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The Military Balance 1984

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    Военный баланс в 1984 году от Международного Института Стратегических Исследований. С русским переводом.


THE MILITARY BALANCE 1984

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1984

   The Military Balance 1982
   The Military Balance 1985

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Readers Notes
USA: USA
Soviet Union: Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
NATO: Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey
Europe: Albania, Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Ireland, Malta, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
Middle East: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libia, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen North, Yemen South.
Africa: Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritania, Mozambiqe, Nigeria, Senegambia, Somali, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zair, Zambia, Zimbabve-Rhodesia, Smal states.
China: China
Asia & Australia: Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Cambodia, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippine, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Latin America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican, Ecuador, Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua , Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Small states .
Tables
Balances: NATO-WP, Economic Trends
  

PREFACE

   The Military Balance is an annual, quantitative assessment of the military power and defence expenditure of countries throughout the world.
   It examines the facts of military power as they existed on 1 July 1984, and no projections of force levels or weapons beyond this date have been included, except where specifically stated. It also does not reflect the facts of geography, doctrine or efficiency, except where these are explicitly touched upon. We make no attempt to compare one country's military capacity against others. Material is reviewed each year, and differences between years may be due as much to re-evaluation of evidence as to new information. We must warn, therefore, that The Military Balance may have limitations for those attempting to construct time series comparisons.
   The book is organized in three sections. In the first of these, national entries are in general grouped geographically, beginning with the US, the USSR, the Warsaw Pact and NATO. Information about some smaller countries, whose military forces are of a size which has not seemed to warrant fuller description at this stage, has been set out in a tabular form. Inclusion of a particular political entity or of a military organization connected to it in no way implies legal recognition of, or Institute support for, such entities.
   In the second section, tables give comparative information on nuclear delivery vehicles and some static measurements of the strategic nuclear balance, defence expenditure (including a detailed comparison of NATO and Warsaw Pact expenditure over a ten-year period), military manpower (active and reserve) and major identified arms-transfer agreements. In the final section, separate items assess the European theatre conventional balance; show the deployment of the strategic systems of the US and the USSR; illustrate graphically trends in defence expenditure of the NATO countries and Japan from 1970 to 1982; and analyse global economic trends with particular emphasis on defence expenditure.
   Notes, which follow this Preface, will help the reader to use the current edition of The Military Balance. It is absolutely necessary to read them, since they amplify and give precision to the data in the national sections and tables.
   Readers may use items of information from The Military Balance as required, with out reference to the Institute, on condition that the Institute is cited as the source in any published work. However, reproduction of all major portions of the work must be approved in writing by the Institute prior to publication.
   The Director and the staff of the Institute assume full responsibility for the facts and judgments which this study contains. The co-operation of governments has been sought and, in many cases, received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative, and some figures have necessarily been estimated. Inevitably, these estimates change as new information becomes available. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants, who have helped in compiling and checking material.
   September 1984.
  

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

   The Military Balance представляет собой ежегодную количественную оценку военной мощи и оборонных расходов стран всего мира.
   В нем рассматриваются факты военной мощи в том виде, в каком они существовали на 1 июля 1984 года, и никаких прогнозов в отношении численности сил или вооружений после этой даты не приводится, за исключением конкретно оговоренных случаев. Он также не отражает фактов географии, доктрины или эффективности, за исключением тех случаев, когда они прямо затрагиваются. Мы не пытаемся сравнивать военный потенциал одной страны по отношению к другим. Материалы рассматриваются каждый год, и различия между годами могут быть обусловлены как переоценкой фактических данных, так и новой информацией. Поэтому мы должны предупредить, что военный баланс может иметь ограничения для тех, кто пытается построить сравнения временных рядов.
   Книга состоит из трех разделов. В первом из них национальные позиции в целом сгруппированы географически, начиная с США, СССР, Варшавского договора и НАТО. Информация о некоторых небольших странах, численность Вооруженных сил которых на данном этапе, как представляется, не заслуживает более полного описания, представлена в табличной форме. Включение того или иного политического образования или связанной с ним военной организации никоим образом не подразумевает юридического признания таких образований или оказания им поддержки.
   Во втором разделе таблицы содержат сравнительную информацию о средствах доставки ядерного оружия и некоторые статические данные о стратегическом ядерном балансе, оборонных расходах (включая подробное сопоставление расходов НАТО и Варшавского договора за десятилетний период), военном персонале (действующем и резервном) и основных определенных соглашениях о передаче оружия. В заключительном разделе отдельными пунктами оценивается общепринятый баланс европейского театра; показано развертывание стратегических систем США и СССР; наглядно проиллюстрированы тенденции в оборонных расходах стран НАТО и Японии в период с 1970 по 1982 год; и проанализированы глобальные экономические тенденции с особым акцентом на оборонные расходы.
   Примечания, которые следуют за этим предисловием, помогут читателю воспользоваться текущим изданием военного баланса. Их абсолютно необходимо читать, так как они усиливают и придают точность данным в национальных разделах и таблицах.
   Читатели могут использовать информацию из военного баланса по мере необходимости, без ссылки на институт, при условии, что Институт цитируется в качестве источника в любой опубликованной работе. Однако размножение всех основных частей работы должно быть одобрено институтом в письменной форме до публикации.
   Директор и сотрудники Института несут полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в настоящем исследовании. Правительства стремились к сотрудничеству и во многих случаях получали его. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничали друг с другом, и поэтому некоторые цифры оценочные. Эти оценки неизбежно меняются по мере поступления новой информации. Институт в значительной степени благодарен ряду своих членов и консультантов, которые помогали ему в составлении и проверке материалов.
   Сентябрь 1984 года.
  

READER'S NOTES

   Regions and Countries
   The main geographical regions are shown in the Table of Contents on p.iii. An index to individual country entries is on p. 2. To the extent that national variations permit, country entry format is standard: population, military service, total military manpower strength, NMP, GDP or GNP, defence expenditure, GNP/GDP growth rates, inflation rates, foreign military aid, Gross External Debt, and exchange rates; separate sub-sections on the army, navy and air force give broad organization and equipment and, where relevant, significant foreign deployments. Where possible, reserves and para-military forces are included. Precise definitions as to what are or are not para-military forces are difficult, and some latitude must be allowed: para-military forces are those elements whose equipment and training goes beyond that required for civil police duties and whose constitution and control suggest they may be usable in support, or in lieu, of regular military forces.
   Defence Pacts and Agreements
   A short description of multilateral and bilateral pacts and military aid agreements introduces each of the main regional sections of the study. Defence assistance given under less formal arrangements is also noted. Agreements which cover only economic aid are not included.
   Defence Expenditure
   The latest available defence expenditure or budget data are quoted (in some cases estimated). In consequence inconsistencies arise in the comparative tables at the end of the volume. Where possible capital equipment budgets/expenditures have been added to recurrent/administrative cost. Figures may therefore be radically different from previous issues (e.g. Tunisia). In cases of great variance between sources (government data, central banks, IMF, etc) central bank data has been preferred. In many cases, internal/border security force budgets have been included. Revised budget and expenditure figures are the result of changes by the governments themselves. Table 4 shows current and past expenditures, expressed in current US dollars so as to afford international comparisons; however, since many countries update these each year, the figures will not necessarily correspond with those shown in previous editions of The Military Balance. Table 3 compares NATO and Warsaw Pact defence expenditures 1970-82 in 1975 constant prices; here, and for the NATO countries in Table 4, a standard NATO, definition of defence expenditure is used, but in most other cases national definitions are used. 'NATO definition' includes all spending on regular military forces, military aid to other nations (including equipment and training), military pensions, expenses by host governments for NATO tenant forces, NATO infrastructure and civilian staff costs; paramilitary forces (e.g., gendarmerie) are excluded. For the USSR we cite a range of estimates illustrating the variation of opinion as to these expenditures. The problem of arriving at these and an exchange rate to afford comparability is also discussed.
   National Income GNP and GDP figures are both used (where possible, GDP has been preferred). GDP is equal to GNP minus net income from abroad. GDP figures are quoted at current market prices (factor cost for East European countries). Where figures are not currently available from published sources, estimates have been made, and Table 4 uses both published and estimated GDP/GNP figures. GDP/GNP growth rates refer to real growth in real terms. Inflation rates are based on available consumer price indices and refer to annual averages. Wherever possible the UN System of National Accounts, based on the latest available IMF International Financial Statistics (IFS), has been used. For Eastern Europe data from Economic Survey of Europe in 1982 (New York: UN, 1983) and the World Economic Outlook (IMF, 1984) is used. For the USSR GNP estimates are given based on commercial banking estimates. East European GDP/GNP figures at factor cost are derived from NMP. For China estimates of GDP/GNP are given.
   Currency Conversion Rates
   To make comparisons easier, national currency figures have been converted into US dollars, using the rate averaged for the national financial year (for 1984--5 figures, the mid-year rate). Wherever possible exchange rates have been taken from IFS, though they may not always be applicable to commercial transactions. High inflation rates in some countries and recent dollar developments distort conversions. For the USSR no attempt has been made to convert roubles into dollars (see p. 15). In certain East European countries which are not members of the IMF and Hungary and Romania (which are), the conversion rates used are those described in T. P. Alton, 'Economic Growth and Resource Allocation in Eastern Europe', Reorientation and Commercial Relations of the Economies of Eastern Europe, Joint Economic Committee, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session (Washington DC: USGPO, 1974).
   Manpower
   Unless otherwise stated, the manpower figures given are those of active forces, regular and conscript. An indication of the size of militia, reserve and para-military forces is also included in the entry where appropriate. Reserve figures are generally estimates based on a five-year post-conscription period, though some national definitions-are given. Manpower information is summarized in Table 4.
   Equipment
   The equipment figures in the entries show total holdings, with the exception of combat aircraft, where front-line squadron strengths are normally shown. The symbol (-) indicates that part of an establishment is detached; the symbol (+) means that a unit has been reinforced. Except where the symbol    Strength of Military Formations
   The table below gives the approximate average establishment strength of the major military formations in the text. Military organization is flexible, and the manning and structure of formations may vary.
    []
  
   Divisional strengths cover organic units only and exclude support units or services outside the divisional structure. Warsaw Pact forces and those of other Soviet-supported countries have establishments similar to those of the Soviet Union. NATO formations and squadrons not included in the table above have similar totals to those of Germany unless otherwise mentioned in the text. Iran, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have tended to adopt American military organization, while Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore have broadly followed British practice.
   Arms Transfers
   Major arms supply agreements identified as being made during the year which ended on 1 July 1984 are listed, under geographical regions, in Table 5. Because the actual transfer of arms may take place outside that year, an indication is also given there of expected delivery dates, where known. Licensing arrangements, widespread among industrialized countries, are not normally included.
   Abbreviations and Terms
   A list of the abbreviations used in the text is on p.viii, immediately following these notes. For convenience, certain important abbreviations are explained again when first used. Where a $ sign appears it refers to US dollars, unless otherwise stated. The term billion (bn) equals 1,000 million (m).
  

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ ДЛЯ ЧИТАТЕЛЕЙ

   Регионы и страны
   Основные географические регионы представлены в оглавлении на стр. iii. Индекс по отдельным странам находится на стр. 2. В той мере, в какой это позволяют национальные различия, справка о стране оформляется в стандартной форме: население, военная служба, общие военные силы, НМП, ВВП или ВВП, расходы на оборону, ВНП/ВВП, темпы роста, темпы инфляции, внешней военной помощи, валового внешнего долга и валютных курсов; отдельные подразделы на армию, флот и ВВС дают необходимые данные об организации и вооружении и, в соответствующих случаях, значительные иностранные развертывания. Там, где это возможно, включаются резервы и полувоенные силы. Точного определения того, что являются или не являются военизированные силы сложно, а некоторые широта должна быть предоставлена: военизированные силы - это те элементы, оборудование и обучение выходит за рамки того, что требуется для гражданской полиции и чья Конституция и управления предполагают, что они могут использоваться в поддержку, или вместо, обычных вооруженных сил.
   Оборонные Пакты и соглашения
   Краткое описание многосторонних и двусторонних пактов и соглашений о военной помощи представляет каждый из основных региональных разделов исследования. Помощь обороне давали под менее формальные механизмы тоже отметил. Соглашения, которые охватывают только экономическую помощь, не включены.
   Оборонные расходы
   Приводятся последние имеющиеся данные по оборонным расходам или бюджету (в некоторых случаях оценочные). Вследствие этого в конце Тома в сравнительных таблицах возникают несоответствия. Там, где это возможно, к текущим/административным расходам добавляются бюджеты/расходы на капитальное оборудование. Поэтому цифры могут радикально отличаться от предыдущих (например, Тунис). В случае значительной разницы между источниками (данные правительства, центрального банка, МВФ и т.д.) Данные Центрального банка, является предпочтительными. Во многих случаях были включены бюджеты внутренних/пограничных сил безопасности. Пересмотренный бюджет и расходах в результате изменения самих правительств. В таблице 4 показаны текущие и прошлые расходы, выраженные в текущих долларах США, с тем чтобы можно было проводить международные сопоставления; однако, поскольку многие страны ежегодно обновляют эти данные, эти цифры не обязательно будут соответствовать показателям, показанным в предыдущих изданиях The Military Balance. Таблица 3 сравнивает НАТО и ОВД расходы в 1970-82 в постоянных ценах 1975; здесь и для стран НАТО в таблице 4 используется стандартное определение расходов на оборону НАТО, но в большинстве других случаев используются национальные определения. "Определение НАТО" включает все расходы на регулярные вооруженные силы, военную помощь другим странам (включая оборудование и подготовку), военные пенсии, расходы правительств принимающих стран на войска-арендаторы НАТО, инфраструктуру НАТО и расходы на гражданский персонал; военизированные силы (например, жандармерия) исключены. Для СССР мы приводим ряд оценок, иллюстрирующих расхождения во мнениях относительно этих расходов. Проблема получения их и валютного курса позволяющего сопоставлять тоже обсуждается.
   Используются показатели ВНП национального дохода и ВВП (по возможности предпочтение отдается ВВП). ВВП равен ВНП минус чистый доход из-за рубежа. Данные по ВВП приводятся в текущих рыночных ценах (факторные издержки для восточноевропейских стран). В тех случаях, когда данные из опубликованных источников в настоящее время отсутствуют, были сделаны оценки, а в таблице 4 используются как опубликованные, так и оценочные данные о ВВП/ВНП. Темпы роста ВВП/ВНП относятся к реальному росту в реальном выражении. Темпы инфляции основаны на имеющихся индексах потребительских цен и относятся к среднегодовым показателям. Там, где это возможно, используется система национальных счетов ООН, основанная на последней имеющейся международной финансовой статистике МВФ (МФС). Для Восточной Европы используются данные экономического обзора Европы 1982 года (Нью-Йорк: ООН, 1983 год) и "перспективы мировой экономики" (МВФ, 1984 год). Для СССР оценки ВНП даются на основе коммерческих банковских оценок. Восточноевропейские показатели ВВП/ВНП по факторным издержкам рассчитываются на основе НМП. Для Китая приведены оценки ВВП/ВНП.
   Курсы Конвертации Валют
   Для облегчения сопоставлений показатели в национальной валюте были пересчитаны в доллары США с использованием усредненного курса за национальный финансовый год (для показателей 1984-1985 годов - среднегодовой курс). Везде, где это возможно, обменные курсы были взяты из МФС, хотя они не всегда могут быть применимы к коммерческим сделкам. Высокие темпы инфляции в некоторых странах и недавние изменения в долларах искажают конверсию. Для СССР не было предпринято никаких попыток конвертировать рубли в доллары (см. 15). В некоторых восточноевропейских странах, не являющихся членами МВФ, а также Венгрии и Румынии (которые являются таковыми), используются коэффициенты пересчета, описанные в T. P. Alton, 'Economic Growth and Resource Allocation in Eastern Europe', Reorientation and Commercial Relations of the Economies of Eastern Europe, Joint Economic Committee, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session (Washington DC: USGPO, 1974).
   Личный состав
   Если не указано иное, приводятся данные о численности действующих сил, регулярных и призывных. В соответствующих случаях в справке страны также указывается численность ополченцев, резервных и полувоенных сил. Данные о резервах обычно рассчитываются на основе пятилетнего периода после призыва в армию. Информация о личном составе также приводится в таблице 4.
   Вооружение
   Данные о вооружении в справках стран охватывают все запасы, за исключением боевых самолетов, где обычно показаны силы боевых эскадрилий. Символ (-) означает, что часть объекта ослаблена; символ (+) означает, что часть уселена. За исключением случаев, когда используется символ <, исключаются морские суда водоизмещением менее 100 тонн. Термин, 'combat aircraft' включает только самолеты нормально укомплектованные, и подготовленные, для доставки боеприпасов (бомбардировщики, истребители-бомбардировщики, штурмовики, перехватчик, разведывательных, противоповстанческие и вооруженные учебно-тренировочные самолеты, в том числе и оперативной подготовки или переучивания (ОCU)) и боевых вертолетов, когда четко обозначено. Основные технические данные о средствах доставки ядерного оружия (ракеты, артиллерия и самолеты), имеющихся в распоряжении стран НАТО и Варшавского договора, приведены в Таблице 1.
   Численность воинских формирований
   В приведенной ниже таблице приводится примерная средняя численность основных воинских формирований. Военная организация является гибкой, и комплектование и структура формирований могут отличаться от этих уровней.
   Табл.
  
   Силы дивизий охватывают только органические подразделения и исключают вспомогательные подразделения или службы за пределами структуры дивизий. Силы Варшавского договора и других поддерживаемых Советским Союзом стран имеют составы, аналогичные Советскому Союзу. Соединения и эскадрильи НАТО, не включенные в таблицу выше, имеют общие показатели, аналогичные показателям Германии, если в тексте не указано иное. Иран, Пакистан, Филиппины, Таиланд, Япония, Южная Корея и Тайвань, как правило, принимают американскую военную организацию, в то время как Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Малайзия и Сингапур в целом следуют британской практике.
   Поставки вооружения
   Основные соглашения о поставках оружия, заключенные в течение года, закончившегося 1 июля 1984 года, перечислены в таблице 5 в разделе "географические регионы". Поскольку фактическая передача оружия может иметь место и за пределами этого года, там, где это известно, также указываются ожидаемые сроки поставки. Лицензионные соглашения, широко распространенные среди промышленно развитых стран, обычно не включаются.
   Сокращения и термины
   Список сокращений, используемых в тексте, приведен на стр. viii сразу же после этих Примечаний. Для удобства, некоторые важные сокращения объясняются снова при первом использовании. Если появляется знак $, он относится к долларам США, если не указано иное. Термин миллиард (bn) равен 1000 миллионам (m).
  
    []
  

COUNTRIES AND PRINCIPAL PACTS

  

The United States

   Strategic Forces
   The slow retirement of the Titan ICBM continues. On 1 July the inventory was 37, and the ICBM total 1,037. This withdrawal reduces the ICBM warhead total to 2,129, and the potential deliverable megatonnage by 27 (to between 1,292.4 and 1,315.5 MT, depending upon payload).
   Four Ohio-class SSBN are now at sea, bringing the total of Trident C-4 missiles in the inventory to 288. This increases the SLBM total by 24 (to 592), the SLBM warhead total by 192 to 5,344, and raises the estimated potential seaborne megatonnage by 19.2 to between 352 and 382.4 MT.
   Within the strategic bomber force the B-52D has been with drawn. Of the 151 operational B-52G, 61 have a non-nuclear role, and there is one training squadron. Some 84 B-52G aircraft have been fitted with the AGM-86B Air-Launched Cruise Missile. The most recent data suggest that the 90 B-52H, 84 B-52G and 56 FB-111A, at nominal average loadings, could carry a total of 1,020 ALCM, 924 AGM-69A SRAM and 812 bombs. On the basis of these loadings, air-deliverable megatonnage would be 204 for ALCM, between 157.1 and 184.8 for SRAM, and 2,030 MT for bombs (bomb yields are likely to average 2 MT each). Total aircraft-delivered megatonnage would thus be perhaps of the order of 2,400 MT (see Table 1).
   Replacement programmes for existing strategic equipment have been receiving mixed support from with in the government. The Ohio/Trident programme continues, as does development of the D-5 SLBM, due to replace C-4 in 1988/9. The MX ICBM purchase has been both limited and controlled, although the MX test programme continues on schedule. Feasibility studies are proceeding on a single-warhead mobile ICBM. Only 18 of the 100 B-1B bombers planned are so far on order; the Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB) design - the so-called 'stealth' bomber- is still in its early stages. Deployment of ALCM to the B-52H fleet is beginning, but, although these stand-off weapons are assumed to be capable of penetrating defences, the carrier aircraft may be approaching the end of their useful life, and replacements are still a long way from being operational. On 10 June 1984 one Minuteman ICBM RV was intercepted in a test over the North Pacific. This event, the product of an earlier R&D programme but now subsumed under the President's "Strategic. Defense Initiative (SDI) ', has tended to obscure the continuing organizational and technical changes to the US strategic defensive programmes. The reorganization of NORAD, intended to rationalize peacetime civil/military airspace control functions, has reduced the North American air defence regions from eight to six (two of them in Canada). It has also placed control of the surveillance and warning system at a higher command level, more capable of exercising the necessary direction and co-ordination. The Defense Department is proposing to enhance its nuclear detection capability by adding nuclear detection systems to its existing Navstar/Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Tests of the Over-the-Horizon-Backscatter (OTH-B) radar systems continue to demonstrate weaknesses in the system; nevertheless, it is still the intention to develop and enlarge the facility. Finally, action has been taken to upgrade the detection and control capabilities of the DEW Line, the northernmost of the NORAD aircraft attack warning systems. Plans have been laid to close the CADIN/Pinetree Line to the south of it.
   Theatre Forces
   During 1983-4, the first new US long-range theatre nuclear forces (or 'intermediate-range' nuclear forces) were deployed to Europe, with 9 Pershing II missiles in West Germany and 16 Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles (GLCM) in both Britain and Italy. Further deliveries are anticipated to a possible total of 108 Pershing II and 464 GLCM, as agreed with NATO in December 1979.
   General-Purpose Forces
   There is still a good deal of evidence to demonstrate that the US desires to increase the overall flexibility of her forces for global deployment. This is most clearly seen in the general enhancement of US Central Command (CENTCOM) and in the pool of forces on which CENTCOM can draw. Upgrading lift capabilities (C-5B and 'stretched' C-141 aircraft), together with a greater capacity for in-flight refuelling and more forward stocking, tends to suggest a considerable improvement in speed of deployment to distant areas. There organization of logistic support units for the RDJTF should give greater confidence that operations could be sustained. Apart from the use of US forces in the Lebanon and Grenada, the most visible signs of US commitment have tended to be US AWACS (airborne warning and control system) aircraft or naval deployments.
   Modernization and some reorganization of the Army continues, especially of forces assigned or earmarked for CENTCOM (the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force), following a serious re-examination of the organization and roles of the infantry divisions. Considerable variation also exists in the other major formation structures, and this tends to add to the administrative burdens of planning movement and re-supply for them. Numbers of Abrams MBT have modestly increased, as have those of the Bradley MICV and the AH-1 and UH-60 helicopters.
   The US Navy has received five more Los Angeles-class, SSN, while the one remaining Darter diesel boat has been retired. A second Iowa-class battleship has returned to service to join the New Jersey, and a third is being refitted. There are four more Perry-class guided weapons frigates. Deployment of the BGM-109 submarine-launched nuclear cruise missile (TLAM-N) has begun, with four SSN now so equipped. The Marines have received more M-60 tanks, LVT, F/A-18 fighters and the first of their AV-8B v/STOL attack aircraft.
   The Air Force has replaced the F-106 with the F-15 in its Regular interceptor squadrons. Some F-106 remain in the Air National Guard interceptor squadrons, but these are being replaced by F-4. Introduction of the F-16 into the tactical wings and the ANG continues.
   Efforts continue to bolster all components of the Reserves by increasing strengths and equipment holdings. While volume deliveries are difficult to quantify, reports continue to suggest that greater attention is being paid generally to the provision and distribution of spare parts, ancillary equipment and munitions, thereby achieving greater utilization of equipment and better combat capability.
  

Соединенные Штаты Америки

   Стратегические силы
   Медленный вывод МБР Titan продолжается. На 1 июля их было 37, и общее число МБР 1,037. Этот вывод снижает число боеголовок МБР до 2,129, и потенциальный мегатоннаж на 27 (до 1,292.4 и 1,315.5 МТ, в зависимости от загрузки).
   Четыре ПЛАРБ класса Ohio сейчас на службе, в результате чего общее количество ракет Trident C-4 дошло до 288. Это увеличивает число БРПЛ всего на 24 (до 592), БРПЛ боеголовок общей сложности на 192 до 5,344, и поднимает расчетный морской потенциальный мегатоннаж на 19,2 от 352 до 382.4 МТ.
   В стратегических бомбардировочных силах B-52D был снят. Из 151 оперативного Б-52G 61 выполняет неядерную роль, имеется одна учебная эскадрилья. Около 84 самолетов B-52G были оснащены крылатыми ракетами воздушного базирования AGM-86B. Самые последние данные свидетельствуют о том, что 90 B-52H, 84 B-52G и 56 FB-111А, при номинальной средней нагрузки, могут нести в общей сложности 1020 ALCM, 924 AGM-69A SRAM и 812 бомбы. Исходя из этих нагрузок, воздушный мегатоннаж будет 204 на ALCM, между 157.1 и 184.8 для SRAM, и 2,030 т у бомб (считаем бомбу, в среднем 2 Мт). Таким образом, общий мегатоннаж самолетов будет, наверное, порядка 2,400 Мт (см. таблицу 1).
   Программы замены существующего стратегического вооружения получают поддержку со стороны правительства. Программа Ohio/Trident продолжается, как и развитие D-5 БРПЛ, для замены С-4 в 1988/9 г. Покупка МБР MX была как ограниченной, так и контролируемой, хотя программа испытаний MX продолжается по графику. Ведутся технико-экономические обоснования создания мобильной МБР с одной боеголовкой. Только 18 из 100 запланированных бомбардировщиков B-1B пока заказано; проект бомбардировщика передовых технологий (ATB) - так называемый бомбардировщик-невидимка - все еще находится на ранних стадиях. Развертывание обычные B-52H для флота началось, но, хотя эти оружия, как предполагается, в состоянии преодолеть оборону авианосца, но приближается к концу их срок службы и замены до сих пор нет. 10 июня 1984 года одна боеголовка МБР Minuteman была перехвачена в ходе испытания над северной частью Тихого океана. Это событие, ставшее результатом предыдущей программы НИОКР, но теперь подпадающее под президентскую "Стратегическую Оборонную Инициативу" (СОИ), как правило, скрывает продолжающиеся организационные и технические изменения в стратегических оборонных программах США. Реорганизация NORAD, направленная на рационализацию функций гражданского/военного управления воздушным пространством в мирное время, сократила число районов ПВО Северной Америки с восьми до шести (два из них в Канаде). Она также установила контроль над системой наблюдения и предупреждения на более высоком командном уровне, более способном осуществлять необходимое руководство и координацию. Министерство обороны предлагает укрепить свой потенциал ядерного обнаружения путем добавления систем ядерного обнаружения к существующим спутникам Navstar/Global Positioning System (GPS). Испытания радиолокационных систем загоризонтного обнаружения (OTH-B) по-прежнему свидетельствуют о слабых сторонах этой системы; тем не менее, по-прежнему имеются намерения развивать и расширять объект. Наконец, были приняты меры по совершенствованию средств обнаружения и контроля линии DEW, самой северной из систем предупреждения о нападении самолетов NORAD. Были заложены планы закрыть линию CADIN/Pinetree к югу от нее.
   Ядерные силы Европейского театра
   В 1983-1984 годах в Европе были развернуты первые новые ядерные силы театра военных действий США большой дальности (или ядерные силы средней дальности): 9 ракет Pershing II в Западной Германии и 16 крылатых ракет наземного базирования (GLCM) в Великобритании и Италии. Ожидается, что дальнейшие поставки составят в общей сложности 108 Pershing II и 464 GLCM, как было согласовано с НАТО в декабре 1979 года.
   Силы Общего Назначения
   Есть много доказательств того, что США хотят повысить общую гибкость своих сил для глобального развертывания. Это наиболее четко проявляется в общем усилении Центрального командования США (CENTCOM) и в пуле сил, на которые CENTCOM может опираться. Повышение грузоподъемности (C-5B и "удлиненные" самолеты C-141) наряду с увеличением возможностей дозаправки в полете и увеличения передовых запасов, как правило, свидетельствуют о значительном увеличении скорости развертывания в отдаленных районах. Организация подразделений тылового обеспечения для RDJTF должна дать большую уверенность в том, что операции могут быть продолжены. Помимо использования Вооруженных сил США в Ливане и Гренаде, наиболее заметными признаками приверженности США, как правило, являются самолеты ДРЛОУ (воздушно-десантная система предупреждения и управления) или развертывание ВМС.
   Продолжается модернизация и некоторая реорганизация армии, особенно сил, назначенных или предназначенных для CENTCOM (силы быстрого развертывания), после серьезного пересмотра организации и роли пехотных дивизий. Значительные различия существуют также и в других крупных структурах формирования, и это, как правило, увеличивает административное бремя планирования перемещения и снабжения для них. Количество ОБТ Abrams медленно увеличивается, как и количество БМП Bradley и вертолетов AH-1 и UH-60.
   ВМС США получили еще пять ПЛА класса Los Angeles SSN, в то время как одна оставшаяся дизельная лодка Darter была отправлена в отставку. Второй линкор класса Iowa вернулся на службу, чтобы присоединиться к New Jersey, а третий переоборудуется. Введено еще четыре фрегата с управляемым оружием класса Perry. Началось развертывание ядерных крылатых ракет подводных лодок BGM-109 (TLAM-N), ими оснащены в настоящее время четыре ПЛА. Морские пехотинцы получили больше танков М-60, БТР, истребителей F/A-18 и первый из их штурмовиков СВВП AV-8B.
   ВВС заменили F-106 на F-15 в эскадрильях перехватчиков. Некоторые F-106 остаются в составе эскадрилий перехватчиков Национальной гвардии, но их заменяют на F-4. Внедрение F-16 в тактические крылья и национальную гвардию продолжается.
   По-прежнему предпринимаются усилия по укреплению всех компонентов резервов за счет наращивания потенциала и запасов оборудования. Хотя объем поставок трудно поддается количественной оценке, доклады по-прежнему свидетельствуют о том, что в целом больше внимания уделяется поставкам и распределению запасных частей, вспомогательного оборудования и боеприпасов, что способствует более широкому использованию оборудования и повышению боеспособности.
  
