем вооружения, в частности высокоточных боеприпасов, противотанковых ракет и ракет ПВО, может сократить преимущество Варшавского Договора по количеству танков и самолетов. Еще предстоит выяснить, в какой степени согласованные в ходе переговоров сокращения сил могут изменить баланс сил.
  

APPENDIX II. The Statistics of Mutual Force Reductions

   Negotiations on the mutual reduction of forces and armaments and associated measures in Central Europe are to start on 30 October 1973 in Vienna. The relative strengths and imbalances - both ways - of the sort set out in the appraisal above will be very much in the minds of those negotiating, but, initially at least, the talks seem likely to cover a smaller canvas. 'Central Europe' was not defined in the communiqu agreed in the preparatory consultations, but to judge from the participants in the forthcoming negotiations and from reports of earlier discussions there has been a tacit understanding that, for the moment at least, it is forces and armaments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, West Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg with which talks will be concerned. France will take no part in discussions and so her forces are presumably excluded (except perhaps, under certain circumstances, the two divisions in Germany), as are any Soviet or NATO troops not stationed in the area described. Forces stationed in Berlin under quadripartite jurisdiction are unlikely to be covered.
   As far as reductions, as distinct from associated measures, are concerned, the talks could well concentrate at the outset on ground forces and their weapon systems, and are likely to make a distinction between Soviet and American forces, other stationed forces (such as British forces in Germany) and indigenous forces of the countries of the area. Difficult though the assessment of ground force strengths may be, agreement on them may be easier than on tactical air force capabilities, which are made complex by the very flexibility of air power. Naval forces affect the military equation in Central Europe too, but here discussions would open up much wider issues and so seem likely to be deferred or even excluded. There are many kinds of reductions that could be proposed, each with its attractions or difficulties for one side or the other. Examples are:
   (a) Percentage or numerical manpower cuts for stationed forces only, perhaps limited initially to the United States and Soviet forces in the area;
   (b) Single or phased manpower cuts in stationed and indigenous forces, percentage or numerical, perhaps continued until common or agreed ceilings are reached, either for individual nations or overall;
   (c) Reductions in combat formations and their weapon systems, stationed and/or indigenous, perhaps by zones within the area;
   (d) Reductions in weapon systems on either side, not necessarily of the same kind (e.g., a cut in Soviet tanks in exchange for one in NATO tactical nuclear weapons).
   A variety of permutations is possible, obviously with varying degrees of negotiability. In order to provide a data base from which the effect of any proposals can be measured, sets of figures are given in the tables below. They differ from those in Appendix I because they are concerned with a more narrowly defined area and because they show total manpower rather than just front-line strengths. Since it is evident that if reductions do take place the capacity to reinforce becomes more critical (though negotiations may be concerned to try to limit or control this), total force strengths, active and reserve, outside Central Europe, are also given.

Добавление II. Статистика взаимного сокращения сил

   Переговоры о взаимном сокращении сил и вооружений и связанных с этим мерах в Центральной Европе должны начаться 30 октября 1973 года в Вене. Относительные преимущества и диспропорции - в обе стороны - вроде, изложенных в оценке, будут во главе этих переговоров, но, изначально, по крайней мере, на переговорах, вероятно, на небольшом пространстве. Понятие 'Центральная Европа' не определено в коммюнике, согласованном в подготовительных консультациях, но если судить об участниках предстоящих переговоров, а также сообщений о начале обсуждения было молчаливое понимание, что, по крайней мере, силы и вооружения в Польше, Чехословакии, ГДР, ФРГ, Нидерландах, Бельгии и Люксембурга, на переговорах будут включены. Франция не будет участвовать в обсуждениях, и поэтому ее силы, по-видимому, исключены (за исключением, возможно, при определенных обстоятельствах, двух дивизий в Германии), как и любые советские или натовские войска, не размещенные в описанном районе. Силы, дислоцированные в Берлине под четырехсторонней юрисдикцией, вряд ли будут охвачены.
   Что касается сокращений, в отличие от связанных с ними мер, то переговоры могли бы с самого начала сосредоточиться на сухопутных войсках и их системах вооружений и, вероятно, провести различие между советскими и американскими силами, другими дислоцированными силами (например, британскими силами в Германии) и силами коренных народов стран региона. Трудно, хотя оценка сил сторон сухопутных войск может быть, согласие по ним может быть достигнуто легче, чем по тактическим ВВС, которые усложняются самой гибкостью военно-воздушных сил. Военно-морские силы также влияют на военное равновесие в Центральной Европе, но здесь дискуссии откроют гораздо более широкие проблемы и, похоже, будут отложены или даже исключены. Есть много видов сокращений, которые могут быть предложены, каждый со своими достопримечательностями или трудностями для одной или другой стороны. Примеры:
   (a) процент или сокращения численности кадров для дислоцированных сил только, возможно, первоначально в США и советских войск в районе;
   (б) одиночного или поэтапного сокращения войск дислоцированных и местных сил, процентное или численное, возможно, продолжались до общих или согласованных потолков достижения, либо на отдельные страны или в целом;
   c) сокращение численности боевых формирований и их систем вооружения, дислоцированных и/или местных, возможно, по зонам в пределах района;
   d) сокращения систем вооружений с обеих сторон, необязательно одного и того же рода (например, сокращение советских танков в обмен на сокращение тактического ядерного оружия NATO).
   Возможны различные перестановки, очевидно, с разной степенью обращаемости. Для того чтобы обеспечить базу данных, из которой можно измерить воздействие любых предложений, в таблицах ниже приводятся цифры. Они отличаются от тех, которые приводятся в добавлении I, потому что они касаются более узкой области и потому, что они показывают общую численность сил, а не только передовую силу. Поскольку очевидно, что, если сокращения действительно имеют место, способность к укреплению становится более важной (хотя переговоры могут быть связаны с попыткой ограничить или контролировать это), также приводятся общие силы, активные и резервные, за пределами Центральной Европы.
  
    []
  
    []
   * Active forces only; reserve strengths are given in Table 5, p. 77. The figures represent total forces deployed and not merely the front-line manpower as shown in the Table on p. 88.
   a. Central Europe means, throughout this Appendix, the combined territories of Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Quadripartite forces in Berlin are not included. The Western totals in Berlin are: Britain 3,000; United States 3,900; France 2,000.
   b. Divisions are calculated on a 3-brigade basis.
   c. For a description of the categories of readiness at which Soviet and other Warsaw Pact formations are kept, see pp. 6 and 11 respectively.
  
    []
   d. Countries may have plans to mobilize battalion-sized units in some numbers in addition to the formations shown here. This is particularly so in the cases of Britain, Netherlands and West Germany.
   e. The division of Soviet formations into three categories is approximate only.
  
    []
  
    []
   f. Tanks with or for operational units. Reserve or replacement tanks are not included.
   g. Including approximately 750 stockpiled for dual-based and immediate reinforcing formations.

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