   THE UNTIED STATES
Population: 236,700,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 2,135,900 (198,000 women).
GDP 1982: $3,025.7 bn. 1983: 3,264.8 bn.
Def exp outlays FY 1982: $213.75; NATO definition $196,345 bn. Def budget authority FY 1983: $239.40 bn; FY 1984: 273.40 bn; FY 1985: 299.00 bn.*
   (* Excl $4.95 bn (1982), $6.05 bn (1983), $7.1 bn (1984) and $7.9 bn (1985) for atomic energy defence and other defence-related activities.
   The 1985 figure is as revised in May 1984.)
GDP growth: -1.9% (1982), 3.3% (1983). Inflation: 6.0% (1982), 3.2% (1983). Debt: $252 bn (1982).
Strategic Nuclear Forces: (Manpower incl in Army, Navy, Air Force totals.)
OFFENSIVE:
(a) Navy. 592 SLBM in 35 SSBN.
   4 Ohio SSBN x24 Trident I/C-4 (96 msls).
   31 SSBN: 19 Lafayette, 12 Franklin: 12x16 Trident I/C-4 (192 msls); 19x16 UGM-73A Poseidon C-3 (304 msls).
   (On order: 7 Ohio SSBN; 168 TridentI/C-4 msls.)
(b) Strategic Air Command (SAC): 2 Air Forces.
   12 divs (1 trg/spt).
ICBM: 1,037. 9 strategic msl wings, 24 sqns:
   3 wings (9 sqns) with 450 LGM-30F Minuteman II.
   3 wings (11 sqns) with 550 LGM-30G Minuteman III (3 MIRV).
   3 wings (4 sqns) with 37 Titan II (phasing out by October 1987).
Aircraft: some 356 combat ac: 18 bomb wings (1 trg).
   Long-range bombers: 241.
   5 wings (5 sqns) with 90 B-52H; 1 trg sqn with 6 B-52G/H.
   7 wings: (8 sqns) with 151 B-52G; 5 sqns (84 ac) with ALCM; 3 sqns (61 ac) in non-nuc role.
   Medium-range bombers: 56.
   2 wings (5 sqns incl 1 trg) with 56 FB-111A.
   Active reserve: a further 6 FB-111A, 23 B-52 (17G, 6H).
   ASM: perhaps 1,140 AGM-69A SRAM; AGM-86A, AGM-86B ALCM.
   Recce:
   3 wings:
   1 sqn with 9 SR-71A/B, T-38A.
   1 sqn with 7 U-2CT/R.
   2 sqns with 9 TR-1A (mainly tac role), 2 TR-1B trg.
   Comd:
   1 sqn with 1 E-4A (converting to B), 3 E-4B.
   5 sqns: 16 RC-135, 21 EC-135A/C/G/L.
   Tankers: 5 wings, 2 gps: (34 sqns (1 trg) ): 32 with 615 KC-135A/Q (incl 13 Air National Guard with 104 ac, 3 Air Force
   Reserve with 24 ac),2 with 24 KC-10A.
   (On order: MX ICBM, 18 B-1B bbrs (100 planned), 1 E-4B comd, 5 E-3A AWACS, 5 TR-1A recce ac (2 -1B trg), 36 KC-10A tankers,
   240 AGM-86B ALCM.)
DEFENSIVE:
Space Command: HQ, Colorado Springs; comds incl North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a joint US- Cdn organization
   (HQ: Cheyenne Mountain, USA).
Warning Systems
1. ICBM, SLBM, Satellites:
(a) Space Detection and Tracking System (SPADATS):
(i) Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC). NORAD Combat Operation HQ, Cheyenne Mountain.
   Tracking, identification and cataloguing of all space objects; command, control and communications to all space-associated commands and agencies.
   Surveillance, protection and countering of satellites,
(ii) Satellites: Satellite Early Warning System (Defense Support Program), Defense Meteorological Satellites. TRW Block
   647: 1 over Indian Ocean (eastern hemisphere); 2 in western hemisphere: infrared surveillance and warning system.
   Control and tracking stations at Guam, Pine Gapand Nurrungar (Australia),
(iii) Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS). USAF 474N system:
   3 stations: Clear, Alaska (AN/FPS-50, AN/FPS-92); Thule, Greenland (AN/FPS-50, FPS-49); Fylingdales Moor, England (AN/FPS-49 + other).
   12 radars detect and track satellites, ICBM and IRBM. 4,800-km range,
(iv) Spacetrack. USAF 496L system. FPS-17 detection, FPS-79 tracking radars at Pir incl ik (Turkey); Cobra Dane, Shemya; FPS-85,
   BMEWS at Clear, Thule and Fylingdales; optical tracking systems in New Mexico, California, at St Margarets (NB, Canada), Pulmosan (S. Korea),
   San Vito (Italy), Maui (Hawaii), Mount John (New Zealand).
(v) Cobra Dane phased-array radar system at Shemya, Aleutians: 120R arc, range to 46,000 km, augments BMEWS in Alaska.
   (Cobra-Judy, a Pacific-based, ship borne phased-array radar (AN/SPQ-11), supplements Shemya and research programmes,
   but is not part of SPADATS and has no early-warning function. Cobra-Ball, a RC-135 airborne system, supports both.)
   (vi) Pacific Radar Barrier (PACBAR). Detection and tracking radars. 1 site at San Miguel, Philippines, 1 at Kwajalein Atoll, third to be determined.
   (vii) 1 FPS-85 and 1 AN/FSS-7 station in Florida. Alternate Space Defense Center.
   Linked to Spacetrack and NAVSPASUR through NORAD HQ.
   Also to identify and track fractional-orbit bombardment systems (FOBS) (to be retired when Pave Paws completed).
(b) USN Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR). 9 field stations in south-east US (3 transmitting, 6 receiving sites and civilian agencies).
(c) Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System (PARCS).
   1 north facing phased-array, 130R arc, 2,800-km range system at Grand Forks ND.
   Identifies and tracks individual re-entry vehicles, incl SLBM, in Central US, Arctic Ocean areas.
   (Was Army Safeguard system support; to be enhanced.)
(d) Miscellanous radars. US Army: Kwajalein Atoll (Pacific). USAF: Ascension Island (Atlantic), Antigua (Caribbean), Kaena Point (Hawaii);
   MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Westford, Mass.
(e) Under development: Ground-based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance system (GEODSS):
   White Sands NM, Taegu (S.Korea) and Maui (Hawaii); 2 more planned, 1 in Portugal, one in Indian Ocean (Diego Garcia).
2. SLBM:
(a) Pave Paws system: 1 phased-array radar (AN/FPS-115) each in Massachusetts and California; 5,500-km range.
   1 building in Georgia and 1 more planned in Texas.
(b) Sound Surveillance Underscan (SOSUS): submarine detection systems deployed in the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific oceans.
3. Intermittent programmed recce and ELINT satellites, incl:
(a) USAF: KH-8, KH-9 low-altitude, film return.
(b) Big Bird, Hitch Hiker med-altitude.
(c) USN: Ocean Surveillence (OSUS). 4 satellites to detect ships by infra-red and radar.
(d) CIA-. KH-11 digital imagery.
(e) Rhyolite/Chalet.
4. Anti-air (aircraft, cruise missile):
(a) Over-the-Horizon-Backscatter (OTH-B). 414L system, 3,900-km+ range.
   2 sites in Maine (2 transmitters, 5 receivers), arcs and range still under development; 1 in Oregon/N. California planned;
   another in southern US under consideration.
(b) Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line (under comd TAC).
   31 AN/FPS-19/-30 radars (21 in Canada, 4 in Greenland, 1 in Scotland; 2 in Iceland being reopened),
   roughly along the 70RN parallel from Point Lay, Alaska to Greenland, Iceland and Scotland; range to 12,000 m at 320 km.
   (Seek Igloo FPS-117 automated system (minimally attended radar (MAR) ) replacing 13 older radars; 7 to be operational by Oct 1984.)
(c) CADIN/Pinetree Line: 24 stations in southern Canada.
(d) Tactical Air Command:
(i) US-Cdn Joint Surveillance System (JSS). 7 Region Operations Control Centers (ROCC): 5 in US (1 in Alaska), 2 in Canada; 3 completing in 1984.
   5 E-3A AWACS ac assigned (1 to each US ROCC).
(ii) Back-up Interceptor Control (BUIC). All stations but 1 semi-active (AD comd and tac control of interceptor forces):
   84 radars (60 in US (14 in Alaska), 24 in Canada) for co-ordination/control of military and civil air traffic,
   surveillance and tracking of objects in high- and medium-altitude trans-polar flight.
(iii) Aircraft: (Tactical Air Comd: air defence): 42 air divs. Interceptors: 252 (does not incl 54 Cdn CF-101).
(a) Regular: Alaskan Air Command (30 alert locations): 5 sqns with 90 F-15 (8 AAM), T-33 (trg).
(b) Air National Guard (ANG): 10 sqns (to be 11); 7 with 126 F-4C/D (8 AAM), 3 with 36 F-106, T-33 (trg) (to get 144 F-15).
(c) Tactical Air Force augmentation: ac on call from naval, marine and air forces.
(d) Iceland: 1 sqn: See Forces Abroad.
   AAM: Genie, Falcon, Super Falcon, Sidewinder, Sparrow.
Army: 780,800 (75,500 women).
   4 Army HQ: 6 Corps HQ (1 AB).
   4 armd divs (5-6 tk, 4-5 mech inf bns).
   6 mech divs (4 tk, 5-6 mech inf, 3-4 arty, 1 hel, 1 SAM bns, 1 armd cav sqn, spt units).*
   3 inf divs (1 trials).*
   (* National Guard bde is incorporated in each of 2 mech and 2 inf divs.)
   1 lt inf div (10,220 men).
   1 air assault div (9 bns with integral hel).
   1 AB div: 3 bdes (each 3 para bns, 1 arty bn), 1 armed hel bn, 1 armd cav sqn.
   9 arty bdes.
   5 AA arty bdes.
   1 indep armd bde.
   4 indep inf bdes.
   1 indep air cav combat bde (hel-borne ATK).
   3 armd cav regts.
   4 Pershing (I/II) SSM bns (1 trg); 8 Lance SSM bns (in corps arty).
   1 Patriot SAM bn forming (5 launchers, 60 msls); planned total 13 1/2 bns.
   1 Special Operations Comd: (7,000): 4 Special Forces Groups, 2 Ranger bns, misc units.
Army Avn: 1 air assault bde, indep bns and dets, mixed types of eqpt, assigned to HQ for tac, tpt and medical duties.
Tanks: 12,023, incl 1,703 M-48A5, 1,535 M-60, 4,207 M-60A1 (to be mod to A3), some 550 M-60A2, 2,695 M-60A3, 1,483 M-l Abrams MBT;
   400 M-551 Sheridan lt tks with Shillelagh (330 trg).
AFV: some 19,000, incl 1,100 M-2/-3 Bradley MICV; 3,100 M-577, 2,100 M-901 with TOW, 12,300 M-113 (some with TOW), 134 Lt AFV (LAV) APC.
Arty and Msls
: about 2,000 105mm and 155mm towed guns/how; 3,140 155mm and 203mm SP how; 63 MLRS 227mm MRL;
   3,200 81mm, 4,200 107mm mor; 1,000 90mm and 106mm RCL; some 600 Hellfire ATGW, 6,000 TOW/TOW-2, 10,400 Dragon ATGW launchers;
   140 Pershing 1,48 -II, 72 Lance SSM launchers.
AD: 220 Vulcan towed, 380 M-163 20mm, 80 Sgt York DIVAD 40mm SP AA guns;
   Redeye, FIM-92A Stinger, 400 Chaparral, 27 Roland, Nike Hercules, Improved HAWK SAM (some being replaced by Patriot (9 launchers, 280 msls) ).
Avn: some 625 ac, incl 98 OV-1D, 9 RU-21, 19 C-7, 92 C-12D, 37 U-3, 50 U-8, 10 UV-18A (DHC-6), 129 U-21A; 2 T-41, 54 T-42.
   Some 9,000 hel, incl some 900 AH-1G/Q, 900 AH-1S, 9 AH-64A Apache,
   3,600 UH-1 (being replaced), 500 UH-60A, 453 CH-47A/B/C/D, 63 CH-54, 369 OH-6A, 1.784 OH-58A.
   AAM: MIM-92A Stinger.
   Trainers incl about 50 T-42 ac; 250 TH-55A hel.
(On order: 2,695 M-60A3, 840 M-1 MBT; 350 M-901 Improved TOW/TOW-2 AFV; 600 M-2, 2,200 M-3 Bradley MICV; 340 M-198 155mm towed,
   232 M-109A2/A3 155mm, M-110A2 203mm SP how; 2,500 81mm mor; 77 MLRS MRL; 95 Pershing II SSM; 66 Sgt York DIVAD 40mm SP AA guns;
   3,000 Stinger, 32 Rapier, 17 Roland (595 msls), 300 Chaparral, 795 Improved HAWK, 129 Patriot SAM launchers (440 msls);
   6 RC-12D ac; 11 AH-1S, 11 CH/MH-53, 50 AH-64A, 56 UH-60A, 43 CH-47D, 11 EH-60D Quickfix hel; 3,971 Hellfire ATGW (ASM).
DEPLOYMENT:
Continental United States (incl Alaska, Hawaii and Canal Zone): Strategic Reserve:
(i) US Readiness Command: 2 corps HQ, 1 mech, 1 AB, 1 air assault divs, 1 air cav bde.
(ii) Initial reinforcement, Europe: 2 armd, 3 mech, 2 inf divs, 1 inf bde, 1 armd cav regt.*
   (* 1 armd, 1 mech divs, 1 armd cav regt have hy eqpt stockpiled in FRG. Storage facilities for 2 more divs being built.)
(iii) US Central Command (USCENTCOM): (1,100): forces, incl naval and air, apportioned for planning purposes.
   Full deployment could involve 290,600 (assigned from existing units and spt elms on mobilization).
   HQ: 1 Army; 1 Army Corps (131,000): 1 mech (-), 1 lt inf, 1 AB, 1 air assault divs, 1 air cav bde, special forces, Rangers.
   1 Naval Force (112,300 incl 70,000 Marines): 3 carrier battle gps; 1 surface action gp; 5 ASW patrol sqns; 17 prepositioned spt ships;
   1 1/3 Marine Amph Forces (MAF) (1 div (+), 1 air wing, 1 Force service spt gp),
   1 Marine Amph Bde (MAB: 1 regt landing team, 1 air gp, 1 bde service spt gp).
   1 Air Force (33,000): 1 wing (2 sqns) B-52H, 7 tac fighter wings (11 sqns), 4 tac fighter gps, 1 airborne warning and control wing, tac airlift, recce,
   electronic combat sqns, 1 refueling sqn (KC-135A/KC-10A).
(iv) Alaska: (7,700): 1 inf bde (plus 1 res bde).
(v) Panama: (9,170): 1 inf bde (6,560); Naval sqn (490): patrol boats; Marines (150); 1 air div (1,970): A-7, C-130 ac.
(vi) Hawaii: (19,200): 1 inf div less 1 bde.
   (See also Forces Abroad, below.)
RESERVES: 929,766 (99,500 women).
(i) Army National Guard: 417,178 (21,500 women); 3,285 units; capable after mobilization of manning
   2 armd, 2 mech, 5 inf divs, 19 indep bdes (3 armd, 6 mech, 10 inf), 4 bdes to complete regular army divs;
   1 lt div to form 1985; 4 armd cav regts, 1 inf gp (Arctic recce, 5 bns); 2 Special Forces gps (6 bns).
   Indep bns: 5 tk, 2 mech, 50 arty, 4 ATK (TOW), 9 AD (1 Roland SAM, 8 40mm SP AA arty), 62 engr, 23 sigs, 115 other spt bns, 768 minor units.
   HQ to fill regular formations. 105 air units, 150 sections; 2,580 ac.
(ii) Army Reserve: 266,188 (42,500 women); 3,410 units;
   12 trg divs, 2 trg bdes; 1 mech, 2 inf indep combat bdes; 67 indep bns, incl 1 tk, 2 inf, 15 arty, 33 engr. 2 Special Forces gps (6 bns);
   3,225 coys and dets; 130 indep air units and sections with 566 ac.
(iii) Individual Ready Reserve: 246,400 (35,500 women); 49,000 a year do short active duty.
Navy: 564,800 (40,500 women): 4 cruise-missile, 95 attack subs, 206 principal surface combatants.
   A further 35 major surface combat ships are in active reserve and storage. Four Fleets.
Subs, cruise-missile (SSGN): 4.
   3 Los Angeles with Harpoon SSM, 1 Sturgeon. All have Tomahawk SSM.
Subs, Attach. 95:
   91 nuclear (SSN), 77 with SUBROC, to be fitted with Harpoon and Tomahawk.
   26 Los Angeles with Harpoon; 1 Lipscomb, 1 Narwhal, 36 Sturgeon, 13 Thresher, 3 Allen, 2 Washington (converted SSBN); 5 Skipjack, 3 Skate,
   1 Tullibee.
   4 diesel (SS): 3 Barbel, 1 Tang.
Aircraft carriers
: 14 (1 trg).
4 nuclear (CVN): 3 Nimitz (91,400 tons) (1 on refit), 1 Enterprise (89,600 tons).
10 conventional (cv): 2 Kitty Hawk (78/80,800 tons), 1 America (79,000 tons), 1 Kennedy (82,000 tons), 3 Forrestal (76/79,000 tons) (1 on refit),
   2 Midway (51/62,000 tons), 1 (Lexington) trg, no ac assigned.
   12 normally carry 1 air wing (70-95 ac) of 2 fighter sqns (with 24 F-14A (incl 3 RF-14 recce) or 24 F-4N/S),
   3 attack (2 lt with 24 A-7E or F/A-18, 1 med with 10 A-6E), 2 ASW (1 with 10 S-3A ac, 1 with 6 SH-3/D/H hel),
   1 ECM with 4 EA-6B, 1 AEW with 4 E-2B/C; 4 KA-6D tankers, 1 lt tpt ac.
   (New wing will have 2 more sqns, each 18 ac.)
Other surface ships: 192 principal surface combatants:
2 Iowa battleships (BBG) with 4x4 Harpoon, 8x4 Tomahawk SSM.
9 nuclear-powered GW cruisers (CGN) with 2x4 Harpoon SSM;
   4 Virginia with 2x2 Standard/ASROC SAM/ASW, 1 SH-2F hel (SA-60B Seahawk to replace);
   2 California with 2x1 Standard SAM, 1x8 ASROC ASW;
   1 Truxtun with 1x2 Standard/ASROC, 1 SH-2F hel;
   1 Long Beach with 2x2 Standard/Terrier SAM, 1x8 ASROC
   1 Bainbridge with 2x2 Standard 1x8 ASROC.
19 GW cruisers (CG):
   1 Ticonderoga (CG-47) with 2x8 Harpoon SSM (to get Tomahawk SSM), 2x2 Standard/ASROC, 2 SH-2F hel (second CG-47 July 1984);
   18 with 2x4 Harpoon, 1x8 ASROC, 1 SH-2F hel; (9 Leahy also have 2x2 Standard/Terrier, 9 Belknap have 1x2 Standard/Terrier).
37 GW destroyers (DDG):
   23 with 2x4 Harpoon (4 Kidd with 2x2 Standard/Tartar/'ASROC, 2 SH-2F hel; 8 Farragut, 11 Adams); 2 Farragut, 12 Adams.
31 Spruance (DD-963) gun/ASW destroyers (DD): with 2x4 Harpoon, 1x8 Sea Sparrow, 1x8 ASROC, 1 SH-3 or 2 SH-2F hel; (to get Tomahawk SSM).
41 GW frigates (FFG): 35 Perry with 1 Harpoon/Standard, 2 SH-2/-60 hel; 6 Brooke with 1 Tartar/Standard, 1x8 ASROC, 1 SH-2F hel.
   53 gun frigates (FF) with 1x8 ASROC:
40 Knox (FF-1052) with 2x4 Harpoon SSM (30 with Sea Sparrow Mk 5 BPDMS, 1 with Sea Sparrow Mk 29 SAM, 2 SH-2F hel),
   10 Garcia, 1 Glover, 2 Bronstein.
Some 89 minor surface combatants:
   6 Pegasus GW hydrofoils with 2x4 Harpoon.
   Some 80 inshore and river patrol craft (most in reserve).
   MCM: 3 Aggressive ocean minesweepers.
61 amph warfare ships:
   2 Blue Ridge comd (LCC);
   5 Tarawa LHA with 4 LCU and mix of AV-8A ac or 12 CH-46, 4 CH-53, 3 UH-1N, 4 AH-Lt hel;
   7 Iwo Jima LPH (mix of 6 AV-8A, 4 OV-10 ac or 2 CH-46, 10 CH-53, 1 UH-1N hel);
   12 Austin, 2 Raleigh LPD: 5 Anchorage, 5 Thomaston LSD (retiring), 18 Newport LST; 5 Charleston amph cargo ships (LKA).
54 LCU: 51 Type 1610, 3 Type 1466; many smaller amph craft; others with US Army.
85 principal auxiliary ships: 12 ammunition, 7 stores, 4 fast sealift, 14 oilers, 9 destroyer tenders, 12 sub tenders, 4 repair, 9 salvage/rescue, 1 fleet flagship,
   1 hospital, 1 spt, 2 tpt, 9 tugs.
Military Sealift Command ships: 1 ammunition, 13 stores, 30 oil, 3 gasoline, 2 ocean surveillance, 5 oceanographic, 5 missile instrumentation, 9 survey.
   Chartered: 17 cargo, 3 tanker, 4 research, 1 fleet service ships.
   Anti-sub msls, nuclear: ASROC, SUBROC.
   SSM: Standard (SM-1), Harpoon, BGM-109B
   SLCM: Tomahawk (trials).
   SAM: Standard (SA-1), Aegis (SM-2) (some nuclear), Tabs, Sea Sparrow, Tartar, Terrier.
Ships in active reserve and storage
:
   2 SSN, 5 CV, 2 battleships (1 being reactivated (1984), 1 being studied), 4 cruisers, 4 DDG, 10 DD, 2 FFG, 6 FF, 3 LST, 46 log spt, 41 tp ships.
National Defense Reserve Fleet: Ready Reserve Force,
   30 dry cargo ships, 164 other vessels (579 govt-owned cargo ships and tankers could be used for auxiliary sea-lift).
Ships on refit (incl Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) ) incl 6 SSBN (5 more planned to 1987),
   11 SSN (3 Los Angeles, 4 Sturgeon, 2 Thresher, 2 Allen), 3 CVN/CV, 3 CGN, 5 DDG, 5 DD, 1 FFG, 8 FF, 1 LPH, 1 LPD, 3 LST.
   (Authorized and funded: 6 SSBN, 3 SSN, 3 CVN, 9 Ticonderoga CG-47, 11 FFG, 5 MCM, 1 landing helicopter dock ship (LHD), 3 LSD, 13 landing
   craft (3 standard, 10 air cushion (hovercraft)),
   2 fleet oilers, 5 supply ships; 51 BGM-109 Tomahawk, 222 Harpoon SSM, 1,100 Standard SKU, 37 Phalanx AD systems.)
Aircraft: 12 attack carrier air wings (1 more to form); some 1,450 combat ac, some 160 combat hel.
   24 ftr sqns: 20 with 240 F-14A (30 ac configured for photo/infra-red recce); 4 with 48 F-4A/N/S.
   38 attack sqns: 12 med with 120 A-6E, 48 KA-6D tankers; 24 lt with 288 A-7E; 2 with 25 F-18A.
   1 trg sqn with 15 TF-18A.
   2 ELINT sqns with 12 EA-3,12 EP-3.
   26 land-based MR sqns with 45 P-3B, 173 P-3C/-3C III.
   11 ASW sqns with 110 S-3A Viking.
   9 EW sqns with 35 EA-6B Prowler.
   12 AEW sqns with 48 E-2C Hawkeye.
   2 comms sqns with 14 C-130 TACAMO (= Take Charge And Move Out).
   17 LAMPS/ASW hel sqns: * 2 with 22 SH-60B Seahawk (LAMPS Mk 3), 6 lt with 63 SH-2F Sea Sprite (LAMPS Mk 1),
   9 with 66 SH-3D/H Sea King (ASW). (* LAMPS = Light Airborne Multi-purpose System.)
   2 MCM hel sqns with 14 RH-53D, some 3 MH-53E.
   2 aggressor trg sqns with 28 F-5E/F, A-4, T-38.
   22 OCU: 5 fighter/strike trg (2 with 60 F-14, 1 with 18 TA-4F/J; 1 with 25 F-18, 1 with 20 F-4); 6 attack with 103 TA-7C, A-7E, A-6;
   2 EW with EA-3; 2 MR with 40 P-3B/C; 2 AEW with 34 E-2B/C; 1 ASW with S-3A; 4 hel with 30 SH-2A3.
   17 misc spt sqns with 13 C-130F/LC-130F/R, 14 EC-130G/Q, 34 C-1A, 10 C-2A, 9 CT-39, 11 C-131, 4 C-117, 39 UC-12B ac; SH-3, CH/HH-46 hel.
   16 trg sqns with T-2B/C/-28/-39D/-44, 210 T-34C ac; 112 TH-57A, TH/UH-1E hel.
   (Other ac incl 35 F/A-18.)
   AAM: Sparrow, AIM-54A/C Phoenix, Sidewinder.
   ASM: Standard ARM, Shrike, AGM-88A HARM (anti-radiation); Walleye, Harpoon.
   (On order. 24 F-14C ftrs, 38 A-6E attack, 6 E-2C AEW, 6 P-3C MR, 8 EA-6B ECM, 39 C-2A tpt, 15 Citation T-47A, 12 Hawk trg,
   8 KA-6D tanker conversion ac; 44 SH-2F, some 8 MH-53 MCM, some 20 SH-60B, 108 TH-57C trg hel;
   108 AIM-54C AAM, 190 AGM-65F Maverick, 230 HARM, 108 Harpoon SSM.)
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES (average strengths of major combat ships):
Atlantic (Second Fleet): 31 SSBN, 53 attack subs, 7 carriers, 104 surface combatants, 27 amph.
   Norfolk (HQ), Mayport, Roosevelt Roads (Puerto Rico), Charleston, Jacksonville, Brunswick, New London, Newport, New York (Staten Island),
   Boston, New Orleans, Bangor, Kings Bay.
Eastern Pacific (Third Fleet): 3 SSBN, some 31 SSN, 9 carriers (5 hel), 71 other major surface combatants, 26 amph, 32 spt.
   Pearl Harbor (HQ), San Francisco, Whidbey Island, San Diego, Long Beach, Adak (Alaska), Everett (planned).
   (See also Forces Abroad, below.)
RESERVES: 115,000.
   35 ships: 1 DD, 2 Perry FFG, 6 Knox FF, 18 ocean minesweepers, 2 LST,4 fleet tugs, 2 salvage ships. (13 more FFG, 2 FF authorized.)
   2 carrier wings: 18 sqns: 5 attack with 60 A-7B; 1 with 12 F/A-18; 4 fighter with 48 F-4N/S; 2 recce with 18 RF-8G; 2 AEW with 8 E-2C;
   2 ECM with EA-6A; 2 tanker with KA-3B).
   2 MR wings: 13 sqns with 110P-3A/B.
   1 tac spt wing: 13 sqns (2 composite with TA-4J); 11 spt with C-9,C-118, C-130H.
   1 hel wing: 7 sqns (4 ASW with 23 SH-3F/D, 2 lt attack with 16 HH-1K, 1 SAR with HH-3).
   Naval Construction Bde: 9 regts, 17 bns.
   2 Special Warfare Gps; 18 units.
   2,100 specialist and spt units incl 16 undersea warfare units; 62 boats/patrol craft.
Marine Corps: 196,600 (8,900 women).
   3 divs, each of 9 inf, 1 recce, 1 tk, 1 engr, 1 amph bns, 1 arty regt.
   550 M-60A1 MBT; 984 LVT-7/-7A1 APC;
   175mm SP guns; 84 105mm (being replaced), 126 M-198/M-14 155mm towed, 100 155mm, 203mm SP how; 216 81mm mor;
   TOW, Dragon ATGW; Redeye, Stinger SAM.
   3 air wings: (27,000); some 436 combat ac, some 102 combat hel.
   12 ftr sqns: 8 with 96 F-4N/S (being replaced), 4 with 48F-18.
   12 FGA sqns: 3 lt with 45 AV-8A/C Harrier V/STOL; 4 lt with 95 A-4M; 5 med with 50 A-6E.
   1 recce sqn with 21 RF-4B.
   1 ECM sqn with 15 EA-6B.
   2 observation sqns with 36 OV-10A.
   2 command sqns with 30 OA-4M/TA-4F.
   3 tanker sqns with 36 KC-130F/R.
   28 hel sqns: 3 attack with 72 AH-1J/T (TOW); 3 lt with 72 UH-1E/N; 14 med with 180 CH-46F; 8 hy with 96 CH-53A/D; 68 CH-53E.
   Other ac incl 8 AV-8B trg, 20 F/A-18; 167 CH-53D/E, 30 AH-1T/J hel.
   7 trg sqns.
   2 SAM bns with Improved HAWK .
   AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder.
   ASM: Maverick.
   (On order: 329 LVT-7A1, 289 LAV-25 Piranha APC, 180 Mk-19 40mm grenade launchers, SMAW 83mm RL; Stinger SAM, 3 hovercraft (LCAC),
   80 F/A-18, 33 AV-8B ftrs, 3 KC-130T tanker ac, 11 CH-53E hel; 263 AGM-65E ASM.)
RESERVES: 43,900 (1,265 women).
   1 Marine div: 3 inf, 1 arty regts; 21 combat and spt bns.
   1 Fleet Marine Force Gp; 1 Fleet Service regt (7 bns).
   1 air wing: 106 combat ac, 8 combat hel.
   4 aviation, 1 service, 1 air control gps, 19 sqns.
   11 ac sqns (2 ftr with 24 F-4N, 6 attack with 60 A-4E/M, 1 EW with 4 EA-6A, 1 observation with 18 OV-10A, 1 tpt/tanker with 11 KC-130).
   8 hel sqns (1 attack with 8 AH-1J, 4 lt with 40 UH-1N, 2 med with 24 CH-46C/D, 1 hy with 16 CH-53).
   1 SAM bn with HAWK .
   32 spt units.
DEPLOYMENT:
Continental United States:
   2 Marine Amphibious Forces (MAF), (1 East, 1 West coast) each with 1 div, 1 air wing, 1 spt gp, 1 amph bde (MAB) (12,000).
Hawaii: 1 bde (from MAF in Japan (Okinawa).
   (See also Forces Abroad, below.)
Air Force: 594,500 (65,500 women); some 3,700 combat ac* (* Excl SAC, NORAD ac; incl ANG, Air Force Reserve ac and some 900 in active service storage.)
   26 combat wings, comprising 78 sqns: 16 with 440 F-4 (8 being replaced with F-16); 16 with 384 F-15; 19 with 456 F-16;
   10 with 230 F-111A/D/E/F; 12 with 288 A-10A; 5 Wild Weasel (1 trg) with F-4G.
   8 tac recce sqns with 126 RF-4C.
   1 Airborne Warning and Control div: 4 AWACS sqns (1 trg) with 34 E-3A/B Sentry.
   3 electronic warfare sqns: 7 EC-130E/H; 11 EC-135K; 16 EF-111.
   9 tac air control sqns: 6 with 96 OV-10/O-2A ac; 3 with 27 CH-3 hel.
   6 special operations sqns: 3 with 14 MC-130E ac; 1 with 10 AC-130H ac; 1 with 6 CH-3E; 1 with 8 HH-53H, 5 UH-1N; 1 det with 4 UH-1H hel.
   4 aggressor trg sqns with 77 F-5E, T-38.
   Ocu: 1 with 20 F-111A; 1 with 29 F-16; 7 with 130 F-4; 1 with 20 F-5; 2 with 40 F-15; 2 with 40 F-106; 3 with 60 A-10; 1 with 16 RF-4C.
   14 tac airlift sqns with 218 C-130.
   17 hy (strategic) tpt sqns: 4 with 70 C-5A, 13 with 252 C-141B.
   Other tpts: 8 C-135, 5 C-137, 11 C-140A/B, 1 C-6A, 5 C-12, 3 C-20A, 9 CT-39; 80 C-35A Learjet (leased).
   8 SAR sqns (incl SAC msl spt): 23 HC-130H/N/P ac, 32 C/HH-3, 13 C/HH-53, 76 H/T/UH-1, 9 UH-60A hel.
   3 medical tpt sqns with 23 C-9A/C.
   3 weather recce sqns with 13 WC-130E/H, 5 WC-135B.
   Trials/weapon trg units: 65 F-16,4 C-141 A., 30 trg sqns: 8 F-16B, 118 T-33A, 619 T-37B, 620 T-38, 112T-39,40 C-12FSuper King Air (leased),
   50 T-41A/C, 15 T-43A, 7 C-5A, 27 C-130, 12 C-141B, 5 HC-130, 2 UV-18A (DHC-6), 8 Schweizer Z-37 ac;
   8 UH-60A, 8 C/HH-3, 8 HH-53, 19 U/TH-1F/N/P hel.
   AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.
   ASM: Maverick, Standard ARM, Shrike, HARM, GBU-15 glide bomb.
   GLCM: 4 sqns, 1 trg unit.
   (On order: 120 F-16,392 F-15 ftrs, 5 F-5 FGA, 7 E-3C, 26 EF-111A, 13 C-5B,3 C-17 hy tpt,
   8 C-130H, EC-130H, 8 C-20A Gulfstream, 18 C-23 Sherpa lt tpt; 8-10 Ch F-7 (MiG-21), 16 C-12F Super King Air trg ac;
   22 Bell AH-1T Super Cobra, 243 UH-60A/D, 69 HH-60D Night Hawk, 86 HH-60E hel; 108
   launchers, 400 BGM-109 GLCM; 40 ALCM, HARM, 200 AGM-65D Maverick ASM, Stinger, 12Rapier SAM.)
DEPLOYMENT:
(i) Continental United States:
(a) Tactical Air Command (TAC; incl NORAD-, Iceland-assigned AD ac); (104,412);
   2 Air Forces; 12 air divs; 28 wings: 36 combat sqns (30 fighter, 3 tac recce (converting to ftr/recce), 3 tac air control); 6 tac trg sqns.
(b) Alaskan Air Command: (7,650): incl 1 ftr wing (1 sqn with F-15, 1 with T-33), 1 composite wing (1 sqn with A-10, 1 with O-2A),
   1 control (warning) gp, 13 radars (being modernized), 2 combat spt gps, 1 strategic recce wing; air base: 1 gp, 2 sqns.
(c) Military Airlift Command (MAC): (78,055): 2 Air Forces; 3 airlift divs, 24 wings (7 tac, 7 strategic, 1 special operations, 1 trg);
   18 gps (2 tac, 1 strategic, 9 air base, 6 combat/airlift/trg spt). Ac deployed as required, world-wide.
(d) Spt elm comds: (171,500). Comms, Log, Systems Trg, Electronic Security.
(ii) Pacific Air Forces (26,926): 2 Air Force HQ: 3 air divs; 4 tac ftr wings and 2 indep ftr sqns; 1 tac control gp;
   3 Air Base wings and 1 indep sqn. 1 weather wing (attached from MAC).
   Hawaii Air National Guard: 1 div: 2 AD sqns F-4 (8 AAM).
   (See also Forces Abroad, below.)
RESERVES: 182,700,41 wing equivalents.
(i) Air National Guard (ANG): (107,900); 24 wings (12 tactical), 67 gps, 91 sqns; some 1,090 combat ac.
   10 interceptor sqns; 162 ac (NORAD-assigned).
   34 fighter/FGA sqns (1 with 15 F-16, 1 with 20 F-4D, 12 (1 ocu) with 208 F-4C, 1 Wild Weasel with 12 F-4G,
   14 (1 ocu) with 360 A-7D/K (11 getting F-16), 5 with 107 A-10A).
   8 recce sqns with 107 RF-4C.
   4 tac air control sqns (3 with 75 OA-37B, 1 with 20 O-2A).
   19 tac tpt sqns with 174 C-130A/B/E, 3 C-19A (Boeing 747 freight).
   13 tanker sqns (SAC) with 103 KC-135A/Q.
   1 electronic combat sqn with 8 EC-130.
   2 SAR sqns with 8 HC-130 ac, 11 HH-3E hel.
   Trg ac incl 43 T-33,4 T-43A, 4 T-39 ac.
(ii) Air Force Reserve: (74,800); 17 wings, 56 sqns: some 233 combat ac, 5 combat hel.
   11 ftr sqns (TAC; 1 with 10 F-16, 5 with 113 F-4C/D, 5 with 100A-10, more forming).
   15 tac tpt sqns (MAC; (1 trg) with 140 C-130A/B/E/H, 4 C-123K).
   3 tanker sqns (SAC) with 24 KC-135.
   2 special operations sqns (MAC; 1 with 10 AC-130 ac, 1 with 5 CH-3 hel).
   1 weather recce sqn with 7 WC-130H.
   4 SAR sqns with 15 HC-130H/N ac, 8 HH-3E, 10 UH-IN hel.
   20 Reserve Associate sqns (personnel only).
   MAC: 4 for C-5A, 13 for C-141, 1 aero medical for C-9A.
   SAC: 2 for KC-10A.
   137 non-flying spt units.
(iii) Civil Reserve Air Fleet: 321 long-range commercial ac (numbers fluctuate): 200 passenger (Boeing 747, L-1011, DC-8/-10), 121 cargo (80 Boeing 707, 30 747 (C-19A), DC-8/-10); 16 short-range commercial (Boeing 727, DC-9).
Forces Abroad (510,300):
GENERAL:
   Caribbean/Latin America: 20,200 (incl Bermuda (1,500), Guantanamo (2,500), Honduras garrison (1,700), Puerto Rico (3,500), Panama (9,170) );
   Europe: 349,200;
   Pacific/Far East: 138,900; other areas 2,000.
ARMY: (256,600).
Europe: 216,700.
(i) Germany: (204,200). 1 Army, 2 corps HQ; 2 armd, 2 mech divs; 1 armd, 1 mech, 1 cav bdes; 2 armd cav regts; 30 AD btys with HAWK; 5,000 MBT.*
   (* Incl those stockpiled for the Strategic Reserve formations. The armd and mech bdes are from the divs in the US earmarked to reinforce 7th Army.)
(ii) West Berlin: (4,300). HQ elms, 1 inf bde.
(iii) Greece: (480).
(iv) Italy: (3,800).
(v) Netherlands: (880).
(vi) Turkey: (1,200).
(vii) Other: (1,840).
Pacific (31,500):
(i) South Korea: 29,200. 1 inf div (13,900).
(ii) Japan: 2,100; base and spt personnel.
Caribbean/Latin America: 8,800.
NAVY: (89,900).
Atlantic (Second Fleet): Guantanamo Bay (Cuba 2,100), Bermuda, Keflavik (Iceland, 1,900), Holy Loch and other (Britain, 2,200). NATO assigned (14,800).
Mediterranean (26,600). Sixth Fleet: 41 vessels, typically incl 1-2 SSN, 1-2 carriers and carrier gps of surface combatants, spt ships;
   Mid Term Prepositioning Force: 3 stores ships.
   Italy (5,200): Gaeta (HQ), Naples, Sigonella, La Maddalena. Spain (3,700): Rota.
Western Pacific (40,700), Seventh Fleet: some 20 SSN and ss: 3 carriers (1 hel),22 surface combatants, 6 amph, 8 spt ships. Japan (7,200):
   Yokosuka (HQ). Philippines (5,300): Subic Bay. Guam (4,900 incl Marine det): Midway.
Indian Ocean Dets (from 7th Fleet): 1 carrier battle gp (some 6 surface combatants).
   Near Term Prepositioning Force: (Diego Garcia) (1,600): 3 ammunition, 7 cargo ships, 3 barges, 3 oilers, 1 water tanker.
   Middle East Force (Persian Gulf-Bahrain): 1 comd ship, 4 destroyers/frigates.
MARINES: (36,500).
Caribbean: Cuba (Guantanamo) 455; 1 reinforced marine coy.
Europe/Middle East: 3,000; Mediterranean 1 MAU (l,900).
Pacific. (Japan/Okinawa, 25,100); 1 MAF (1 div (-), 1 air wing, 1 log spt gp), MAU, 1 bn landing team. (Philippines,700).
Indian Ocean: (1,800); 1 MAU deployed intermittently.
   (Marine Amphibious Units (MAU) are embarked in Amphibious Ready Gps (ARG) comprising 4-7 amph ships with a reinforced inf bn gp,
   incl tks, arty, composite air sqn (incl hel) and log gp (1,800). Only 1 in Mediterranean and 1 in Pacific are regularly constituted.
   1 Bn Landing Team (MAU less hel) also deployed in Pacific; 1 occasionally formed for the Atlantic.
   A Marine Amphibious Force may have up to 50,000 men with air support.)
AIR FORCE: (127,300).
Europe: (89,800): US Air Force, Europe (USAFE); some 729 combat ac; 32 GLCM.
(i) Britain (27,000): 1 Air Force HQ: 4 combat air wings: 306 combat ac; 16 GLCM.
   16 sqns (7 with 150 F-111E/F, 6 with 108 A-10; 1 recce wing with 2 sqns: 1 with 18 RF-4C, 1 with 5 EF-111 Raven, 2 TR-1;
   1 combat trg sqn with 18 F-5E); 1 tpt wing with 16 C-130 (MAC); 29 KC-135, 4 EC-135H (SAC); 1 tactical missile wing, 16 GLCM.
(ii) Germany (40,200): 1 Air Force HQ: 6 combat air wings: 327 combat ac, 7 armed hel.
   12 sqns (3 with 72 F-16A/B, 4 with 96 F-4E, 1 with 24 F-4G; 3 with 72 F-15C/D; 1 recce sqn with 18 RF-4C);
   1 air control wing of 3 sqns (2 with 42 OV-10A ac, 1 with 7 CH-53C hel); 1 tpt wing (MAC) of 4 sqns (1 with 18 C-130E);
   1 special operations sqn with 3 MC-130E.
(iii) Netherlands (1,900): 1 sqn with 24 F-15C/D.
(iv) Spain (5,400): 1 Air Force HQ: 1 tac wing of 3 sqns with 72 F-16A/B, 1 ftr trg wing (no ac assigned), 1 strategic recce unit (SAC).
   (1 TAC fighter wing (F-4E) in US; on call as reinforcements.)
   Italy, (5,100): 1 tac, 1 air base gps, 1 tac msl wing (16 GLCM).
   Greece (2,600): 2 air base gps.
   Turkey (3,800): HQ, 1 tac, 2 air base gps.
(v) Other areas: (3,800).
   Iceland: (TAC, 1,100); 1 AD sqn with 24 F-4E, 4 T-33, 1-3 E-3A AWACS.
Pacific: Pacific Air Forces (PACAF): (38,950).
(i) Guam (3,900): Dets from SAC: 1 strategic bbr wing with 1 B-52 sqn; 1 refuelling wing with KC-135.
(ii) Japan (15,100): 1 Air Force HQ: 1 div: 1 wing (3 sqns) with 72 F-15C/D, 18 RF-4C, T-39A ac, UH-1E/F hel; det (TAC) with 3 E-3A AWACS.
   See Korea, below.
(iii) Korea (10,400): 1 div: 2 wings: 5 sqns (2 with 36 F-4E, 2 with 48 F-16, 1 with 18 A-10), 1 tac control gp with 180 A-37).
(iv) Philippines (9,100): 1 Air Force HQ: 1 wing, 2 ftr sqns (1 with F-4E, 1 with F-4E/G); 1 special operations sqn with 4 MC-130E;
   1 tac airlift wing (MAC) with 32 C-130 ac, 8 HH-3 hel; 1 trg gp with 15 F-5E, T-33, T-39A).
(v) Australia (450).
Middle East (all services): Sinai (MFO) 1,100; Egypt 1,500; Saudi Arabia 540.
RESERVES (individuals, all services): Standby 49,000; Retired 384,000 of which 120,000 are still eligible for active duty.
Para-Military Forces:
Coast Guard (by law a branch of the Armed Forces; in peacetime under the Department of Transportation): 38,791 (2,342 women);
   45 cutters (17 high-endurance (2,600-3,000 tons), 28 med-endurance (1,000 tons) ), 6 icebreakers, 76 patrol craft, 2 hovercraft, 28 tugs, 88 other vessels;
   some 2,250 small craft; 611 shore installations;
   64 ac (41 HU-25A, 21 HC-130B/E/H, 1 VC-4A, 1 VC-11A); 108 hel (37 HH-3F, 71 HH-52A (to be replaced by 90 HH-65A (AS-365G Dauphin 2) ).
   (In reserve/storage: 4 C-130, 3 HU-25.)
Coast Guard Reserve: 11,800; 6,500 selected 2nd ready reserves;
   167 port security units in 40 ports, 59 general spt units, 63 reserve gps, 1 cutter, 150 small vessels.
Coast Guard Auxiliary: 36,000 civilian volunteer force; augment regular force in emergencies.
Civil Air Patrol (CAP): 68,021 (26,215 cadets); HQ, 8 geographical regions, 52 wings, 1,936 units, 553 CAP ac plus 8,890 private ac. Roles:
   (a) emergency services, SAR, disaster relief, civil defence and comms (b) aerospace education, (c) cadet training and motivation.
  

The Soviet Union

   Strategic Forces
   The Soviet strategic inventory continues to be modernized. The SS-11 total has been reduced by 30; the SS-19 total shows a corresponding increase. We can assume that the earlier SS-19 single warhead has been replaced by the 6 MIRV of its Modification 3. Because the silos are outwardly similar, figures must be used with caution. Modification 4 to the SS-18 ICBM, introduced in 1982, may now affect some 170 launchers. The SLBM inventory shows one less Y-I submarine and one less H-II (with its SALT-accountable SS-N-5 SLBM), but one more Typhoon-class submarine (20 tubes) is now in service. Three or four more Typhoon boats are reported under construction. SS-20 IRBM deployment has continued; the total is now some 378 launchers. The SS-5 IRBM has been with drawn; the SS-4 IRBM total remains at 224.
   The ICBM launcher total remains at 1,398. With the introduction of smaller (and more accurate) warheads, total potential deliverable megatonnage is somewhat lower.
   At sea, the retirement of more SS-N-5 and some SS-N-6 missiles and the introduction of the SS-N-20 missile, which last year at this time was not believed to be operational, has resulted in a net increase of launchers by one to 981. The total of SALT-accountable submarines remains the same. Newer SLBM warheads are almost all MIRV, and are believed to have greater accuracy than their predecessors. SLBM megatonnage has increased significantly.
   IRBM changes increase the total number of IRBM launchers by 2, to 578. The number of warheads also increases by 38, to some 1,358, while the megatonnage decreases by 7.9, to 394.1. The overall missile total (long- and intermediate-range) is therefore 2,757 (excluding possible reloads). We have not here attempted to segregate missiles with a European role from the total but would observe that the 880 remaining SS-11 and the SS-19 ICBM have a variable-range capability, enabling them to target Europe and its approaches.
   In the long-range bomber force the only change noted has been the modest increase of 20 in the Tu-26 Backfire inventory. The new Blackjack A bomber has not yet entered service. Some ten of the Tu-16 with drawn last year may have been modified for the ECM role.
   The strategic defensive forces also show some changes. Although the ABM launcher force still remains at 32, reports suggest that new missiles are being deployed. A little more information on radar deployments has become available; it is not clear whether this represents new deployments or merely new data.
   General-Purpose Forces
   Details of organizational changes with in the Soviet defence structure remain scanty. The forces have been grouped into three main 'Theatres' - Western, Southern and Far Eastern - with a Central Strategic Reserve area comprising the Moscow, Volga and Ural Military Districts (MD). The Western Theatre, which includes the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact nations, is further subdivided into three Theatres of Military Operations (TVD) which provide strategic planning and operational control for continental, oceanic and intercontinental forces (missile forces, SSBN and bombers) assigned to them. The Western Theatre is the strongest, with the most modern equipment. The Far Eastern Theatre is not known to be divided into TVD, but, given its importance and the size and operational diversity of the area, some measure of local control would appear to be necessary.
   In wartime, the East European Warsaw Pact divisions would be incorporated with in the Soviet Army structure, thus providing integrated commands for the North-Western, Western and South-Western TVD. The basic operational command is the Front. A typical Front comprises a tank army and two all-arms armies plus supporting elements, a total of six tank and eight motor rifle divisions. Variations in this 'typical' organization are governed by operational conditions.
   On the basis of present East European and Soviet army deployments, the Western TVD could have four Fronts: two in East Germany, one in Czechoslovakia, and one in Poland. The two Fronts in East Germany total 12 tank and 13 motor rifle divisions; three motor rifle divisions less than two typical Fronts. In Czechoslovakia and Poland the total would be 14 tank and 16 motor rifle divisions; two tank divisions above the 'normal' level. Reinforcements could be quickly available from the Byelorussian MD, which contains 10 tank and 4 motor rifle divisions.
   The North-Western TVD would comprise the Baltic MD, which, by incorporating the Polish marine division, could operate as an independent (i.e., Moscow-controlled) Front against the Baltic Coast including Denmark. The Leningrad MD can field a Front of two allarms armies against the northern Scandinavian regions. It, too, might come directly under Moscow. In the South (the South-Western TVD), though no Soviet troops are deployed in the countries concerned, national forces in Bulgaria and Romania can mobilize two all-arms armies, each 4 tank and 16 motor rifle divisions. Hungary can mobilize 1 tank and 5 motor rifle divisions or one all-arms army and 3 extra motor rifle divisions. Soviet forces in the Carpathian and Odessa MD would add 4 tank and 15 motor rifle divisions. The Kiev MD, with its 6 tank and 4 motor rifle divisions, could reinforce either the Western or Southwestern TVD.
   The Southern Theatre, opposite Turkey's eastern frontier, would comprise forces from the Trans-Caucasus MD, 12 motor rifle divisions, supported by forces from the North Caucasus MD (1 tank, 7 motor rifle divisions), plus perhaps a proportion of the 7 motor rifle divisions in the Odessa MD, or the 3 motor rifle divisions in the Volga MD.
   The Soviet Air Force has also been reorganized and now comprises twenty Regional Commands and five Air Armies. This reorganization has had the effect of changing considerably the categorization of Soviet fighter aircraft, and a number of questions still remain. Three of these Armies have taken over the strategic and strategic/tactical roles of the Longrange Air Force. The Voyska-PVO (National Air Defence Troops) has taken over some of the former Frontal Aviation interceptor inventory, as well as that of the Air Defence Forces of the former PVO-Strany and the Army air defence troops. The ten air defence districts have now been reduced to five. The Voyska-PVO and the Air Armies are now co-ordinated at the Theatre HQ. In wartime, the control of air and ground forces and air defence would be integrated at the TVD level, which should give greater operational flexibility.
   Tank regiments now have an integral artillery battalion. Some artillery regiments at the Army level are being equipped with the (nuclear-capable) 240mm SP mortar. The towed 122mm gun/howitzer is in many cases being replaced by an amphibious SP version. Two new versions of the BM-27 240mm MRL are in service. The divisional reconnaissance battalion is now a formidable and highly mobile force with a platoon of medium tanks and a mix of light combat vehicles, many with light guns or anti-tank missiles. Air support, in East Germany at least, includes a helicopter brigade integral to each Army, giving a total deployment of some 400 helicopters, about half of which are armed Mi-24 Hind, some with AS-14 ATGW. Battlefield support SSM - Frog, Scud and Scaleboard - are being replaced by SS-21, SS-23 and SS-22 respectively. The SS-22, which some sources suggest is an up-rated SS-12, has a range of about 950 km - somewhat less than that of the Pershing II - but its 500-KT warhead has about twice the yield of its US counterpart.
   The Navy continues to develop its submarine fleet, and modernization of the surface fleet also continues. A second O-class cruise missile submarine and two more V-III attack submarines are in service. Some older C-I, W, and E boats have been with drawn, and new M and S boats are on trials. Doubt remains over the new role for the 10 Y-I SSN whose SLBM were removed under SALT contraints. More O, M, S, K and T boats appear to be under construction.
   A 75,000-ton nuclear aircraft carrier is under construction; a third Kiev-class carrier is now in service, and a fourth is on trials. Two more Slava-class cruisers are under construction. A third Sovremennyy and two more Udaloy GW destroyers have also joined the fleet. Five more of each are reported to be building, as are a number of smaller combat vessels.
   New Equipment
   There has been little new information regarding the two Soviet ICBM reported last year as being under development. One was reported as the PL-4 (believed to be a development of the SS-17), first test-launched in October 1982. The other was the PL-5 (originally reported as a modified SS-13 mobile ICBM), first launched in December 1982. (The PL designator stands for the test area, Plesetsk, where these missiles were first observed.) Both are reported to use solid fuel. They have been assigned the numbers SS-X-24 and -25 respectively. Controversy continues to surround the question of which is a 'new type' ICBM as defined in SALT II (or whether both are). A new SLBM - SS-NX-23 - is reported in development and may be a replacement for the SS-N-18.
   Three new long-range cruise missiles are reported to be in development. Designated SS-NX-21, AS-X-15 and SSC-X-4 (sea-, air- and ground-launched respectively), their ranges are estimated at 3,000 km. The AS-X-15 is said to be capable of being launched from Bear, Backfire and the new Blackjack A bombers. Bear H bombers are reported back in production to carry ALCM. The SSC-X-4 is believed to be carried in a four-tube mobile launcher. Finally two new anti-ballistic missile systems - the SH-04 (exo-atmospheric) and the SH-08 (endo-atmosphenc) - have been reported. New aircraft types in service include the MiG-29 Fulcrum, equipped with a new air-to-air missile (the AA-X-10), and the Su-25 Frogfoot. The MiG-25 Foxhound has been redesignated the MiG-31. The Su-27 Flanker air superiority aircraft is being evaluated. Airborne command and control is being upgraded, and the I1-76 Mainstay, which is to replace the present Moss, is reported to be in production. A modest increase in the aircraft inventory is reported compared with 1983.
   Defence Expenditure
   No single figure for Soviet expenditure can be given, since precision is not possible on the basis of present knowledge. The declared Soviet defence budget excludes a number of elements such as military R&D, stockpiling and civil defence - indeed some contend that it covers only the operating and military construction costs of the armed forces. The problem of arriving at a current budgetary figure was discussed in previous editions of The Military Balance. The official defence budget of 17.05 bn roubles each for 1983 and 1984 equals about 4.8% of total government expenditure for 1983 and 4.66% of that for 1984, or about 3.2% of 1983 NMP, according to Soviet data of the latter. Some western estimates of the burden of military expenditures on the GNP range from 10-20%. Moreover, Western experts and defence agencies are not agreed on the real change in Soviet defence spending. For instance, whereas the US Central Intelligence Agency had been maintaining that such expenditure was increasing by 2% annually, in the summer of 1984 the US Defense Department argued that the increase had risen to 3-4% for 1982 and 1983. The British Ministry of Defence has concurred with the former view.
   Soviet pricing practices are quite different from those in the West. Objectives are set in real terms with no strict requirement for money prices to coincide with the real costs of goods and services. The rouble costs of the defence effort may thus not reflect the real cost of alternative production forgone; and, in turn, a rouble value of defence, expressed as a percentage of NMP measured in roubles, does not reflect the true burden.
   If rouble costs are converted into dollars to facilitate international comparisons, the difficulties are compounded. Ideally, the exchange rate should relate the purchasing power of a rouble in the USSR to that of a dollar in the USA. The official exchange rate - $1 = 0.7410 (1983), 0.8000 (1984) - is considered inadequate for this purpose, and there is no consensus on an alternative methodology.
   One alternative approach (estimating how much it would cost to produce and man the equivalent of the Soviet defence effort in the USA, and by so doing to establish a common price base on which to make total cost comparisons) is also not entirely satisfactory. Incomplete and inaccurate data make such indexes unreliable. In practice this particular method is considered to overstate the USSR defence effort relative to that of the USA.
   That the USSR, like other countries, faces mounting economic problems (e.g. falling NMP/GDP growth rates, inflation and ever-increasing military establishment costs) is indicated in an article by Prof. Maj.-Gen. Gurov (Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 December 1982) which is worth quoting at length:
   Under present-day conditions the interrelationship between military matters and the economy has become unusually close, and demands on material provision for troops and naval forces have increased sharply. First, there has been an unprecedented increase in the volume and a substantial alteration in the structure of the military consumption of material facilities and resources. Second, armies and navies are now equipped with the most complex systems of weapons and military hardware, which, furthermore, are virtually renewed every 10-12 years, which requires a highly developed and dynamic economy and advanced scientific and technical potential. Third, there has been an increase in manpower costs and the cost of means of armed struggle. Fourth, substantially greater demands have been made on the moral-political qualities and general educational, technical and professional training both of workers engaged in the military production sphere and of Armed Forces personnel.
  
    []
  
   A sample of different estimates of Soviet defence expenditure, both in roubles and dollars, is given in the table, together with official figures for the defence budget published by the USSR. For a critique of the CIA estimates of Soviet defence expenditure, see Franklyn D. Holzmann, 'Soviet Military Spending: Assessing the Numbers Game', International Security, Spring 1982, pp. 78--101. For a critique of Steven Rosefielde, see D. F. Burton, 'Estimating Soviet Defense Spending', Problems of Communism, March-April 1983, pp. 85-93. A convenient overview of the problems and the debate can be found in Sub committee on International Trade, Finance and Security Economics, Joint Economic Committee, Soviet Military Economic Relations, proceedings of a workshop, July 7 and 8, 1982 (Washington DC: USGPO, 1983).
  

Советский Союз

   Стратегические силы
   Советское стратегическое вооружение продолжает модернизироваться. Общее количество SS-11 было сокращено на 30; общее число SS-19 соответствующее увеличилось. Можно предположить, что более ранняя одна боеголовка SS-19 была заменена на 6 MIRV модификации 3. Так как шахты внешне похожи, цифры следует использовать с осторожностью. Модификация 4 МБР SS-18, введенная в 1982 году, теперь может стоять на около 170 пусковых установках. Числе ПЛАРБ уменьшилось на одну подводную лодку Y-I и на одну H-II (с их подотчетными ОСВ БРПЛ SS-N-5), но еще одна подводная лодка класса Typhoon (20 шахт) в настоящее время находится в эксплуатации. Сообщается о строительстве еще трех или четырех лодок Typhoon. Развертывания БРСД SS-20 продолжается; общее их число сейчас 378 установок. БРСД SS-5 были выведены; общее число БРСД SS-4 остается на уровне 224.
   Число ПУ МБР остается на уровне 1,398. С введением меньших (и более точных) боеголовок общий потенциал доставляемых мегатоннн несколько снижен.
   В море вывод большего количества ракет SS-N-5 и некоторых ракет SS-N-6 и введение ракеты SS-N-20, которая в прошлом году в это время не считалась действующей, привели к чистому увеличению пусковых установок на одну единицу до 981. Общее количество подводных лодок, подотчетных в ОСВ, остается неизменным. Новые боеголовки БРПЛ почти все MIRV, и, как полагают, имеют большую точность, чем их предшественники. Мегатоннаж БРПЛ значительно возрос.
   Общее количество пусковых установок БРСД увеличилось на 2, до 578. Количество боеголовок также увеличивается на 38, до примерно 1358, а мегатоннаж уменьшается на 7,9, до 394,1. Таким образом, общее количество ракет (большой и средней дальности) составляет 2757 (без учета возможной перезарядки). Мы здесь не пытались отделить ракеты с Европейской ролью от общего числа, но хотели бы отметить, что оставшиеся 880 МБР SS-11 и SS-19 имеют потенциал переменной дальности, что позволяет им нацеливаться на Европу и ее подходы.
   В дальней бомбардировочной авиации единственным отмеченным изменением стало скромное увеличение на 20 единиц числа Ту-26 (Ту-22М -ЕТ). Новый бомбардировщик Blackjack A (Ту-160 -ЕТ) еще не поступил на вооружение. Около десяти Ту-16 в прошлом году, возможно, были переоборудованы для роли РЭБ.
   Стратегические оборонительные силы также имеют некоторые изменения. Хотя силы по пусковым установкам ПРО по-прежнему насчитывают 32 единицы, поступающие сообщения свидетельствуют о развертывании новых ракет. Немного больше информации о развертывании радаров стало доступным; неясно, представляет ли это новые развертывания или просто новые данные.
   Силы Общего Назначения
   Детали организационных изменений в структуре советской обороны остаются скудными. Силы были сгруппированы в три основных "театра военных действий" - Западный, Южный и Дальневосточный - с Центральным стратегическим резервным районом, включающим Московский, Приволжский и Уральский военные округа. Западный театр, который включает в себя страны, не входящие в Советский Варшавский договор, далее подразделяется на три театра военных действий (ТВД), которые обеспечивают стратегическое планирование и оперативное управление континентальными, океаническими и межконтинентальными силами (ракетными силами, ПЛАРБ и бомбардировщиками), назначенными им. Западный театр - самый сильный, с самым современным оборудованием. Дальневосточный театр, как известно, не подразделяется на ТВД, но, учитывая его важность, а также размеры и оперативное разнообразие района, представляется необходимым обеспечить определенный местный контроль.
   В военное время восточноевропейские дивизии стран Варшавского договора будут включены в состав Советской армии, обеспечивая таким образом интегрированное командование Северо-западным, Западным и Юго-Западным ТВД. Основное оперативное командование - фронт. Типичный фронт состоит из танковой армии и двух общевойсковых армий плюс вспомогательные элементы, в общей сложности шесть танковых и восемь мотострелковых дивизий. Изменения в этой "типичной" организации управляются рабочими условиями.
   На основе нынешнего развертывания восточноевропейской и Советской Армии Западное ТВД могло иметь четыре фронта: два в Восточной Германии, один в Чехословакии и один в Польше. Два фронта в Восточной Германии насчитывают 12 танковых и 13 мотострелковых дивизий; три мотострелковые дивизии - менее двух типичных фронтов. В Чехословакии и Польше всего было бы 14 танковых и 16 мотострелковых дивизий; две танковые дивизии выше "нормального" уровня. Подкрепление можно было быстро получить из белорусского ВО, в котором находятся 10 танковых и 4 мотострелковых дивизий.
   Северо-Западный ТВД будет состоять из Прибалтийского ВО, который, включив польскую морскую дивизию, может действовать как независимый (т.е. контролируемый Москвой) фронт против Балтийского побережья, включая Данию. Ленинградский ВО может выступить фронтом двух армий против северных скандинавских регионов. Он тоже может быть под прямым управлением Москвы. На Юго-Западном ТВД, хотя в соответствующих странах советские войска не развернуты, национальные силы Болгарии и Румынии могут мобилизовать две общевойсковые армии, в 4 танковые и 16 мотострелковых дивизий. Венгрия может мобилизовать 1 танковую и 5 мотострелковых дивизий или одну общевойсковую армию и 3 дополнительные мотострелковые дивизии. Советские войска в Карпатском и Одесском ВО дополнят 4 танковыми и 15 мотострелковыми дивизиями. Киевский ВО с его 6 танковыми и 4 мотострелковыми дивизиями мог бы усилить Западную или Юго-Западную ТВД.
   Южный Театр, против турецкой восточной границе, включает войска из Закавказского ВО, 12 мотострелковой дивизии, поддержанные силами Северо-Кавказского ВО (1 танковая, 7 мотострелковая дивизии), плюс, возможно, часть 7 мотострелковых дивизий в Одесском ВО, или 3 мотострелковой дивизии Приволжского ВО.
   Советские ВВС также были реорганизованы и в настоящее время состоят из двадцати региональных командований и пяти воздушных армий. Эта реорганизация привела к существенному изменению классификации советских истребителей, и ряд вопросов по-прежнему остается нерешенным. Три из этих армий взяли на себя стратегическую и стратегически-тактическую роль дальних Военно-Воздушных Сил. Войска ПВО передали фронтовой авиации часть перехватчиков, а также часть сил в ПВО войск. Десять округов противовоздушной обороны сокращены до пяти. Войска ПВО и воздушные армии теперь координируются в штабе театра. В военное время контроль над воздушными и наземными силами и противовоздушной обороной будет осуществляться на уровне ТВД, что должно обеспечить большую оперативную гибкость.
   Танковые полки теперь имеют единый артиллерийский батальон. Некоторые артиллерийские полки на армейском уровне оснащаются 240-мм самоходными минометами. Буксируемая 122-мм пушка/гаубица во многих случаях заменяется на самоходную амфибийную версию. Две новые версии БМ-27 240мм РСЗО поступили на вооружении. Разведывательный батальон дивизии сейчас грозный и высокомобильный со взводом средних танков и легких боевых машин, многие с легкими пушками и противотанковыми ракетами. Авиационная поддержка, по крайней мере в Восточной Германии, включает в себя вертолетную бригаду, входящую в состав каждой армии, что дает общее развертывание около 400 вертолетов, около половины из которых Ми-24, некоторые с ПТУР AS-14. Тактические ракеты - Frog, Scud и Scaleboard (Луна, Эльбрус, Темп -ЕТ) - заменяются на SS-21, SS-23 и SS-22 (Точка, Ока, Темп-С -ЕТ), соответственно. SS-22, который по некоторым источникам SS-12, имеет дальность около 950 км - несколько меньше, чем у ракеты Pershing II - но его 500-кт боеголовка имеет примерно в два раза большую мощность чем у своего американского коллеги.
   Военно-морской флот продолжает развивать подводный флот, продолжается модернизация надводного флота. На вооружение поступила вторая подводная лодка с крылатыми ракетами класса О и еще две ударные подводные лодки V-III. Некоторые старые лодки C-I, W и E были выведены, а новые лодки M и S находятся на испытаниях. Сомнение остается о новой роли для 10 ПЛА Y-I, ракеты с которых были удалены по условиям ОСВ. Новые лодки О, М, S, К и Т строятся.
   Атомный авианосец водоизмещением около 75000 тонн находится в стадии строительства; третий авианосец типа Киев сейчас находится на вооружении, а четвертый находится на испытаниях. Строятся еще два крейсера типа Слава. Третий эсминец типа Современный и два типа Удалой также присоединились к флоту. Сообщается о строительстве еще пяти из них, а также нескольких небольших боевых кораблей.
   Новое оборудование
   Было мало новой информации относительно двух советских МБР, о которых сообщалось в прошлом году как о разрабатываемых. Один из них был представлен как PL-4 (предположительно доработка SS-17), первый испытательный запуск которого состоялся в октябре 1982 года. Другим был PL-5 (первоначально сообщалось как модифицированная мобильная МБР SS-13), впервые запущенная в декабре 1982 года. (Обозначение PL означает испытательный полигон Плесецк, где эти ракеты впервые были замечены.) Оба, как сообщается, используют твердое топливо. Им были присвоены номера SS-X-24 и -25 соответственно. Споры по-прежнему возникают вокруг вопроса о том, является ли МБР "нового типа", как она определена в ОСВ II (или и то и другое). Новая БРПЛ - SS-NX-23 - в разработке и может быть заменой SS-N-18.
   Сообщается о разработке трех новых крылатых ракет большой дальности. Обозначенные SS-NX-21, AS-X-15 и SSC-X-4 (морской, воздушный и наземный пуск соответственно), их дальность оценивается в 3000 км. Говорят, что AS-X-15 способен запускаться с Ту-95, Ту-22М и новых бомбардировщиков Blackjack A. Бомбардировщик Ту-95 в производстве как носитель крылатых ракет. Считается, что SSC-X-4 перевозится в четырехтрубной мобильной пусковой установке. Наконец, сообщалось о двух новых системах противоракетной обороны SH-04 (за атмосферная) и SH-08 (атмосферная). К новым типам самолетов, находящиеся на вооружении, относятся МиГ-29 Fulcrum, оснащен новыми ракетами воздух-воздух (АА-Х-10), а Су-25 Frogfoot. МиГ-25 Foxhound был переименован в МиГ-31. Испытывается самолет превосходства в воздухе Су-27. Воздушная система командования и управления модернизируется, и Ил-76, который заменит нынешние Moss (Ту-126 -ЕТ), как сообщается, находится в производстве. Незначительное увеличение числа самолетов сообщает по сравнению с 1983.
   Оборонные расходы
   Цифра советских расходов не может быть дана, так как точность невозможна на основе имеющихся знаний. Объявленный советский оборонный бюджет исключает ряд элементов, таких как военные НИОКР, накопление запасов и Гражданская оборона - некоторые утверждают, что он покрывает только эксплуатационные расходы и расходы на военное строительство вооруженных сил. Проблема достижения текущего бюджетного показателя обсуждалась в предыдущих изданиях The Military Balance. Официальный оборонный бюджет в размере 17,05 млрд рублей на 1983 и 1984 годы составляет, по советским данным, около 4,8% от общих государственных расходов 1983 года и 4,66% от расходов 1984 года, или около 3,2% от расходов 1983 года. Некоторые западные оценки бремени военных расходов на ВНП колеблются в пределах 10-20%. Более того, западные эксперты и оборонные ведомства не согласны с реальным изменением советских оборонных расходов. Например, если Центральное разведывательное управление США утверждало, что такие расходы ежегодно увеличиваются на 2%, то летом 1984 года Министерство обороны США утверждало, что в 1982 и 1983 годах этот рост составил 3-4%. Министерство обороны Великобритании согласилось с первым мнением.
   Советская практика ценообразования сильно отличается от западной. Нет строгих требований совпадения денежной цены с реальной стоимостью товаров и услуг. Таким образом, рублевые расходы на оборону могут не отражать реальную стоимость производства; и, в свою очередь, рублевая стоимость обороны, выраженная в процентах от НД, измеряемых в рублях, не отражает истинное бремя.
   Если для облегчения международных сопоставлений рублевые издержки переводятся в доллары, то трудности усугубляются. В идеале, курс должен касаться покупательная способность рубля в СССР к доллару США. Официальный обменный курс - $1=0.7410 (1983), 0.8000 (1984) - считается неадекватным для этой цели, и нет консенсуса по альтернативной методологии.
   Один альтернативный подход (оценка того, сколько будет стоить производство и комплектование эквивалента советских оборонных усилий в США и, таким образом, создание общей ценовой базы для сравнения общих затрат) также не вполне удовлетворителен. Неполные и неточные данные делают такие индексы ненадежными. На практике считается, что именно этот метод завышает оборонные усилия СССР по сравнению с США.
   О том, что СССР, как и другие страны, сталкивается с растущими экономическими проблемами (например, с падением темпов роста НД/ВВП, инфляцией и постоянно растущими расходами на военные нужды) , свидетельствует статья профессора майора-генерала Гурова (Красная Звезда, 9 декабря 1982 года), которую стоит процитировать:
   "В современных условиях взаимосвязь между военными вопросами и экономикой стала необычайно тесной, резко возросли требования к материально-техническому обеспечению войск и военно-морских сил. Во-первых, произошло беспрецедентное увеличение объема и существенное изменение структуры военного потребления материальных средств и ресурсов. Во-вторых, армии и флоты сейчас оснащены самыми сложными системами вооружения и военной техники, которые, кроме того, практически обновляются каждые 10-12 лет, что требует высокоразвитой и динамичной экономики и передового научно - технического потенциала. В-третьих, возросла стоимость рабочей силы и средств вооруженной борьбы. В-четвертых, существенно возросли требования к морально-политическим качествам и общеобразовательной, технической и профессиональной подготовке как работников военно-производственной сферы, так и военнослужащих".
   Табл.
   В таблице приведена выборка различных оценок советских оборонных расходов, как в рублях, так и в долларах, а также официальные данные по оборонному бюджету, опубликованные СССР. Для оценки ЦРУ советских оборонных расходов см. Franklyn D. Holzmann, 'Soviet Military Spending: Assessing the Numbers Game', International Security, Spring 1982, pp. 78--101. Для критики Steven Rosefielde, see D. F. Burton, 'Estimating Soviet Defense Spending', Problems of Communism, March-April 1983, pp. 85-93. Удобный обзор проблем и дебатов можно найти в подкомитете по международной торговле, финансам и экономике безопасности, Объединенном экономическом комитете, советских военно-экономических отношениях, трудах семинара, 7 и 8 июля 1982 года (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: USGPO, 1983).
  
   THE SOVIET UNION
Population: 274,300,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 2 years, Navy and Border Guards 2-3 years.
Total armed forces: 5,115,000.* (*Excl Border Guard, internal security, railroad and construction troops, totalling some 1,135,000,
   but incl some 1,500,000 comd and general spt tps not otherwise listed.)
NMP 1982: r 523.4 bn. Est 1983: 544.0 bn.
Est GNP range 1983: $1,378.5-1,752.0 bn.
NMP growth: 4% (1982), 4% (1983). Inflation: 1.0% (1982). Debt: $20.1 bn (1982).
Est def exp and exchange rate: see text above.
Strategic Nuclear Forces:
OFFENSIVE:
(a) Navy. 981 SLBM in 79 subs (942 SLBM and 62 subs with in SALT Agreement, plus 39 SLBM and 17 subs outside it).
   2 Typhoon SSBN x 20 SS-N-20 (40 msls).
   14 D-III SSBN x 16 SS-N-18 (224 msls).
   4 D-II SSBN x 16 SS-N-8 (64 msls).
   18 D-I SSBN x 12 SS-N-8 (216 msls).
   1 Y-II SSBN x 12 SS-N-17 (12 msls).
   23 Y-I SSBN x 16 SS-N-6 (368 msls).
   1 H-III SSBN x 6 SS-N-8 (6 msls)
   2 H-II SSBN x 3 SS-N-5 (6 msls)
   1 G-III SSB x 6 SS-N-8 (6 msls)
   13 G-II SSB x 3 SS-N-5 (39 msls non-SALT).
(b) Strategic Rocket Forces (SRF): 415,000. (The SRF and Voyska-PVO, separate services, have their own manpower.)
   6 operational rocket armies, org in divs, regts, bns and btys; 1 msl launcher per bty; 300 launch control HQ, 3 msl test centres.
ICBM: 1,398. (Figures may fluctuate slightly during conversion.)
   520 SS-11 Sego (at 9 fields, some in SS-19 silos; maybe converted to SS-19).
   (There are 360 SS-19 silos. SS-11, SS-19 have variable range capability, enabling them to be used for theatre support.)
   60 SS-13 Savage (at 1 field).
   150 SS-17 (at 2 fields; mod 1, 4 MIRV; mod 3, 4 MRV, being deployed; in mod SS-11 silos.)
   308 SS-18 (at 6 fields, upgrading to mod 4, 10 MIRV, in progress).
   360 SS-19 (at 4 fields; mostly mod 3, 6 MIRV; replacing some SS-11).
IRBM/MRBM: some 596 deployed (371 in western rest in central and eastern USSR).
   378 SS-20 mobile IRBM; (6 fields: 135 launchers in Far East (being increased), 81 in Central Asia, 162 west of Urals (being increased) ).
   2 more sites, 18 launchers may be operational shortly.
   (Usually in some 42 complexes with an average of 9 launchers. A reload capacity has been reported.)
   224 SS-4 Sandal MRBM in western USSR (being retired).
(c) Strategic elms, Air Armies of the Soviet Union (Naval, tactical elms see below): 100,000.
   Some 752 combat ac; some 500 to 550 in western USSR.
   5 Armies.
   Long-range bombers: 143.
   100 Tu-95 Bear B/C, 43 Mya-4 Bison (some 70 Bear B have AS-3 or AS-4 ASM). (Bear H for ALCM reported in production.)
   Medium-range bombers: 475. (Staging and dispersal points in the Arctic could significantly increase aircraft ranges.)
   220 Tu-16 Badger G, 125 Tu-22 Blinder A/B, 130 Tu-26 Backfire B (AS-4 ASM).
   Recce: 34.
   4 Tu-95 Bear E, 15 Tu-16 Badger F, 15 Tu-22 Blinder C. (A long-range high altitude ac, 'Ram-M', reported under development.)
   ECM: 100 Tu-16Badger H/J/K.
   Tankers: 30 Mya-4 Bison A, 20 Tu-16Badger.
   ASM: AS-3 Kangaroo, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt, AS-6 Kingfish.
DEFENSIVE:
   National Air Defence Troops (Voyska-PVO) (incl Air Defence Troops of the Ground Forces (AA arty), but not their SAM and radar tps):
   370,00: (The SRF and Voyska-PVO, separate services, have their own manpower.)
   5 Air Defence District Commands, numerous AD regts; 14 specialist schools.
ABM: 32 ABM-1B Galosh; range over 320 km, warheads nuclear, presumably MT range. 8 sites in 4 complexes around Moscow. New ABM being emplaced.
Aircraft: Some 4,000; in regts and indep sqns.
   Interceptors (some will be assigned as air superiority fighters in spt of ground tps):
   480 MiG-21 Fishbed J/K/L; some 2,100 MiG-23 Flogger B/G (6 AAM); 380 MiG-25 Foxbat A/E (A uprating to E) (4 AAM);
   some 12 MiG-29 Fulcrum (6 AA-X-10); 50+ MiG-31 Foxhound A (8 AA-9 AAM); 680 Su-15 Flagon E/F (2 AAM); 120 Tu-28P Fiddler B (4 AAM);
   160 Yak-28P Firebar (2 AAM).
   Airborne Warning and Control Aircraft: 10 modified Tu-126 Moss. (4 11-76 Mainstay reported in production to replace Moss.)
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-3 Anab, AA-5 Ash, AA-6 Acrid, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, AA-9, AA-X-10.
AA artillery. 9,000 23mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm, 130mm towed, ZSU-23-4, ZSU-30-6 (trials) and ZSU-57-2 SP guns.
SAM: Some 9,600 launchers (some 13,000 launcher rails) in some 1,000 fixed sites: 3,000
   SA-1 Guild (in reserve, replaced by SA-10);
   SA-2 Guideline (some 350 sites, SA-10 may be replacing);
   SA-3 Goa (2 or 4 launcher rails, over 300 sites, low- to med-altitude intercept);
   SA-5 Gammon (2,000 launchers, over 100 complexes, long-range intercept); some 35 quad SA-10 in strategic role.
   Field mobile systems 4,100: 1,400 SA-4 Ganef (twin), 900 SA-6 Gainful (triple), SA-7 Grail (manportable), 600 SA-8 Gecko (2x twin/2x triple),
   650 SA-9 Gaskin (2x twin), SA-11, SA-X-12, 550 SA-13 (2x twin replacing SA-9).
   (Two ABM types - 'SH-04' exoatmospheric, 'SH-08' supersonic endoatmospheric - reported.)
Warning Systems: Over 7,000, incl satellites and
   EW and ground control intercept radars.
(a) Satellites: 9 with highly elliptical semi synchronous orbits (anti-ICBM/SLBM launch detection capability); 9 EW, 6 ELINT, 2-4 recce, 1 launch detection.
(b) Over-The-Horizon (Backscatter) radars: 3: 2 near Minsk and Nikolayev (Caucasus), targeted on the US and polar areas;
   1 near Nikolayev-na-Amur, on China.
(c) Long-range early-warning radars:
(i) ABM-associated:
   (1) 5 phased-array systems located at Lyaki (Europe); Abalakova, Saryshagan, Pechora (Central Asia); Mishelevka (Far East). 2 other sites reported.
   (2) 11 radars, mostly House (Hen) -series; range 6,000 km, 6 locations covering approaches from the west and south-west, north-east and south-east and,
   partially, south. Linked to intermediate-range Dog House (range 2,800 km) and Cat House and Try Add missile control radar.
(ii) AD-associated: Flat Twin/Pawn Shop (ABM-3/SH-04/-08); Tall King, range 600 km (SA-5); P-12 Spoon Rest, 275 km (SA-2).
(d) Search, surveillance/target-acquisition radars: (7,000; 1,200 sites): Long Track (SA-4, SA-6); P-15 Flat Face/Squat Eye, 200 km (SA-3); P-50 Back Net, 320 km (SA-5).
(e) Height finder radars: Thin Skin (SA-4, SA-6); Cflice-series (e.g., Rock Cake), 200 km; Side Net, 180 km (SA-5).
(f) Missile control radars:
   Yo- Yo (SA-1); Fan Song A to E (SA-2); Low Blow (SA-3); Pat Hand (SA-4); Square Pair (SA-5); Straight Flush (SA-6); Land Roll (SA-8).
(g) AA artillery fire control radars: Gun Dish (ZSU-23-4); Fire Can (57mm, 85mm); Whiff; Fire Wheel; Flap Wheel (57mm, 130mm).
   Plus civilian air control equipment.
Civil Defence: (150,000; 16,000,000 on mobilization).
   Nation wide programme under Defence Ministry down to city/rural/industrial level includes some 75 comd posts with in 120 km of Moscow:
   1,500 hardened deep shelters, accommodation for at least 175,000 officials, and local urban hardened shelters for essential workforce
   and some of the general population.
Army: 1,840,000 (perhaps 1,400,000 conscripts).
   Five Theatre HQ.
   50 tk divs (Type: 3 tk, 1 motor rifle, 1 arty, 1 SAM AA regts, 1 SSM, 1 MRL bns, spt units).
   136 motor rifle divs (Type: 3 motor rifle, 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 SAM regts, 1 SSM, 1 ATK, 1 MRL bns, spt units).
   7 AB divs (each 3 para, 1 arty regts, 1 AA bn).
   Some 8 air assault bdes (each 3 rifle bns, mor, SAM, ATK, spt tps).
   Front and Army tps:
   15 arty divs (Type (Army): 4 bdes of 4 bns of 18 guns).
   Tk, arty, SSM, ATK, AD (SAM and arty), engr bdes, sigs, electronic warfare, hy tk tpt, NBC defence, cw regts, bns, spt services.
   Special forces (Spetsnaz): 16 bdes, 3 regts.
Tanks: Some 51,000: some 35,000 T-54/-55/-62, some 8,000 T-64, 7,700 T-72/-80 MBT (most fitted for deep fording); PT-76 lt.
AFV: 70,000: 7,500 recce, incl BRDM-2, GT-S, BMP variants, many with ATGW; ACRV-1/-2/-3 comd/recce; 23,000 BMP-1/-2, some 2,800 BMD (AB) MICV;
   BTR-50P/-60P/-70/-152 (-70, BMP-2 replacing -50/-60), GT-T, MT-LB (with SA-13, -19 SAM) APC.
Arty, some 34,000 guns and how, incl M-1966 76mm, D-74 122mm, M-46 130mm, M-1976 152mm, S-23 180mm towed, M-1981 (2-S5) 152mm,
   M-1975 203mm SP guns; M-1937/D-20 towed, M-1973 (2-S3) 152mm SP gun/how; M-1938/D-30 122mm, M-1938/D-1 152mm towed,
   M-1974 (2-S1) 122mm, M-1981 152mm and M-1975 203mm SP how;
   14,000 82mm, 120mm, 160mm and 240mm (incl M-1975 SP) mor;
   6,000 M-1944 (BM-21) /M-1972 (RM-70) 40-tube, M-1975 12-tube, M-1976 36-tube 122mm, BM-14-16/-17 16/17-tube, RPU-14 16-tube 140mm,
   M-1977 (BM-27) 16-tube 220mm, BM-24 12-tube and BM-27 16-tube 240mm MRL.
ATK: 40mm RPG-7, 73mm RPG-16/-18 RL; 73mm SPG-9 RCL;
   7,000 76mm, D-44/SD-44 85mm, T-12/-12A/M-55 100mm towed and ASU-57/-85 SP ATK guns;
   AT-2 Swatter, AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-6 Spiral ATGW.
AD: 11,500 ZU-23 23mm, 37mm, S-60 57mm, KS-19 100mm towed, ZSU-23-4 23mm, 30mm, ZSU-57-2 57mm SP AA,
   some 28,000 SA-4/-6/-7/-8/-9/-11/-13 (Gopher) /-U SAM.
SSM (nuclear-capable): about 1,400 launchers (units organic to formations), incl some 700 FROG/SS-21, 570 Scud/SS-23, 120 SS-12/SS-22
Hel: some 4,100: 800 Mi-l/-2 Hare/Hoplite (lt recce, ATGW, utility), 440 Mi-6 Hook (hy tpt),
   1,500 Mi-8 Hip C, 300 Mi-17Hip H (assault tpt), D, G (comms), E (armed/ ATGW), J and K (ECM),
   1,100 Mi-24 Hind (armed), 15 Mi-26 Halo A (hy tpt), 10 Mi-28 Havoc (armed).
   Being org as indep of Tac Air.
DEPLOYMENT:
Western Theatre. 3 main operational subtheatres (TVD); North-western, Western, Southwestern. (See also Arctic and Atlantic Maritime Commands.)
Central and Eastern Europe (565,000): 30 divs (16 tk, 14 motor rifle), plus 1 arty, 10,500 MBT.*
   (* Excl tks in reserve (replaced by new ones but not with drawn).
   East Germany (380,000): 1 Gp, 5 Army HQ; 10 tk, 9 motor rifle, plus 1 arty divs; 1 air assault, Scud/SS-23 bdes; 19 FROG/SS-21 bns; 5 hel regts.
   Poland (40,000): 1 Gp, 1 Army HQ; 2 tk divs.
   Hungary (65,000): 1 Gp, 1 Army HQ; 2 tk, 2 motor rifle divs.
   Czechoslovakia (80,000): 1 Gp, 2 Army HQ; 2 tk, 3 motor rifle divs; 1 air assault bn; 1 SS-12/-22, 2 Scud/SS-23, 1 arty bdes.
   1 hel regt in each ground army.
European USSR Military Districts (MD): 65 divs (23 tk, 37 motor rifle, 5 AB), plus 8 arty.
   Baltic: 3 tk, 6 motor rifle, 2 AB, plus 2 arty.
   Belorussian: 10 tk, 4 motor rifle, 1 AB, plus 1 arty.
   Carpathian: 4 tk, 8 motor rifle, plus 2 arty.
   Kiev: 6 tk, 4 motor rifle, plus 1 arty.
   Leningrad: 8 motor rifle, 1 AB, plus 1 arty.
   Odessa: 7 motor rifle, 1 AB, plus 1 arty.
Central Strategic Reserve: 16 divs (3 tk, 12 motor rifle, 1AB).
   Moscow: 2 tk, 5 motor rifle, 1 AB.
   Ural: 1 tk, 4 motor rifle.
   Volga: 3 motor rifle.
Southern Theatre: 30 divs (1 tk, 28 motor rifle, 1 AB), plus 2 arty.
   N. Caucasus: 1 tk, 7 motor rifle, plus 1 arty.
   Trans-Caucasus: 12 motor rifle, plus 1 arty. Turkestan: 6 motor rifle.
   Afghanistan: 3 motor rifle, 1 AB divs (see Forces Abroad, below).
   Some hel regts.
Far Eastern Theatre (see also Pacific Fleet): 52 divs (7 tk, 45 motor rifle), plus 4 arty.
   Central Asian: 1 tk, 6 motor rifle, plus 1 arty.
   Under High Command Far East (HQ Irkutsk):
   Siberian, 6 motor rifle, plus 1 arty; Transbaykal, 2 tk, 8 motor rifle, plus 1 arty;
   Far Eastern, 2 tk, 22 motor rifle, plus 1 arty; Mongolia, 2 tk, 3 motor rifle (see Forces Abroad below).
Soviet divs have 3 categories of combat readiness:
   Cat. 1, combat ready, 75-100% strength, with complete eqpt;
   Cat. 2, 50-75% combat strength, complete with fighting vehicles;
   Cat. 3, below 50% strength, fighting vehicles possibly complete, but older models.
   The system may now be changing, with some units in a formation being at full strength, others at cadre only.
   The 30 divs and 1 arty div in Eastern Europe and all AB divs are Cat. 1.
   About 35% of divs in European USSR andthe Far East are in Cat. 1 or 2.
   Most in Central and Southern USSR are likely to be Cat. 3.
   Tk divs in Eastern Europe have up to 335 MBT, motor rifle divs up to 266, but else where holdings may be lower.'
Navy: 490,000 (some 70% conscripts), incl Naval Air Force, Naval Infantry, and Coastal Artillery and Rocket Troops;
   278 cruise missile and attack subs, (some 123 nuclear (incl 9 mod Y-I), 154 diesel), 293 principal, 797 minor surface combatants.
   There are 15 auxiliary subs, 331 auxiliary ships and AGI. A further 96 attack subs and 30 principal surface combatants are in reserve.
Subs, cruise-missile: 67:
49 nuclear (SSGN): 2 O-class (x24 SS-N-19 SLCM); 1 P (10 msls; 7 SS-N-9 Siren); 11 C-I (x8 SS-N-7), 6 C-II (x8 SS-N-9);
   29 E-II (x8 SS-N-3a; some 7 may carry 8 SS-N-12). (SS-NX-21 nuclear SLCM under development.)
18 diesel (SSG): 16 J-class (x4 SS-N-3a), 2 W-Long Bin (x4 SS-N-3).
Subs, attach. 201 (211 if all mod y-/were SSN):
Some 65 nuclear (SSN); 6 A, 12N, 16 V-I, 1 V-II, 17 V-III, 5 E-I; 1 M and 1 S on trials.
   (10 Y-I SSBN have been/are being/may be converted to other roles incl SSN).
   Apart from the older N and E, most SSN probably carry SS-N-16 and/or SS-N-15 nuclear ASW weapons.
136 diesel (ss): 4 K, 18 T, 50 F, 10 R, 4 Z, 50 W.
Subs
, other roles: 3 G-I comms conversion, 4 B trg, 2 / rescue; 1 U and one other SSN research; 4 H (ex-SSBN) role unknown.
Surface Ships
: 293 principal surface combatants:
3 Kiev carriers (37,000 tons) (1 more trials) with 4x2 SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 2x2 SA-N-3 and 2x2 SA-N-4 SAM, 1x2 SUW-N-1 ASW,
   14 Yak-36 Forger A/B VTOL ac, 19 Ka-25 Hormone A/B hel.
2 Moskva ASW hel carriers (17,000 tons) with 2x2 SA-N-3 SAM, 1x2 SUW-N-1 or FRAS-1 ASW; 18 Hormone A hel.
2 Kirov nuclear-powered GW cruisers (CGN) with 20 SS-N-19 SSM, 12 SA-N-6, 1x2 SA-N-4 SAM, 1x2 SS-N-14 Silex ASW,
   2 Ka-25 Hormone B or Ka-27 hel.
1 Slava (ex-'Black-Com 1', e\-'Krasina') GW SSM/ASW cruiser with 8x2 SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 8 SA-N-6 SAM, 1 Ka-27 hel.
17 GW ASW cruisers with Ka-25 hel:
   7 Kara with 2x4 SS-N-14 ASW, 2x2 SA-N-3, 2x2 SA-N-4 SAM (1 trials with 1x6 SA-N-6 replacing twin SA-N-3, trials);
   10 Kresla-II with 2x4 SS-N-14, 2x2 SA-N-3.
8 GW cruisers:
   4 Kresta-I with 2x2 SS-N-3b SSM, 2x2 SA-N-1 SAM, 1 Hormone B hel;
   4 Kynda with 2x4 SS-N-3b, 1x2 SA-N-1.
8 Sverdlov cruisers (2 command with 1x2 SA-N-4, 1 Ka-25 hel).
45 GW destroyers (DDG):
   9 SSM/SAM (3 Sovremennyy with 2x4 SS-N-22 SSM, 2 SA-N-7 SAM, 1 Helix B hel; 6 mod Kashin with 4 SS-N-2C, 2x2 SA-N-1);
   4 ASW/SAM Udaloy with 2x4 SS-N-14, 2 Ka-27 Helix A hel;
   3 mod Kildin SSM with 4 SS-N-2C;
   29 SAM (13 Kashin; 12 with 4 x 2 SA-N-1, 1 with SA-N-7 (trials); 8 Kanin with 2x2 SA-N-1; 8 SAM Kotlin with 1x2 SA-N-1).
23 gun destroyers (DD): 12 Kotlin, 10 Skory, 1 Kildin.
32 Krivak-I/-II GW frigates (FFG): with 1x4 SS-N-14, 2x2 SA-N-4.
152 gun frigates (FF): 1 Koni, 48 Grisha-I/III, (also with 1x2 SA-N-4 SAM), 8 Grisha-II (KGB), 18 Afirfca I/II, 42 Petya, 35 Riga.
797 minor surface combatants:
30 GW corvettes: 1 Tarantul II with 2x2 SS-N-22 (trials); 6 Tarantul I/II with 2x2 SS-N-2c; 23 Nanuchka I/III with 2x3 SS-N-9 (Siren), 1x2 SA-N-4.
117 FAC(G): 17 hydrofoil (1 Sarancha with 2x2 SS-N-9, 1x2 SA-N-4; 16 Matka with 2 SS-N-2c); 65 Osa-I, 35 Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2.
220 FAC(T): 12 Pauk also with 1x4 SA-N-5, 58 Poti, 12 Shershen, 32 Turya, 4 Muravey hydrofoils. 100 Stenka (KGB); Trials: 1 Slepen, 1 Babochka.
73 patrol craft: 8 Susanin icebreakers (KGB; 6 armed), 25 SO-1 (some KGB), 14 T-43 (some KGB), 18 T-58 (some KGB); 2 T-58, 6 T-43/PFR radar pickets.
3 Alesha minelayers.
115 ocean minesweepers: 35 Natya I/II, 45 Yurka, 35 T-43.
175 coastal minesweepers: 2 Andryusha, 48 Sonya, 3 Zhenya, 5 Sasha, 72 Vanya, 45 Evgenya<.
64 minesweeping boats (: 10 Ilyusha, 4 0/ya, 20 TR-40, 30 K-8.
78 amph ships:
   2 Ivan Rogov LPD with 1x2 SA-N-4, 4x4 SA-N-5, 2-3 Helix A hel; 14 Alligator (some with 3 x 2, 1 with 2x2 SA-N-5),
   17 Ropucha LST (some with 4x4 SA-N-5);
   45 Polnocny LSM (some with 2 x or 4x4 SA-N-5).
109 amph craft: 45 LCU: 20 Vydra, 15 SMB-1, 10 Ondatra. 64 hovercraft: 15 Aist, 2 Utenok, 17 Lebed<, 30 Gus<
269 principal auxiliary ships:
   28 replenishment/tankers, 31 spt tankers, 12 msl spt, 10 supply, 80 cargo, 20 submarine tender, 36 repair, 2 hospital, 20 submarine rescue,
   20 salvage/rescue, 10 trg ships.
Merchant fleet - 1,700 ocean-going, 700 river ships, incl 61 ramp-fitted roll-on/rolloff (RoRo) - could augment these.
62 intelligence collection vessels (AGI). 134 naval, 350 civilian oceanographic, fishery, space-associated and hydrographic research vessels.
Additional ships in reserve:
   10 F, 6 Z, 80 W subs; 4 Sverdlov cruisers (1 with 1x2 SA-N-2 SAM); 6 Kotlin, 10 Skory destroyers; 10 Riga frigates; 10 T-43 MCM;
   1 G-V SSB in SLBM research role.
(On order: 3-4 Typhoon, D-III SSBN; O SSGN; M, SSSN; K, T SS;
   1 75,000-ton nuclear, 1 Kiev carriers; 2 Kirov CGN; 2 Slava CG; 5 Sovremennyy, 5 Udaloy DDG; Krivak, Grisha III frigates;
   Tarantul, Nanuchka GW corvettes; Muravey, Stenka FAC(T); Pauk FAC; Sonya coastal MCM; Ropucha LST; Aist, Lebed, Utenok hovercraft).
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (70,000); some 839 combat ac, some 265 combat hel.
Four Fleet Air Forces; org in air divs, each with 2-3 regts, each with HQ elms and 2 sqns of some 10 ac each; recce, ASW, tpt/utility
   org in indep regts or sqns.
Strike bbrs: some 105 Tu-26 Backfire B with AS-4 ASM.
Med bbrs: some 290: 190 Tu-16 Badger C, 64 G/G-mod with AS-5 ASM, some 35 Tu-22 Blinder B.
FGA: 120: 55 Yak-36 Forger A/B VTOL, 65 Su-17 Fitter C.
ASW: some 190 ac: some 50 Tu-142 Bear F, 50 I1-38 May, 90 Be-12 Mail.
   Some 230 hel: 90 Mi-14 Haze, 120 Ka-25 Hormone A, 20 Ka-27 Helix A, Ka-32 Helix B.
MR/ECM: some 135 ac: some 80 Tu-16 Badger D/E/F/H/J/K, 45 Tu-95 Bear D, 10 An-12 Cub B ac; 25 Ka-25 Hormone B hel.
MCM: some 10 Mi-14 Haze B hel.
Tankers: 75 Tu-16 Badger.
Tpt/trg ac: 350 ac and hel, incl An-12 Cub A, An-26 CH/7,I1-14 Crate, I1-18 Coof, An-24 Coke, I1-76 Classic ac; Mi-6/-8 Hook/Hip hel.
ASM: AS-2 Kipper, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt, AS-6 Kingfish, AS-7 Kerry.
NAVAL INFANTRY (Marines): (16,000).
   1 div HQ.
   5 naval inf bdes/regts (each 2,500; 4 inf, 1 tk bn, SP arty).
   4 naval Special Forces (Spetsnaz) bdes (one in each Fleet), 20 indep units.
   T-54/-55 MBT; PT-76 lt tks; BRDM-2 recce; BTR-60P/PA/PB APC;
   M-1974 122mm SP how; 82mm, 120mm mor; BM-14 17-tube 140mm MRL; AT-3/-5 ATGW;
   ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-7/-9/-13 SAM.
COASTAL ARTILLERY AND ROCKET TROOPS: (14,000).
   1 coastal arty div.
   Hy coastal guns incl SM-4-1 130mm, perhaps 100 SS-C-lb Sepal SSM (similar to SS-N-3) to protect approaches to naval bases and major ports.
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES (average strengths, excluding units in reserve):
Arctic Command:
Northern Fleet: 42 SSB/BN incl 2 Typhoon, 21 D, 15 Y-class. 138 other subs, 80 principal (incl 1 carrier), 120 minor surface combatants,
   15 amph, 85 principal auxiliary ships, some 310 combat ac/hel incl 100 bbrs and firs. 1 naval inf bde.
   Severomorsk (HQ), Motovskij Gulf, Gremikha, Polyarny, Archangelsk.
   Some 10 subs are normally deployed in the Mediterranean (see below).
Atlantic Command:
Baltic Fleet: 32 subs (incl 6 G-II SSB), 45 principal, 260 minor surface combatants, 22 amph, 35 principal auxiliaries,
   some 210 combat ac/hel incl some 130 bbrs and ftrs, 6 SSM bns. 1 naval inf bde.
   Baltiysk (HQ), Kronshtadt, Paldiski, Liepaja, Klaipeda, Riga.
Black Sea Fleet (incl Caspian Flotilla): 24 subs, 80 principal (incl 2 ASW hel carriers), some 210 minor surface combatants,
   23 amph, 55 principal auxiliaries, some 250 combat ac/hel incl 80 bombers, 1 naval inf bde.
   Sevastopol (HQ), Balaclava, Poti, Odessa.
Mediterranean sqn: with 8-10 subs, 12-14 surface combatants incl 2 amph, 10-12 auxiliaries, 4-6 AGI. All assigned from other fleets).
Pacific Fleet: 31 SSB/BN (incl 15 D, 9 Y, 6 G-II), 102 other subs, 88 principal (incl 2 carriers), 220 minor combatants,
   18 amph incl 2 Rogov, 84 principal auxiliaries, 340 combat ac/hel incl 120 bombers. 1 naval inf div (2 regts).
   Vladivostok (HQ), Petropavlovsk, Sovyetskaya Gavan.
   Detachments from this fleet (average 2-3 subs, 8 surface combatants, 2 amph, 12 spt ships) are normally deployed in the Indian Ocean
   and South China Sea; facilities also in Vietnam (Cam Ranh Bay), South Yemen (Aden, Socotra) and Ethiopia (Dahlak Is).
Air Force: 400,000.
Air Armies of the Soviet Union: Strategic, AD, see above. 16 MD Air Forces, 4 Air Armies.
   Continuing reorganization makes eqpt estimates tentative.
Tactical: (315,000); some 3,260 combat ac.
   20 air commands of varying strengths, mostly org in divs of 3 sqns, totalling 45 ac; the regts roles may differ with in the div.
FGA: some 2,600: some 160 MiG-21 Fishbed L, 730 MiG-27 Flogger D/J, 130 Su-7 Fitter A, 850 Su-17 Fitter D/H, 630 Su-24 Fencer,
   75 Su-25 Frogfoot.
Fighters: A proportion of the 4,000 interceptors listed in Strategic AD will have a battlefield air superiority role.
Recce: 620: 170 MiG-25 Foxbat B/D, 70 MiG-21 Fishbed H, 200 Yak-28 Brewer D, 180 Su-17 Fitter H.
ECM: 40 Yak-28 Brewer E.
Trainers: Some 1,000 ac; 700 hel.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, AA-9.
   ASM: AS-7 Kerry, AS-10; hel-borne: AT-2 Swatter, AT-6 Spiral.
Military Transport Aviation (VTA): (45,000); some 750 ac. Org in regts.
   Incl An-2 Colt, An-8 Camp, 320 An-12 Cub, An-24 Coke, An-26 Curl, I1-14 Crate, 225 I1-76 Candid M/MD (replacing Cub), 55 An-22 Cock hy.
   (An-400 Condor under development).
Some 200 Cub and Candid, and 1,300 med- and long-range passenger ac of the civilian Aerojlot fleet and the 1,250 tpts of the other Services
   could augment VTA airlift.
DEPLOYMENT:
   1 HQ, 4 Tactical Forces (2,000 ac) in Eastern Europe, 1 in each of 16 MD in USSR;
   total Far East perhaps 2,700 ac incl 440 bombers, 1,500 fighters/attack ac.
RESERVES:
   Soviet male citizens have a Reserve obligation to 50.
   Total Reserves could be 25,000,000, of which some 5,300,000 will have served with in the last five years:
   Strategic Rocket Forces, 520,000; Army, 3,500,000; Navy, 840,000; Air Force, 400,000.
   Reports suggest that the remaining 19,700,000 would provide sufficient forces to mobilize an equivalent to the peacetime force structure which,
   though equipped with stored obselete equipment, would at least double the size of the ground forces.
Forces Abroad:
Afghanistan: 115,000 (some 10,000 MVD, KGB.)
   Army: 1 HQ, 3 motor rifle, 1 AB divs, 1 air assault bde.
   Air: equivalent possibly 2 air divs: (4 ac, 6 hel regts: 180 ac, 270 hel); VTA and Aerojlot tpt ac from USSR in spt.
Mongolia: 75,000: 2 tank, 3 motor rifle divs.
Vietnam: (7,000) averages: 4 subs, 2-4 combat vessels, 10 auxiliaries, 10 MR or ASW ac, AA SAM, electronic monitoring station.
Other: Algeria 1,000; Angola 500; Congo 100; Cuba 4,600 (1 bde, advisers, technicians, plus 3,000 civilians); Ethiopia 1,700; India 200; Iraq 600;
   Laos 500; Libya 1,800; Mali 200; Mozambique 300; Nicaragua 100; Peru 100; Syria 7,000; Vietnam 2,500; N. Yemen 500; S. Yemen 1,500;
   Africa (rest) 900.
Para-Military Forces: 675,000.
KGB 225,000: border tps, with tks, SP guns, AFV, ac and ships
   (1 Purga frigate, 90 Stenka FAC(P), 12 Pchela hydrofoils, 30 Zhuk, some SO-1, T-58, T-43 patrol craft); Kremlin Guard;
   Special Guard; Special Sigs unit (40,000 tps).
MVD 300,000: security tps; some 30 divs with tks and AFV. By law part of armed forces of USSR.
Civil Defence 150,000 (permanent staff only).
Part-time military training organization (DOSAAF); claimed active membership 80 million (of which 5 million are instructors and activists) in 330,000+ units;
   flight training, shooting, parachuting and pre-military training of those aged 15 and over in schools, colleges and workers' centres.
   Para-military training also in Young Pioneers (ages 8-15).
  
   The Alliances and Europe
  

THE WARSAW PACT

   We have seen no major changes in the organization, equipment or roles of the East European Warsaw Pact nations' ground forces over the past twelve months. Some small changes in military manpower are reported: in Bulgaria a decrease of 15,000; in Czechoslovakia and East Germany increases of 2,750 and 5,000 respectively; in Poland a decrease of 16,750. These changes have had the effect of increasing, very slightly, the ground force strength of East Germany and that of the air components of both East Germany and Czechoslovakia, while the Polish force reductions appear to have applied to the Army. There is no indication why these changes have come about.
   The most significant Baltic naval delivery was the Tarantul-class missile corvette Gornik, reported commissioned in the Polish Navy in March. This vessel carries four SS-N-2 surface-to-surface missiles. A second is expected. Romania received the first of three Tetal-class frigates; no details have been received. These countries' naval forces need modernization, but the new arrivals do not make any significant change in their capabilities.
   Bulgaria has increased her air reconnaissance element to a full regiment, adding 50% to her earlier capabilities, and Czechoslovakia has phased out some of her elderly MiG-15 and Su-7 FGA, replacing them with MiG-23 - a significant advance in both cases. There has been no reported major change in any of the other national forces.
   Economic growth in Eastern Europe slowed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Although regional NMP grew by 3% in 1983, after declining in 1981 and 1982, economic growth was not uniform throughout the Eastern Bloc. At the height of the Solidarity upheaval Poland experienced a sharp reduction in NMP (1981: -12.1%, 1982: -5.5%) and industrial production (1981: -10.5%, 1982: -2.1%) which began to rebound in 1983 (NMP 4 to 5%, Industrial Production 6.7%). NMP output growth was 0.5% in Hungary and 2.2% in Czechoslovakia in 1983. East Germany (4.4%), Bulgaria (3.0%), and Romania (3.4%), meanwhile, managed relatively stronger NMP growth through 1983. Another factor - inflation - seriously affected the economies of Poland (1982: 100.2%), Hungary (1982: 7%; 1983: 7.3%) and Romania (1982: 17%; 1983: 5.2%). Many East European economies during this period began adjusting their internal pricing, distribution, investment and planning structures to meet external trade and debt repayment requirements.
   Reconciling foreign indebtedness with the resumption of economic growth is a major economic issue facing Eastern Europe. The levels of exports and debt repayments limit imports - and hence domestic expenditures and investment - particularly in Poland, Hungary and East Germany. The Eastern bloc has recently managed to lower its collective external debt from some $80 bn in 1981 to some $70 bn in 1983. Total imports from the West have declined from $50 bn in 1981 to $43 bn in 1982, although trade with in COMECON increased by 9% in 1983 (largely due to changed oil pricing arrangements with in COMECON). The Soviet Union continues to be the dominant trading partner. In addition, the Eastern Bloc accumulated a large rouble debt and saw its terms of trade deteriorate with all trading partners. The effect on the internal economies, particularly in Poland, was that investment was 20% less in 1983 than in 1979. Decreased productivity and output followed. Output and investment, as forecast by the IMF, are not expected to achieve their previously high rates in the near term.
  

ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   За последние двенадцать месяцев мы не наблюдали каких-либо серьезных изменений в организации, оснащении или роли сухопутных сил государств-членов Восточноевропейского Варшавского договора. Сообщено о некоторых небольших изменениях в живой силе: в Болгарии стало меньше на 15 000; в Чехословакии и Восточной Германии увеличилось на 2 750 и 5000 соответственно; в Польше снижение на 16,750. Эти изменения привели к незначительному увеличению численности сухопутных войск Восточной Германии и военно-воздушных компонентов как Восточной Германии, так и Чехословакии, в то время как сокращение польских сил, по-видимому, коснулось армии. Нет никаких указаний на то, почему произошли эти изменения.
   Наиболее значимой поставкой Балтийского флота стал ракетный корвет Gornik класса Tarantul, введенный в эксплуатацию в польском флоте в марте. Это судно несет четыре ракеты класса "земля-земля" SS-N-2. Второе. Румыния получила первый из трех фрегатов типа Tetal; никаких подробностей получено не было. Военно-морские силы этих стран нуждаются в модернизации, но вновь прибывшие не делают каких-либо существенных изменений в своих возможностях.
   Болгария увеличила свой воздушный разведывательный элемент до полного полка, добавив 50% к своим прежним возможностям, а Чехословакия постепенно отказалась от некоторых своих старых МиГ-15 и Су-7, заменив их на МиГ-23 - значительный прогресс в обоих случаях. Не поступало сообщений о каких-либо серьезных изменениях в составе других национальных сил.
   Экономический рост в Восточной Европе замедлился в конце 1970-х - начале 1980-х годов. Хотя региональный NMP вырос на 3% в 1983 году, после снижения в 1981 и 1982 годах, экономический рост не был равномерным по всему Восточному блоку. В разгар волнений солидарности Польша пережила резкое сокращение NMP (1981: -12.1%, 1982: -5.5%) и промышленного производства (1981: -10.5%, 1982: -2.1%) который начал восстанавливаться в 1983 году (NMP от 4 до 5%, промышленное производство 6,7%). Рост производства NMP составил 0,5% в Венгрии и 2,2% в Чехословакии в 1983 году. Восточная Германия (4,4%), Болгария (3,0%) и Румыния (3,4%), тем временем, добились относительно более сильного роста NMP до 1983 года. Другой фактор - инфляция - серьезно повлиял на экономику Польши (1982: 100,2%), Венгрии (1982: 7%; 1983: 7.3%) и Румыния (1982: 17%; 1983: 5.2%). Многие восточноевропейские страны в этот период начали корректировать свои внутренние структуры ценообразования, распределения, инвестирования и планирования для удовлетворения потребностей внешней торговли и погашения задолженности.
   Согласование внешней задолженности с возобновлением экономического роста является одной из основных экономических проблем Восточной Европы. Уровни экспорта и погашения задолженности ограничивают импорт - и, следовательно, внутренние расходы и инвестиции - особенно в Польше, Венгрии и Восточной Германии. Недавно Восточному блоку удалось снизить свой коллективный внешний долг с примерно 80 млрд. долл. США в 1981 году до примерно 70 млрд. долл. США в 1983 году. Общий объем импорта с Запада сократился с $50 млрд в 1981 году до $43 млрд в 1982 году, хотя торговля с COMECON увеличилась на 9% в 1983 году (в основном из-за изменения цен на нефть с COMECON). Советский Союз продолжает оставаться доминирующим торговым партнером. Кроме того, Восточный блок накопил большой рублевый долг и ухудшил условия торговли со всеми торговыми партнерами. Влияние на внутреннюю экономику, особенно в Польше, заключалось в том, что в 1983 году объем инвестиций был на 20% меньше, чем в 1979 году. За этим последовало снижение производительности и объема производства. Объем производства и инвестиций, как прогнозирует МВФ, не достигнет своих ранее высоких показателей в ближайшей перспективе.
  
   BULGARIA
Population: 9,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 2 years, Navy 3 years.
Total regular forces: 147,300 (94,000 conscripts).
NMP 1982: lev 22.80 bn. Est 1983: 23.50 bn.
Est GNP range 1983: $26.0-36.0 bn.
Est def budget 1982: lev 901 m ($1,287 bn). 1983: 932 m ($1,313 bn).
NMP growth: 4.2% (1982), 3.0% (1983).
Debt: $2.8 bn (1982). $1=1982: 0.95 (official), 0.70 (adjusted); 1983: 0.97 (off.), 0.71 (adj.).
Army: 105,000 (73,000 conscripts).
   3 Military Districts:
   8 motor rifle divs (3 at Cat. 3 = cadre).
   5 tk bdes.
   3 SSM bdes with Scud.
   4 arty regts.
   3 AA arty regts.
   2 SAM regts.
   1 para regt.
   Special commando coys.
AFV: 400 T-34, 1,400 T-54/-55, some 60 T-72 MBT; some 60 BMP MICV; 250 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars; 1,000 BTR-50/-60, 35 OT-62, MT-LB APC.
Arty. 25 M-1942 76mm, 25 D/DS-44 85mm, M-1944 100mm, 700 M-1931 122mm, M-46 130mm towed guns;
   100 M-1938 (M-30), D-30 122mm, M-1937 152mm towed gun/how;
   100 BM-21 122mm, some M-51 130mm MRL; 82mm, 350 120mm and 160mm mor;
   39 FROG-1,27 Scud SSM.
ATK
: 90 M-1942 76mm ATK guns; 150 SPG-9 73mm RCL; AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger ATGW.
AD: 500 ZU-23 23mm, M-1939 37mm, S-60 57mm, KS-12 85mm and KS-19 100mm towed, ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-4/-6/-7 SAM.
RESERVES: 150,000; 3 motor rifle divs on mobilization. 600,000 more have a Reserve liability.
Navy: 8,500 (3,000 conscripts); 3 combat hel.
   2 R-class subs.
   2 Riga frigates.
   3 Poti corvettes.
   6 FAC(G) with Styx SSM: 3 Osa-I, 3 Osa-II.
   14 FAC(T): 6 Shershen, 8 P-4<.
   13 patrol craft: 6 SO-1, 7 Zhuk coastal<.
   30 MCM vessels: 2 T-43 ocean; 2 Sonya, 4 Vanya coastal; 18 PO-2,4 Yevgenya< inshore.
   22 Vydra LCU, 5 MFP D-3 landing craft.
   1 underway replenishment ship.
   2 hel sqns: 1 ASW with 3 Mi-14 Haze, 1 SAR with 2 Mi-2, 6 Mi-4.
   2 coastal arty regts (1,500): 20 btys; 100mm, 150mm guns.
   3 Naval Guard coys.
Bases: Varna, Burgas, Sozopol, Atiya.
RESERVES: 25,000.
Air Force: 33,800 (18,000 conscripts); some 188 combat ac, some 12 armed hel.
   1 air division: 3 combat regts:
   6 FGA sqns with 60 MiG-17, 12 MiG-23.
   6 interceptor/ftr sqns: 1 with some 20 MiG-23BM Flogger B; 5 with 60 MiG-21PFM.
   1 recce regt with 36 MiG-17/-21.
   1 tpt regt: 10 I1-14, 4 An-24, 2 Tu-134, 9 An-2.
   1 hel regt with 10 Mi-2, 40 Mi-4/-8, 12 Mi-24, 12 Ka-26 Hoodlum.
   Trg ac incl 80 L-29, Yak-11/-18, L-39, 30 MiG-15UTI.
   AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex.
   1 para regt.
   1 AD div: 3 zones: 30 SAM sites; 280 SA-2/-3.
RESERVES: 20,000.
Para-Military Forces: Ministry of Interior border guards: 15,000; 16 regts. Security police: 7,500.
   People's Territorial Militia: 150,000. 'Voluntary Organization for Co-operation in National Defence'.
  
   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
Population: 15,500,000.
Military service: Army 2 years, Air Force 3 years.
Total regular forces: 207,250 (118,000 conscripts).
NMP 1982: Kcs 497.2 bn. Est 1983: 508.1 bn.
Est GNP range 1983: $73.0-150.0 bn.
Def budget: 1982: Kcs 24.156 bn ($3,774 bn). 1983: 23.830 bn ($3,454 bn).* (* Incl police and security budget.)
NMP growth: 0.2% (1982), 2.2% (1983).
Inflation: 4.0% (1982), 8% (1983).
Debt: $4.1 bn (1982). $1=koruny (1982): 6.03 (off.), 6.40 (adj.). 1983: 6.45 (off.), 6.90 (adj.).
Army: 148,000 (100,000 conscripts).
   2 Military Districts: 5 armd divs (1 at Cat. 2, 2 at 3).
   5 motor rifle divs.
   1 arty div: 2 arty, 3 Scud SSM bdes, 2 ATK regts (6 bns).
   1 AB bde.
   6 engr bdes.
   Civil Defence Troops (10,000): 5 regts.
AFV: 3,500 T-54/-55/-72 MBT; 1,100 BMP MICV, 1,250 OT-65 and BRDM scout cars; 2,700 OT-62/-64/-810 APC.
Arty. 250 M-53 100mm, 100 M-1931/-37 122mm, 75 M-46 130mm guns; 90 M-1937 152mm gun/how; 250 D-30/M-30 122mm,
   M-1974 122mm SP, 250 M-18/46 and DANA (Tatra 813 truck-mounted) SP 152mm how;
   200 RM-70 122mm, 120 M-51 130mm MRL;
   40 FROG, 27 Scud SSM.
ATK: 100 82mm RCL; 112mm P-27 RL; 400 AT-3 Sagger and AT-4 Spigot ATGW.
AD: 600 S-60 57mm towed, M-53/59 30mm SP AA guns; SA-4/-6/-7/-9 SAM.
RESERVES: 200,000; 295,000 more with liability to age 50 (men) or 60 (officers).
Air Force: 59,250 (18,000 conscripts); 439 combat ac, some 24 armed hel.
   2 air armies: 3 air divs: 15 combat regts:
   10 FGA sqns: 3 with 60 Su-7BM/U; 3 with 36 MiG-23; 3 with 42 MiG-21/-21U; 1 with 12 MiG-15.
   18 interceptor sqns with 252 MiG-21/-21U/-23 (about half AD, half battlefield spt).
   3 recce sqns: 2 with 25 MiG-21RF; 1 with 12 L-29.
   2 tpt regts with 2 An-12, 6 An-24, 40 I1-14, 1 Tu-134, 2 LET L-410M.
   1 hel regt, 3 indep hel sqns with 40 Mi-1, 20 Mi-2, 100 Mi-4, 10 Mi-8, 24 Mi-24.
   Trg ac incl L-29.50, 24 L-39, Zlin 526.
   Liaison ac incl Zlin Z-43.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   3 AD divs: 6 SAM regts: some 40 sites; 250 SA-2/-3.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Para-Military Forces: Border Troops 11,000: 7 bdes, AFV, ATK weapons.
   People's Militia 120,000. 'Association for Co-operation with the Army'.
  
   GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Population: 16,860,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 18 months, Navy (sea-going) 36 months.
Total regular forces: 172,000 (94,500 conscripts).
Est NMP 1982: DMO 201.0 bn. 1983: 210.0 bn.* (* 1980 prices.)
Est GNP range 1983: $85.2-172.0 bn.
Def budget 1983: DMO 15.850 bn ($7,709 bn). 1984: 16.961 bn ($7,538 bn). (Incl DMO 4.400 bn (1983), 4.739 bn (1984) for internal security.)
NMP growth: 2.5% (1982), 4.4% (1983).
Debt: $13.0 bn (1982). $1=1983: ostmarks 2.555 (off.), 2.056 (adj.). Mid-1984: 2.750 (off), 2.250 (adj.)
Army: 120,000 (71,500 conscripts).
   2 Military Districts, 2 Army HQ:
   2 tk divs (each 3 tk, 1 motor rifle regt).
   4 motor rifle divs (each 1 tk, 3 motor rifle regts). (All divs Category 1.)
   2 SSM bdes with Scud.
   2 arty, 1 AA arty regts.
   2 AD regts with SA-4 SAM.
   3 sigs regts.
   3 engr regts.
   1 railway construction regt.
   2 ATK bns.
   1 AB bn.
AFV: About 1,500 T-54/-55/-72 MBT (1,600 more in storage); 1,000 BMP MICV; 1,000 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars;
   1,500 BTR-50P/-60P/-152/-7O (M-1978), MT-LB APC.
Arty. 400 M-/D-30 towed and M-1974 122mm SP, 72 M-46 130mm guns; 108 M-1937/D-20 152mm towed, 54 M-1973 152mm SP gun/how;
   108 RM-70 122mm MRL;
   24 FROG-1, 18 Scud B SSM;
   250 120mm mor.
ATK: 120 T-12 100mm towed ATK guns; AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot ATGW.
AD: 96 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-4/-6/-7/-9 SAM.
RESERVES: 330,000; up to 3 months call-up per year to total 24 months; 250,000 more have a Reserve commitment to 50 (other ranks) or 60 (officers).
Navy: 14,000 incl Frontier Bde (8,000 conscripts); 15 combat hel.
   2 Rostock (Koni) frigates with 1x2 SA-N-4 SAM.
   10 Parchim corvettes with 2 SA-N-5 SAM.
   15 Osa-1 FAC(G) with 4 Styx SSM.
   49 FAC(T): 18 Shershen, 31 Libelled.
   6 Hai large patrol craft.
   27 Kondor-II coastal minesweepers.
   12 Frosch LST.
   2 Kondor-I intelligence collection vessels.
   4 supply ships 4 tankers, 2 mod Frosch II tpts.
   1 hel sqn with 13 Mi-8 (3 SAR), 5 Mi-14 ASW.
Coastal Frontier Bde (GBK; 2,750): 5 beach patrol bns, 3 afloat 'divs',
   1 boat gp (recce); 37 vessels incl 3 Parchim, 10 Bremse, 19 Kondor-l; 152mm guns; Samlet SSM.
Bases: Peenemiinde, Warnemiinde, Dransk-Bug, Sassnitz, Wolgast, Tarnewitz, Barhoft.
RESERVES: 25,000.
Air Force: 38,000 (15,000 conscripts); 359 combat ac, 30 armed hel.
   1 air div
   2 FGA regts:
   4 FGA sqns: 2 with 35 MiG-17; 2 with some 12 MiG-23.
   1 recce sqn with 12 MiG-21.
   1 tpt regt: 3 sqns: 18 I1-14 (An-26 to replace), 15 Tu-134, An-2/-14/-26B.
   3 hel regts: 9 sqns: 6 with 80 Mi-8 (about half armd); 3 with 30 Mi-24.
AD Command: 2 AD districts:
   6 air regts: 18 sqns with 300 MiG-21F/MF/PF/U/-23.
   7 SAM regts, some 30 sites with 200 SA-2/-3.
   2 radar regts.
   Trg ac incl Yak-11, L-39, Zlin 226, MiG-15UTI.
   Liaison ac incl Zlin Z-43.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   ASM: AT-3 Sagger ATGW.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Forces Abroad: Algeria, 250; Angola, 500; Ethiopia, 550; Guinea, 125; Iraq, 160; Libya,400; Mozambique, 100; S. Yemen, 75; Syria, 210.
Para-Military Forces: 82,500.
   Ministry of Defence: Frontier Troops (50,000): 18 border, 2 indep, 1 special, 6 trg regts (?66 bns), 1 boat section; 24 patrol craft.
   Ministry for State Security: 1 Guard regt (Berlin) (7,000): 6 motor rifle, 1 arty, 1 trg bns;
   PSZH-IV APC, 120mm mor, 85mm, 100mm ATK, ZU-23 AA guns, hel.
   Ministry of Interior People's Police Alert Units (10,500): 21 bns; BTR-40/-152 APC, 82mm mor.
   Transport Police (8,500): 16 coys; small arms, RPG-7RL.
   Workers' Militia: 15,000 combat groups; AFV incl SK-1 APC, 82mm mor, 76mm ATK, 23mm, 37mm AA guns.
   Society for Sport and Technology (450,000, 75% active): 1 central, 14 regional subordinate district gps, some 15,000 units; small arms.
   Thalmann Pioneers: School children, paramilitary trg.
  
   HUNGARY
Population: 10,740,000.
Military service (incl Border Guard): 18 months; Air Force 24 months.
Total regular forces: 105,000 (58,000 conscripts).
NMP 1982: forints 696.4 bn. 1983: 730.0 bn.
Est GDP range 1983: $21.0-65.2 bn.
Def budget 1982: forints 20.260 bn ($1,318 bn). 1983: 21.070 bn ($1.22 bn).
NMP growth: 2.3% (1982), 0.5% (1983).
Inflation: 7.0% (1982), 7.3% (1983).
Debt: $7.7 bn (1982). $1=1982: forints 36.631 (off.), 15.37 (adj.). 1983: 42.666 (off.), 17.26 (adj.).
Army: 84,000 (50,000 conscripts) incl Danube Flotilla.
   1 tk div (at Cat. 2).
   5 motor rifle divs (2 at Cat.2, 3 at 3).
   1 arty bde, 1 SSM bde with Scud.
   1 AA arty, 4 SAM regts (1 indep with SA-4, 3 div with SA-6).
   1 AB bn.
AFV: About 1,200 T-54/-55, 30 T-72 MBT; 100 PT-76 lt tks; 200 BMP-1 MICV; some 750 BRDM-2/FUG (OT-65) scout cars; 1,000 PSZH-IV, MT-LB APC.
Arty. 225 M-1938 towed, 50 M-1974 SP 122mm how; 40 D-20, 100 M-1943 towed, 20 M-1973 SP 152mm gun/how; 50 BM-21 122mm MRL;
   24 FROG-1, 9 Scud SSM; 300 82mm, 100 M-43 120mm mor.
ATK: 125 SPG-9 73mm RCL; 125 85mm and T-12 100mm ATK guns; 100 AT-3 Sagger, 100 AT-4 Spigot ATGW.
AD: 100 S-60 57mm towed, 75 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; 30 SA-4, 60 SA-6, 500 SA-7, 50 SA-9 SAM.
Danube Flotilla (700); 10 100-ton patrol craft, river MCM, 5 small LCU, small tp tpts.
Air Force: 21,000 (8,000 conscripts); 145 combat ac, some 24 armed hel.
   1 air div:
   3 AD fighter regts: 9 interceptor sqns with 120 MiG-21F/PF/bis/U, 25 MiG-23BM.
   1 tpt regt: 2 tpt sqns with 24 An-2/-24/-26, 2 I1-14.
   1 hel regt: 3 hel sqns with 30 Mi-8, 24 Mi-24, 25 Ka-26 Hoodlum.
   Trg ac incl L-29, MiG-15UTI.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
1 AD div: 3 SAM regts, some 20 sites; 120 SA-2/-3.
RESERVES (all services): 143,000.
Para-Military Forces: Border guards 15,000 (11,000 conscripts); 11 districts.
   Part-time Worker's Militia 60,000. 'Sport Association for National Defence'.
  
  
   POLAND
Population: 36,900,000.
Military service: Army, internal security forces, Air Force 2 years; Navy, special services 3 years.
Total regular forces: 323,250 (185,000 conscripts).
Est NMP 1981: zloty 2,160.4 bn. 1982: 4,753.0 bn.
Est GNP range 1983: $92.2-178.0 bn.
Def budget 1983: zloty 193.0 bn ($6,433 bn). 1984: 218.0 bn ($6,229 bn).
NMP growth: -5.5% (1982), 4-5% (1983).
Inflation: 100.2% (1982).
Debt: $27.4 bn (1982). $1=1983: 90.0 (off.), 30.0 (adj.). Mid-1984: 110.4 (off.), 35.0 (adj.).
Army: 210,000 (153,000 conscripts).
   3 Military Districts:
   5 armd divs (all at Cat. 1).
   8 mech divs (3 at Cat. 1, 2 at 2, 3 at 3).
   1 AB div (Cat. 1).
   1 amph assault div (Cat. 1).
   3 arty bdes, 1 arty regt.
   3 ATK regts.
   4 SSM bdes with Scud.
   1 AD bde with SA-4; 9 AD regts: 7 with SA-6, 2 with SA-8 SAM.
AFV: 3,400 T-54/-55, 50 T-72 MBT; 110 PT-76 lt tks; 800 FUG/BRDM-2 scout cars; 800 BMP-1, 2,500 SKOT/SKOT-2AP and TOPAS/TOPAS-2AP APC.
Arty. 120 M-1931 (A-19) 122mm guns; 150 M-1937 (ML-20) 152mm gun/how; 520 M-1938 (M-30) towed and M-1974 (2S1) SP 122mm,
   120 M-1943 (D-l) 152mm how; 250 BM-21 122mm, BM-14 140mm MRL;
   51 FROG-3/-5/-7, 36 Scud B SSM; 750 82mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: 650 D-44 85mm and T-12 100mm towed
ATK guns; 73mm RCL; AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot ATGW.
AD: 750 ZU-23 23mm and S-60 57mm towed, 130 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-4/-6/-7/-8/-9 SAM.
Navy: 22,000 (5,000 conscripts).
   3 W-class subs.
   1 SAM Kotlin destroyer with 1x2 SA-N-1 Goa.
   13 Osa-1 FAC(G) with 4 Styx SSM.
   18 FAC(T): 12 Pilica, 6 Wisla.
   8 mod Obluze large patrol craft.
   50 MCM: 12 Krogulec, 11 T-43 ocean, 2 Notec coastal minesweepers; 25 K-8 boats.
   23 Polnocny LCT, 4 Marabut LCM, 15 Eichstaden LCA.
   2 mod Moma intelligence vessels (AGI); 1 T-43 radar picket.
1 Naval Aviation Div (2,000); 44 combat ac:
   1 attack regt: 3 sqns with 34 MiG-17.
   1 recce sqn with 5 I1-28, 5 MiG-17.
   1 hel regt: 2 sqns with 10 Mi-2, 20 Mi-4, 5 Mi-8.
   (On order: 1 Notec coastal minesweeper.)
Bases: Gdynia, Hel, Swinoujscie, Kolobrzeg, Ustka.
Air Force: 91,250 (30,000 conscripts); 675 combat ac, 12 armed hel.
   4 air divs:
   6 FGA regts: 18 sqns: 3 with 35 Su-7/-7U; 3 with 35 Su-20; 12 with 150 MiG-17.
   11 AD regts: 33 sqns with some 400 MiG-21/UA23.
   6 recce sqns: 35 MiG-21RF, 5 I1-28, 15 LIM-6.
   2 tpt regts: 9 An-2, An-12, 12 An-26, 12 I1-14.
   1 comms/liaison sqn with 2 Tu-134A, 6 Yak-40, Il-18 ac.
   3 hel regts with 100 Mi-2, 12 Mi-4, 25 Mi-8, 12 Mi-24.
   300 trg ac: TS-8/-11, MiG-15/-21UTI, Su-7U.
   AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll
3 AD divs: 9 SAM regts: some 50 sites; 400 SA-2/-3.
RESERVES (all services): 500,000.
Forces Abroad: Syria (UNDOF): 131.
Para-Military Forces: 218,000.
   Ministry of Interior border troops (160,000): 8 bdes, some 42 patrol craft incl 5 Obluze, 5 Pilica, 3 KP-131, 1 Oksywie, 12 Wisloka, 21 K-8, 9 Gdansk.
   Internal defence troops (58,000): tks, AFV, ATK guns. Citizen's Militia 350,000.
   'League for National Defence' (some 200,000 active).
  
   RUMANIA
Population: 23,000,000.
Military Service: Army, Air Force 16 months; Navy 30 months.
Total regular forces: 189,500 (109,000 conscripts).
NMP 1982: lei 628.8 bn. 1983: 654.5 bn.
Est GNP range 1982: $77.3-108.0 bn.
Est def budget 1983: lei 11.725 bn ($1,413 bn).
NMP growth: 2.6% (1982), 3.4% (1983).
Inflation: 17% (1982), 5.2% (1983).
Debt: $9.8 bn (1982). $1= (1982/3) lei 4.47 (off), 8.3 (adj.).
Army: 150,000 (95,000 conscripts).
   4 Army Areas:
   2 tk divs (l at Cat. 1, 1 at 2).
   8 motor rifle divs (1 at Cat. 1, 3 at 2,4 at 3).
   3 mountain bdes/regts.
   2 arty, 2 AA bdes, 4 arty, 2 AA arty, 5 ATK regts.
   2 Scud SSM bdes.
   2 AB regts.
AFV: 200 T-34, 1,000 T-54/-55, some M-77, 30 T-72 MBT; 400 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars; 2,600 BTR-50/-60, TAB-72 (BTR-60) APC.
Arty. 50 76mfn, 50 D-44 85mm, M-1944 100mm towed, 250 SU-76/-100 SP guns; 600 M-1938/D-30 122mm, 150 M-1937/D-20 152mm guns/how;
   175 BM-21/RO 122mm, 150 M-51 (ZIL) 130mm MRL; 30 FROG, 15 Scud SSM; 700 82mm, 200 120mm mor.
ATK: 57mm ATK guns; 73mm, 260 76mm and 82mm RCL; 120 AT-1 Snapper and AT-3 Sagger ATGW.
AD: 300 30mm, 37mm, 250 57mm, 85mm, 100mm towed AA guns; SA-6/-7 SAM.
RESERVES: 500,000+ (300,000 with service in last 5 years).
Navy: 7,500 (3,500 conscripts).
   Black Sea Fleet, Danube Sqn, Coastal Defence.
   1 Tetal frigate.
   3 Poti corvettes.
   6 Osa-I FAC(G) with 4 Styx SSM.
   3 Kronshtadt large patrol craft.
   19 Ch Shanghai FAC (P/ASW).
   39 FAC(T): 21 Ch Huchwan hydrofoils<, 6 Sov P-4<, 12 Epitrop.
   46 river patrol craft incl 18 VB-76 monitors.
   16 minesweepers (4 GDR M-40 coastal, 12 Sov T-301 inshore); 8 Pol TR-40, 20 VD-141 minesweeping boats<; 2 MCM spt ships.
   4 Mi-4 SAR hel.
Coastal Defence (2,000): HQ Constanta, 4 sectors; 18 arty btys with some 110 130mm, 150mm and 152mm guns, observer post tps, naval engineers.
   Would get 2 regts of naval inf on mobilization.
   (On order 2 Tetal frigates.)
RESERVES: 20,000.
Bases: Mangalia, Constanta; Danube: Braila, Giurgiu, Sulina, Tulcea.
Air Force: 32,000 (10,000 conscripts); 318 combat ac.
   2 air divs: 4 combat regts:
   6 FGA sqns with 70 MiG-17.
   12 interceptor sqns: 11 with 200 MiG-21F/PF/U, 1 with 30 MiG-23.
   1 recce sqn with 18 I1-28.
   1 tpt regt with 4 I1-14, 3 I1-18, 2 I1-62, 11 An-24, 8 An-26, 4 Li-2, 1 Boeing 707.
   1 hel regt: 10 Mi-4, 25 Mi-8, 45 IAR-316B (Alouette III), 30 IAR-330 (Puma).
   Trg ac: 40 L-29, 20 MiG-15UTI, 10 IAR-28MA; IAR-93 being introduced.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   1 AD div: 18 SAM sites with 108 SA-2.
   (On order: some 45 IAR-93A, 165 IAR-93B FGA/trg ac.)
RESERVES: 45,000.
Para-Military Forces: 37,000. Border guards (17,000); 12 bdes.
   Ministry of Defence security troops (20,000); AFV, ATK guns.
   Local Defence: some 900,000 Patriotic Guard (perhaps 12,000 full time).
   Youth Homeland Defence: 650,000. 'Voluntary Sports Association'.
  

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY

   Although the year saw the first deployment of US Pershing II missiles in West Germany and GLCM (ground-launched cruise missiles) in Britain and Italy, much of the debate in NATO over the past twelve months has centred on the need to strengthen conventional forces. The basic principle - that only through reinforcement of conventional forces can NATO counter a Soviet advance in superior strength with out early recourse to nuclear weapons - is generally accepted as valid. Any conventional force improvement that can raise the nuclear threshold is likely to be generally welcomed, but the precise direction of improvement is as yet by no means universally accepted throughout the Alliance.
   Part of the disagreement stems from the fact that many of the so-called 'force multipliers' (systems to enhance the capability of the NATO defence by early and accurate identification of enemy activity, secure and durable communications to speed decision-making, command and control, weapons of precision to guarantee successful engagement of targets, penetration aids to by-pass enemy defences, etc.) depend for their effectiveness upon the detailed application of so-called high technology. Many of the weapons and systems now in the research and development phase are the products of American designers and manufacturers. There is naturally concern in Europe that many of the concepts of the high-technology battlefield may turn out to be extremely costly and may make European forces unduly dependent on the United States to the detriment of present and future European industrial development.
   There is disagreement also over the most effective way to stop a Warsaw Pact conventional attack. Much of current thinking is focused on 'deep' strikes on the follow-on elements - the Pact second-echelon forces intended to give weight to deep penetrations and to subsequent exploitation of any breakthrough. Reservations are being expressed that forward defence may thus be weakened in favour of the deep-strike mission.
   The facts of European geography play a significant part in the development of deep-strike doctrine. War on West German soil, for example, would produce enormous damage to the fabric of German society. Moving the area of destruction eastwards might therefore be regarded as desirable in principle, but the costs of new deep-strike weapons are likely to be high, and it seems highly doubtful whether it will prove possible to maintain forward defence at the same time. In addition, one would have to anticipate that the Soviet Union may also develop her own 'deep-strike' weapons, which would tend to shift the area of destruction back into West Germany.
   Many in the United States have long criticized the West European partners for failing to assume an adequate share of the burden of defence against the Warsaw Pact. Comparisons between West European and US defence expenditures form the basis for much of this criticism. In 1978 NATO- Ministers agreed to increase defence spending on conventional forces by 3% in real terms annually. Official NATO and IMF data suggest that the 3% goal has been met only by the US, Britain, Canada and France, whose defence spending has increased in percentage terms as follows:
  
    []
  
   Canada is certainly attempting to rebuild her conventional forces, but the others (especially France and the US) devote a significant proportion of their defence budgets to their nuclear forces. If spending on these nuclear forces is excluded, the national average growth rates are lower: some 6.5% for the US, about 4.0% for Britain and perhaps 2.0% for France. In Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands, real defence spending actually decreased in 1983. Data from other official sources, such as Central Banks, which use different accounting procedures, suggest that in almost all NATO countries actual defence expenditures may indeed be lower than Defence Ministries have claimed.
   The relative positions of the US and her European allies must be viewed, in part, in the light of their respective economic climates. In 1983 the US economy was characterized by strong growth, low inflation, declining unemployment and a rising dollar. This growth continued in early 1984, albeit at a slower rate. There was in the US a greater sense of optimism, of willingness to budget for growth. Political attitudes in the US towards defence have for some years now reflected a sense of perceived lack of security, and thus a desire to spend money on defence in order to achieve that security. Social and economic claims have been accorded lower priority, and the increased defence outlays which have marked the period since 1980 have demonstrated the US Government's commitment to enhanced defence. A comparable commitment from the European nations has been seen as fundamental to the health of the Alliance, and 1984 saw moves in the US Congress (the 'Nunn Amendment') to make US force levels in Europe contingent upon greater defence efforts on the part of Western Europe.
   The economic recovery of the NATO Allies has undoubtedly lagged behind that of the United States. Throughout the period 1981-3 economic performance has been characterized by rising unemployment, mixed economic growth, declining exchange rates - which have a significant effect upon a country's ability to buy military equipment from the United States - severe capital flight to the higher interest rates paid in North America, mixed success against domestic inflation, and social pressures on the budget. Most severely hit were countries of the southern tier, especially Greece, Portugal and Turkey. Virtually all West European states have, with varying degrees of success, introduced measures to control inflation and to cut their respective budget deficits, but all are faced with rather ambitious social welfare programmes, and the high unemployment levels found throughout have placed heavy demands on welfare budgets. Nor is there the same perception of imminent threat as in the US, although there is no intention of compromising freedom. In the light of these circumstances, most West European governments believe that they are spending all they can afford on their defence establishments.
   West Europeans are also sceptical of what they tend to regard as simplistic comparisons based on 'standard' criteria for defence expenditures. European nations argue that they bear other defence burdens, less clearly identified. These include indirect economic and social costs, such as those stemming from conscription (applicable to most European armed forces), while military use of public facilities and land, especially in West Germany, have no equivalent in the US: Because of their nature it is difficult to assess the true costs of these additional burdens, but they are politically relevant.
   Nor is it easy to forecast when this situation is likely to ease. Operation, maintenance and capital costs are demonstrably higher in the military sector and are therefore subject to different inflationary pressure, usually higher than in the general economy. The OECD predicts that the US recovery will encourage economic growth in Europe and Canada through 1984 but ' with tight policies - dictated by concerns over budget deficits and inflation fears - the recovery outside North America seems likely to be weak and hesitant by past standards'.
   The 3% real growth target was intended to upgrade conventional defences, to develop NATO infrastructure, to re-distribute NATO's costs more broadly across the Alliance, to facilitate US reinforcement of Europe and, overall, to reduce NATO's reliance on nuclear weapons. If past performance is an indicator, that figure is unlikely to be met, although some progress is being made. Moreover, most West European countries managed to increase their outlays and improve their military posture during the 1970s, when real defence spending in the US was decreasing. Some of the cushion from that investment still remains, although replacement of existing equipment with the more sophisticated wment still remains, although replacement of existing equipment with the more sophisticated weapons of the next generation will be costly. If it is true that little additional real investment can be achieved, there may be an increasingly strong initiatives to ensure more effective political and fiscal control of defence expenditure and military resources.
   Economic pressures continue to have a significant impact on all national defence procurement. There is some evidence of closer attention to priorities, although budgetary constraints often impose delays in production schedules which result in overall increases in the unit costs of individual items. Co-operation in arms procurement, long a goal of NATO planners, continues to take place, but at a rather desultory pace. However, agreement was reached to begin a programme for the procurement of a NATO Standard Frigate. Initial US hesitation was overcome, but how many will be ordered remains to be seen. There has been co-operation between Germany and France over a new attack helicopter, and discussions have taken place between Germany, Britain, Italy, France and Spain over the joint procurement of the next generation of fighter aircraft.
   There seems little doubt that the incorporation of advanced technology is going to add yet more inflationary pressure to defence procurement.. In 1982 this was estimated by the US Congressional Budget Office to be 4.4% annually in real terms. Others suggest that real annual increases of the order of 8% are not unlikely. At the same time, the cost of munitions, spare parts and support facilities are likely to rise, as NATO attempts to raise stock levels to sustain a longer period of conventional conflict.
   Joint NATO agreements include the following: artillery location systems; precision-guided 155mm munitions; battlefield target acquisition systems; Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) equipment standardization; passive electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment for aircraft; electronic jamming systems for tactical aircraft; low-cost dispersal systems for submunitions; multiple-launcher rocket systems (MLRS); stand-off surveillance and target acquisition systems; short-range anti-radiation missiles; and self-defence systems for battlefield helicopters. Other areas yet to be determined include agreement on runway attack munitions, very long-range target identification, the rapid and accurate transmission of data, improvement of command-and-control systems, and the development of better fighter aircraft, long-range remotely-piloted vehicles (RPV) and missiles for delivering conventional munitions and sub-munitions. It is possible, too, that some improvements can be achieved by greater use of existing assets, such as the rapid conversion of commercial aircraft in war for in-flight refuelling of combat aircraft - a practical and relatively inexpensive alternative to dedicated tankers, which are in markedly short supply in most West European air forces.
   There has been a tentative move to revive the Western European Union (WEU), ostensibly to support and give political direction to the European contribution to NATO, and, in particular, to rationalize arms procurement. This is not with out problems, as not all West European NATO nations are members of the WEU. At the same time, it is necessary to note a somewhat greater sense of urgency in the Franco-German staff talks, perhaps presaging a greater French interest in conventional co-operation with NATO, and increased emphasis on the work of the Independent European Programme Group (IEPG). Thus the West European members of NATO appear to be regarding the need to co-operate with rather greater seriousness - not least because of growing concern over the need to retain the goodwill of the US and to ensure that their interests are preserved with in the Alliance - but it remains to be seen in which direction this somewhat vague impulse will lead.
  

СЕВЕРОАТЛАНТИЧЕСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

   Хотя в этом году США впервые развернули ракеты Pershing II в Западной Германии и крылатые ракеты GLCM (наземные крылатые ракеты) в Великобритании и Италии, большая часть дебатов в НАТО за последние двенадцать месяцев была сосредоточена на необходимости укрепления обычных вооруженных сил. Основной принцип - то, что только посредством укрепления обычных сил НАТО может противостоять превосходящему советскому наступлению без раннего обращения к ядерному оружию - общепризнан как действительный. Любое усовершенствование обычных сил, которое может повысить ядерный порог, скорее всего, будет в целом приветствоваться, но точное направление совершенствования пока еще далеко не является общепризнанным во всем Североатлантическом союзе.
   Часть разногласий проистекает из того, что многие из так называемых "мультипликаторов сил" (системы повышения обороноспособности НАТО путем раннего и точного определения активности противника, безопасные и надежные средства связи для ускорения принятия решений, командования и управления, высокоточное оружие для обеспечения успешного поражения целей, средства для прорыва обороны противника и т.д.) их эффективность зависит от применения так называемых высоких технологий. Многие из вооружений и систем, находящихся в настоящее время на этапе исследований и разработок, являются продукцией американских конструкторов и производителей. Есть опасения в Европе, что многое из высокотехнологичного боя может оказаться чрезвычайно дорогостоящим и возможно Европейские силы чрезмерно зависят от США в ущерб настоящему и будущему европейского промышленного развития.
   Существуют также разногласия по поводу наиболее эффективного способа предотвращения обычного нападения в рамках Варшавского договора. Большая часть современного мышления сосредоточена на "глубоких" ударах по последующим элементам - силам второго эшелона пакта, призванным усилить глубокое проникновение и последующее использование прорыва. Высказываются оговорки в отношении того, что таким образом передовая оборона может быть ослаблена в пользу миссии глубокого удара.
   Факты европейской географии играют значительную роль в развитии доктрины глубокого удара. Война на западногерманской территории, например, нанесла бы огромный ущерб немецкому обществу. Поэтому перемещение района уничтожения на восток в принципе можно было бы считать желательным, однако расходы на новые виды оружия глубокого поражения, по всей видимости, будут высокими, и представляется весьма сомнительным, что в то же время удастся сохранить передовую оборону. Кроме того, можно было бы ожидать, что Советский Союз может также разработать свое собственное оружие "глубокого удара", которое, как правило, переместит зону поражения обратно в Западную Германию.
   Многие в Соединенных Штатах уже давно критикуют западноевропейских партнеров за то, что они не берут на себя адекватную долю бремени обороны от Варшавского договора. Сравнения между Западной Европы и США расходов на оборону легли в основу этой критики. В 1978 году министры стран НАТО договорились ежегодно увеличивать расходы на оборону обычных вооруженных сил на 3% в реальном выражении. Официальные данные НАТО и МВФ показывают, что цель в 3% была достигнута только США, Великобританией, Канадой и Францией, чьи расходы на оборону увеличились в процентном выражении следующим образом:
   Табл.
   Канада, безусловно, пытается восстановить свои обычные силы, но другие страны (особенно Франция и США) выделяют значительную часть своих оборонных бюджетов на свои ядерные силы. Если исключить расходы на эти ядерные силы, то средние национальные темпы роста будут ниже: около 6,5% для США, около 4,0% для Великобритании и, возможно, 2,0% для Франции. В Бельгии, Дании и Нидерландах реальные расходы на оборону фактически сократились в 1983 году. Данные из других официальных источников, таких как центральные банки, которые используют различные процедуры учета, позволяют предположить, что почти во всех странах НАТО фактические расходы на оборону действительно могут быть ниже, чем утверждали Министерства обороны.
   Относительные позиции США и ее европейских союзников должны рассматриваться, в частности, в свете их соответствующих экономических условий. В 1983 году экономика США характеризовалась сильным ростом, низкой инфляцией, снижением безработицы и ростом доллара. Этот рост продолжился в начале 1984 года, хотя и более медленными темпами. В США было больше оптимизма, готовности к бюджету для роста. Политическое отношение в США к обороне уже в течение нескольких лет отражает ощущение отсутствия безопасности и, таким образом, желание тратить деньги на оборону для достижения этой безопасности. Социально - экономическим претензиям уделяется меньшее внимание, а увеличение расходов на оборону, которое отмечается с 1980 года, свидетельствует о приверженности правительства США укреплению обороны. Сопоставимое обязательство со стороны европейских стран рассматривалось в качестве основополагающего для здоровья Североатлантического союза, и в 1984 году Конгресс США ("поправка Нанна") предпринял шаги к тому, чтобы уровень вооруженных сил США в Европе зависел от активизации оборонных усилий со стороны Западной Европы.
   Экономическое восстановление стран НАТО, несомненно, отстает от восстановления Соединенных Штатов. На протяжении всего периода 1981-3 экономические показатели были характерны рост безработицы, смешанный экономический рост, сокращение валютных курсов, которые оказывают существенное влияние на страны возможность покупать военную технику у США - сильное бегство капитала в более высокие процентные ставки в Северной Америке, с переменным успехом, против внутренней инфляции, и социальное давление на бюджет. Наиболее серьезно пострадали страны Южного фланга, особенно Греция, Португалия и Турция. Практически все западноевропейские государства с разной степенью успеха приняли меры по сдерживанию инфляции и сокращению своего бюджетного дефицита, однако все они сталкиваются с довольно амбициозными программами социального обеспечения, а высокий уровень безработицы, наблюдающийся повсюду, предъявляет большие требования к бюджетам социального обеспечения. Также нет такого же восприятия неминуемой угрозы, как в США, хотя нет никакого намерения компрометировать свободу. В свете этих обстоятельств большинство западноевропейских правительств считают, что они тратят все, что могут себе позволить, на свои оборонные предприятия.
   Западноевропейцы также скептически относятся к тому, что они склонны считать упрощенными сравнениями, основанными на "стандартных" критериях расходов на оборону. Европейские страны утверждают, что они несут другое бремя обороны, менее четко обозначенное. К ним относятся косвенные экономические и социальные издержки, такие, как издержки, связанные с призывом на военную службу (применимые к большинству европейских вооруженных сил), в то время как военное использование общественных объектов и земли, особенно в Западной Германии, не имеет эквивалента в США: из-за их природы трудно оценить истинные затраты на эти дополнительные нагрузки, но они политически актуальны.
   Не так легко предсказать, когда эта ситуация, вероятно, облегчится. Эксплуатационные, эксплуатационные и капитальные затраты в военном секторе явно выше и поэтому подвержены различному инфляционному давлению, обычно более высокому, чем в экономике в целом. OECD прогнозирует, что восстановление экономики США будет стимулировать экономический рост в Европе и Канаде до 1984 года, но "с жесткой политикой - продиктованной опасениями по поводу бюджетного дефицита и инфляционных страхов - восстановление за пределами Северной Америки, вероятно, будет слабым и нерешительным по прошлым стандартам".
   Цель реального роста в 3% была направлена на модернизацию обычных средств обороны, развитие инфраструктуры НАТО, более широкое распределение расходов НАТО по всему Североатлантическому союзу, содействие укреплению США Европы и, в целом, снижение зависимости НАТО от ядерного оружия. Если показатели прошлых лет являются показателем, то эта цифра вряд ли будет достигнута, хотя определенный прогресс уже достигнут. Более того, большинству западноевропейских стран удалось увеличить свои расходы и улучшить свою военную позицию в 1970-х годах, когда реальные расходы на оборону в США сокращались. Часть от этих инвестиций все еще остается, хотя замены существующего оборудования на более сложные остается, хотя замены существующего оборудования на более современное оружие следующего поколения будет дорогостоящим. Если действительно можно добиться незначительных дополнительных реальных инвестиций, то могут быть выдвинуты все более решительные инициативы по обеспечению более эффективного политического и финансового контроля за оборонными расходами и военными ресурсами.
   Экономическое давление по-прежнему оказывает значительное воздействие на все национальные оборонные закупки. Имеются некоторые свидетельства более пристального внимания к приоритетам, хотя бюджетные ограничения часто приводят к задержкам в графиках производства, что приводит к общему увеличению удельных затрат по отдельным статьям. Сотрудничество в области закупок вооружений, которое уже давно является целью планировщиков НАТО, по-прежнему осуществляется, но довольно опустошительными темпами. Однако была достигнута договоренность начать программу закупки стандартного фрегата НАТО. Первоначальное колебание США было преодолено, но насколько, еще предстоит выяснить. Было налажено сотрудничество между Германией и Францией в отношении нового ударного вертолета, и состоялись обсуждения между Германией, Великобританией, Италией, Францией и Испанией в отношении совместных закупок истребителей следующего поколения.
   Представляется маловероятным, что внедрение передовых технологий приведет к еще большему инфляционному давлению на оборонные закупки. В 1982 году бюджетное управление Конгресса США оценивало это в 4,4% годовых в реальном выражении. Другие предполагают, что реальное ежегодное увеличение порядка 8% не маловероятно. В то же время стоимость боеприпасов, запасных частей и вспомогательных средств, вероятно, возрастет, поскольку НАТО пытается повысить уровень запасов для поддержания более длительного периода обычного конфликта.
   Совместные с НАТО соглашения включают следующие: расположение артиллерийских систем; высокоточные 155-мм боеприпасы; полевые системы целеуказания; оборудование идентификации свой - чужой (IFF), деятельность в области стандартизации; пассивного радиоэлектронного противодействия (ЕСМ) оборудование для летательных аппаратов; радиоэлектронное подавление систем для самолетов тактической авиации; недорогогие системы для суббоеприпасов; многоствольные ракетные системы залпового огня (MLRS); системы наблюдения и целеуказания; ракеты малой дальности противорадиолокационные; и системы самозащиты для боевых вертолетов. Другие направления пока не определены включают боеприпасы для атаки взлетно-посадочных полос, сверхдальняя идентификация целей, быстрая и точная передача данных, совершенствование командно-административной системы, и развитие истребителей дальнего радиуса действия, дистанционно-пилотируемые летательные аппараты (ДПЛА) и ракеты для доставки обычных боеприпасов и суббоеприпасов. Не исключено также, что некоторые улучшения могут быть достигнуты за счет более широкого использования существующих средств, таких как быстрая конверсия коммерческих самолетов в условиях войны для дозаправки в воздухе боевых самолетов - практичная и относительно недорогая альтернатива специализированным танкерам, которых в большинстве западноевропейских ВВС заметно не хватает.
   Был предпринят предварительный шаг по возрождению Западноевропейского союза (WEU), якобы для поддержки и политического руководства Европейским вкладом в НАТО и, в частности, для рационализации закупок вооружений. Это не без проблемой, так как не все западноевропейские страны НАТО являются членами WEU. В то же время необходимо отметить, что в ходе франко-германских штабных переговоров ощущалась несколько большая срочность, что, возможно, предвещало больший интерес Франции к обычному сотрудничеству с НАТО, а также уделение большего внимания работе независимой европейской программной группы (IEPG). Таким образом, западноевропейские члены НАТО, по-видимому, относятся к необходимости сотрудничества с гораздо большей серьезностью - не в последнюю очередь из-за растущей обеспокоенности по поводу необходимости сохранения доброй воли США и обеспечения сохранения их интересов в Североатлантическом союзе, - но еще предстоит увидеть, в каком направлении этот несколько неопределенный импульс приведет.
  
   BELGIUM
Population: 9,900,000.
Military service: 8 or 10 months.* (* Conscripts serve 8 months if posted to Germany, 10 months if serving in Belgium.)
Total armed forces: 93,607 (3,559 women; 31,908 conscripts).
GDP 1982: B fr 3,940 bn. ($86,231 bn). Est GDP 1983: 4,149 bn ($81,143 bn).
Def exp 1983: B fr 94.440 bn ($1,847 bn); NATO defn $2,682 bn. Def budget 1984: 99.000 bn ($1,769 bn); NATO defn $2,575 bn.
GDP growth: -2% (1981), -1.3% (1982).
Inflation: 8.7% (1982). 7.7% (1983).
Debt 1982: $31.0 bn. $1=francs 45.691 (1982), 51.132 (1983), 55.975 (mid-1984).
Army: 65,102 (incl Medical Service; 26,163 conscripts).
   1 Corps HQ, 2 Div HQ.
   1 armd bde (2 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty bns, spt units).
   3 mech inf bdes each with 1 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty bns,spt units.
   1 para-cdo regt.
   3 recce bns.
   1 tk bn.
   2 mot inf bns.
   3 arty bns.
   1 SSM bn with 4 Lance.
   4 AD bns: 2 SAM with 39 Improved HAWK; 2 AA with Gepard.
   5 engr bns (3 fd, 1 bridge, 1 eqpt).
   4 Lt aviation sqns.
AFV: 330 Leopard Mm, 119 Scorpion lt tks; 138 Scimitar AFV,
   1,355 APC incl 130 FMC, 130 M-113, 262 Spartan, AMX-VCI (phasingout), M-75 (with reserves).
Arty. 15 203mm how; 90 M-108 105mm (to be retired), 25 M-44 (to be retired), 39 M-109 155mm (being upgraded), 10 M-110 203mm SP how; 5 Lance SSM.
ATK: 80 JPz C-90mm SP ATK guns; Milan ATGW; 40 Striker AFV with Swingfire ATGW.
AD: 36 20mm, 54 Gepard 35mm SP AA guns; 39 Improved HAWK SAM.
Avn: 5 Islander ac; 62 Alouette II hel.
   (On order: 514 MICV, 475 M-113A2 APC; 124 M-109A2 155mm SP how.)
RESERVES: 160,000 (incl 40,000 Medical Service), some on immediate recall status; 1 mech, 1 mot inf bdes; combat, combat spt, log spt tps.
   Territorial defence: 11 mot inf regts, 4 mot inf bns.
Navy: 4,557 (1,227 conscripts).
   4 E-71 frigates with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM, 1x8 Sea Sparrow SAM.
   7 US Type 498 ocean minehunters/minesweepers.
   6 US Type 60 coastal MCM (4 in reserve).
   14 Herstal inshore minesweepers.
   2 log spt and comd ships (MCM).
   6 river patrol boats.
   3 Alouette III hel.
   (On order: 10Flower (tripartite) MCM ships.)
Bases: Kallo, Ostend, Zeebrugge.
RESERVES: 4,500 (on immediate recall status).
Air Force: 20,948 (4,518 conscripts); 147 combat ac.
   5 FGA sqns: 3 with 54 Mirage 5BA/5BD; 2 with 22 F-16A, 14 F-16B.
   2 AD sqns with 34 F-16A, 5 F-16B.
   1 recce sqn with 18 Mirage 5BR (to get F-16).
   2 tpt sqns with 12 C-130H, 2 Boeing 727QC, 3 HS-748, 5 Merlin IIIA, 2 Falcon 20.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 3 HSS-1, 5 Sea King.
   2 liaison sqns with 23 Fouga CM-170.
   4 trg sqns: 2 with 28 SF-260MB, 2 with 32 Alpha Jet.
   AAM: Sidewinder.
   4 SAM sqns with 36 Nike Hercules (modernized).
   1 NADGE command reporting centre, associated radar.
   (On order: 34 F-16A ftr ac, 80 BDX (Timoney) APC.)
RESERVES: 14,000. Joint Service: 3,000.
Forces Abroad: Germany: 24,794;
   1 corps HQ, 1 div HQ, 1 armd, 1 mech inf bdes; 3 recce, 1 tk, 3 arty, 1 SSM, 2 AA, 3 engr bns; 3 aviation sqns, 6 Nike SAM sqns.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 16,200; 62 FN, 4 RM/62F armd cars, 5 Alouette II, 3 Puma hel.
  
   BRITAIN
Population: 56,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 325,909 (incl 16,246 women and some 9,732 enlisted outside Britain).
GDP 1982: $274.99 bn ($459,696 bn). 1983: 300.76 bn ($448,963 bn).
Def budget 1983/4: £15.973 bn* ($23,844 bn); NATO defh: $24,472 bn. 1984/5: £17.033 bn ($23,664 bn): NATO defn $24,216 bn.
   (* Includes replacement costs for Falkland losses.)
GDP growth: 2% (1982). 3% (1983).
Inflation: 5.4% (1982). 5.3% (1983).
Debt 1983: $68.3 bn. $1=£0.5299 (1981/2), 0.5982 (1982/3), 0.6699 (1983/4), 0.7198 (mid-1984).
Strategic Forces: (2,300):
   SLBM: 4 Resolution SSBN, each with 16 Polaris A3 msls with 3 MRV (being fitted with Chevaline).
   Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales.
Army: 161,539 (incl 6,573 women and 9,357 enlisted outside Britain, of which 8,074 are Gurkhas).
   1 corps, 3 armd, 1 inf, 1 arty divs, 25 bdes, 1 Field Force HQ.
   13 armd regts (2 trg).
   6 armd recce regts.
   47 inf bns.
   6 Gurkha inf bns.
   3 para bns (1 in inf, 2 in para role).
   1 special air service (SAS) regt.
   1 msl regt with Lance SSM (4 btys, each 3 msls).
   3 AD regts with Rapier and Blowpipe SAM: 2 of 3 btys with 36 launchers, 1 (in BAOR) of 4 btys, 48 launchers; 2 btys SP.
   19 arty regts: 2 hy, 8 sp, 6 fd (1 cdo), 1 msl, 1
   GW, 1 locating; 3 indep Blowpipe SAM. btys.
   12 engr regts: 3 armd div, 1 armd, 1 amph, 6 fd, 1 Gurkha.
   4 army aviation regts; 16 sqns (1 cdo), 5 indep fits; 2 trg sqns, 6 fits.
AFV: some 70 Challenger, 900 Chieftain MBT (60 in reserve), 271 FV 101 Scorpion lt tks;
   243 FV 601 Saladin armd cars; 290 FV 107 Scimitar, 1,429 Ferret, 200 Fox recce;
   2,338 FV 432, 600 FV 603 Saracen, 60 FV103 Spartan, 500 FV 1611, some Saxon APC.
Arty. 100 towed, 120 FV433 Abbot 105mm SP, 4 5.5-in. (140mm) trg, 31 M-107 175mm SP guns; 95 FH-70 towed, 101 M-109/A2/A3 155mm SP,
   16 M-110 203mm SP how; 12 Lance SSM.
ATK: Carl Gustav 84mm, 120mm RCL; Milan, Swingfire ATGW.
AD: Blowpipe, 108 Rapier (some 16 SP) SAM.
Avn: 9 Beaver AL-1, 22 Chipmunk ac; 41 Scout; 8 Alouette II, 155 Gazelle AH-1, 110 Lynx AH-1 hel, some with TOW.
   14 landing craft (2 tk, 12 med); 3 patrol craft, 2 hovercraft; 3 log ships.
(On order: Some 62 Challenger MBT; 250 MCV-80 MICV; some 50 AT-105 Saxon APC; 10 227mm MLRS; LAW-S0 RL, Milan, TOW ATGW;
   some 150 Rapier (100 SP), 48 Blowpipe SAM; 5 Gazelle, 24 Lynx AH-5 hel (6 with TOW), 3 patrol craft, 12 combat spt craft.)
DEPLOYMENT (see also Forces Abroad, below):
United Kingdom Land Forces (UKLF): Reinforcements for 1 Br Corps, Germany: 1 inf div HQ; 2 inf Regular, 2 inf TA bdes;
   United Kingdom Mobile Force (UKMF): 1 air portable inf bde and log spt gp;
   Allied Command Europe Mobile Force (LAND) (AML (L) ): 1 inf bn, 1 armd recce, 1 sigs sqns, 1 arty bty, 1 log bn; 1 avn fit;
   Home Defence: 10 inf, 1 AB bdes.
   HQ Northern Ireland: (some 9,400); 2 inf bde HQ, 8 major units in inf role (6 resident, 2 temporary inf bns), 1 SAS, 1 engr sqn,
   1 army aviation regt of 2 sqns.
RESERVES: 219,642: Regular Reserves 141,769.
   Territorial Army (TA) 70,629 (to be 75,000 by 1986): 2 armd, 3 It recce regts, 35 inf bns, 2 SAS, 2 fd, 3 AD, 7 engr regts.
   Ulster Defence Regiment 6,929 (4,200 part time): 10 bns (internal security role in Northern Ireland only in peacetime).
   Home Service Force: (315, to be increased to 5,000) 4 coys; 2-year pilot scheme.
Navy: 71,281 (incl Fleet Air Arm, Royal Marines, 3,929 women and 375 enlisted outside Britain); 56 major surface combat vessels (incl 2 LPD).
Submarines, attack: 28.
   13 SSN (2 Trafalgar, 6 Swiftsure, 3 Churchill, 2 Valiant);
   15 SS (13 Oberon, 2 Porpoise).
Surface Ships:
3 ASW carriers with 5 Sea Harrier V/STOL ac, 9 Sea King hel:
   2 Invincible (1 more in late 1984) with 1x2 Sea Dart SAM, Phalanx AD system,
   1 Hermes (future under review) 2x4 Seacat SAM.
12 GW destroyers:
   2 County (1 to be sold 1984) with 1x2 Seaslug, 2x4 Seacat SAM, 4 Exocet SSM, 1 Lynx HAS-2 hel;
   1 Type 82 with 1x2 Sea Dart SAM, 1 Ikara ASW;
   9 Type 42 with 1x2 Sea Dart, 1 Lynx hel.
42 GP frigates:
   6 Type 22 with 4 Exocet SSM, 2x6 Sea Wolf SAM, 2 Lynx hel;
   6 Type 21 with 4x1 Exocet SSM, 1x 4 Seacat SAM, 1 Lynx hel;
   24 Leander (1 trg) with 1 Wasp/Lynx (7 with 4 Exocet, 3x4 Seacat; 8 with Ikara ASW, 2x4 Seacat; 5 with 1x4 Exocet, 1x6 Sea Wolf) (1 converting);
   6 Rothesay (Type 12) with 1x4 Seacat, 1 Wasp hel.
   1 Whitby (Type 12) ASW frigate (trg), to be replaced by Leander and retired end 1984.
37 minesweepers/minehunters: 6 Hunt, 28 Ton (9 reserves, 7 Fishery Patrol), 1 River, 2 auxiliaries (charter).
1 Abdiel MCM spt ship.
35 patrol craft: 3 Peacock, 7 Island, 2 Castle, 3 Ton, 4 Bird (2 trg), 2 Loyal, 3 Falkland Islands ex-tugs, 4 Fleet tenders (trg); 2 32-metre;
   5 Tracker FAC (reserves).
2 assault ships (LPD) each with 4 LCM, 4 LCVP, 4x4 Seacat SAM.
Amph vessels: 6 landing ships incl 2 commercial (leased) (in Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ), 2 large landing craft (Army), 13 LCM, 8 lt LCT, 29 LCVP.
1 ice patrol, 1 sub tender, 11 survey ships, 1 survey craft, 1 Royal Yacht (hospital ship).
2 hel spt ships, 1 forward repair ship.
1 BH-7 hovercraft.
ROYAL FLEET AUXILIARY (RFA): (2,600):
   Naval vessels, civilian crews.
   15 tankers (1 chartered, being mod).
   4 fleet replenishment ships.
Included in above refitting or in reserve are: 1 SSBN, 3 SSN, 3 diesel subs, 3 frigates, 1 MCM, 1 LPD, 1 landing ship (RFA).
(On order: 1 ASW carrier, 3 Trafalgar SSN, 1 Type-2400 SS, 3 Type 42 destroyers, 6 Type 22 frigates, 5 Hunt, 11 Fleet MCM, 2 Peacock, 14 'trg patrol craft,
   3 LCT, 1 container ship (hel carrier auxiliary), 1 fleet tender;
   72 Trident II SLBM, 2 Phalanx 20mm AD systems, Sea Eagle, 300 Harpoon SSM, Javelin, Seawolf, Lightweight Seawolf SAM.)
Bases: Devonport, Faslane, Portland, Portsmouth, Rosyth.
FLEET AIR ARM: 26 combat ac, 177 combat hel (incl some 53 in trg sqns).
   3 ftr sqns (2 afloat, 1 trg) with 16 Sea Harrier FRS-1.
   5 ASW hel sqns: 4 with 64 Sea King HAS-2/-5; 2 embarked); 1 with 5 HAS-5, 2 Sea King AEW (mod HAS-2); 1 with 2 Sea King HAS-2.
   57 ASW hel fits (each 1 ac): 35 with Lynx HAS-2/-3; 22 with Wasp HAS-1.
   2 cdo assault sqns: 1 with 9 Sea King HC-4 (to get 8 more; new sqn to form); 1 with 22 Wessex HU-5/HC-4.
   1 ac trg sqn with 8 Sea Harrier FRS-1, 3 T-4N.
   6 hel trg sqns: 1 with 10 Wessex HU-5; 2 with 22 Sea King HAS-2/-5; 1 with 11 Lynx HAS-2/-3; 1 with 10 Wasp HAS-1; 1 with 19 Gazelle HT-2.
   5 hel fits with Wasp (hydrography/recce).
   1 SAR sqn with 7 Wessex HU-5, 1 SAR/fleet requirements sqn with 3 Wessex HU-5 hel, 2HS-125 (vip) tpt ac.
   1 observer trg sqn with 16 Jetstream T-2, 1 trg fit with 13 ChipmunkT-10.
   Other ac incl 12 Canberra T-22/T-18, 27 Hunter T-7/-&/GA-1.
   ASM: Sea Skua.
   (On order: 14 Sea Harrier FRS-1, 4 Jetstream Mk-3 ac; 13 Sea King HAS-5, 15 Sea King HC-4, 3 Lynx HAS-3 hel.)
ROYAL MARINES: (7,571).
   1 cdo bde with 3 cdo gps; 1 cdo arty regt, 2 cdo engr sqns (1 Regular, 1 Reserve) (with army); 1 lt hel sqn, 1 log regt, spt units.
   1 Special Boat and 1 Assault sqns.
   18 105mm It guns; 18 81mm mor; Milan ATGW; Blowpipe SAM; 12 Gazelle AH-1, 4 Lynx AH-1 hel.
   (On order: 2 Lynx hel.)
RESERVES: 34,928. Navy: Regular 23,611;
   Volunteer 5,320: 4 Regional Divisions. 11 MCM, 8 patrol vessels.
   Auxiliary Service: 2,800; 72 units, emergency assistance.
   Marines: Regular 2,217; Volunteer 980; 1 Assault sqn.
Air Force: 93,089 (incl 5,744 women); some 620 combat ac.
   13 strike/attack sqns: 5 with 80 Tornado GR-1, 1 more converting; 2 with 25 Buccaneer S-2A/B (to retire); 4 with 48 Jaguar GR-1, 6 T-2.
   5 close support sqns: 3 with 36 Harrier GR-3/T-4; 2 with 24 Jaguar.
   8 interceptor sqns: 2 with 24 Lightning F-6/F-3/T-5; 6 with 72 Phantom (4 with FGR-2, 2 with FG-1); (36 more ac in reserve);
   (Tornado F-2 to come into service 1984).
   2 recce sqns with 24 Jaguar GR-1, 1 fit with 3 Canberra PR-9.
   4 MR sqns with 28 Nimrod MR-1/-1A/-2 (Harpoon ASM, Sidewinder AAM being fitted).
   1 AEW sqn with 6 Shackleton AEW-2 (5 in reserve); (5 Nimrod AEW-3 to be phased in).
   3 tanker sqns: 2 with 16 Victor K-2; 1 with 4 Tristar 500, 9 VC-10 (5 K-2, 4 K-3; being phased in).
   1 strategic tpt sqn with 11 VC-10C1, 2 Tristar 500.
   4 tac tpt sqns with 41 C-130H incl 6 C-130HC3.
   3 comms sqns with 6 HS-125 CC1/2, 4 Andover, 6 Pembroke, 1 BAe-146-100 ac; 1 Gazelle hel.
   Queen's Fit with 3 Andover ac, 2 Wessex hel.
   3 ECM/target facilities/calibration sqns with 31 Canberra, 3 Nimrod MR-1, 5 Andover E-3/C-1.
   12 ocu: 1 NATO Trilateral Trg Establishment with 21 Br, 22 FRG, 7 It Tornado GR-1; 11 others with: 22 Tornado GR-1,
   9 Buccaneer Mk 2, 18 Phantom FGR-2, 20 Jaguar GR-1/T-2, 21 Harrier GR-3/T-4, 3 Nimrod, 4 Canberra B-2/T-4, 5 C-130, 7 Victor K-2 ac;
   4 Wessex HC-2, 5 Puma HC-1, 2 Sea King HAR-3, 6 CH-47 Chinook hel.
   2 tac weapons units with 6 Hunter F-6/GA-9/T-7, 74 Hawk T-l, 2 Jet Provost.
   7 hel sqns: 5 tac tpt (1 with 20 Wessex, 2 with 26 Puma HC-1, 2 with 25 CH-47 Chinook HC-1);
   9 SAR fits (5 with 18 Wessex HAR-2, 4 with 14 Sea King HAR-3).
   Trg units with 47 Hawk T-l, 145 Jet Provost, 11 Jetstream T-l, 112 Bulldog T-I, 60 Chipmunk T-10, 19 Dominie T-l, 1 Husky T-l ac;
   5 Whirlwind, 14 Wessex HC-2, 22 Gazelle HT-3 hel.
   AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow, Red Top, Firestreak, Sky Flash.
   ASM: Martel, Harpoon.
2 SAM sqns with 64 Bloodhound 2.
(On order: 4 Harrier GR-3, some T-4, 15 Phantom F Mk 3 (F-4J), 123 Tornado (out of 220 GR-1 FGA,165 F-2 AD planned), 11 Nimrod AEW-3,
   4 HS-125-700, 1 BAe-146-100 (VIP); 9 VC-10K-2/-3 ac; 7 Chinook, 3 Sea King HAR hel;
   AIM-9L Sidewinder, 12 Rapier SAM, Sky Flash AAM; Sea Eagle ASM; 6 AR-3D AD radar.)
ROYAL AIR FORCE REGIMENT:
   4 wing HQ.
   6 SAM sqns (Rapier) and 5 lt armd sqns.
   36 Scorpion lt tks; 90 Spartan APC; SAM.
DEPLOYMENT:
Strike Command: 3 Gps; operational home command responsible for the UK Air Defence Region and Near and Far East; overseas command
   (RAF Germany, Belize and the Falklands).
Support Command: training supply and maintenance support of other commands.
RESERVES: 29,893. Regular 28,962.
   Volunteer 931: 1 air movements sqn; 4 def, 6 fd def sqns RAF Regt. Auxiliary: 6 sqns.
Forces Abroad: Army: 72,176. Navy/Marines: 5,142. Air Force: 16,655.
Antarctica: Navy: 1 ice patrol ship.
Ascension Island: Navy: Det 3 Wessex HU-5 hel. RAF: Victor, Hercules C-IP tanker dets.
Belize: 1,500. Army: some 1,200; 1 inf bn, 1 armd recce tp, 1 fd arty bty, 1 lt AD (Blowpipe) tp, 1 engr sqn, 1 hel fit (4 Gazelle AH-1).
   Navy: 1 destroyer/frigate (guard ship), 1 spt ship. RAF: (200); 1 fit (4 Harrier GR-3 FGA, 4 Puma hel), 1 Rapier AD det (4 units) RAF Regt.
Brunei: Army: 1 Gurkha inf bn, det hel sqn. Royal Marines: 1 coy.
Canada: Army: training and liaison team.
Cyprus: Army: 3,367: UNFICYP (some 760); 1 inf bn less 2 coys, 1 armd recce sqn, 1 hel fit, engr sqn and log spt.
   Garrison: 1 inf bn plus 2 inf coys, 1 armd recce (8 tps), 1 engr spt sqns, 1 hel fit.
   RAF: 1,445; 1 hel sqn (incl 1 fit (4 ac) with UNFICYP), periodic dets of other ac, 1 fd sqn RAF Regt.
   Navy/Marines: 19.
Egypt (Sinai MFO): 35 technical and admin personnel.
Falkland Islands: 4,000. Army: 1 inf bn gp, armd recce sqn, 1 arty, 1 engr, (4 fd, 1 spt sqns) regts, 1 sqn army air.
   Navy: 1 SSN, 1 ASW carrier (Harrier and Sea King ASW hel sqns), 4 escorts, spt and auxiliary ships.
   RAF: 1 Phantom sqn, 1 Harrier fit, 2 Buccaneer, 1 Hercules K-l ac dets, 3 Sea King HAR-3, 4 Chinook hel dets, 1 Rapier SAM sqn.
   (Details may vary through the year.)
Germany: British Army of the Rhine (BAOR): 56,761;
   1 corps HQ, 3 armd divs, 1 arty div, 7 armed, 1 air mobile bdes; 3 army air regts (10 sqns, 2 indep fits), 3 AD regts.
   Berlin Inf Bde: 3,000; 3 inf bns, one armd sqn.
   RAF: 10,200; 12 ac, 2 hel sqns: 2 Phantom FGR-2, 2 Tornado, 5 Jaguar (1 recce), (to be replaced by 6 sqns of Tornado), 2 Harrier,
   1 Pembroke (comms); 1 Puma, 1 Chinook (tpt); (RAF regt) 3 Rapier SAM, 1 fd sqn.
Gibraltar: Army: 816; 1 inf bn, 1 engr team, 1 arty surveillance tp. Navy: 793; 1 frigate, 1 spt ship; Marine dets. RAF: 427; periodic Jaguar ac dets.
Hong Kong: Army: 7,840; (British 1,897, Gurkha 4,703, H.K. Regt 1,240);
   Gurkha Field Force with 1 Br, 4 Gurkha inf bns, 1 each Gurkha engr, sigs, tpt regts, 1 hel sqn (-) with 12 Scout AH-1, spt units.
   Navy: 656 (375 locally enlisted); 3 Ton, 2 Peacock patrol craft, 1 Marine Raiding sqn. RAF: 269; 1 Wessex sqn.
Indian Ocean (intermittent): 1-2 destroyers/frigates, 2 spt ships; Diego Garcia, 1 naval det.
Military Advisers: 700 in 30 countries incl Belize, Brunei, Kenya, Kuwait, Nigeria, Oman, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Uganda, Zimbabwe.
  
   CANADA
Population: 25,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 82,858 (6,667 women).*
   (* The Canadian Armed Forces were unified in 1968. Of the total strength, some 49,000 are not identified by service.)
GDP 1981: $C 350.65 bn ($US 291.528 bn), 1982: $C 369.720 bn ($US 298.571 bn).
Def budget 1983/4: $C 7.986 bn ($US 6.443 bn); NATO defn $US 7.061 bn. 1984/5: $C 8.767 bn ($US 6.771 bn); NATO defn $US 7.483 bn.
GDP growth: -4.4% (1982), 3% (1983).
Inflation: 9.7% (1982). 4.6% (1983).
Debt 1982: $99.5 bn. $US1=$C 1.2028 (1981/2), 1.2383 (1982/3), 1.2394 (1983/4), 1.2948 (mid-1984).
Army (Land Forces): 13,000.*
Mobile Command (about 16,000 land and air).
   (Mobile Command commands army combat forces, and Maritime Command all naval forces.
   Air Command commands all air forces, but Maritime Command has operational control of maritime air forces.
   Mobile Command has operational control of 10 TAG. HQ 4 ATAF in Europe has operational control of 1 CAG.
   There is also a Communications Command and a Canadian Forces Training System.)
   2 bde gps: each 1 armd regt, 3 inf bns, 1 arty (2 close spt, 1AD btys), 1 engr regts, spt units.
   1 special service force (4,000): 1 armd regt, 1 inf bn, 1 AB, 1 arty, 1 engr regts, 1spt unit.
   1 mech bde gp (under command Canadian Forces, Europe): 1 armd regt, 2 mech inf bns, 1 med SP arty, 1 mech engr regts, 1 spt unit, 1 Lt hel sqn.
   114 Leopard C-l MBT; 100 Lynx, 195 Cougar AFV; 955 M-113, 269 Grizzly APC;
   12 model 56 (L-5) pack, 159 towed 105mm, 50 M-109 155mm SP how; 633 Carl Gustav 84mm RCL; 108 TOW ATGW;
   48 L-40/60 40mm AA guns; 122 Blowpipe SAM.
RESERVES: about 16,000 Militia; 131 combat arms units and spt units (all in Mobile Command), plus 1,560 in Communications Reserves.
   (Reserve strength (all components) to increase to 40,000 by end 1989.)
Navy (Maritime Forces): 5,500.*
Maritime Command (MARCOM; about 8,700).
   3 Oberon subs.
   20 ASW destroyers: 4 DD-280, each with 2 Sea King hel, 2x4 Sea Sparrow SAM; 2 Annapolis,
   6 St Laurent with 1 Sea King hel (to be retired from 1989); 4 Improved Restigouche, 4 Mackenzie with ASROC.
   3 replenishment spt ships (one in refit), each with 3 Sea King hel.
   6 coastal patrol ships (trg).
   6 small patrol craft.
   (On order: 6 ASW frigates.)
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES:
   Atlantic: 3 subs, 13 destroyers (1 in reserve), 2 replenishment spt ships. Halifax.
   Pacific: 10 destroyers (2 in reserve), 1 replenishment spt ship. Esquimalt.
RESERVES: about 3,250.
Air Force: 15,300; * some 160 combat ac, 32 combat hel.
Air Command (23,000).f
1 Air Group (1 CAG, Germany):
   3 fighter sqns with 42 CF-104/-104D (to get 54 CF-188 (F-18) ).
Fighter Group:
   2 FGA sqns with 20 CF-116 (F-5A), 4 CF-116D (F-5D) (NATO assigned).
   1 trg sqn with 4 CF-116,21 CF-116D.
   1 trg sqn 31 CF-188D (getting more).
   3 AD sqns with 38 CF-101 Voodoo, (2 to get CF-188; trg sqns to augment.)
   1 ECM trg sqn with 3 CC-117 (Falcon 20, to be 5); 17 CT-133, CF-101.
   4 main, 17 auxiliary sites of Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line; Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
   24 long-range radar sites (CADIN/Pine Tree Line).
   1 space tracking and identification site.
   10 Tactical Air Group (10 TAG):
   6 hel sqns with 31 CH-135 (UH-1N), 36 CH-136, 7 CH-147 (Chinook).
Maritime Air Group:
   3 maritime patrol sqns: 18 CP-140 Aurora.
   1 MR, 1 reserve sqns: 15 CP-121 Tracker (A in reserve).
   2 ASW, 1 trg hel sqns: 32 CH-124 (Sea King; afloat).
   2 utility sqns: 9 T-33, 3 CP-121 ac, 2 CH-135 hel.
Air Transport Group:
   5 tpt sqns: 3 with 26 CC-130E/H; 1 with 5 CC-137 (Boeing 707); 1 with 7 CC-109 Cosmopolitan, 5 CC-117 Falcon, 2 CC-132 (DHC-7R),
   2 CC-144 Challenger.
   4 tpt/SAR sqns (2 MARCOM-assigned) with 11 CC-115 (DHC-5), 8 CC-138 (DHC-6) ac;
   3 CH-113 Labrador, 7 CH-113A Voyageur(being uprated); 3 CH-135 (UH-1N) hel.
   1 SAR unit with 3 CH-113.
   4 base hel fits with 9 CH-118 Iroquois, 2 CH-135.
Training Group:
   3 schools: 1 with 18 CT-134 Musketeer ac, 14 CH-139 hel; 1 with 83 CT-114 Tutor, 1 with 2 CT-134, 17 CT-114; 2 CC-129 (C-47).
   1 demonstration unit with 11 CT-114.
   (On order: 138 CF-188 (113 F-18A, 25 -18B)
   Hornet ftrs; 1 CC-132 (DHC-7R Ranger).
RESERVES: 950. Air Reserve Group; 2 wings with 16 CH-136 hel, 1 sqn MARCOM-assigned.
   Other ac incl 18 CF-104 (2 D), 3 CC-129.
Forces Abroad:
Europe: 6,700;
   HQ (1,440); 1 mech bde gp (3,200) with
   59 Leopard 1 MBT, 375 M-113 APC/recce, 24 M-109 155mm SP how, 40 TCW ATGW, 50 40mm AA guns, 70 Blowpipe SAM, 11 CH-136 Kiowa hel.
   2,500 reinforcements in Canada.
   1 Air Group: (760): 3 fighter sqns with 42 CF-104/-104D; (54 CF-188 to replace); 1 det with 2 CC-132 and 4 CT-133 liaison ac.
Cyprus (UNFICYP): 515.
Syria/Israel (UNDOF): 221.
Other Middle East (UNTSO): 20.
Para-Military Forces: Coast Guard: 6,561 (civilian-manned): 25 icebreakers, 16 SAR patrol vessels, 2 DHC-7R ac, 37 hel, 3 SRN-5/-6 hovercraft.
   Cdn Rangers: 1,300.
  
   DENMARK
Population: 5,150,000.
Military service: 9 months.
Total armed forces: 31,400 (9,500 conscripts).
GDP 1982: Kr 469.78 bn ($56,380 bn).
Est GDP 1983: Kr 515.60 bn ($56,380 bn).
Def exp 1983: Kr 10.314 bn* ($1,128 bn); NATO defn $1,221 bn. 1984 budget: 11.342 bn ($1,127 bn); NATO defn n.a. (* At January 1983 price level.)
GDP growth: 3.1% (1982). 2% (1983).
Inflation: 10% (1982). 6.9% (1983).
Debt 1982: $32.2 bn. $1=kroner 8.3324 (1982), 9.145 (1983), 10.0643 (mid-1984).
Army: 18,100 (6,800 conscripts).
   2 div HQ.
   5 mech inf bdes, each with 1 tk, 2 mech, 1 arty bns, 1 AD bty, 1 engr coy, spt units.
   5 regimental combat teams, each with 2 inf, 1 arty bns, 1 ATK gp.
   2 indep recce bns.
   1 Army aviation unit, some 8 platoons.
AFV: 120 Leopard 1, 88 Centurion MBT; 48 M-41 lt tks; 650M-113, 68 M-106 mor-armed APC.
Arty. 24 155mm guns; 144 105mm, 96 155mm, 12 M-l15 203mm towed, 72 M-109 155mm SP how; 81mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: 400 Carl Gustav 84mm, 252 106mm RCL; LAW RL; 140 TOW ATGW.
AD: 36 L/60 40mm AA guns; Hamlet (Redeye) SAM.
Avn: 16 Saab T-17 lt ac; 12 Hughes 500M hel.
RESERVES: 125,400. Augmentation Force 6,000, subject to immediate recall;
   Field Army Reserve 45,000, comprising 15,000 Covering Force Reserve (to bring units to war strength and add 1 mech bn to each bde) and
   30,000 to provide regimental combat teams, combat and log spt;
   Regional Defence Force 14,000 with 9 inf, 4 arty bns, ATK sqns, spt units; Army Home Guard 60,400 (8,400 women).
Navy: 5,900 (1,200 conscripts).
   5 subs: 2 Narhvalen, 3 Delfinen.
   5 frigates with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, Sea Sparrow SAM: 2 Peder Skram, 3 Niels Juel.
   5 Hvidbjernen fishery-protection frigates with 1 Lynx hel.
   10 Willemoes FAC(G) with Harpoon SSM.
   6 Seloven FAC(T) (2 in reserve).
   22 large patrol craft: 8 Daphne, 3 Agdlek, 2 Maagen, 9 Barso.
   5 Botved coastal patrol craft <.
   7 minelayers: 4 Falster, 2 Lindormen, 1 Langeland.
   6 US Type 60 coastal minesweepers.
Coastal defence unit: 2 coastal fortresses with 155mm guns.
Air: 8 Lynx hel (4 embarked).
   (On order: Harpoon SSM, Sea Sparrow SAM.)
Bases: Copenhagen, Korsor, Frederikshavn.
RESERVES: 3,800; Navy Home Guard 5,200 (1,500 women): 37 coastal patrol craft.
Air Force: 7,400 (1,500 conscripts); 96 combat ac.
Tactical Air Command:
   3 FGA sqns with 48 F-16A/B.
   1 FGA/interceptor sqn with 16 F-35XD Draken.
   1 FGA/recce sqn with 16 RF-35XD Draken.
   1 interceptor sqn with 16 F-104G.
   Air Materiel Command:
   1 tpt sqn, 3 comms fits, with 3 C-130H, 3
   Gulfstream III, 7 Saab T-17.
   1 SAR sqn with 8 S-61A hel.
   Flying School: 15 T-17.
AD gp: 1 SAM bn, 6 btys: with 36 Improved HAWK (2 more to be formed).
   AAM: Sidewinder.
   ASM: Bullpup.
   (In reserve: 9 F-16.)
   (On order: AIM-9L Sidewinder AAM.)
RESERVES: 9,400; Air Force Home Guard 12,400 (1,800 women).
Forces Abroad: Cyprus (UNFICYP): 1 bn (341).
  
   FRANCE
Population: 54,600,000.
Military service: 12 months and voluntary system 16-24 months.
Total armed forces: 471,350* (12,400 women; 244,900 conscripts). (* Incl inter-service central staff and Service de Same, but not Gendarmerie.)
GDP 1982: F fr 3,552.0 bn ($540,442 bn). Est GDP 1983: F fr 3,894.4 bn ($510,989 bn).
Est def exp 1983: F fr 133.22 bn ($17,480 bn); NATO defn $21,381 bn. 1984: 142.100 bn ($16,817 bn); NATO defn $20,237 bn.
   (A 5-year military development plan for 1983/8 totalling approx. F fr 830 bn has also been introduced.)
GDP growth: 0.4% (1981), 1.6% (1982), 5% (1983).
Inflation: 9.4% (1982), 9.9% (1983).
Debt 1982: $106.1 bn. $1=francs 6.5724 (1982), 7.6213 (1983), 8.4499 (mid-1984).
Strategic Nuclear Forces: (19,100; some 2,800 Army, 4,900 Navy, 10,600 Air Force, 800 Gendarmerie).
SLBM:
   5 SSBN with 16 M-20 msls (1 more building, 1 on long refit) (M-4 msl replacing M-20 from 1985).
   1 experimental/trials diesel sub with 2 SLBM tubes.
IRBM: 18 SSBS S-3 msls in 2 sqns.
Aircraft:
   Bombers: 4 sqns with 28 Mirage IVA (AN-22 nuclear bombs); 7 being converted to IVP for ASMP nuclear ASM; total 18 by end 1986.
   1 trg center with 4 Mirage IVR recce; 1 with 12 Mirage IIIB/BRV trg; 4 Noratlas N-2501/SNB.
   1 tanker wing (3 sqns) with 11 KC-135F.
   Reserve: 3 Mirage IVA (1 recce).
   (On order: 1 SSBN, 16 M-4 SLBM, ASMP ASM; 4 Transall ASTARTE command post ac.)
Army: 304,500 incl Army Aviation, 5,700 women (190,000 conscripts); reorganizing and reducing.
   1 army HQ, 3 corps HQ.
   6 armd divs.
   2 lt armd divs (mil schools).
   2 motor rifle (APC) divs.
   Army corps regts: 3 recce, 2 drone, 1 motor rifle, 2 arty, 5 SSM with Pluton,
   8 SAM (3 (11 btys) with 66 HAWK, 6 (each of 4 btys) with Roland I/II and twin 30mm AA guns), 5 engr, 6 sigs, 4 tpt.
   3 log bdes.
Rapid Action Force (FAR): (47,000).
   1 para div (12,800): 6 para inf, 1 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 engr regts, 1 spt bn.
   1 air portable marine div (8,100): 4 inf, 1 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 engr, 1 comd/spt regts.
   1 lt armd div (summer 1984) (6,400): 2 lt armd, 2 APC inf, 1 arty, 1 engr, 1 comd/spt regts.
   1 alpine div (9,100): 1 mountain inf regt (6 bns), 1 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 comd/spt regts; 1 engr coy.
   (1 air mobile div to form (1985): 1 inf, 4 hel, 1 comd/spt regts.)
   1 log bde (spt units incl 1 tpt regt).
   Foreign Legion: 8,000; 1 armd, 1 para, 4 inf (trg), 2 engr regts; 1 lt bde.
   Indep regts: 1 EW, 2 para, 4 engr.
AFV: 1,102 AMX-30 (165 -30B2) MBT; 500 AMX-13 lt tks (158 with SS-11 ATGW);
   189 AMX-10RC, 300 Panhard EBR-90 hy, 75 ERC-90S, 664 AML-60/90 lt armd cars;
   835 AMX-10P/PC/VOA MICV; 1,100 AMX-13 VTT, 1,860 VAB, 42 VAB (HOT) APC.
Arty. 60 AU-F-1 155mm SP guns; 165 HM-2, 908 BF-50 155mm towed, 30 AU-50 105mm, 214 F-3 155mm SP how; 44 Pluton SSM; 596 120mm mor.
ATK: 135 AMX-13/SS-11, 1,400 Milan, 156 ENTAC ATGW, 12,000 89mm RL.
AD: 10076T1,280 53T2 20mm, 350 30mm and 40mm towed, 69 AMX-30 DCA twin 30mm SP AA guns; 69 HAWK, 128 Roland I/II SAM.
Air. 4 CL-89 recce drones.
ARMY AVIATION (ALAT): (6,600).
   6 combat hel regts: 7 lt gps, 2 schools.
   206 Alouette II, 68 Alouette III with AS-11 ATGW; 130 SA-330 Puma, 165 SA-341F and 90 SA-342M Gazelle hel with HOT; 70 Broussard, 30L-19 lt ac.
(On order: 635 AMX-30B2 MBT conversion; 96 AMX-10RC, 162 ERC-90S armd cars; MICV; 122 AU-F-1 155mm SP guns; 148 TR 155mm how;
   55 227mm MLRS; 23 120mm mor; 907 HOT (VAB and Gazelle), 407 20mm AA guns; SA-341, 15 SA-342 (HOT) hel.)
RESERVES: 305,000 (8 inf divs, 1 formed from military schools; 6 'Home' bdes: 2 mixed, 23 territorial defence regts;
   to be reorg 1985: some units to full strength).
Navy: 67,700 incl Naval Air, (1,100 women; 17,300 conscripts); 48 major surface combat vessels. 2 home (CECLANT, CECMED); 2 overseas comds.
17 attack subs: (2 Rubis SSN; 4 Agosta, 9 Daphne, 2 Narval).
2 Clemenceau carriers: 1 attack with 39 ac (2 fits with 20 Super Etendard, 1 with 7 F-8E, 1 with 6 Alize;
   1 det with 4 Etendard IVP), 4 hel; 1 ASW (LPH) with 40 hel (varies).
1 hel carrier (capacity 8 Lynx hel) with 6 Exocet SSM (trg).
1 command cruiser with 4 Exocet SSM, 1x2 Masurca SAM.
19 destroyers:
   4 AA (2 Suffren with 4 Exocet, 1 Malafon ASW/SSM, 1x2 Masurca SAM; 2 T-47 with 1 Tartar SAM);
   15 ASW (4 C-70 with 4 Exocet, 1x8 Crotale SAM, 2 Lynx hel; 3 F-67 with 6 Exocet, 1x8 Crotale, 1 Malafon, 2 Lynx, 1 T-56 with 1 Malafon, 1 hel;
   1 T-53 with 4 Exocet, 1 Lynx; 5 T-47 with 1 Malafon; 1 C-65 with 4 Exocet, 1 Malafon).
25 frigates: 9 Riviere, (8 with 4 Exocet); 16 Type A-69 (4 with 2 Exocet; 5 with 4; 1 more in 1984).
   1 D-400 FAC(G) with 2 Exocet MM-38 SSM.
   5 FAC: 4 Patra, 1 La Combattante I.
   4 large patrol craft: 1 Sirius, 2 Cdn La Dunkerquoise, 1 P-681 Albatros.
   3 Eridan, 5 Circe minehunters, 5 US Aggressive ocean minehunters.
   11 coastal minesweepers: 6 Berlaimont, 5 Type D.
6 assault ships: 2 Ouragan (with 4 Super Frelon or 6 Gazelle/Alouette hel, 9 LCM or 2 LCT), 4 Batral.
   5 LST, 9 LCT, 30 LCM.
   7 ocean-going tankers, 6 maintenance/log ships.
   Msls: SSM: Exocet MM-38, MM-40; SM-39 sub-launched being introduced. ASW: Malafon.
   SAM: Crotale, Masurca, Tartar.
Bases
: Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, Toulon.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (12,300); 121 combat ac, 37 combat hel.
   3 strike sqns with 36 Super Etendard (AN-52 nuclear weapons; 5 to be mod for ASMP).
   1 interceptor sqn with 14 F-8E (FN) Crusader.
   2 ASW sqns with 16 Alize (mod) (11 more to be modernized).
   4 MR sqns with 27 Atlantic, 3 Gardian.
   1 recce sqn with 8 Etendard IVP.
   1 ocu: 12 Etendard IVM, 12 Fouga Zephir, 5 Alize.
   4 ASW hel sqns: 3 with 23 Lynx, 1 with 8 Super Frelon.
   1 assault hel sqn with 6 Super Frelon.
   14 comms/liaison/SAR units (1 VIP): with 14 Navajo, 8 Nord 262, 1 Nord N-25404, 4 Xingu, 2 mod Alize, 3 Rallye 880, 5 Gardian, 8 MS-760,
   5 Falcon 10MER ac; 28 Alouette II/III, 3 Lynx, 2 Super Frelon hel.
   5 trg units with 13 Nord 262, 2 Navajo 9 EMB-121 Xingu, 13 Rallye 100S, 6 CAP-10 ac; 10 Alouette III.
   ASM: Exocet AM-39, AS-11/-12/-30, Martel AS-37.
   AAM: R530, Sidewinder, R-5
(On order: 6 SSN; 7 C-70 destroyers (3 ASW, 4 AA), 7 A-69 frigates, 70 P-400 FAC(G), 7 minehunters; 1 LSD, 2 LCT, 10 LCM; 1 ocean tanker,
   33 Exocet SM-39 sub-launched SSM; 14 Crotale 8B SAM; 42 Atlantic II ASW ac.)
COMMANDOS (590): 4 assault units (1 reserve), 1 sub spt unit.
NAVAL BASE DEFENCE FORCE (2,400).
DEPLOYMENT:
   Atlantic Fleet: 5 SSBN, 9 other subs, 1 hel carrier, 20 escorts, 11 MCM, 8 amph. Channel Flotilla: 3 frigates, 7 MCM.
   Mediterranean Fleet: 2 SSN, 9 subs, 2 carriers, 14 escorts, 5 MCM, 5 amph.
   See also Forces Abroad.
PUBLIC SERVICE FORCE (MHSP): Naval personnel, general coastguard duties;
   1 Sterne, 1 Mercure patrol craft, 1 ex-trawler, 1 Albatros fishery - protection vessel, 3 ac.
RESERVES: 30,000.
Air Force: 99,150 (5,600 women, 37,600 conscripts); some 492 combat ac.
Air Defence Command (CAFDA): (7,700).
   12 interceptor sqns: 2 with 25 Mirage III Lynx C (1 (10 ac) in Djibouti), 1 with 15 Mirage IIIE, 8 with 120 Mirage F-1C, 1 with 14 Mirage 2000C (forming).
   1 ocu with 15 Mirage F-1B.
   4 trg fits with 30 Magister and Broussard.
   Air-defence system: automatic STRIDA II, 10 radar stations.
   12 SAM (1 trg) sqns with 24 Crotale btys (48 fire, 24 radar units).
   200 AA btys (20mm guns).
   AAM: R-530, Super 530F, R-550 Magic I/II, Sidewinder.
Tactical Air Force (FATAC): (19,600).
   5 strike sqns: 3 with 45 Jaguar, 2 with 30 Mirage IIIE tactical (AN-52 nuclear weapons).
   10 FGA sqns: 3 with 45 Mirage IIIE, 2 with 30 Mirage 5F, 5 with 75 Jaguar A.
   3 recce sqns: 2 with 19 Mirage IIIR, 11 IIIRD (F-1 replacing); 1 with 15 Mirage F-1CR.
   2 OCU: 33 Jaguar A/E.
   8 trg fits with Magister, Broussard.
   AAM: Sidewinder, R-550 Magic, R-530.
   ASM: AS-30/-30L, Martel AS-37.
Attached to COTAM:
   2 AEW sqns: 1 with 5 Noratlas; 1 with 1 DC-8 (EE-51) ELINT.
   3 liaison sqns with Magister, Broussard.
   1 hel sqn with 9 Alouette II/III.
Air Transport Command (COTAM): (4,200).
   1 hy tpt sqn with 5 DC-8F.
   6 tac tpt sqns: 5 with 41 Transall C-160, 20 C-160NG, 1 with 10 Noratlas.
   14 lt tpt/trg/SAR sqns with 140 ac, incl 19 Nord 262, 10 Mystere 20, 1 Mystere 50, 18 Paris, 23 Broussard, 8 DHC-6, 4 Caravelle, 6 EMB-121 Xingu.
   1 OCU with 3 Noratlas, 1 Transall C-160.
   5 hel sqns with 26 Alouette II, 28 Alouette III, 13 Puma, 15 Dauphin.
   1 hel ocu with 9 Alouette II, 9 Alouette III, 2 Puma.
Training Command (CEAA): (6,600).
   Some 400 ac, incl some 103 Alpha Jet, 157 Magister, 3 Flamant, 6 Noratlas, 16 EMB-121, Xingu-l, 12 Epsilon, 57 CAP-10B/-20.
   Trials Units: 1 sqn with Mirage F-l, -2000, Jaguar, 1 sqn with 2 DHC-6, 1 N-262.
   (On order: 60 Mirage 2000M, 31 -N, 45 F-1CR ftrs; 3 Transall C-160 tpts, 110 Epsilon trg ac; 20 AS-350D, 30 AS-335 Ecureuil-2 hel,
   150 Magic I/II, 40 Super 530 AAM; 50 AS-30 laser ASM; 330 SATCP, 40 20mm AA guns, 100 Crotale SAM.)
RESERVES: 58,000.
   Inter-service
   Central Staff: 3,588.
   Service de Sante: 8,712 (2,140 conscripts).
Forces Abroad:
Europe. Germany. 48,500; 3 armd divs. Berlin: 2,700; 1 armd regt, 1 inf regt.
Overseas Dependencies: 16,500; Army 9,800, Navy 2,000, Air 1,700, Gendarmerie 3,000.
   Four inter-service overseas commands:
   Antilles-Guyana (7,300; 1 marine inf regt, 1 marine inf bn, 2 ships, 1 Atlantic MR ac);
   South Indian Ocean (Mayotte, La Reunion) (3,350; 1 para, 1 inf, 1 marine regts, 1 inf coy);
   New Caledonia (2,800; 1 marine inf regt);
   Polynesia (5,000, incl ALPACI; 1 marine regt).
   Two naval commands:
   Indian Ocean (ALINDIEN): 3,500, 5 frigates, 3 minor combatants, 2 amph, 4 spt ships;
   Pacific (ALPACI:, 5 frigates, 5 minor combatants, 7 amph, 12 spt ships, 2 Gardian MR ac).
   Other Overseas: some 7,220 from all services (numbers vary according to local circumstances).
   Eqpt incl 120 AFV, spt vessels, 25 combat and 25 tpt ac, 43 hel.
Deployed:
Central African Republic (C.A.R.) (980). 1 bn gp incl 2 motor coys; 1 platoon AML armd cars (6); spt coy with L-19 lt ac, 120mm mor, Milan ATGW;
   1 FGA det with Jaguar, 1 Army avn spt det with 3 SA-330 Puma, 2 C-160 tpt ac.
Chad (3,000). 1 Para, 1 marine regts; 1 armd coy with 3 sqns, 10 AMX-10RC; air elms with Mirage, Jaguar, 2 Atlantic MR, C-160 tpt ac;
   Puma, 12 Gazelle (HOT) hel. (Air may be based in the C.A.R).
Djibouti (3,250). 1 mixed regt: 6 inf coys, 4 armd sqns, 2 arty (1 AA) btys; 1 sqn with 10 Mirage IIIC, 1 C-160 tpt ac, 3 Alouette II hel;
   naval elms incl 1 Atlantic MR ac.
Gabon (350). 1 marine inf bn; Jaguar, 1 C-160, Atlantic ac, 1 Alouette III hel.
Ivory Coast (480). 1 marine inf bn, 1 Alouette III hel.
Middle East. Lebanon (UNIFIL) (1,386): 1 inf bn, log bn. Sinai MFO (40): incl 2 Twin Otter, 1 C-160 tpt ac.
Saudi Arabia (80). Technical advisers.
Senegal (1,170). 1 marine inf regt, 1 Atlantic MR, 1 C-160 tpt ac, 2 Alouette Will hel.
Africa, general: (956), trg teams.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 85,312 (incl 605 women, 8,700 conscripts, 950 civilians);
   3,678 territorial squads, 130 intervention units; 93 general traffic units, 21 highway sqns, 4 platoons; 130 mobile sqns; 240 overseas units.
   121 AML, 20 VBC-90 armd cars; 28 AMX-13 VTT, 155 VBRG-170 APC; 284 81 mm mor; 11 patrol boats;
   6 Cessna 206C ac; 31 Alouette II, 8 AS-350B Ecureuil, 11 Alouette III hel.
   Reserves: 125,000.
  
   GERMANY: FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF
Population: 61,400,000 (incl West Berlin).
Military service: 15 months.
Total armed forces: 495,000* (100 women, 230,500 conscripts); on mobilization about 1,250,000.
   (*Incl 11,200 military personnel in the Ministry of Defence, Central Military Agencies, Central Medical Agencies and 6,000 reserve duty training positions.)
GDP 1982: DM 1,602.5 bn ($660,389 bn). 1983: 1,666.2 bn ($652,567 bn).
Est def exp 1983: DM 46.751 bn ($18,310 bn); NATO defn $22,127 bn. 1984: 47.846 bn ($17,396 bn); NATO defn $21,139 bn.
GDP growth: -1.1% (1982). 1.3% (1983).
Inflation: 4.8% (1982). 3.2% (1983).
Debt 1982: $120 bn. $1=DM 2.4266 (1982), 2.5533 (1983), 2.7504 (mid-1984).
Army: 335,600f (181,200 conscripts).
HQ Support Elements: 25,400: General Army Office subordinate echelon and spt tps.
Field Army. 266,000.
   3 corps: 12 divs (6 armd, 4 armd inf, 1 mountain, 1 AB):
   36 bdes: 17 armd (each with 3 tk, 1 armd inf, 1 armd arty bns), 15 armd inf (each with 1 tk, 3 armd inf, 1 armd arty bns), 1 mountain, 3 AB.
   Total: 66 tk, 62 armd inf, 33 armd arty, 4 mountain, 9 para bns.
   11 armd recce bns.
   11 div arty regts, 7 corps hy arty bns.
   4 SSM bns with Lance.
   3 AD regts, 1 AD bn with Roland II SAM.
   11 AA regts with Gepard 35mm SP guns.
   3 army aviation comds, each with 1 It, 1 med tpt hel regt: 1 ATGW hel regt.
   1 mixed aviation regt.
Territorial Army. 44,200.
   3 Territorial Commands, 5 Military District Commands, 29 Military Region Commands, 80 Sub-region Commands (county/town level):
   6 Home Defence bdes (each with 2 tk, 2 inf, 1 arty bns): 1 at 85%, 3 at 65%, 2 at 52% manning levels.
   6 Home Defence bdes (each with 1 tk, 2 inf, 1 fd arty bns): weapons storage units only in peacetime.
   4 Territorial Service spt comds.
   Security tps: 15 Home Defence Regts (with 45 mot inf bns only), 150 coys, 324 security platoons; defensive, comms, military police and service units on mobilization.
AFV: 340 M-48A2/A2C, 650 M-48A2G/A2, 2,437 Leopard 1, 800 Leopard 2 MBT; 410 SPz-2 Luchs, 2,136 Marder MICV; 560 TPz-1, 3,095 M-113 APC.
Arty. 260 105mm, 216 FH-70, 586 M-109 155mm how, 230 M-110A2 203mm SP how; 987 120mm mor (500 SP); 209 LARS 110mm MRL; 26 Lance SSM.
ATK: 520 JPz-4-5 90mm SP ATK. guns; 204 106mm RCL; 1,975 Milan, 346 TOW ATGW, 316 RJPz- (HOT) Jaguar 1, 2 RJPz- (TOW) SP ATGW.
AD: 1,748 20mm towed, 432 Gepard 35mm SP AA guns; 800 Redeye, 120 Roland SAM.
Air. 190 UH-1D, 150 Alouette III, 170 PAH-1 (BO-105P with HOT), 80 BO-105M, 107 CH-53G hel.
(On order 1,000 Leopard 2 MBT; 430 TPz-1 APC; 200 227mm MLRS MRL; 160 RJPz-(TOW) Jaguar 2 ATGW veh (rebuilt JPz-4-5);
   20 Roland II SAM; 40 PAH-1, 70 BO-105M hel.)
Navy: 36,200, incl naval air (10,700 conscripts). (Not incl inter-service personnel and part-time reservists.)
   24 subs: 18 Type 206, 6 Type 205.
   7 destroyers: 3 Lutjens (Type 103A) with 1 Tartar SSM and 8 ASROC; 4 Hamburg (Type 101 A ) with 2x2 Exocet MM-38 SSM.
   8 frigates: 5 Bremen (Type 122 ) with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1x8 Sea Sparrow, 2x24 Stinger, 2 RAM-ASMD SAM, 2 Lynx hel; 3 Koln (Type 120).
   5 Thetis corvettes.
   38 FAC(G) with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM: 10 Type 143, 8 Type 143A, 20 Type 148.
   1 Type 142 FAC(T) (Type 143A FAC(G) replacing).
   18 Lindau MCM: 12 Type 331 coastal minehunters (MHC), 6 Type 351 Troika drone control minesweepers (MSCD), 18 F-l drone vessels (MCD).
   21 Schutze coastal minesweepers.
   18 inshore minesweepers: 4 Type 393/394B, 14 Type 393/394A.
   10 Rhein depot, 4 Luneburg (Type 701), 4 Coburg (Type 701C) spt ships, 4 tpts, 9 tankers.
   22 Type 520 LCU, 26 Type 521 LCM.
   (On order: 1 Type 122 frigates, 2 Type 143A FAC(G), 126 RIM-7M Sea Sparrow SAM.)
Bases: Flensburg-Murwik, Wilhelmshaven, Kiel, Olpenitz, Eckernforde.
NAVAL AIR ARM: 123 combat ac; 12 combat hel.
   3 attack sqns: 1 with 30 F/TF-104G; 2 with 47 Tornado.
   1 recce sqn with 27 RF-104G.
   2 MR sqns with 14 Atlantic, 5 ELINT Atlantic.
   1 ASW hel sqn with 12 Sea Lynx Mk 88.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 22 Sea King Mk 41.
   1 utility sqn with 19 Do-28-2 ac.
   ASM: AS-30, AS-34 Kormoran.
   (On order: 64 Tornado MRCA.)
Air Force: 106,000f (38,600 conscripts); 486 combat ac.
Tactical Command (GAFTAC): 456 combat ac.
   4 divs: 2 tac, 2 AD.
   20 FGA sqns: 5 with 90 F-104G; 4 with 53 F-4F; 4 with 60 Tornado; 7 with 126 Alpha Jet.
   4 interceptor sqns with 60 F-4F.
   4 recce sqns with 60 RF-4E.
   ECM trg: 7 HFB-320 Hansa Jet.
   8 SSM sqns with 72 Pershing 1A.
   3 SAM regts (each 2 bns of 4 btys) with 216 Nike Hercules launchers.
   3 SAM regts (each of 3 bns of 4 btys) with 216 Improved HAWK launchers.
   4 aircraft control and warning regts; 13 sites.
   AAM: Sidewinder.
Transport Command (GAFTC).
   4 tpt sqns with 75 Transall C-160.
   5 hel sqns with 92 UH-ID.
   1 special air mission wing with 4 Boeing 707-320C, 3 C-140 Jetstar, 6 HFB-320 Hansa Jet, 3 VFW-614, 6 Do-28-2 Skyservant ac,4 UH-1D hel.
Training Command: 30 combat ac.
   Trinational Tornado trg det (Cottesmore, Britain); 22 Tornado.
   Ocu (George Air Force Base (AFB) USA): 8 F-4E.
   Pilot trg wing (Sheppard AFB USA) 35 T-37B, 41 T-38A.
   Primary trg unit: 34 P-149D.
   Miscellaneous liaison, range and base fits with 65 Do-28D.
   (On order: 129 Tornado FGA, 6 CL-600 Challenger.)
RESERVES: 750,000 (all services).
Para-Military Forces: Border Police (Ministry of Interior): 20,000;
   FV-601 (D) (Saladin) armd cars, MOWAG SW-1/-2 APC; 2 P-149D, 1 Do-27A-3 ac, BO-105M, 21 Alouette II hel.
  
  GREECE
Population: 10,200,000.
Military service: Army 22, Navy 26, Air Force 24 months.
Total armed forces: 178,000 (1,800 women; 137,000 conscripts).
GDP 1982: dr 2,518.0 bn ($37,693 bn).1983: 3,064 bn ($34,793 bn).
Def exp 1983: dr 151.8 bn ($1,724 bn); NATO defn $2,416 bn. Est 1984: 247.722 bn ($2,287 bn); NATO defn n.a.
GDP growth: 0.5% (1982).
Inflation: 20.0% (1982). 20.0% (1983).
FMA 1983: $280 m.
Debt 1982: $10.6 bn. $1=drachmas 66.803 (1982), 88.064 (1983), 108.340 (mid-1984).
Army: 135,000 (99,500 conscripts incl 1,400 women).
   3 Military Regions, 4 corps, 1 specialized comd HQ.
   1 armd div.
   1 mech div.
   11 inf divs.
   1 para-cdo div (1 para, 1 cdo and 1 marine regts, 3 cdo bns).
   3 armd bdes.
   1 mech bde.
   4 armd recce bdes.
   13 fd arty bns.
   7 AA arty bns.
   2 SSM bns with 8 Honest John.
   2 SAM bns with Improved HAWK .
   3 army aviation bns.
   1 indep aviation coy.
AFV: 350 M-47, 900 M-48 incl 212 M-48A3, 225 M-48A5, 200 AMX-30, 106 Leopard 1A3 MBT; 190 M-24, 54 Kuerassier (105mm) lt tks;
   180 M-8 armd cars; 240 AMX-10P MICV; 100 Leonidas, 115 M-3 half-track, 430 M-59, 1,000 M-113 APC.
Arty. 36 M-107 175mm guns; 108 75mm pack, M-56, 300 M-101/-102 105mm, 270 M-114A1 155mm, 72 M-115 203mm towed,
   126 M-52A1/M-108 105mm, 54 M-44, 72 M-109A2 155mm, 20 M-110 203mm SP how; 36 Honest John SSM; 81mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: M-18 57mm, 75mm, some 350 EM-67 90mm, 700 106mm RCL; 50 M-113A2 Tow, SS-11, Cobra, TOW, Milan ATGW.
AD: RH-202 twin 20mm, 40mm, incl M-42 twin SP, M-51 75mm, M-117/118 90mm AA guns; 36 Improved HAWK (108 msls), 37 M-48 Chaparral, Redeye SAM.
Avn: 2 Super King Air, 2 Aero Commander, 1 DHC-2 Beaver, 50 U-17A ac;
   8 AH-1 with TOW, 10 CH-47C, 5 Bell 47G, 22 UH-1D, 50 AB-204B/-205, 10 AB-206A hel.
(On order: 46 Kuerassier 'lt tks' (SP ATK); 50 M-113A2 TOW SP ATGW; 58 M-198 towed, 36 M-109A2 155mm SP how, 350 90mm RCL;
   Artemis 30 twin 30mm AA guns.)
RESERVES: about 350,000: Field Army 227,000;
   Territorial Army 123,000 (incl some 100,000 National Guard).
   Territorial Army 23,000 incl 5,000 reservists on 4-week refresher trg. 3 Territorial (17 Sub Commands: 12 indep inf bdes.
   National Guard: 100 bns (mainly coastal defence);
   lt tks; 120 M-20 armd cars; 120 M-2/-3 half-track APC; 36 75mm pack, 125 25-pdr (88mm), 105mm guns/how;
   M-18 57mm, 200 M-20 75mm, 106mm RCL; 40mm AA guns.
Navy: 19,500 (12,000 conscripts incl 200 women); 17 combat hel.
   10 subs: 8 Type 209; 2 US Guppy IIA/III.
   14 US destroyers: 7 Gearing (6 with 1x8 ASROC, 1 with 1 Alouette III hel), 1 Sumner, 6 Fletcher.
   7 frigates: 2 Kortenaer (8 Harpoon SSM, Sea Sparrow SAM, 2 AB-212 hel), 4 US Cannon, 1 FRG Rhein.
   18 FAC(G): 16 La Combattante Will (8 with 4 Exocet, 6 with 6 Penguin SSM), 2 L'Esterel with 4 SS-12.
   11 FAC(T): 6 Jaguar, 5 Nastyi.
   11 coastal patrol craft<.
   2 coastal minelayers, 14 coastal minesweepers (9 MSC-294, 5 US Adjutant).
   1 LSD, 7 LST, 5 LSM, 2 LCT, 8 LCU, 13 LCM, 21 LCA, 34 LCVP.
2 ASW hel sqns: 1 with 5 AB-212, 3 AB-212 ECM; 1 with 4 Alouette III.
Bases: Salamis, Suda Bay.
RESERVES: about 24,000.
Air Force: 23,500 (15,000 conscripts incl 200 women); 303 combat ac.
Tactical Air Force: 7 combat wings: 1 tpt wing.
   8 FGA sqns: 3 with 52 A-7H, 6 TA-7H; 3 with 53 F/TF-104G; 2 with 36 F-5A, 6 F-5B.
   6 interceptor sqns: 3 with 53 F-4E; 1 with 24 F-5A/B; 2 with 36 Mirage F-1CG.
   2 FGA/recce sqns: 1 with 15 RF-84F, 6 RF-4E; 1 with 8 RF-5A.
   1 MR sqn with 8 HU-16B Albatross (with Navy).
   3 tpt sqns with 12 C-130H, 6 YS-11, 6 C-47, 20 Noratlas, 1 Gulfstream, 9 CL-215.
   9 base fits with 6 C-47, 48 T-33A ac, 8 AB-205A hel.
   3 hel sqns with 14 AB-205A, 2 AB-206A, 5 Bell 47G, 8 UH-19D, 2 AB-212, 5 CH-47C.
Air Training Command:
   4 sqns: 1 with 19 T-41A; 1 with 21 T-37B/C; 2 with 37 T-2E, 6 F-104 G.
   AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder, Super Sidewinder, Falcon, R-550 Magic.
   ASM: Maverick, Bullpup.
   1 SAM wing: 1 gp with 36 Nike Ajax.
(On order: some 14 F-104G ac, 6 CH-47C hel, 280 AIM-7M Sparrow, 300 Super Sidewinder AAM, 200 Maverick ASM,
   40 Skyguard AD systems plus 4 extra twin 35mm AA guns.)
RESERVES: about 30,000.
Forces Abroad: Cyprus: 1,750; 1 inf bn (950), cdos (350); officers/NCOs seconded to GreekCypriot forces (450).
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie: 25,000; MOWAG Roland, 15 UR-416 APC.
   Coastguard and Customs: 4,000; some 100 patrol craft, 2 Cessna Cutlass ac.
  
   ITALY
Population: 58,000,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 12, Navy 18 months.
Total armed forces: 375,100 (239,000 conscripts).
GDP 1982: L 469,797 bn ($347,355 bn). Est 1983: 535,904 bn ($352,847 bn).
Def exp 1983: L 11,649 ($7,670 bn); NATO defn $9,788 bn. 1983: 13.820 bn ($8,143 bn); NATO defn $10,279 bn.
GDP growth: -0.3% (1982). -0.9% (1983).
Inflation: 15% (1982). 15.9% (1983).
Debt 1982: $66.0 bn. $1=lire 1,352.5 (1982), 1,518.8 (1983), 1,697.2 (mid-1984).
Army: 260,000 (189,000 conscripts).
   3 corps HQ.
   1 armd div (2 armd, 1 mech bdes).
   3 mech divs (each of 1 armd, 2 mech bdes).
   2 indep mech bdes.
   4 indep mot bdes.
   5 alpine bdes.
   1 AB bde.
   2 amph bns.
   1 msl bde (1 Lance SSM, 3 Improved HAWK SAM bns).
AFV: 550 M-47, 300 M-60A1, 920 Leopard 1 MBT; 4,410 M-106, M-113, M-548 and M-577, AMX-VC1 APC.
Arty. 1,116: 36 M-107 175mm SP guns; 320 105mm model 56 pack, 724 155mm (incl 150 FH-70 towed, 220 M-109E (SP), 36 203mm how;
   81mm, 120mm mor; 6 Lance SSM.
ATK: 57mm, 106mm RCL; Cobra, SS-11, TOW, Milan ATGW.
AD: 20mm, 230 40mm AA guns; 40 Improved HAWK SAM.
ARMY AVIATION:
   4 wings (10 sqns, 29 fits); 10 indep sqns (21 fits). (Fit usually has 6 ac/hel).
   19 lt ac and hel sqns: 8 with SM-1019 ac, 9 with AB-206, 2 with AB-205A hel.
   10 recce hel sqns with AB-206.
   2 target acquisition sqns: 1 with SM-1019 ac, 1 with AB-206 hel.
   17 multi-role hel sqns: 1 with AB-204B, 15 with AB-205A, 1 with AB-205B.
   4 med tpt hel sqns with CH-47.
   1 trg, 4 repair units.
   75 SM-1019, 30 O-1E lt ac, 100 AB-205A, 140 AB-206A/A1, 24 CH-47C, 5 A-109 Hirundo, 18 AB-204B, 14 AB-212, 70 AB-47G/J hel.
(On order: 20 FIROS 6x51mm MRLS, 850 TOW, Milan ATGW; FIM-92A Stinger SAM + msls; 60 A-129 Mangusta hel.)
RESERVES: 550,000, immediate mobilization perhaps 250,000.
Navy: 44,500, incl 1,500 air arm, 750 marines (24,590 conscripts).
   10 subs: 4 Sauro, 4 Toti, 2 US Tang.
   1 Vittorio Veneto hel carrier with 9 AB-212 ASW hel, 4 Teseo (Otomat Mk 2) SSM, 1x2 Terrier SAM.
   2 Andrea Doria cruisers each with 4 AB-212 ASW hel, 1x2 Terrier SAM.
   4 GW destroyers: 2 Audace with 2 AB-212 ASW hel, 1 Standard SAM; 2 Impavido with 1 Standard.
   15 frigates: 7 Maestrale with 4 Teseo SSM, 1x4 Albatros/Aspide SAM, 2 AB-212 hel; 4 Lupo with 8 Teseo SSM, 1x8 Sea Sparrow SAM, 1 AB-212 hel;
   2 Alpino with 2 AB-212 hel; 2 Bergamini with 1 AB-212 hel.
   8 corvettes: 4 De Cristofaro, 4 Albatross.
   1 Sparviero hydrofoils with 2 Teseo SSM.
   2 Freccia FAC (1 with 1 x 5 Sea Killer SSM).
   4 US Aggressive ocean, 13 Agave coastal, 5 Aragosta inshore minesweepers; 1 Lerici, 1 Agave minehunters.
   2 US De Soto County LST, 19 US LCM. 2 Stromboli replenishment tankers.
1 Marine inf gp with 30 VCC-1, 10 LVTP-7 APC, 16 81mm mor, 8 106mm RCL, 6 Milan ATGW.
Bases: La Spezia, Taranto, Ancona, Brindisi, Augusta, Messina, La Maddalena, Cagliari, Naples, Venice.
NAVAL AIR ARM: (1,500); 93 combat hel.
   5 ASW hel sqns: 30 SH-3D, 10 AB-204AS, 55 AB-212.
   ASM: Marte Mk 2.
(On order: 2 Sauro subs, 1 hel carrier, 2 Audace destroyers, 1 Maestrale frigate, 4 Minerva corvettes with Albatros multi-role weapon system,
   3 Lerici minehunters, 2 LPD, 6 SH-3D, 7 AB-212 hel.)
RESERVES: 221,000.
Air Force: 70,600 (28,300 conscripts); 300 combat ac.
   6 FGA/recce sqns: 2 with 36 Tornado, 2 with 36 F-104S, 2 with 36G-91Y.
   1 lt attack sqn with 15 MB-339.
   3 lt attack/recce sqns with 36 G-91R/R1/R1 A.
   6 interceptor sqns with 72 F-104S.
   2 recce sqns with 30 F/RF-104G.
   2 MR sqns with 14 Atlantic (Navy assigned; being increased).
   1 ECM/recce sqn with 2 G-222VS, 6 PD-808.
   1 navigation aid calibration sqn: 4 G-222, PD-808, C-47, MB-339.
   1 ocu with 18 TF-104G.
   3 tpt sqns: 2 with 32 G-222, 1 with 10 C-130H.
   Comms sqns with 16 P-166M, 32 SIAI-208M, 8 PD-808, MB-326,2 DC-9 ac; 2 SH-3D hel.
   SAR sqns with 15 AB-204, 6 AB-212, 20 HH-3F hel.
   1 combat trg det (Cottesmore, Britain) with 7 Tornado.
   6 trg sqns with 50 G-91T, 70 MB-326/-339A, 25
   SF-260M ac; 35 AB-47G2, 3 AB-204B hel.
   AAM: AIM-7E Sparrow, AIM-9B/-9L Sidewinder.
   ASM: Kormoran.
   8 SAM groups with 96 Nike Hercules.
   (On order: 64 Tornado UKCA, 187 AM-X FGA
   ac; 18 AB-212 hel; 4 Spada SAM systems, Aspide AAM.)
RESERVES: 28,000 some additional ac (logistic reserve).
Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO) (90); 3 minesweepers. Lebanon (UNIFIL) (40).
Para-Military Forces: Cambinieri 90,000: 1 mech bde with 13 bns, 1 AB bn, 2 cav sqns;
   37 M-47 MBT; Fiat 6616, 80 M-6, M-8 armd cars; 470 Fiat 242/18AD, 240 M-113 APC; 23 AB-47, 2 A-109, 5 AB-205, 23 AB-206 hel.
   Ministry of Interior:
   Public Security Guard 67,927: 11 mobile units; 40 Fiat 6614 APC, 3 P-64B ac; 1 AB-47Y3B-1, 6 A-109A, 12 AB-206A1, 4 AB-212 hel.
   Treasury Department: Finance Guards 48,691; 6 AB-47J, 69 NH-500M hel, 350 patrol craft<.
   (On order: 3 AB-212, 1 A-109A hel.)
  
   LUXEMBOURG
Population: 365,300.
Military service: voluntary, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 720.
GDP 1982: fr 154.250 bn ($3,376 bn). Est 1983: 163.995 bn ($3,207 bn).
Est def exp 1982: fr 1.44 bn ($31,516 m); NATO defn $41,430 m. 1983: 1.596 bn ($31,213 m); NATO defn $42,577 m.
Budget 1984: 2.295 bn ($41.0 m); NATO defn n.a.
GDP growth: -1.5% (1981), -3.5% (1982).
Inflation: 9.4% (1982), 9.5% (1983). $1=francs 45.691 (1982), 51.132 (1983), 55.975 (mid-1984).
Army: 720.
   1 lt inf bn.
   1 indep coy.
   5 Commando APC; LAW RL; TOW ATGW.
   (Air: Luxembourg has no air force of her own, but for legal purposes all NATO's airborne early warning ac will have Luxembourg registration.
   1 sqn with 10 E-3A NATO standard.
   (On order: 8 E-3A.)
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 470.
  
   NETHERLANDS
Population: 14,400,000.
Military service: Army 14-16, Navy and Air Force 14-17 months.
Total armed forces: 103,267 (incl Royal Military Constabulary; 1,450 women; 46,368 conscripts).
GDP 1982: gld 365.90 bn ($137,031 bn). 1983: 370.550 bn ($129.831 bn).
Est def exp 1983: gld 12.646 bn ($4,431 bn); NATO defn $4,572 bn. Budget 1984: 13.071 bn ($4,227 bn); NATO defn $4,216 bn.
GDP growth: -1.7% (1982). - 3 % (1983).
Inflation: 5.5% (1982). 2.5% (1983).
Debt 1982: $16.8 bn. $1=guilders 2.6702 (1982), 2.8541 (1983), 3.0925 (mid-1984).
Army: 64,664 (40,785 conscripts), though see Reserves.
   1 Corps HQ, 3 mech div HQ.
   2 armd bdes.
   4 mech inf bdes.
   3 armd recce bns.
   3 SP AA bns.
   1 SSM bn with Lance.
   3 hel sqns (Air Force manned).
AFV: 468 Leopard 1 (10 mod to 1A4), 135 Leopard 2, 322 Centurion MBT; 79 AMX-13 lt tks;
   66 AMX-VC1, 698 M-113, 735 YP-408 (to retire), 1,307 YPR-765 APC
Arty. 44 M-101 105mm, 134 M-114 155mm, 75 AMX 105mm (being retired), 222 M-109 155mm, 13 M-107 175mm (being replaced by 203mm),
   61 M-110 203mm SP guns/how; 6 Lance SSM; 92 81mm, 194 107mm, 153 120mm mor.
ATK: Carl Gustav 84mm, 253 106mm RCL; LAW RL; 350 Dragon, 320 TOW ATGW.
AA
: 54 L-40/70 40mm towed, 95 Gepard 35mm SP AA guns.
Avn: 67 Alouette HI, 30 BO-105 hel (Air Force crews).
(On order: 310 Leopard 2 MBT; 660 YPR-765 APC; 486 Stinger SAM.)
RESERVES: 145,000, many on short leave, immediate recall.
   1 armd, 2 mech inf bdes, corps troops and 1 indep inf bde would be completed by call-up of reservists;
   2+ inf bdes could be mobilized for territorial defence.
   Home Guard: 4,300; 3 sectors; inf weapons.
Navy: 16,867, incl naval air arm and marines (1,437 conscripts).
   6 subs: 2 Zwaardvis, 2 Potvis, 2 Dolfijn (1 in reserve).
   2 Tromp GW destroyers (flagships) with 8 Harpoon SSM, 1 Standard, 8 Sea Sparrow SAM, 1 Lynx hel.
   16 frigates with 8 Harpoon SSM: 10 Kortenaer with Sea Sparrow SAM, 1-2 Lynx hel; 6 Van Speijk with 2x4 Seacat SAM, 1 Lynx hel.
   4 Wolf corvettes (2 in reserve).
   3 Balder large patrol craft.
   9 Dokkum coastal minesweepers (5 in reserve); 4 Dokkum, 6 Alkmaar minehunters.
   2 Poolster fast combat spt ships.
   3 survey ships (2 North Sea, 1 oceanographic).
   10 LCA<.
Bases: Den Helder, Flushing, Curacao.
NAVAL AIR ARM: (1,700); 13 combat ac, 17 combat hel.
   3 MR/ASW sqns with 11 P-3C Orion II, 2 F-27MPA (Air Force manned). (6 Atlantic MR in reserve).
   1 ASW hel sqn with 17 Lynx SH-14B/C.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 5 Lynx UH-14A.
MARINES: (2,800).
   2 amph combat gps.
   1 mountain/arctic warfare coy.
   (On order 2 Walrus subs; 4 multi-role, 2 AD Kortenaer frigates; 9 Alkmaar minehunters; 4 LCVP; 2 P-3C MR ac; Harpoon SSM.)
RESERVES: about 20,000; 7,500 on immediate recall.
Air Force: 16,810 (3,565 conscripts); some 174 combat ac.
   5 FGA sqns: 3 with 54 NF-5A, 1 with 18 F-104G (getting F-16), 1 with 18 F-16.
   2 FGA/interceptor sqns with 36 F-16A/B.
   1 recce sqn with 18 F-16 (RF-104G phasing out in 1984).
   2 ocu: 1 with 18 NF-5B, 1 with 12 F-16B.
   (Some 16 more F-16A/B have been delivered).
   1 tpt sqn with 12 F-27.
   1 SAR fit with 4 Alouette III.
   AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.
   12 SAM sqns with 36 Improved HAWK (8 in Germany).
   2 SAM sqns with 23 Nike Hercules.
   25 Shorad/Flycatcher, 40 L-70 AA systems.
(On order: 46 F-16A FGA, 10 F-16B ac; 20 Patriot SAM launchers, 160 msls.)
RESERVES: 6,000 on immediate recall. Inter-Service Organization: 1,071 (271 conscripts).
Forces Abroad:
   Germany: 5,500; 1 armd bde, 1 recce, 1 engr bns, spt elements.
   Lebanon (UNIFIL): 165: 1 inf coy.
   Egypt (Sinai MFO): 105: 1 det.
   Netherlands Antilles: 1 frigate, 1 amph combat
   det, 1 MR det with 2 F-27MPA ac.
Para-Military Forces: Royal Military Constabulary (Koninklijke Marechaussee): 3,855 regulars, 310 conscripts;
   3 divs comprising nine districts with 87 'bdes'.
   Civil Defence (Corps Mobiele Colonnes): 22,000 on mobilization under Army command.
  
   NORWAY
Population: 4,146,000.
Military service: Army 12, Navy and Air Force 15 months.
Total armed forces: 36,785 (22,500 conscripts).
GDP 1982: N kr 362.560 bn ($56,176 bn). Est 1983: 401.277 bn ($54,997 bn).
Def exp 1983: N kr 12.696 bn ($1,740 bn); NATO defn: $1,706 bn. 1984: 12.948 bn ($1,657 bn); NATO defn $1,662 bn.* (* Incl UNIFIL costs.)
GDP growth: 0.9% (1982), 3.3% (1983).
Inflation: 14% (1982), 12% (1983).
Debt: $31.7 bn (1982). $1=kroner 6.4540 (1982), 7.2964 (1983), 7.8142 (mid-1984).
Army: 19,500 (12,000 conscripts).
   1 lt bde gp of 3 inf bns, 1 tk coy, 1 SP fd bn, 1 AA bty (North Norway), 2 border garrison bns.
   1 all-arms gp: 1 inf bn, 1 tk coy, 1 SP fd, 1 AA btys (South Norway).
   Indep armd sqns, inf bns and arty regts.
   70 Leopard 1, 30 M-48A5 MBT; 70 NM-116 (M-24/90) lt tks; NM-135 (20mm) MICV; M-113 APC;
   250 105mm and 155mm towed; 130 M-109 155mm SP how; 107mm mor;
   Carl Gustav 84mm, 106mm RCL; M-72 66mm RL; ENTAC (being retired), TOW ATGW;
   FK20-2 20mm, 40mm AA guns; RBS-70 SAM;
   23 O-1E, 8 L-18 1t ac.
(On order: M-113 APC, RBS-70 SAM).
RESERVES: 165,000: 12 bdes of about 5,000 men each (some being reorg),
   2 armd sqns, spt units and territorial forces; 21 days refresher training each 3rd/4th year to age 44.
   Home Guard 72,100 (90 days initial service); 18 Districts, areas and sub-areas.
Navy: 7,500, incl 1,000 coast artillery (5,500 conscripts).
   14 Kobben (Type 207) subs.
   5 Oslo frigates with 6 Penguin SSM, 1x8 Sea Sparrow SAM.
   2 Sleipner corvettes.
   38 FAC(G) with Penguin SSM: 18 Storm (6x1), 14 Hauk (6x1), 6 Snogg (4x1).
   1 Vadso coastal patrol craft.
   2 Vidar minelayers, 9 US MSC-60 minesweepers, 1 minehunter.
   1 Horten depot/trg ship, 7 coastal tpts.
   7 LCT: 2 Kvakund, 5 Reineysund.
   15 coast def fortresses (to be rebuilt): 50 arty, mine and torpedo btys: 75mm, 105mm, 120mm, 127mm, 150mm guns.
   1 SAR/recce hel sqn with 6 Lynx (coastguard).
   8 Tjeld FAC(T) in reserve.
   (On order: 6 Ula (Type 210) subs; 8 120mm guns.)
Bases: Horten, Bergen, Ramsund, Tromso.
RESERVES: 25,000. Coastguard (352 incl 55 civilians):
   6 patrol vessels incl 3 Nordkapp fitted for 6x1 Penguin II SSM, 6 Lynx hel (Air Force manned), 7 armed fishery protection vessels.
   Home Guard (5,400).
Air Force: 9,500 (5,000 conscripts); 114 combat ac.
   5 FGA sqns: 4 with 72 F-16; 1 (ocu) with 35 F-5A.
   1 MR sqn with 7 P-3B Orion.
   2 tpt sqns: 1 with 6 C-130H, 3 Falcon 20S; 1 with 4 DHC-6 ac, 2 UH-1B hel.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 10 Sea King Mk 43.
   2 utility hel sqns with 26 UH-1B (10 in storage).
   21 Safari trg ac.
   AAM: Sidewinder.
   ASM: Bullpup.
   4 lt AA bns with 32 L-60/-70 40mm guns.
   1 SAM bn (4 btys) with 128 Nike Hercules.
   (On order: 54 HAWK launchers and 162 msls (lease), Penguin Mk 3 ASM.)
RESERVES: 25,000. 7 lt AA bns for airfield defence with 56 L-60 40mm guns.
   Home Guard 2,500: 2 bns, airfield def btys.
   Joint Services Orgs: 285.
   Civil Defence: 53 Districts, 14 mobile columns. 108 local units. Permanent staff some 400; total mobilization strength 62,500 (planned).
Forces Abroad: Lebanon (UNIFIL): 838; 1 bn, 1 service coy, plus HQ personnel.
  
   PORTUGAL
Population: 10,200,000.
Military service: Army 16, Navy 24, Air Force 21-24 months.
Total armed forces: 63,500 (37,700 conscripts; see Army).
GDP 1982: esc 1,858.0 bn ($23,379 bn). 1983: 2,274.0 bn ($20,527 bn).
Est def exp 1982: esc 50.10 bn ($630,403 m); NATO defn 803.0 m. 1983: 60.60 bn ($547,030 m); NATO defn $713,315 m.
GDP growth: 3.5% (1982), -5 % (1983).
Inflation: 26% (1982), 38% (1983).
Debt: $18.5 bn.
   $1=escudos 79.473 (1982), 110.780 (1983).
Army: 39,000 (30,000 conscripts, 3 intakes a year, 4 months alternating service).
   6 Territorial Commands (4 military regions, 2 island commands).
   1 mixed bde.
   3 cav regts.
   11 inf regts, 3 indep inf bns.
   1 cdo regt.
   2 fd, 1 AA, 1 coast arty regts.
   2 engr regts.
   1 sigs regt.
   1 military police regt.
   1 Special Forces, 4 spt bns.
AFV: 25 M-47, 23 M-48A5 MBT; 11 M-24 lt tks;
   43 Panhard EBR/ETT hy, 63 AML-60/-90 lt armd, 32 Ferret Mk 4 scout cars; 75 M-113 (incl -A2 TOW), 9 M-577A2 (81mm mor); 86 Chaimite APC.
Arty: 24 5.5-in. (140mm) guns; 36 M-101A1 105mm towed, 6 M-109A2 155mm SP how; 39 150mm, 152mm, 234mm coast arty; 54 107mm, 81 120mm mor.
ATK: 100 90mm, 127 106mm RCL; 45 TOW ATGW.
AD: 18 Rh-202 20mm, 20 Bofors L-60 40mm AA guns; 16 Blowpipe SAM.
Navy: 15,000 incl marines (4,200 conscripts).
   3 Albacora (Fr Daphne) subs.
   17 frigates: 4 Andrade, 6 Coutinho, 4 Belo, 3 Silva.
   10 Cacine large patrol craft.
   13 coastal patrol craft: 2 Aleixo, 6 Albatroz, 4 Bonanca, 1 river.
   4 minesweepers.
   2 LCT, 10 LCM, 1 LCA,
Base: Lisbon (Alfeite), Faro.
MARINES: (2,500; 1,000 conscripts).
   3 bns (2 inf, 1 police), spt units.
   Chaimite APC, mor, amph craft.
Air Force: 9,500, incl 1,800 para (3,500 conscripts); 74 combat ac.
   1 combat command, 5 administrative wings:
   3 FGA sqns: 1 with 20 A-7P; 1 with 20 G-91R3, 8 T3; 1 with 20 G-91R4,2 T3.
   1 recce sqn with 4 C-212B.
   1 OCU with 12 T-38.
   2 tpt sqns: 1 with 5 C-130H; 1 with 12 C-212.
   3 SAR sqns: 1 with 6 C-212 ac; 2 with 12 SA-330 Puma hel.
   2 hel/utility sqns with 37 Alouette III.
   2 liaison sqns with 32 Reims-Cessna FTB-337G.
   3 trg sqns: 1 with 2 C-212A ac, 3 Alouette III hel; 1 with 24 T-37C; 1 with 30 Chipmunk.
   1 para gp (1 bn, 2 coys).
   (On order: 30 A-7 FGA (6 trg), 3 C-130 tpt ac; 12 A-109A hel (4 with TOW).)
RESERVES (all services): 169,000.
Para-Military Forces: National Republican Guard 14,600; Commando Mk HI APC.
   Public Security Police 15,291.
   Fiscal Guard: 7,385.
  
   SPAIN
Population: 38,800,000.
Military service: 15 months. (Army to reduce to 12 months).
Total armed forces: 330,000 (214,000 conscripts); force reduction programme being introduced).
Est GDP 1982: pts 19,737 bn ($179,656 bn). 1983: 22,703 bn ($158,286 bn).
Est def exp 1983: pts 480.00 bn ($3,347 bn); NATO defn: n.a.*
GDP growth: 1.2% (1982), 2.3% (1983).
Inflation: 16.5% (1982), 16.0% (1983). FMA: $400 m (1983).
Debt: $37.4 bn (1982).
   $1=pesetas 109.86 (1982), 143.43 (1983).
Army: 240,000 (170,000 conscripts); to reduce to 195,000 by 1985.
Immediate Intervention Force.
   1 corps HQ.
   1 armd div
   1 mech div r each with 2 bdes.
   1 mot div
   1 armd cav bde.
   1 inf bde (Reserve).
   1 para bde (3 bns).
   1 airportable bde..
   1 arty bde.
   1 locating, 1 fd rocket, 1 lt AA regts.
   1 engr, 1 sigs regts.
   1 chemical/nuclear defence regts.
Territorial Defence Force:
   9 Military Regions (being reorg, incl Ceuta and Melilla), 2 overseas comds (see Deployment).
   2 mountain divs (each 1 bde and 1 cadre bde).
   Legion: HQ, 4 regts, spt units (overseas forces).
   9 inf bdes (8 may be disbanded).
   1 mountain bde.
   1 arty bde (incl 1 HAWK SAM gp, 1 Nike Hercules bty).
   2 hy arty regts.
   7 coast/AA arty regts.
General Reserve Force:
   1 ATK. inf regt.
   1 engr, 2 railway engr regts. -
   1 sigs regt.
Independent Units:
   Army HQ inf gp.
   Royal Guard Regt (incl inf, naval, air force coys and escort cav sqn).
Army Aviation (FAMET): 40 armed hel.
   HQ with 1 hel, 1 spt, 1 trg sqn.
   1 attack bn.
   1 tpt bn (1 med, 1 hy coys).
   3 hel units.
AFV: 300 AMX-30, 350 M-47E, 110 M-48 (105mm) MBT; 180 M-41 lt tks;
   60 AML-60, 80 AML-90 armd cars; 200 BMR-600 MICV; BLR, 500 M-113 APC.
Arty. 168 122/46 122mm towed, 12 M-107 175mm SP guns; 911 105mm M-26 and M-56 pack, 84 M-114 155mm, 12 M-115 8-in. (203mm) towed,
   48 M-108 105mm, 24 M-44, 96 M-109A 155mm, 4 M-55 203mm SP how;
   200 88mm, 200 6-in. (152.4mm), 24 203mm, some 12 12-in. (305mm), some 12 15-in. (381mm) coast guns;
   1,200 81mm, 107mm, 400 120mm mor;
   R-2B 105mm, Teruel 140mm, L-21 216mm, L-10 300mm, L-8 381mm MLRS.
ATK: 350 106mm RCL; 42 M-65 88.9mm RL; 50 Milan, 50 Cobra, 18 Dragon, HOT, 12 TOW ATGW.
AD: 20mm, 64 35/90, 280 40/90, 120 90mm AA guns, 14 Nike Hercules, 24 Improved HAWK SAM.
Avn: 59 HU-8/-10B (UH-1B/H), 3 HA-16 (Alouette III), 60 HA-15 (BO-105; 12 with 20mm guns, 28 with HOT), 5 AB-206A, 6 AB-212,
   12 HR-12B (OH-58A), 12 HT-17 (CH-47C) hel.
(On order: VEC 3562 recce, 220 BMR-600 MICV, 176 M-113 APC; 540 TOW msls; 12 CH-47C, 28 AB-412, 18 OH-58A hel;
   96 Chaparral SAM (1,760 msls); 18 Roland SAM launchers, 500 msls); 28 Skyguard AD systems.
DEPLOYMENT:
Ceuta/Melilla: 19,000; 2 armd cav, 3 Foreign Legion, 2 coast/AA Arty, 2 engr regts, 4 Regulares inf gps, 2 special sea coys.
   2 Overseas Forces comds:
Balearic Islands: 5,800; 3 inf, 2 coast/AA regts, 1 engr bn, 1 It cav gp, 1 cdo coy.
Canary Islands: 16,000.
   3 inf regts (1 cadre).
   1 Foreign Legion (2 bns, 1 lt cav gp).
   2 coast/AA arty regts.
   1 engr gp (2 bns).
   1 lt cav gp.
   1 cdo coy.
Navy: 57,000, incl marines (44,000 conscripts).
   9 Commands (Escort, Naval Air, Submarine, *
   An additional budget of pts 3.1 bn, plus $400 m per annum in US FMA for modernization of the armed forces, runs concurrently as of 1983.
   Mine Warfare, Marines, 4 Naval Region HQ).
   8 subs: 2 Agosta, 4 Daphne, 2 Guppy IIA.
   1 US Independence carrier (9 AV-8A, 24 hel).
   11 destroyers: 6 with 1 hel (1 de Lauria, 5 US Gearing with 1 Hughes 369 hel, 4 with 1 ASROC), 5 US Fletcher.
   11 frigates: 5 Baleares (F-70) 1 with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 16 Standard SAM, 1x8 ASROC; 6 Descubierta (F-30) with 1x8 Sea Sparrow/Aspide SAM.
   4 Atrevida corvettes.
   12 FAC(P): 6 Lazaga, 6 Barcelo.
   18 large patrol craft (3 ex-minesweepers).
   26 coastal and 38 inshore patrol craft <.
   4 US Aggressive ocean, 8 Jucar coastal MCM.
   2 attack tpts.
   1 LSD, 3 LST, 7 LCT, 2 LCU, 20 LCM.
NAVAL AIR: 11 combat ac, 51 combat hel.
   1 attack sqn with 9 AV-8A Matador, 2 TAV-8A.
   1 comms sqn with 2 Commanche, 2 Citation.
   5 hel sqns (3 ASW); 1 with 11 AB-212 (4 ECM), 1 with 11 Hughes 369, 1 with 14 SH-3D Sea King; 1 with 4 AH-1G (armed), 11 Bell 47G.
MARINES: (11,925).
   1 marine regt (2 inf, 1 spt, 1 log bns).
   5 marine garrison regts.
   18 M-48S MBT; LVTP-7 amph APC; 8 Oto Melara 105mm towed, 8 M-52A1 105mm SP how; 81mm mor;
   M-72 66mm RL; 72 106mm RCL; TOW, Dragon ATGW.
(On order: 2 Agosta subs, 1 carrier, 3 FFG-7 frigates, 4 32.2-metre patrol craft, 20 15.9-metre patrol vessels; 12 Bravo (AV-8B) ac, 6 SH-60B hel; 12 RGM-84A Harpoon SSM, SM-1 Standard S\M.)
Bases: Ferrol (Galicia), Cadiz (San Fernando), Rota, Cartagena.
Air Force: 33,000; 215 combat ac.
Air Combat Command (MACOM):
   3 wings.
   6 interceptor sqns: 2 with 35 F-4C, 4 RF-4C; 2 with 21 Mirage IIIEE, 6 IIIEB; 2 with 45 Mirage F-1CE, 3 F-1CE/BE.
   1 liaison fit with 1 Do-27.
Tactical Command (MATAC):
   2 wings.
   2 FGA sqns with 14 F-5A, 13 RF-5A, 6 F-5B.
   1 recce sqn with 9 AR-10C (HA-220).
   1 MR sqn with 6 P-3B Orion.
   1 liaison fit with 6 O-1E, 11 Do-27, Do-28.
   AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.
Air Command, Canary Islands (MACAN):
   1 FGA sqn with 24 Mirage F-1C.
   1 SAR sqn with 3 F-27-400 MR ac, 8 AB-205 hel.
   1 tpt sqn with 7 C-212, 2 Do-27.
Transport Command (MATRA):
   3 wings:
   5 sqns with 5 C-130H, 6 KC-130H, 6 Azor, 25 C-212 Aviocar, 12 DHC-4, 8 Do-27.
Training Command (MAPER):
   2 ocu with 23 F-5A/B, 2 Do-27.
   14 sqns with 6 Aztec, 29 F-33C Bonanza, 50 C-101, 14 C-212E, 1 Navajo, 49 T-33A, 45 T-6, 6 King Air, 3 Baron, BU-131A/CASA I-131.
   2 hel sqns with 28 HE-7A (AB-47), AB-205, Hughes 300C and UH-1H.
Air Force HQ Group (ACGA):
   2 tpt sqns with 2 DC-8-52, 4 Mystere 20, 1 Navajo, 4 C-212.
   3 spt sqns with 14 CL-215, 2 Do-27, 5 C-212, 2 DHC-4A, 8 C-7.
   1 utility hel sqn with 5 Puma.
   2 SAR sqns with 4 C-212, 4 Do-27 ac, 12 Super Puma, 9 AB-205, 4 AB-206, 3 AB-47, 3 Alouette III hel.
   1 trg sqn with 4 C-101, 2 C-212.
(On order: 72 F-18 ftrs; 2 P-3C Orion MR; 4 C-212 SAR, 13 C-101 trg ac; 17 Hughes 300C hel; Super SidewinderAAM.)
RESERVES (all services): 1,085,000.
Para-Military Forces: Guardia Civil 63,500:
   25 inf tercios (regts), 3 reserve mobile comds, 1 railway security, 1 traffic security gps, 1 antiterrorist special gp (UAR);
   BLR APC, 1 B-11T (BK-117) hel.
   (On order: 20 BO-105, 3 BK-117 hel).
   Policia Nacional 47,000: 26 inf bns, 2 cav sqn gps, 3 cav tps, 1 special ops cdo gp (GEO), civil security gps.
   Ministry of Transportation and Communications: Maritime Surveillance Force; some 54 patrol boats, (10 320-ton, 4 32-metre, 16-metre), many armed.
  
   TURKEY
Population: 48,600,000.
Military service: 20 months.
Total armed forces: 602,000 (544,000 conscripts).
Est GDP 1982: TL 8,578.0 bn ($52,771 bn). 1983: 12,250.0 bn ($54,333 bn).
Est def exp 1983: TL 444.0 bn ($1,952 bn); NATO defn: $2,469 bn.
Budget 1984: 583.6 bn ($1,635 bn); NATO defn n.a.
GNP growth: 4.5% (1982), 3.0% (1983).
Inflation: 30% (1982), 41% (1983).
Est FMA: $460 m (1983).* (* Calculated from US published information and estimates for other contributors.)
Debt: $22.3 bn (1982
Army: 500,000 (475,000 conscripts), (About half the divs and bdes are below strength.)
   4 army HQ: 10 corps HQ.
   1 armd div.
   2 mech divs.
   14 inf divs.
   4 armd bdes.
   4 mech bdes.
   11 inf bdes.
   1 para bde, 1 cdo bde.
   4 SSM bns with Honest John.
   1 SAM bty forming.
   Corps units: 10 tk, 30 hy/med, 20 AA arty bns, indep fortress defence regts.
AFV: 500 M-47, 2,775 M-48A1, 180 M-48A5, 77 Leopard 1 A3 MBT; 2,000 M-113 APC.
Arty. 150 M-59 155mm towed, 36 M-107 175mm SP guns; 95 M-116A1 75mm pack, some 600 M-101A1 105mm, 400 M-114A1 155mm,
   116 M-115 203mm towed, 345 M-7/M-108 105mm, 108 M-44/M-109 155mm, 8 M-55 203mm SP how;
   1,750 60mm, 81mm, M-2 4.2-in. (107mm), 120mm mor; 18 Honest John SSM.
ATK: 1,200 M-l 8 57mm, 390 M-20 75mm, 1,000+ M-40 106mm RCL; 85 Cobra, SS-11, TOW, Milan ATGW.
AD
: 300 twin 20mm, 900 M-1.A1 40mm, M-51 75mm, M-117/-118 90mm guns, some Rapier SAM.
Avn: 2 DHC-2, 20 U-17, 8 Cessna 206, 20 Cessna 421, 5 Do-27, 14 Do-28, 15 Baron, 5 T-42, 40 Citabria 150S trg ac;
   156 AB-204/-205, 20 Bell 47G, 30 UH-1D, 30 TH-300C hel.
(Plus eqpt in store incl 200 M-47 MBT, 100 M-4 lt tks; M-8 recce, 350 M-59, 800 M-2/-3 APC; M-7 towed, M-52 SP 105mm, M-44 SP 155mm how.)
(On order: TOW, 1,500 Milan ATGW, 40 UH-1H hel, some 12 Rapier SAM.)
RESERVES: 700,000.
Navy: 46,000, incl marines (36,000 conscripts); 18 combat ac, 13 combat hel.
   16 subs (2 in reserve): 5 Type 1200, 10 US Guppy, 2 Tang (on loan).
   13 US destroyers: 8 Gearing (3 leased, 5 with 1x8 ASROС), 1 Sumner, 1 Carpenter, 2 Fletcher, 1 Smith.
   2 Berk frigates, each with 1 hel.
   14 FAC(G): 5 Dogan (Lurssen FPB-57) with 2x4 Harpoon SSM; 9 Kartal (Type 141 Jaguar) with 4 Penguin 2 SSM.
   4 FRG Jaguar FAC(T).
   25 large patrol craft (incl 1 Girne, 2 US Asheville, 6 PC-1638, 4 PGM-71.)
   4 83-ft coastal patrol craft <.
   1 Nusret, 6 coastal minelayers.
   26 minesweepers: 12 US Adjutant, 4 Cdn MCB, 6 FRG Vegesack coastal, 4 US Cape inshore.
   7 LST (3 dual-purpose minelayers), 32 LCT, 16 LCU, 20 LCM.
   56 auxiliary ships incl 1 US destroyer tender, 2 FRG depot ships (trg), 9 tankers (5 fleet).
Naval Aviation:
   1 ASW sqn: 18 S-2E ac; 3 AB-204B, 6 AB-212 ASW, 4 UH-1H ECM, 10 UH-1H SAR hel; (2 S-2A in reserve).
1 marine bde (5,000): HQ, 3 bns, 1 arty bn (18 guns), spt units.
(On order: 1 Type 209 sub, 4 Meko-200 frigates, 7 Zobel FAC(G), 13 LCT, 1 tanker.)
Bases: Golciik, Istanbul, Izmir, Eregli, Iskenderun.
RESERVES: 70,000.
Air Force: 56,000 (33,000 conscripts); some 458 combat ac.
   2 tac, 1 tpt, 1 air trg commands.
   17 FGA sqns: 2 with 42 F-5A, 10 F-5B; 2 with 40 F-100D; 5 with 80 F-4E; 8 (2 forming) with 96F-104G, 12 TF-104.
   2 interceptor sqns with 32 F-104S, 4 TF-104G.
   2 recce sqns: 1 with 27 RF-5A, 1 F-5B; 1 with 7 RF-4E.
   6 tpt sqns: 1 with 7 C-130E; 1 with 20 C-160D; 3 with 60 C-47A, 2 Beech 18; 1 (VIP) with 3 Viscount 79'4 ac, 15 UH-1H hel.
   1 VIP fit with 2 C-47A.
   3 comms fits, 3 liaison fits with C-47, AT-11, 10 T-33A ac; UH-1H hel.
   10 base fits with 24 T-33A, AT-11, 2 C-47A ac, UH-1H, UH-19B hel.
   5 OCU: 2 sqns with 36 F-5A/B, 17 F-104G; 2 with 20 T-33A/-38A; 1 with 25 T-37C.
   3 trg sqns with 24 T-34A, 40 T-38A, 20 T-41D.
   2 Rapier SAM sqns forming.
   Schools with C-47 ac; UH-1H, UH-19B hel.
   AAM: Sidewinder, 750 AIM-9P3 Super Sidewinder, Sparrow, Falcon, Shafrir.
   ASM: AS-12, Bullpup, Maverick.
8 SAM sqns with 72 Nike Hercules.
(On order: 160 F-16 ftr, 52 G-222 tpt, 2 Citation II trg ac; Super Sidewinder, Sparrow AAM; 24 Rapier SAM.)
RESERVES: 66,000.
Forces Abroad:
   Cyprus: 1 corps of 2 inf divs (17,000); 150 M-47/-48 MBT; M-113 APC; 212 105mm, 155mm, 203mm guns/how; 40mm AA guns.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 125,000 (incl 3 mobile bdes with V-150, UR-416 APC).
   Coastguard 1,100: 35 large, 10 coastal patrol craft. (On order: 5 SAR-33 FAC).
  

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

   Albania: Albania joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955 but left it in 1968, moving into a closer relationship with China. After Chairman Mao's death in 1976, Chinese aid was progressively reduced. Since 1978 little military aid has been received from any source. The Constitution precludes the establishment of foreign bases or the stationing of foreign troops in Albania.
   Austria: Austria's constitution contains a declaration of permanent neutrality. A small indigenous arms industry supplies many of the needs of the armed forces and provides a few foreign sales.
   Cyprus: In 1959 Britain, Greece and Turkey signed a Treaty of Guarantee assuring the independence, territorial integrity and security of the newly independent bi-national state. Under this Treaty Britain maintains a garrison in two Sovereign Base Areas at Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Under an associated Treaty of Alliance with the Republic of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey are each also entitled to maintain a contingent on the island. In 1963 a constitutional dispute led the Turkish-Cypriot community to with draw from the central government and ultimately, on 15 November 1983, to form a 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus'. Both Turkish-Cypriot and Greek-Cypriot communities maintain their own armed forces. The United States maintains a signals establishment on the island, and the United Nations has a peace-keeping force (UNFICYP) there.
   Finland: A 1948 Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance requires Finland to fight any aggression directed against the USSR across her territory. In case of need the Soviet Union will provide assistance or joint action. Finland has her own defence industry, but has tended to buy her major arms from the USSR and Sweden, together with some equipment from Britain, France and the United States.
   Ireland: Independent since 1922, Ireland plays an active role in UN peace-keeping operations. With no significant arms industry, Ireland has bought arms from many sources, e.g. Britain, France, Sweden and the US.
   Malta: After independence in 1964, Malta had a defence agreement with Britain. The island was a NATO base from 1972 to 1979. In September 1980 Malta undertook to remain neutral, outside any alliances, and banned foreign troops and bases, including Soviet warship docking facilities. Italy agreed to consultation if Malta were attacked and to guarantee her independence. In December 1981 France and Algeria also agreed to support and guarantee her neutrality.
   Sweden: Neutral in both World Wars, Sweden has a permanent peace-keeping organization which has provided personnel for UN duties since 1964. Her self-defence organization is largely supported by a domestic defence industry but some external purchases have been made, mainly from the United States.
   Switzerland: Permanently neutral since 1815, Switzerland belongs to no defence alliance. Her small armaments industry produces most of her equipment and plays a significant role in the Swiss export trade.
   Yugoslavia: Expelled from the Cominform in 1948, she has since been a leading force in the Non-Aligned Movement, maintaining a balanced relationship with each Bloc. She has no defence alliances, though a limited naval repair agreement exists with the USSR. She has her own defence industry but has bought most of her major military equipment from the USSR.
  

ДРУГИЕ ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЕ ГОСУДАРСТВА

   Албания: Албания присоединилась к Варшавскому Договору в 1955 году, но покинула его в 1968 году, перейдя к более тесным отношениям с Китаем. После смерти председателя Мао в 1976 году китайская помощь постепенно сокращалась. С 1978 года из любых источников поступает мало военной помощи. Конституция запрещает создание иностранных баз или размещение иностранных войск в Албании.
   Австрия: Конституция Австрии содержит декларацию о постоянном нейтралитете. Небольшая местная оружейная промышленность удовлетворяет многие потребности Вооруженных сил и обеспечивает несколько иностранных продаж.
   Кипр: в 1959 году Великобритания, Греция и Турция подписали гарантийный договор, гарантирующий независимость, территориальную целостность и безопасность нового независимого двухнационального государства. В соответствии с этим договором Британия содержит гарнизон в двух суверенных районах базирования в Акротири и Декелии. В соответствии с ассоциированным Договором о союзе с Республикой Кипр Греция и Турция также имеют право содержать на острове свой контингент. В 1963 году Конституционный спор привел к тому, что турецко-кипрская община с привлечением центрального правительства и в конечном итоге 15 ноября 1983 года образовала "Турецкую Республику Северного Кипра". Как общины киприотов-турок, так и общины киприотов-греков имеют свои собственные вооруженные силы. США поддерживает создание сигналы на острове, и Организация Объединенных Наций по поддержанию мира силы (ВСООНК) нет.
   Финляндия: договор о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи 1948 года требует от Финляндии бороться с любой агрессией, направленной против СССР на ее территории. В случае необходимости Советский Союз окажет помощь или предпримет совместные действия. Финляндия имеет свою собственную оборонную промышленность, но, как правило, покупает свое основное оружие у СССР и Швеции, а также некоторое оборудование у Великобритании, Франции и Соединенных Штатов.
   Ирландия: независимая с 1922 года, Ирландия играет активную роль в миротворческих операциях ООН. Не имея значительной оружейной промышленности, Ирландия закупала оружие из многих источников, например из Великобритании, Франции, Швеции и США.
   Мальта: после обретения независимости в 1964 году Мальта заключила соглашение об обороне с Великобританией. Остров был базой НАТО с 1972 по 1979 год. В сентябре 1980 года Мальта обязалась сохранять нейтралитет вне любых союзов и запретила иностранным войскам и базам, включая советские военные корабли. Италия согласилась провести консультации в случае нападения на Мальту и гарантировать ее независимость. В декабре 1981 года Франция и Алжир также согласились поддержать и гарантировать ее нейтралитет.
   Швеция: нейтральная в обеих Мировых войнах Швеция имеет постоянную миротворческую организацию, которая предоставляет персонал для выполнения обязанностей ООН с 1964 года. Ее организация самообороны в значительной степени поддерживается отечественной оборонной промышленностью, но некоторые внешние закупки были сделаны, главным образом, из Соединенных Штатов.
   Швейцария: постоянно нейтральная с 1815 года, Швейцария не принадлежит ни к одному оборонному альянсу. Ее индустрия стрелкового оружия производит большую часть ее оборудования и играет значительную роль в швейцарской экспортной торговле.
   Югославия: исключенная из Коминформ в 1948 году, она с тех пор является ведущей силой в Движении неприсоединения, поддерживая сбалансированные отношения с каждым блоком. У нее нет оборонных союзов, хотя с СССР существует ограниченное соглашение о военно-морском ремонте. Она имеет собственную оборонную промышленность, но большую часть своей основной военной техники приобрела в СССР.
  
   ALBANIA
Population: 2,800,000.
Military service: Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units 3 years.
Total armed forces: 40,400 (22,400 conscripts).
Est GNP 1981: lek 11.900 bn ($2,380 bn).
Def budget 1982: lek 935 m ($155.8 m). 1983: 910 m ($137.3 m).
GDP growth: 4% (1982), 4% (1983).
Debt 1983: $5.4 bn.* (* Estimated total since 1949.)
   $1=lek 5.0 (1981), 6.0 (1982), 6.63 (1983).
   (*Spares are short; some eqpt may be unserviceable.)
Army: 30,000 (20,000 conscripts).
   1 tk bde.
   5 inf bdes.
   4 arty regts.
   8 It coastal arty bns.
   70 T-34, 15 T-54, 15 T-59 MBT; 20 BA-64 armd, BRDM-1 scout cars; BTR-40/-50/-152, K-63 APC;
   M-1942, SU-76 SP 76mm, D-44 Type-56 85mm, M-1931 122mm, Type-59 130mm guns; M-1938, Type-60 122mm, M-1937,
   Type-66 152mm gun/how; D-1 152mm how; 82mm, 120mm, 160mm mor;
   Type-63 107mm MRL; T-21 82mm RCL; M-1942 45mm, M-1943 57mm, D-44, Type-56 85mm ATK guns;
   M-1939 37mm, S-60 57mm, KS-12 85mm, KS-19 100mm AA guns.*
RESERVES: 150,000.
Navy: 3,200 (1,000 conscripts).*
   3 Sov H^-class subs (1 trg).
   2 Sov Kronshtadt large patrol craft.
   6 Ch Shanghai-II FAC.
   32 Ch Huchwan hydrofoil <.
   12 Sov P-4 FAC(T)<.
   9 Sov PO-2 patrol craft.
   5 Sov minesweepers: 1 T-43 ocean, 4 T-301 inshore.
   (Plus, in reserve: 1 PF-class sub, 2 Kronshtadt patrol craft, 1 T-43,2 T-301 minesweepers).
Bases: Durres, Valona, Sazan I., Pasha Liman
Air Force: 7,200 (1,400 conscripts); 100 combat ac*
   6 ftr sqns with 20 MiG-15/F-2, 30 MiG-17, 30 MiG-19/F-6,20ChF-7.
   1 tpt sqn with 3 I1-14M, 10 An-2.
   2 hel sqns with 30 Mi-4.
   1 trg sqn with MiG-15UTI.
SAM: Some 5 SA-2 sites.
RESERVES: 5,000.
Para-Military Forces: 12,500. Internal security force 5,000; frontier guard 7,500.
  
   AUSTRIA
Population: 7,500,000.
Military service: 6 months recruit trg; 60 days reservist refresher trg during 15 years, 30-90 days additional for specialists.
Total armed forces: 50,000 (32,000 conscripts); some 70,000 reservists on refresher trg.
Est GDP 1983: OS 1,208 bn ($67,249 bn).
Def exp 1983: OS 14.844 bn ($826,365 m). Def budget 1984: 14.823 bn ($767,038 m).
GDP growth: 1.1% (1982), 1.5% (1983).
Inflation 5.4% (1982), 3.3% (1983).
Debt 1982: $ 13.2 bn.
   $1=schilling 17.963 (1983), 19.325 (mid-1984).
Army: 45,300 (29,500 conscripts).
   Army HQ.
Standing Alert Force (some 15,000):
   1 mech div of 3 mech bdes (each 1 tk, 1 mech inf, 1 SP arty, 1 SP ATK bns), 1 comd, 1 AA, 1 engr, 1 sigs bns.
Standing Field Units:
   Army: 1 HQ, 1 recce bns; 1 sigs, 1 log regts.
   Corps: 2 HQ, 1 arty, 1 SP ATK, 2 AA, 3 engr, 2 sigs bns; 2 log regts.
   Indep: 1 air-mobile, 2 mountain, 1 guards bns.
   9 Regional (county) Commands.
   28 Landwehrstammregimente (trg regts).
   Peacetime: trg and maintenance.
   Mobilization: active personnel for mobile and territorial forces.
Cadre Force (full strength on mobilization):
   8 mobile bde HQ:
   Bde tps (45,000): 24 inf, 8 arty, 8 engr/ATK, 8 comd/spt bns.
   Territorial tps (82,000): 33 inf bns, 21 lt inf, 6 engr/ATK bns, 40 engr/ATK coys.
AFV: 50 M-60A3, 120 M-60A1 MBT; 464 Saurer 4K4F APC.
Arty. 108 IFH 105mm, 24 FHM-1 155mm, 56 M-109 155mm SP how; 22 SFKM2 155mm fortress guns;
   18 M-51 130mm MRL; 351 81mm, 105 M-2/M-30 107mm, 82 120mm mor;
   552 20mm, 56 35mm towed, 38 M-42 40mm SP AA guns.
ATK: 300 M-68 105mm turret-mounted guns; LAW RL; 74mm, 84mm, 397 M-40 106mm RCL; 240 M-52/M-55 85mm towed,
   225 Kuerassier JPz SK 105mm SP ATK guns.
   (On order: 42 155mm SP how.)
RESERVES: 158,000; 970,000 have a reserve commitment.
Air Force: * 4,700 (2,500 conscripts); 32 combat ac. (Austrian air units, an integral part of the Army, are listed separately for purposes of comparison.)
   1 Air Div HQ; 3 Air Regts:
   4 FGA sqns with 32 Saab 105OE.
   6 hel sqns with 12 AB-206A, 23 AB-212, 23 Alouette III, 12OH-58B Kiowa, 17 AB-204.
   1 trg/liaison sqn with 2 Skyvan, 12 Turbo Porter, 6 O-1E, 18 Saab 91D, 19 L-19.
   6 PC-7 Turbo- Trainerac.
3 AD bns with 36 20mm, 18 35mm AA guns; Super-Bat and Skyguard AD systems.
Forces Abroad: Cyprus (UNFICYP): 1inf bn (299). Syria (UNDOF): 1 inf bn (530). Other Middle East (UNTSO): 13.
  
   CYPRUS
Population: 664,000 (500,000 Greek-, 150,000 Turkish-Cypriots, 14,000 others).
  
   REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS
Military service: conscription, 26 months.
Total armed forces: 10,000.
GDP 1982: £C 1.006 bn ($2,120 bn). Est 1983: £C 1.092 bn ($2,076 bn).
Est def exp 1982: £C 21.5 m ($45,301 m). 1983: 30.395 ($57,796 m).
GDP growth: 4.8% (1982), 2.6% (1983).
Inflation: 6.4% (1982), 5.1% (1983).
   $1=£C 0.4746 (1982), 0.5259 (1983).
National Guard:* 10,000. (* Mainly Greek-Cypriot conscripts, but some seconded Greek Army officers and NCOs.)
   1 armd bn.
   2 recce/mech inf bns.
   20+ inf bns (under strength).
   7 arty gps.
   8 spt units.
   10 T-34 MBT; 100 EE-9 Cascavel, 20 Marmon-Harrington armd cars (in reserve); 17 BTR-50 APC;
   130M-1944 100mm, M-101 105mm and 25-pdr (88mm) guns and M-116 75mm how; Yug YMRL-32 128mm MRL;
   M-18 57mm, M-40 106mm RCL; M-55 20mm, 40mm, 3.7-in. (94mm) AA guns;
   1 58-ft patrol craft; 2 AB-47J hel.
   (On order: 84 VAB APC.)
RESERVES: 60,000 (have yearly refresher training): 30,000 immediate; 30,000 second-line.
Para-Military Forces: 3,000 armed police; 2 96-ft patrol boats, 1 Islander lt tpt ac.
  
   NORTHERN CYPRUS
Military service: conscription, 24 months.
Est GDP 1982: TL 36.750 bn ($226,084m).
Def exp 1982: TL 750 m ($4.61 m). Def budget 1983: 1.071 bn ($4,750m).
   $1 =Turkish lira 162.55 (1982), 225.46 (1983).
Security Forces: some 4,500.
   7 inf bns.
   1 armd coy.
   8 T-34 MBT (operability questionable).
RESERVES: 5,500 first-line, 10,000 second-line.
  
   FINLAND
Population: 4,840,000.
Military service: 8-11 months (11 months for officers and NCOs); three entries per year.
Total armed forces: 36,500 (25,000 conscripts; total mobilizable strength about 700,000).
GDP 1982: m 236.770 bn ($49,104 bn).1983: 265.38 bn ($47,644 bn).
Est def exp 1983: m 4.400 bn ($789,932 m). Def budget 1984: 4.180 bn ($718,090 m).
   (Defence budget likely to increase as Government spending plans are revised.)
GDP growth: 2.6% (1982), 2.0% (1983).
Inflation: 10.4% (1982), 9.3% (1983).
Debt 1982: $19.1 bn.
   $1=markkaa, 4.8204 (1982), 5.5701 (1983), 5.8210 (mid-1984).
Army: 30,900 (22,300 conscripts).
   7 Military Areas; 25 Military Districts:
   1 armd bde.
   7 inf bdes (l cdo).
   2 fd arty regts.
   2 coast arty regts.
   7 indep inf bns.
   2 indep fd arty bns.
   3 coast arty bns (1 mobile).
   1 AA arty regt (incl 1 SAM bn with SAM-79).
   5 indep AA arty bns.
   2 engr bns.
   1 sigs regt, 1 bn.
   T-54/-55 MBT; PT-76 lt tks; BMP-1 MICV; BTR-50P, BTR-60 (to retire) APC;
   M-41 105mm, M-60 122mm, M-54 130mm guns; M-37/-61 105mm, M-38/D-30 122mm, M-40 150mm, ML-20 152mm, M-68/-74 155mm how;
   81mm, 120mm mor; M-55 55mm, Miniman 74mm, SM-58-61 95mm RCL; SS-11, M-82 (AT-4 Spigot) ATGW;
   20mm, ZU-23 23mm, 30mm, GDF-002 35mm, L-60/L-70 40mm, S-60 57mm towed, ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SAM-79 (SA-3), SAM-78 (SA-7) SAM.
(On order T-72 MBT, 59 A-180Sisu APC, TOW ATGW.)
Navy: 2,700 (1,400 conscripts).
   2 Turunmaa corvettes.
   6 FAC(G): 1 Helsinki with RBS-15SF SSM; 4 Tuima (Sov Osa-II), 1 Isku (experimental) with MTO-66 (Styx) SSM.
   4 Nuoli FAC.
   1 Hurja coastal patrol craft ((experimental).
   5 R-class large patrol craft.
   3 minelayers (1 trg), 6 Kuha, 1 Kiiski inshore minesweepers.
   1 HQ/log ship.
   5 Valas tpts, 14 small LCU/tpts, 3 Pukkio spt ships; 6 Hauki tpts.
   (On order: 3 Helsinki FAC(G), RBS-15SF SSM.)
Bases: Upinniemi (Helsinki), Turku.
Air Force: 2,900 (1,300 conscripts); 76 combat ac.
   3 AD districts: 3 fighter wings.
   3 ftr sqns with 27 MiG-21bis, 24 J-35S Draken.
   1 ocu: 8 MiG-21U/UM, 3 J-35C, 8 Hawk trg ac.
   1 recce fit with 6 MiG-21F.
   1 tpt sqn: 2 C-47 (retiring), 3 F-27-100, 3 Learjet 35 ac; 1 hel fit with 6 Mi-8 (also SAR), 2 Hughes 500.
   Trainers incl 15 Magister, 27 Hawk, 30 Vinka (Leko 70).
   Liaison ac: 9 Cherokee Arrow, 6 Chieftain.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll, RB-27, RB-28 (Falcon).
(On order 10 J-35 Draken AD, 15 Hawk trg ac, AD system.)
RESERVES (all services): some 700,000 (36,000 a year do conscript training; 42,000 reservists: total obligation 40-100 days refresher training
   (average 8 days annually) between service and age 50; officers to 60).
   Some 210,000-would, with the Regulars, form the 'fast deployment force' to cover full mobilization.
   Mobilization units supporting general, local or spt forces are org in bdes, bns etc., under Military Areas.
Forces Abroad: (UN only, not with in Force totals): Cyprus (UNFICYP) 10. Syria (UNDOF) 1 bn (395). Lebanon (UNIFIL) 1 bn (495).
   Other Middle East (UNTSO) 21. Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 4.
Para-Military Forces: Ministry of Interior: Frontier Guards 3,500, four districts, 7 bns;
   Coastguard (600), 3 districts; 4 large, 9 coastal 34 patrol craft; ac and 3 Mi-8 hel (SAR). (On order: 2 large patrol boats.)
  
   IRELAND
Population: 3,550,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 13,943.
GDP 1982: £E 12.436 bn ($17,687 bn). Est 1983: 13.943 bn (Sl 7.405 bn).
Def exp 1982: £E 247.7 m ($352,297 m), 1983: 261.3 m ($326,177 m). Def budget 1984: 230.0 m ($256,955m).
GDP growth: -1.4% (1982), 0.5% (1983).
Inflation: 17% (1982), 10.3% (1983).
Debt: $18.3 bn (1982), $19.6 bn (1983).
   $1=£E 0.7031 (1982), 0.8011 (1983), 0.8951 (mid-1984).
Army: 12,205.
   1 inf force (2 inf bns).
   4 inf bdes: 2 with 2, 1 with 3 inf bns, 1 fd arty regt, 1 motor recce sqn, 1 engr coy; 1 with 2 inf bns, 1armd recce sqn, 1fd arty bty.
   Army tps: 1 tk sqn, 1 AD regt, 1 Ranger coy.
   Total units:
   11 inf bns (3 with MICV coy; UNIFIL bn ad hoc - dets from other bns).
   1 tk sqn.
   1 armd sqn.
   3 recce sqns.
   3 fd arty regts (each of 2 btys); 1 indep bty.
   1 AD regt (1 regular, 3 reserve btys).
   3 fd engr coys.
   1 Ranger coy.
   12 Scorpion lt tks; 20 AML-90, 32 AML-60 armd cars; 60 Panhard VTT/M3, 8 Timoney APC;
   35 25-pdr (88mm) gun/how; 12 105mm lt guns; 199 60mm, 250 81mm, 92 120mm mor;
   447 Carl Gustav 84mm, 96 PV-1110 90mm RCL; 4 Milan ATGW;
   24 L/60, 2 L/70 40mm AA guns; 4 RBS-70 SAM.
RESERVES: 954 first-line, 14,377 second-line.
   4 second-line Reserve Army Gps (garrisons):
   2 Gps have 6 inf bns (1 Gp has 4, 1 has 2); 6 fd arty regts (2 Gps have 2; 2 have 1);
   3 Gps have 1 motor sqn, 1 engr, 1 supply/tpt coy, 1 sigs coy; 3 AA btys (1 Gp has 2, 1 has 1).
Navy: 896 (to be increased to about 1,500).
   1 P-31 offshore patrol vessel with 1 hel.
   4 patrol vessels.
   2 Br Ton coastal MCM (fishery protection).
Base: Cork.
RESERVES: 5 coys (361).
Air Force: 842; 15 combat ac.
   3 Wings (1 trg):
   1 COIN sqn with 6 CM-170-2 Super Magister.
   1 coin/trg sqn: 9 SF-260WE ac; 2 SA-342L Gazelle trg hel.
   1 liaison sqn with 7 Cessna FR-172H, 1 FR-172K.
   1 hel sqn with 8 Alouette III.
   1 composite sqn with 3 King Air (2 MR, 1 trg), 1 HS-125-700 (VIP).
   (On order: 5 AS-365F Dauphin II MR hel (2 for Navy).)
Forces Abroad: Cyprus (UNFICYP) 6. Lebanon (UNIFIL) 1 bn+ (722); 4 AML-90 armd cars, 13 VTT/M3 APC.
   Other Middle East (UNTSO) 21.
  
   MALTA
Population: 355,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 800.
GDP 1982: £M 461.80 m ($1,123 bn).
Est def exp 1982: £M 6.20 m ($15,078 m). 1983: 6.50 m ($15,038 m).
FMA 1982: $3,642 m.
   $1=£M 0.4112 (1982), 0.4322 (1983).
Army: 800.
   1 inf bn (incl 1 arty coy (6 40mm AA guns), RPG-7 RL; 50 ZPU-4 14.5mm quad machine guns.
   1 task force.
   1 marine section with 15 patrol craft <.
   1 air fit with 1 AB-206 Jet Ranger, 3 Alouette III, 3 AB-47G hel (serviceability questionable).
Para-Military Forces: Reserves (Id Dejma) some 800: Voluntary general duties (500), women's service (280).
   Pioneers/labour corps, 3 bns; 1,000.
  
   SWEDEN
Population: 8,380,000.
Military service: Army and Navy 7V2-15 months, Air Force 8-12 months.
Total armed forces: 65,650 (47,850 conscripts; *
   (* There are normally some 95,000 more conscripts (70,000 Army, 4,500 Navy, 6,000 Air Force) plus 15,000 officer and NCO reservists
   doing 11-40 days refresher training at some time in the year. Obligation is 5 times per reservist between ages 20 and 47.)
   mobilizable to about 800,000 in 72 hours, excl 500,000 auxiliary orgs). 25,000 civilians provide spt services.
GDP 1982: S kr 622.64 bn ($99,105 bn). 1983: 695.41 bn ($90,701 bn).
Def budget 1982/3: S kr 19.110 bn ($2,688 bn). 1983/4: 20.488 bn ($2,589 bn).
   (Plus a further budget of S kr 854.5 m for Civil Defence and S kr 525.6 m for economic defence (strategic material stockpiling, etc.,).
   Additional funding for a defence development plan: Skr 2.2 bn for 1984-7.)
GDP growth: 0.5% (1982), 2.3% (1983).
Inflation: 9.0% (1982), 8.9% (1983).
Debt: $36.8 bn (1981), $38.9 bn (1982).
   CY: $1=kronor 6.2826 (1982), 7.6671 (1983). FY: $1=kronor 7.1101 (1982/3), 7.9129 (1983/4).
Army: 47,000 (37,000 conscripts).*
   6 Military commands; 26 Defence districts (Laens).
Peace establishment:
   50 armd, cav, inf, arty, AA, engr and sig regts (local defence, cadre for mobilization, basic conscript trg).
War establishment (700,000 on mobilization, incl 100,000 Home Guard):
   4 armd bdes.
   1 mech bde.
   19 inf, 5 Norrland bdes.
   60 indep armd, inf, arty and AA arty bns.
   1 army aviation bn (39 hel).
   11 arty aviation platoons (66 ac).
   Local Defence Districts: 100 indep bns, 400-500 indep coys and Home Guard units.
AFV: 340 Strv-101, Strv-102/-104 (Centurion), 330 Strv-103B MBT; 200 Ikv-91 lt tks; Pbv-302 APC.
Arty. Type-4140 105mm, M-39 150mm, 155mm SP guns, FH-77 Model 50 155mm how; Bkv-IA 81mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: Miniman 74mm, Carl Gustav 84mm, PV-1110 90mm RCL; RB-53 Bantam, RB-55 TOW ATGW.
AD
: 20mm, 40mm AA guns; RB-69 (Redeye), RBS-70 (incl (late 1984) Lvrbv SP), RB-77 (Improved HAWK ) SAM.
Avn: 66 SK-61C (Bulldog) ac; 15 HKP-3 (AB-204B) tpt, 10 HKP-5 (Hughes 300C) lt trg, 24 HKP-6 (Jet Ranger) utility hel.
(On order: Pvrbv 551 TOW veh).
Navy: 9,650, incl coast arty (6,250 conscripts),* 10 combat hel.
   12 subs: 3 Nacken, 5 Sjdormen, 4 Draken.
   2 Holland destroyers.
   28 FAC(G): 16 Hugin with 6 RB-12 (Penguin), 12 Spica II (R-131) with RBS-15 SSM.
   6 Spica I (T-121) FAC(T).
   6 Hand large, 10 coastal patrol craft.
   2 minelayers, 1 minelayer/trg ships.
   9 Arko coastal, 18 inshore minesweepers.
   13 LCM, 74 LCU, 54 LCA.
5 coast arty bdes; 12 mobile, 53 static btys with 75mm, 105mm, 120mm, 152mm guns; RB-08, RB-52 SSM;
   30 defence (arty/SSM/inf) bns and coys; coast rangers (coys): 10 coastal, 16 minelayers;
   18 60-/7Q-class coastal patrol craft; 8 LCM, 81 LCU, 54 LCA.
   2 hel sqns with 10 HKP-4 (Vertol 107) ASW/MCM, 3 HKP-2 (Alouette II) utility, 10 HKP-6 liaison.
(On order: 4 A-17 subs, 2 Stockholm (Spica III) FAC(G), 1 LCU, 6 Landsort minehunters; RBS-15 SSM.)
Bases: Musko, Harnosand, Karlskrona, Goteborg (spt only).
Air Force: 9,000 (4,600 conscripts); * 410 combat ac.
   1 attack gp.
   4 AD districts.
   12 wings (liaison ac 48 SK-50 (Saab 91) Safir).
   6 FGA sqns: 5 with 95 AJ-37 Viggen, 1 with 20 SK-60B/C (Saab 105).
   12 AD sqns: 6 with 110 J-35F Draken, 2 with 36 J-35D, 4 with 70 JA-37 Viggen.
   6 recce sqns with 52 SH/SF-37 Viggen.
   2 ocu: 1 with 15 SK-37 Viggen; 1 with 12 SK-35C Draken.
   1 tpt sqn with 8 C-130E/H, 2 Caravelle.
   Comms units with SK-60A, 1 C-47, lt civil ac.
   Trainers incl 124 SK-60A/B/C, 57 SK-61, 24 J-32B/D/E Lansen (drone).
   1 SAR sqn with 10 HKP-4, 10 HKP-5 hel.
   1 utility unit with 6 HKP-2, 7 HKP-3 hel.
   AAM: Rb-24, AIM-9J/L Sidewinder, Rb-27 (Falcon), Rb-28 (Improved Falcon), Rb-71 (Skyflash).
   ASM: Rb-04E, Rb-05A, Rb-75 (Maverick).
AD: Semi-automatic control and surveillance system, Stril 60, co-ordinates all AD components.
   (On order 76 JA-37 Viggen, 30 JAS-39 Gripen multi-role ac, RBS-15F ASM.)
RESERVES (all services): 735,500; voluntary auxiliary organizations 500,000.
Forces Abroad: Cyprus (UNIHCYP): 1 inf bn (400).
   Lebanon (UNIFTL): HQ/log/medical tps (140).
Para-Military Forces: Coast Guard (550): 2 TV-171 fishery protection vessels, 67 patrol craft; (Air Arm) 2 Cessna 337G, 1 402C.
   Civil Defence: shelters for some 5 million people outside military ages (16-65).
  
   SWITZERLAND
Population: 6,500,000.
Military service: 17 weeks recruit training followed by reservist refresher training of 3 weeks for 8 out of 12 years for Auszug (20-32),
   2 weeks for 3 years for Landwehr (33-42), 1 week for 2 years for Landsturm (43-50).
Total armed forces: about 1,500 regular and 18,500 recruits* (mobilizable to some 1,100,000 incl Civil Defence in 48 hours).
   (* Two recruit intakes a year (Jan/Jun) each of 17,000. Some 400,000 reservists a year do refresher training.)
GDP 1982: fr 196.0 bn ($96,537 bn). 1983: 202.66 bn ($96,546 bn).
Def exp 1983: fr 4.313 bn ($2,055). Def budget 1984: 4.476 bn ($1,974 bn). (Including civil defence outlays.)
GDP growth: 1.2% (1982), 6.4% (1983).
Inflation: 6.6% (1981), 5.7% (1982), 3.0% (1983).
Debt 1982: $28.6 bn.
   $1=francs 2.0303 (1982), 2.0991 (1983), 2.2676 (mid-1984).
Army: War establishment: 580,000 on mobilization.
   3 fd corps, each of 1 mech, 2 inf divs, corps units.
   1 mountain corps of 3 mountain inf divs, corps units.
   Fd corps tps: 3 infantry, 3 cyclist, 3 engr regts (3 bns); 3 sigs, 3 traffic control bns; 3 hel sqns, 3 lt ac fits.
   Mountain corps tps: 1 mountain inf, 1 engr, 1 sigs regts; 7 indep inf, 2 pack horse bns; 1 traffic, 1 hel sqn.
   17 indep bdes (11 frontier, 3 fortress, 3 redoubt).
   6 Territorial Zones: 13 medical, 12 log, 11 civil def regts.
   Indep units: 3 hy arty, 3 engr, 2 sigs regts.
   20 Fortress Guard companies
AFV: 300 Pz-55/57 (Centurion), 160 Pz-61, 400 Pz-68 MBT; 1,350 M-113 APC.
Arty: 900 105mm Model-35 guns and Model-46 how; M-50 towed, 476 PzHb-66 (M-109U) 155mm SP how;
   RWK-014 30-tube 81mm MRL; 3,000 81mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: 1,340 Model-50/-57 and 90mm ATK guns; 106mm RCL; 20,000 83mm RL; 6 MOWAG Piranha with TOW; 800 Bantam, Dragon ATGW.
AD: 1,200 20mm, 600 GDF-002 35mm AA guns.
Marine: 11 Aquarius patrol craft<.
(On order 210 Leopard 2 MBT, 125 M-113 APC, Dragon ATGW.)
Air Forced: 45,000 on mobilization (maintenance by civilians); some 310 combat ac. (Aviation Corps, an integral part of the Army.)
   3 air regts.
   11 FGA sqns: 2 with 32 F-5E and some Venom (in service to December 1984); 9 with 145 Hunter F58/T-68.
   4 fighter sqns with 72 F-5E/F.
   2 interceptor sqns with 31 Mirage IIIS/BS.
   1 recce sqn with 16 Mirage IIIRS, 7 Venom FB-54.
   4 liaison/SAR sqns with 16 Porter, 24 Turbo Porter, 6 Do-27, 3 Twin Bonanza.
   4 hel sqns with 21 Alouette II, 76 Alouette III hel.
   Trainers incl 10 PC-7, 37 Vampire T-55, 65 Vampire DM-100 Mk 6, 2 Mirage IIIBS, 68 Pilatus P-3.
   AAM: Sidewinder, AIM-26B Falcon.
   ASM: AS-30.
1 air force fd bde (3 fd regts, 1 para coy, 1 lt ac wing).
1 airbase bde with 3 AA arty regts, each with 4 batteries of 20mm and 35mm guns.
1 AD bde with 1 SAM regt (2 bns, each of 2 btys; 64 Bloodhound), 1 AA arty regts (each of 3 btys; 20mm and 35mm guns, Skyguard fire control).
3 comd and comms, 1 log regts.
(On order. 4 F-5F ftrs; 30 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer ac; 60 Rapier SAM launchers (from end-1984); 500 AGM-65 Maverick ASM.)
RESERVES (all services): 625,000 (45,000 officers, 110,000 NCOS, 3,000 women auxiliaries).
Para-Military Forces: 480,000 (300,000 fully trained). Shelter programme for 5,108,000; emergency supplies and medical facilities.
  
   YUGOSLAVIA
Population: 23,100,000.
Military service: 15 months.
Total armed forces: 239,700 (154,000 conscripts).
GMP* 1981: YD 2.208 bn ($63,147 bn). 1982: 2.903 bn ($57,741 bn). (* Gross Material Product.)
Est def exp 1982: YD 119.0 bn ($2,367 bn). 1983: 150.58 bn ($1,622 bn).
GNP growth: 1.5% (1981), 0.0% (1982).
Inflation: 32% (1982), 39% (1983).
Debt 1982: $19.0 bn.
   $1=dinar 34.966 (1981), 50.276 (1982), 92.839 (1983).
Army: 191,000 (140,000 conscripts).
   7 Military Regions:
   10 inf divs.
   8 indep tk bdes.
   9 indep inf bdes (incl 3 mech, 3 It).
   3 mountain' bdes.
   1 AB bde (Air Force manned, Army control).
   12 fd, 11 AA arty regts.
   6 ATK regts.
   4 SAM regts (SA-6).
AFV: 1,500 T-34/-54/-55, some T-72, 60 M-47 MBT; PT-76 lt tks; M-3A1, M-8, BRDM-2 scout cars; some M-80 MICV; 200 BTR-40/-50/-152, M-60 APC.
Arty. 1,800 M-1955, M-1931/-37 122mm, M-46 130mm and ML-20 152mm guns; M-48 76mm, 105mm incl SP, M-1938, D-30 and M-1974 SP,
   122mm 155mm how; 82mm, 120mm mor; M-73 and M-63 128mm MRL; 4 FROG-7 SSM.
ATK: M-1943, PAK-40 75mm, T-12 100mm, M-36B2 90mm towed and SP ATK guns; 57mm, M-60 82mm, M-65 105mm RCL;
   Bov-1 veh with ATGW; Snapper, Sagger ATGW.
AD: M-55/-75 20mm, M-53 30mm, M-1939 37mm, L/70 40mm, S-60 57mm, M-1944 85mm, M-127 90mm, 3.7-in. (94mm) towed,
   Bov-3 (20mm), M-53/59, ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SA-6/-7/-9 SAM.
(On order some 500M-80 MICV.)
RESERVES: 500,000; (mobilization troops to complete units to war establishment).
   (Some 500 T-34/85, M-4 MBT; 300 M-18 Hellcat 76mm, M-36B2 90mm SP ATK guns in store.)
Navy: 12,000 incl 1,500 marines (6,000 conscripts).
   7 subs: 2 Sava, 3 Heroj, 2 Sutjeska.
   2 Koni frigates with 4 Styx SSM, 1x2 SA-N-4 SAM.
   3 corvettes: 2 Mornar, 1 Le Fougueux (reserve).
   16 FAC(G) with Styx (6 Rade Koncar, 10 Osa-1).
   15 SovShershen FAC(T).
   24 large patrol craft: 10 Kraljevica, 7 Type 131, 7 Mima (some in reserve).
   31 minesweepers: 4 Vukov Klanac coastal, 10 inshore (4 Ham, 6 M-117), 17 river< (10 M-301, 7 Nestiri) (some in reserve).
   13 DTM-211 LCU/minelayers, 22 601-type LCA.
   1 ASW hel sqn with 10 K.a-25.
   1 tpt hel sqn with 20 Mi-8, Partizan (Gazelle).
   2 marine bdes (2 regts, each of 2 bns).
25 coast arty btys with M-44 85mm, M-36 88mm, M-37 122mm, M-54 130mm, D-20 152mm guns; Styx SSM.
(On order some 6 Mima patrol craft.)
Bases: Lora/Split, Pula, Sibenik, Kardeljevo, Kotor.
Air Force: 36,700 (8,000 conscripts); some 420 combat ac,20 armed hel.
   2 air divisions:
   12 FGA sqns with 25 Kraguj, 150 Galeb/Jastreb, some 25 Orao, some G-4Super Galeb.
   9 interceptor sqns with 130 MiG-21F/PF/M/bis, 20 MiG-21U.
   2 recce sqns: 35 Galeb/Jastreb RJ-1, some Orao.
   1 ocu: 30 Galeb/Jastreb J-l/Ty-1, some Orao.
   2 tpt sqns: 15 C-47, 6 Yak-40, 2 An-12, 15 An-26, 2 DC-6B, 12 I1-14M, 2 Mystere-50 (VIP ), 4 CL-215, PC-6.
   Trainers incl 80 Galeb/Jastreb, 100 UTVA-75, UTVA-66 ac, 15 Partizan hel.
   4 hel tpt sqns: 20 Mi-4,70 Mi-8, 45 Partizan, 2 A-109 Hirundo. (Some 20 hel are armed.)
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   ASM: AGM-65 Maverick
Air Defence Force: (Army personnel, eqpt, Air Force control):
   15 AA regts.
   8 SA-2, 6 SA-3 SAM bns.
(On order Super Galeb, some 180 Orao FGA, Turbo-Porter tpt ac, some 94 SA-341H Partizan hel.)
Para-Military Forces (under Army): Frontier Guards 15,000.
   Territorial Defence Force 1-3 million; mobile bdes, bns with arty and AA guns.
   Civil Defence 2 million on mobilization.
   Militia with TAB-71/-72 APC.
  

The Middle East and the Mediterranean

   Bilateral Agreements with External Powers
   The Soviet Union signed a fifteen-year Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with Iraq in April 1972 and a further agreement in December 1978. A similar treaty was signed with Syria on 8 October 1980, and Soviet air defence units are deployed in Syria under this Treaty. A Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation, signed with South Yemen in October 1979, was ratified in February 1980, and an agreement of Joint Co-operation was signed in January 1983. Soviet units use Aden's naval and air facilities. All three countries have received significant Soviet arms deliveries. Despite this, Iraq has tried to broaden her contacts with the West, particularly with France and Italy. In November 1979 Iran unilaterally abrogated two paragraphs of a 1921 treaty under which Moscow reserves the right to intervene in Iran's internal affairs if a third country threatens to attack the USSR from Iranian territory. The USSR has refused to accept this abrogation. Egypt still has major stocks of Soviet-pattern equipment, and spares and supplies have been provided by other Warsaw Pact nations, the People's Republic of China, Western nations and domestic manufacture.
   Bulgaria and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) signed a Protocol for Co-operation in April 1980 and a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation on 14 November 1981. Similar agreements with Hungary were reported in April and November 1981. Libya signed treaties of Friendship and Co-operation with Bulgaria and Romania in January 1983. Sudan and Romania signed an agreement providing technical co-operation and training in November 1982.
   The United States concluded a mutual defence agreement with Israel in July 1952. A strategic co-operation understanding, reported in early 1982, led in March 1984 to a series of agreements covering aid and support, details of which have not been published. A similar agreement with Egypt (April 1952) was probably in abeyance between 1971 and 1975. A 1981 agreement enables the US to use Egyptian bases, but with significant reservations on Egypt's part. The status of US funding is in doubt. A similar agreement was reached with Morocco in May 1982. A 1959 mutual security agreement with Iran, though only an executive agreement, not a formally ratified treaty, has not been specifically abrogated. An agreement has been concluded with Oman to provide economic and military aid in exchange for permission to use Salalah and Masirah as staging bases. An agreement with Bahrain permits the US Navy to use port facilities. In November 1981 a strategic co-operation agreement was signed with Tunisia.
   Britain concluded treaties of friendship with Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in August 1971. She has supplied arms to Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and the UAE. France has continuing arms-supply arrangements with Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia. West Germany has provided technical training assistance to Sudan under a 1982 agreement. Spain has reached a defence agreement with Morocco enabling her navy to use Moroccan ports. The benefits to Morocco have not been identified.
   China signed a Treaty of Friendship with North Yemen in 1964, under which minor arms were provided. Arms and spare parts were sent to Egypt under agreements signed in 1978/9 and 1983. A military co-operation agreement was signed with Sudan in January 1982 and arms supplied. North Korea and Libya signed a Treaty of Alliance or Friendship and Co-operation in November 1982 which permits exchanges of military data, specialists and supplies.
   Peace-Keeping Forces
   The United Nations withdrew the 4,000-man United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) from the Sinai on 24 July 1979; its duties were temporarily assumed by the United Nations Truce Supervisory Organization (UNTSO), 298 officers, which has been active in the region since 1949. The Egyptian/Israeli border is now patrolled by the 2,200-man Multi-national Force and Observers (MFO) under the Israeli/Egyptian peace treaty; contingents come from the US (1,100), Australia (110), Britain (35), Colombia (500), Fiji (469), France (40), Italy (90), the Netherlands (105), New Zealand (35) and Uruguay (70).
   The United Nations also deploys in the Golan Heights the 1,279-man Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), made up of contingents from Austria (529), Canada (221), Finland (383) and Poland (151).
   The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) consists of some 6,285 men from France (496), Fiji (623), Finland (1,386), Ghana (557), Ireland (732), Italy (40), Netherlands (807), Norway (839), Senegal (559) and Sweden (144).
   A Multi-National Force, set up in Beirut, Lebanon, in September 1982 to monitor the cease-fire and composed of Italian (2,038), French (1,100), US (2,000) and British (87) troops, was with drawn in March 1984.
   Arrangements with in the Region
   Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia and North and South Yemen are members of the League of Arab States (Egypt's membership was suspended in March 1979). Among its subsidiary bodies are the Arab Supreme Defence Council, comprising Foreign and Defence Ministers (set up in 1950), the Permanent Military Committee of army general staffs (1950), which is an advisory body, and the Unified Arab Command (1964).
   Syrian and Palestine Liberation Army forces, comprising the Arab Deterrent Force, remain in northern Lebanon. Syria has reinforced her component and maintains a degree of control over the Arab guerrilla group elements in the Beqa'a Valley and northern Lebanon. Israeli forces, supported by a Lebanese militia, control the south.
   Algeria and Libya signed a defence agreement in 1975; though a merger was discussed in 1982, this has not yet occurred. Egypt and Sudan came to a joint defence agreement in 1977. The Joint Defence Council's minutes of December 1981 were tantamount to another, and in October 1982 an 'Integration Charter' was signed, covering, amongst other activities, military policy. This Charter will be studied 'for 10 years', but Egyptian defence co-operation has been noted during successive crises between Sudan and Libya. Saudi Arabia has long supported Morocco against Polisario guerrillas; the two countries signed a security pact in February 1982. An understanding between Saudi Arabia and Iraq is believed to have been signed in 1979. Jordan and Iraq ratified a Defence agreement in March 1981. The Gulf Co-operative Council, created in May 1981 by Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE, is developing a mutual defence structure to include a joint strike force, air defence, transport and procurement. It is being reinforced by internal security pacts between Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, Qatar, Oman (1982) and the UAE. A draft Gulf security agreement is being considered. Libya, South Yemen and Ethiopia formed an Aden Treaty Tripartite Alliance in 1981; it included a joint defence commitment but nothing more concrete has been reported. North and South Yemen have agreed to a merger (1981); the details remain obscure. Jordan, Morocco and North Yemen have announced the departure of unspecified numbers of volunteers to assist Iraq against Iran, but no formed units have been despatched. Iraq has stated that multi-national composite units have been formed; their roles are obscure. Sudan and Ethiopia agreed a regime of security, stability and noninterference in each other's internal affairs in July 1982.
   Arms movements in the region are peculiarly complex. Egypt has supplied arms to Morocco, Sudan and Iraq. Algeria and Libya have supplied arms to Polisario, and most Arab countries have supplied Palestinian guerrillas with arms. In some cases a third nation funds the recipient's foreign arms purchases. Iran has reportedly received arms, supplies and spares from, inter alia, Israel, North Korea and Eastern Europe and is also buying material on the open market in Western Europe. Iraq has apparently recently received arms from Egypt, the USSR, China, North Korea, France, Portugal and Brazil.
   In 1975 an Arab Organization for Industrialization (AOI) was set up in Egypt under the aegis of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the UAE and Sudan to encourage indigenous Arab arms production. Arab involvement ended following Egypt's rapprochement with Israel. Egypt has been entering into co-production agreements with Britain, France, the US and Yugoslavia. To replace the AOI, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE agreed in 1979 to set up an $8-billion arms industry in the UAE. This proposal is still being studied by the Gulf Co-operative Council.
  

Ближний Восток и Северная Африка

   Двусторонние соглашения с внешними державами
   Советский Союз подписал пятнадцатилетний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Ираком в апреле 1972 года и еще одно соглашение в декабре 1978 года. Аналогичный договор был подписан с Сирией 8 октября 1980 года, и в соответствии с ним в Сирии дислоцируются советские подразделения ПВО. Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве, подписанный с Южным Йеменом в октябре 1979 года, был ратифицирован в феврале 1980 года, а соглашение о совместном сотрудничестве было подписано в январе 1983 года. Советские части используют военно-морские и воздушные средства Адена. Все три страны получили значительные поставки советского оружия. Несмотря на это, Ирак пытается расширить свои контакты с Западом, в частности с Францией и Италией. В ноябре 1979 года Иран в одностороннем порядке отменил два пункта договора 1921 года, согласно которым Москва оставляет за собой право вмешиваться во внутренние дела Ирана, если третья страна угрожает напасть на СССР с иранской территории. СССР отказался принять эту отмену. Египет по-прежнему располагает крупными запасами вооружения советского образца, а запасные части и материалы были предоставлены другими странами Варшавского договора, Китайской Народной Республикой, западными странами и отечественным производством.
   Болгария и Йеменская Народно-Демократическая Республика (Южный Йемен) подписали Протокол о сотрудничестве в апреле 1980 года и Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве 14 ноября 1981 года. Аналогичные соглашения с Венгрией были заключены в апреле и ноябре 1981 года. Ливия подписала договоры о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Болгарией и Румынией в январе 1983 года. В ноябре 1982 года Судан и Румыния подписали соглашение о техническом сотрудничестве и подготовке кадров.
   В июле 1952 года Соединенные Штаты заключили с Израилем соглашение о взаимной обороне. Достигнутое в начале 1982 года соглашение о стратегическом сотрудничестве привело в марте 1984 года к заключению ряда соглашений о помощи и поддержке, подробная информация о которых не была опубликована. Аналогичное соглашение с Египтом (апрель 1952 года) , вероятно, было отложено в 1971-1975 годах. Соглашение 1981 года позволяет США использовать египетские базы, но со значительными оговорками со стороны Египта. Состояние американского финансирования вызывает сомнения. Аналогичное соглашение было достигнуто с Марокко в мае 1982 года. Соглашение 1959 года о взаимной безопасности с Ираном, хотя и является лишь исполнительным соглашением, а не официально ратифицированным договором, конкретно не отменено. С Оманом было заключено соглашение об оказании экономической и военной помощи в обмен на разрешение использовать Салалу и Масиру в качестве плацдармов. Соглашение с Бахрейном разрешает ВМС США использовать портовые сооружения. В ноябре 1981 года было подписано соглашение о стратегическом сотрудничестве с Тунисом.
   Великобритания заключила договоры о дружбе с Бахрейном, Катаром и Объединенными Арабскими Эмиратами (ОАЭ) в августе 1971 года. Она поставляла оружие Бахрейну, Египту, Иордании, Кувейту, Оману, Катару, Саудовской Аравии, Судану и ОАЭ. Франция продолжает заключать соглашения о поставках оружия с Египтом, Ираком, Ливией, Ливией, Марокко, Суданом и Тунисом. Западная Германия оказывала техническую помощь в подготовке в Судан по договору 1982. Испания заключила с Марокко соглашение об обороне, позволяющее ее ВМС использовать марокканские порты. Выгоды для Марокко не определены.
   В 1964 году Китай подписал договор о дружбе с Северным Йеменом, по которому было предоставлено незначительное количество оружия. Оружие и запасные части были направлены в Египет в соответствии с соглашениями, подписанными в 1978/9 и 1983 годах. В январе 1982 года было подписано соглашение о военном сотрудничестве с Суданом и поставлено оружие. В ноябре 1982 года Северная Корея и Ливия подписали Договор о Союзе или дружбе и сотрудничестве, который разрешает обмен военными данными, специалистами и поставками.
   Миротворческие силы
   ООН вывела 4000 человек Чрезвычайных вооруженных сил Объединенных Наций (UNEF) с Синайского полуострова на 24 июля 1979 года; его обязанности были временно возложены на надзорные организации за перемирием ООН (UNTSO), 298 офицеров, которых действуют в регионе с 1949 года. Египетско-израильскую границу теперь патрулируют 2,200 человек многонациональных сил и наблюдателей (MFO) в соответствии с израильско-египетским мирным договором; контингенты США (1,100), Австралии (110), Великобритании (35), Колумбии (500), Фиджи (469), Франции (40), Италии (90), Нидерландов (105), Новая Зеландии (35) и Уругвая (70).
   ООН также развертывает на Голанских высотах силы наблюдателей за разъединением численностью 1279 человек (UNDOF) в составе контингентов из Австрии (529), Канады (221), Финляндии (383) и Польши (151).
   Временные силы ООН в Ливане (UNIFIL) состоят примерно из 6285 человек из Франции (496), Фиджи (623), Финляндии (1386), Ганы (557), Ирландии (732), Италии (40), Нидерландов (807), Норвегии (839), Сенегала (559) и Швеции (144).
   Многонациональные силы, созданные в Бейруте, Ливан, в сентябре 1982 года для наблюдения за прекращением огня и состоящие из итальянских (2038), французских (1100), американских (2000) и британских (87) военнослужащих, были сформированы в марте 1984 года.
   Региональные соглашения
   Алжир, Бахрейн, Джибути, Иордания, Ирак, Йемен, Катар, Кувейт, Ливан, Ливия, Мавритания, Марокко, Оман, Организация освобождения Палестины (ООП), Саудовская Аравия, Сомали, Судан, Сирия, Тунис и Северный и Южный Йемен являются членами Лиги арабских государств (членство Египта было приостановлено в марте 1979). К числу его вспомогательных органов относятся арабский Высший совет обороны в составе министров иностранных дел и обороны (создан в 1950 году), постоянный военный комитет Генерального штаба армии (1950 год), который является консультативным органом, и Объединенное арабское командование (1964 год).
   Силы Армии освобождения Сирии и Палестины, входящие в состав арабских сил сдерживания, остаются на севере Ливана. Сирия укрепила свой компонент и сохраняет определенный контроль над арабскими партизанскими группировками в долине Бекаа и на севере Ливана. Израильские силы при поддержке ливанского ополчения контролируют юг страны.
   Алжир и Ливия подписали соглашение об обороне в 1975 году, хотя слияние обсуждалось в 1982 году, этого еще не произошло. Египет и Судан пришли к совместному соглашению об обороне в 1977 году. Протокол Объединенного Совета обороны от декабря 1981 года был равнозначен другому протоколу, а в октябре 1982 года была подписана "Хартия интеграции", охватывающая, среди прочего, военную политику. Этот устав будет изучаться на 10 лет, но египетское оборонное сотрудничество было отмечено во время последовательных кризисов между Суданом и Ливией. Саудовская Аравия давно поддерживает Марокко против партизан Полисарио; обе страны подписали пакт безопасности в феврале 1982 года. Считается, что соглашение между Саудовской Аравией и Ираком было подписано в 1979 году. Иордания и Ирак ратифицировали соглашение об обороне в марте 1981 года. Совет сотрудничества стран Залива, созданный в мае 1981 года Бахрейном, Катаром, Кувейтом, Оманом, Саудовской Аравией и ОАЭ, разрабатывает структуру взаимной обороны, включающую в себя совместные ударные силы, противовоздушную оборону, транспорт и закупки. Она подкрепляется пактами о внутренней безопасности между Саудовской Аравией и Бахрейном, Катаром, Оманом (1982 год) и ОАЭ. В настоящее время рассматривается проект соглашения об обеспечении безопасности в заливе. Ливия, Южный Йемен и Эфиопия сформировали трехсторонний союз по Аденскому договору в 1981 году; он включал в себя совместное оборонное обязательство, но ничего более конкретного не сообщалось. Северный и Южный Йемен договорились о слиянии (1981 год); детали остаются неясными. Иордания, Марокко и Северный Йемен объявили об отправке неустановленного числа добровольцев для оказания помощи Ираку в борьбе с Ираном, но ни одно сформированное подразделение не было отправлено. Ирак заявил, что были сформированы многонациональные составные подразделения; их роль неясна. Судан и Эфиопия договорились о режиме безопасности, стабильности и невмешательства во внутренние дела друг друга, в июле 1982 года.
   Движение оружия в регионе является особенно сложным. Египет поставляет оружие Марокко, Судану и Ираку. Алжир и Ливия поставляли оружие Полисарио, а большинство арабских стран поставляли оружие палестинским партизанам. В некоторых случаях третье государство финансирует иностранные закупки оружия. Согласно сообщениям, Иран получает оружие, поставки и запасные части, в частности, от Израиля, Северной Кореи и Восточной Европы, а также закупает материалы на открытом рынке в Западной Европе. Ирак, по-видимому, недавно получил оружие из Египта, СССР, Китая, Северной Кореи, Франции, Португалии и Бразилии.
   В 1975 году в Египте под эгидой Саудовской Аравии, Катара, ОАЭ и Судана была создана арабская организация по индустриализации (АОИ) в целях поощрения местного арабского производства оружия. Участие арабских государств прекратилось после сближения Египта с Израилем. Египет заключает соглашения о совместном производстве с Великобританией, Францией, США и Югославией. Для замены АОИ Ирак, Кувейт, Катар, Саудовская Аравия и ОАЭ договорились в 1979 году создать в ОАЭ оружейную промышленность на сумму 8 млрд. долл. Это предложение все еще изучается Советом сотрудничества стран Залива.
  
   ALGERIA
Population: 21,700,000.
Military service: 6 months.
Total armed forces: 130,000.
GDP 1981: DA 188.1 bn ($43,584 bn), 1982: 206.3 bn ($44,924 bn).
Est def operating budget 1982: DA 3.893 bn ($847,742 m).*1983: 4.200 bn ($877,046m).* (* Excl eqpt expenditure.)
GDP growth: 4.2% (1982), 7.3% (1983). Inflation: 6.7% (1982), 4.0% (1983). Debt: $15.5 bn (1982).
   $1=dinar 4.3158 (1981), 4.5922 (1982), 4.7888 (1983).
Army: 110,000.
   7 Military Regions.
   2 armd bdes.
   5 mech bdes.
   6 mot inf bdes.
   1 AB/special force bde.
   28 indep inf bns.
   2 para bns.
   5 indep arty bns.
   11 AD bns.
   4 engr bns.
   12 coys desert troops.
AFV: 300 T-54/-55, 300 T-62, 100 T-72 MBT; 100 BRDM-2 armd cars; 500 BMP-1 MICV; 350 BTR-50/-60, 300 BTR-152 APC.
Arty. 60 ZIS-3 (M-1942) 76mm, 100 D-44 85mm, 150 M-1931/37 122mm towed, 40 ISU-122, 30 M-1974 122mm, 30 ISU-152 152mm SP guns;
   40 M-1938, 150 D-30 122mm, 20 M-1937 152mm towed how; 150 BM-21 122mm, 20 BM-24 240mm MRL; 180 120mm, and 160mm mor.
ATK: 90 215-2 57mm, 50 SU-100 SP guns; 20 AT-3 Sagger, Milan ATGW.
AD: 440 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm, 130mm towed, 100 ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; 18 SA-6, SA-7/-9 SAM.
(On order: 44 Panhard M-3 APC.)
RESERVES: up to 100,000.
Navy: 8,000.
   2.R-class subs.
   2 Koni frigates with 2x2 SA-N-4 SAM.
   3 Nanuchka corvettes with 4 SS-N-2b SSM, 2x2 SA-N-4 SAM.
   12 FAC(G) with Styx SSM; 3 Osa-1, 9 Osa-II.
   4 Brooke Marine FAC.
   1 T-43 ocean minesweeper (in reserve).
   1 Polnocny LCT, 1 Brooke LST.
   (On order: 2 FAC(G), 1 LST.)
Bases: Algiers, Annaba, Mers el Kebir.
Air Force: 12,000; some 300 combat ac, 37 armed hel.
   7 FGA sqns: 2 with 20 Su-7BM; 2 with 60 MiG-17; 3 with some 40 MiG-23BM, some 18 Su-20 (Fitter C).
   4 interceptor sqns: 3 with 95 MiG-21MF/F; 1 with 18 MiG-25 Foxbat A.
   1 recce sqn with 4 MiG-25R Foxbat B.
   1 COIN sqn with 24 Magister.
   1 MR sqn with 7 F-27 (Navy-assigned).
   1 ocu with 4 MiG-15.
   1 tpt sqn with 8 An-12, 8 C-130H, 6 C-130H-30, 1 I1-18, 1Mystere-Falcon, 1 Caravelle.
   6 hel sqns with 4 Mi-6, 28 Mi-4, 12 Mi-8, 37 Mi-24, 5 Puma, 6 Hughes 269A, 4 Alouette II.
   Other ac incl 6 King Air, 2 Super King Air T-200T (MR), 3 Queen Air.
   Trainers incl MiG-15/-17/-21UTI, Su-7U, 2 MiG-23U, 3 MiG-25U, 6 T-34C.
   1 SAM regt: 24 SA-2 (96 msls), some 20 SA-3.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 24,000: 44 Panhard M-3 APC. Coastguard 550: 2 P-6 FA(T)<, 16 Baglietto FAC(G) < (6 Gemini 36, 10 Type 20).
  
   BAHRAIN
Est population: 400,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 2,800.
GDP 1981: BD 1.698 bn ($4,516 bn). 1982: 1.736 bn ($4,617 bn).
Est def exp 1982: BD 84.1 m ($223,670 m). 1983: 95.2m ($253,191 m). (Excl BD 21.4 m (1982) and 9.7m (1983) defence and security development budget.)
GDP growth: 6.7% (1982), 5.0% (1983).
Inflation: 8.9% (1982), 3.0% (1983).
Debt: $410m (1982).
   $1= dinar 0.3760 (1981/2/3).
Army: 2,300.
   1 bde:
   1 inf bn.
   1 armd car sqn.
   1 arty, 2 mor btys.
   8 Saladin, 20 AML-90 armd, 8 Ferret scout cars; 110 M-3 APC; 8 105mm It guns; 6 81mm mor; 6 120mm RCL; TOW ATGW; 6 RBS-70 SAM.
   (On order: 7 M-198 155mm how;
Navy: 300.
   2 Lurssen 45-metre FAC(G) with 4 Exocet SSM.
   2 Lurssen 38-metre FAC.
Air Force: 200.
   1 hel sqn with 10 AB-212.
Para-Military Forces: Coastguard: 180; 16 coastal patrol craft, 2 landing craft (1 Loadmaster, 1 60-ft).
   Police: 2,500; 2 Bell 412, 2 Scout, 3 BO-105, 2 Hughes 500D hel.
  
   EGYPT
Population: 47,200,000.
Military service: 3 years (selective).
Total armed forces: 460,000 (255,000 conscripts).
GNP 1982: £E 20.396 bn ($29,141 bn). 1983: £E 22.225 bn ($31.755 bn).
Def budget 1982/3: £E 1.746 bn ($2,495 bn). 1983/4: £E 2,130 bn ($3,043 bn). Est 1984/5: £E 2,600 bn ($3,715 bn).
GDP growth: 6.5% (1982), 7.3% (1983).
Inflation: 15% (1982), 16% (1983).
Est FMA: $1 bn (1982), $1.5 bn (1983).
Debt: $22.2 bn (1982).
   $1=£E 0.6999 (1982/4).
   (* Most Soviet equipment now in reserve. Incl 1,200 MBT, 269 combat aircraft.
   Some shown as Soviet has been refurbished with Western, Chinese and domestically produced components.)
Army: 315,000 (180,000 conscripts).*
   3 Army HQ.
   3 armd divs (each with 1 armd, 2 mech bdes).
   5 mech inf divs (each with 2 mech, 1 armd bdes).
   4 inf divs (each with 2 inf, 1 mech bdes).
   1 Republican Guard Div (2 bdes).
   2 indep armd bdes.
   9 indep inf bdes.
   2 airmobile, 1 para bdes.
   12 arty bdes.
   2 hy mor bdes.
   6 ATGW bdes.
   7 cdo gps.
   2 SSM regts (1 with FROG-7, 1 with Scud B).
AFV: 800 T-54/-55, 600 T-62, some 350 AM-60 (M-60A3) MBT; 30 PT-76 lt tks;
   300 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars; 200 BMP-1, 250 BMP-600P MICV; 2,500 OT-62, Walid, Fahd, BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, 550 M-113A2 APC.
Arty. 1,500 85mm, M-1955, 200 SU-100 SP 100mm, D-30 122mm, M-46 130mm, SU-152 SP 152mm and S-23 180mm guns;
   M-1938 122mm, M-l943 152mm how; 400 120mm, 160mm and 240mm mor;
   about 300 122mm (incl Saqr 30), 132mm, 140mm and 240mm MRL; 12 FROG-7, 12 Scud BSSM.
ATK: 900 57mm (incl SP), 76mm and 100mm guns; 900 82mm and B-11 107mm RCL;
   1,000 Sagger, Snapper, Swatter, Milan, Beeswing, Swingfire and TOW ATGW.
AD: 350 ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; 75 SA-6, SA-7/as-Saqr, SA-9, 16 Crotale SAM.
   (On order: some 300 M-60A3 MBT; 350 BMR-600P, some 500 M-113A2 APC; M-109A2 155mm SP how;
   JPz SK-105 SP ATK guns, 52 M-901 SP TOWAFV; 100 M-106A2 and M-125A2 mor carriers;
   200 TOW launchers, 4,000 msls (incl 2,500 Improved TOW), 2,000 Swingfire ATGW; as-Saqr (SA-7),
   Sky guard twin 35mm/Sparrow SAM AD systems, 4 Crotale SAM.)
RESERVES: about 300,000. '
Navy: 33,000 (15,000 conscripts).*
   12 subs: 8 i?-class (4 Ch), 4 Sov W-class.
   5 destroyers: 4 Sov Skory (1 with 1x2 Styx SSM), 1 Br Z-class.
   5 frigates: 2 Spanish F-30 (Descubierta); 3 Br (1 Black Swan, 1 Hunt, 1 River (trg and sub spt ship) ).
   24 FAC(G): 6 Ramadan( with 4 Otomat SSM; 6 October-6 (P-6X with 2 Otomat; 8 Sov Osa-1 with 4 Styx SSM, SA-7 SAM;
   4 Komar with 2 SS-N-2A SSM<.
   22 large patrol craft: 12 Sov SO-1, 6 with 40 BM-21 122mm MRL, some with SA-7 SAM; 4 Ch Hainan, 6 Timsah.
   14 Sov FAC(T): 2 Shershen, 8 P-6<, 4 P-4 with 1x8 122mm MRL<.
   14 Sov FAC with 1 BM-21 122mm MRL: 4 Shershen with SA-7 SAM; 12 P-6 with BM-21or 1x12 BM-24 240mm MRL<.
   12 Sov minesweepers: 10 ocean (6 T-43, 4 Yurka), 2 T-301 inshore.
   3 SRN-6 hovercraft (may be minelayers).
   3 Sov Polnocny LCT.
   13 Sov LCU (9 Vydra, 4 SMB1).
   1 ASW hel sqn with 6 Sea King MV.47.
Coastal defence unit (Army manpower, Navy control): SSM-4-1 130mm guns, 30 Otomat and Samlet SSM.
(On order 4 Lilda DDG; 6 Cormoran FAC(G); 6 Shanghai II FAC, 2 Hainan, 9 Swift, 12 Timsah patrol boats; 14 SRN-6 hovercraft; 16 Harpoon, Otomat SSM.)
Bases: Alexandria, Port Said, Mersa Matruh, Port Tewfig, Hurghada, Safaqa.
RESERVES: about 15,000.
Air Force: 27,000 (10,000 conscripts); 504 combat ac, 36 armed hel (incl AD comd).*
   5 FGA regts: 2 with 33 F-4E, 44 Ch F-6; 2 with 50 MiG-17F (replacing with Alpha Jet MS-2 (6)), 36 Su-7BM; 1 with 53 Mirage 5SDE2.
   2 recce sqns with 6 Mirage 5SDR, 12 MiG-21R/RF, 20 Su-7.
   1 MR sqn with 5 I1-28.
   ELINT ac: 2 EC-130H, 2 E-2C Hawkeye.
   4 hel sqns with some 64 Gazelle (some 36 with HOT ATGW)
   1 tpt bde of 5 sqns with 21 C-130H, 18 I1-14, 10 An-12, 4 Falcon 20 (VIP), 10 DHC-5D Buffalo, 1 Boeing 707, 1 Boeing 737.
   8 utility hel sqns with 20 Mi-4, 40 Mi-8, 52 SA-342H, 4 SA-342K Gazelle, 25 Commando (2 VIP), 15 CH-47C.
   Trainers incl F-7, F-6, MiG-21U/US, 11 Alpha Jet MS-1, 59 L-29 (being replaced), 60 Gomhouria, 36 Yak-18, Wilga 35/80, 4 FT-6,
   6 Mirage 5SDD, 6 F-16B.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll, R-530, Sparrow, AIM-9P3, -9L, Sidewinder.
   ASM: AS-1 Kennel, AS-5 Kelt, Maverick, HOT.
(On order: Some 55 Ch F-7 (MiG-21-type), 40 F-16C/D, 40 Mirage 2000, 16 Mirage 5E2 ftrs; 42 Ch F-6, some 33 Alpha Jet (11 MS-2 FGA, 9 MS-1 trg);
   2 E-2C AEW; 6 C-130H tpt, 120 EMB-312 Tucano trg ac;
   12 Sea King ASW, Super Puma, 24 Cobra with TOW, 15 CH-47, 18 UH-12E, 24 Gazelle (some 12 with HOT ATGW), 4 AS-61 hel;
   Sparrow, 150 Sidewinder AAM; Exocet AM-39, Maverick ASM.)
RESERVES: about 20,000.
Air Defence Command: 85,000 (50,000 conscripts): (230 combat ac).*
   12 centres under construction.
   2 AD divs: regional bdes.
   100 msl and AA bns, radar bns; some 60 SA-2 (360 launchers), 50 SA-3 (200 launchers) sites.
   360 SA-2, 200 SA-3, 75 SA-6, 12 Improved HAWK (36 msls), 16 Crotale SAM;
   2,500 20mm, 23mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm AA guns;
   AN/TPS 63, AN/TS9-73, Fan Song, Flat Face P-15, Spoon Rest P-12, Low Blow, Straight Flush missile/gun and Squint Eye, Long Track EW radars.
   3 interceptor bdes: 235 combat ac.
   5 sqns with 122 MiG-21F/PFS/FL/PFM/M/MF, 2 with 25 F-7; 2 with 34 F-16A, 54
   (On order: Ch CSA-1, Spada, LPD-20 search radar; 8 btys totalling 96 launchers, 288 Improved HAWK SAM.)
Forces Abroad: Iraq, Oman, Sudan, Somalia, Zaire.
Para-Military Forces: 139,000: National Guard, 60,000; Frontier Corps, 12,000; Defence and Security, 60,000;
   Coast Guard, 7,000; 3 Nisr, 6 Crestitalia, 6 Bertram patrol boats, 34 rescue launches.
  
   IRAN
Population: 42,500,000.
Military service: 24 months.
Total armed forces: 555,000 regular. Paramilitary forces recruited for specific offensives could add 200,000-250,000.
GDP 1981: rial 7,271 bn ($92,828 bn). 1982: 8,700.0 bn ($104.063 bn).
Est def exp 1982/3: rial 1,300 bn ($15,550 bn). 1983/4: 1,500 bn ($17,370 bn).
GDP growth: 5.6% (1981), 5.0% (1982).
Inflation: 23.0% (1982), 20% (1983).
Debt: $3.4 bn (1982).
   $1=rial 78.328 (1981), 83.603 (1982), 86.358 (1983).
Army: 250,000 (100,000 conscripts).
   3 mech divs (each 3 bdes: 9 armd, 18 mech bns).
   7 inf divs.
   1 AB bde.
   2 Special Forces divs.
   Some indep armd, inf bdes.
   12 SAM bns with HAWK.
   Ground Forces Air Support units.
AFV: 100 T-54/-55, 50 T-62, 100 T-72, 300 Chieftain Mk 3/5, 200 M-47/-48, 250 M-60A1 MBT; 50 Scorpion lt tks;
   130 EE-9 Cascavel armd cars, 180 BMP-1 MICV; about 280 M-113, 600 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC.
Arty, some 1,000 M-116 75mm pack, M-1965 85mm, M-46 130mm towed, 30 M-107 175mm SP guns; M-101 105mm, M-109A1 SP 155mm, M-115 towed, 10 M-110 SP 203mm how; 65 BM-21 122mm MRL; 81mm, M-30 4.2-in. (107mm), 3,000 120mm mor.
ATK: 57mm, 75mm, M-40 106mm RCL; RPG-7 RL; some 120 ASU-85 SP guns; ENTAC, SS-11/-12, Dragon, TOW ATGW.
AD: 1,500 ZU-23 towed, ZSU-23-4 SP 23mm, 37mm towed, ZSU-57-2 SP 57mm, 85mm towed AA guns; HAWK/Improved HAWK, SA-7 SAM.*
Ac incl 46 Cessna (40 185,6 310), 10 O-2A, 2 F-27, 5 Shrike Commander, 2 Falcon.*
Hel: AH-1 Cobra, CH-47C, (270 Bell 214A, 35 AB-205A, 15 AB-206 were also held.) *
RESERVES: 350,000, ex-service volunteers. 'Quds' bns.
Revolutionary Guard Corps (Pasdaran): 250,000;
   8 div-sized formations, org in bns, serve indep or with Army; small arms, spt weapons from Army. Naval element; some Air.
Navy: 20,000, incl naval air and marines.*
   3 destroyers with 4 Standard SSM; 1 Br Battle with 1x4 Seacat SAM; 2 US Sumner (in reserve).
   4 Saam frigates with 1 x 5 Seakiller SSM, 1x3 Seacat SAM (1 probably non-operational).
   2 US PF-103 corvettes.
   10 Kaman (La Combattante II) FAC(G) with a total of 7 Harpoon SSM (?6 serviceable).
   7 large patrol craft: 3 Improved PGM-71, 4 Cape; (5 lost?).
   3 US coastal, 2 inshore minesweepers; (2 lost?).
   10 SRN-6, BH-7 hovercraft.
   2 landing ships, 1 US LCU.
   2 fleet supply ships.
   3 Marine bns.
   (On order 1 replenishment ship).
Bases: Bandar Lengeh, Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, Kharg, Bandar-e-Anzali, Bandar-e-Khomeini.
NAVAL AIR: 2 combat ac, 12 combat hel (may be under Air Force control).*
   1 MR sqn with 2 P-3FOrion \ may have
   1 ASW hel sqn with 10 SH-3D /combined.
   1 MCM hel sqn with 2 RH-53D.
   1 tpt sqn with 4 Shrike Commander, 4 F-27,1 Mystere 20, 7 AB-212.
Air Force: 35,000; perhaps 95 serviceable combat ac*
   4 FGA sqns with some 35 F-4D/E.
   4 FGA sqns with some 50 F-5E/F.
   1 recce sqn (dets) with some 10F-14A, 3 RF-4E.
   2 tanker/tpt sqns with 12 Boeing 707, 7 747.
   5 tpt sqns with 28 C-130E/H, 10 F-27, 2 Aero Commander 690, 4 Falcon20.
   Hel: 10 HH-34F, 10 AB-206A, 5 AB-212, 39 Bell 214C, 10 CH-47 Chinook, 2 S-61A4.
   Trainers incl F 33A/C Bonanza, T-33, 6 PC-7.
   5 SAM sqns with Rapier, 25 Tigercat.
   AAM: Phoenix, Sidewinder, Sparrow.
   ASM: AS-12, Maverick.
Forces Abroad: Lebanon: some 650 Revolutionary Guard.
Para-Military Forces: Basidj 'Popular Mobilization Army' volunteers, mostly youths, small arms, ancillary to main field forces.
   Gendarmerie (5,000 incl border guard element);
   Mostazafin (Guards); Hezbollahi (Home Guard) 2,500,000; Border Tribal Militia. Cessna 185/310 lt ac, AB-205/-206 hel, patrol boats.*
  
   IRAQ
Population: 14,900,000.
Military service: basic 21-24 months, extended for war.
Total armed forces: 642,500 (mostly conscripts).
Est GDP 1981: ID 9.4 bn ($31,832 bn). 1982/3: 10.324 bn ($34,600 bn).
Est def exp 1982: ID 2.40 bn ($8,043 bn). 1983: 3.20 bn ($10,296 bn).
GDP growth: -5.0% (1982), -7.4% (1983).
Inflation: 16% (1982), 18% (1983).
Est FMA: $25-35 bn (1981/3).
Debt: $6.2bn (1982). (Excl debt to Gulf states.)
   $1=dinar 0.2953 (1981), 0.2984 (1982), 0.3108 (1983).
Army: 600,000.*
   4 corps HQ.
   6 armd divs.
   5 mech/mot inf divs.
   5 inf divs.
   4 mountain divs.
   2 Republican Guard armd bdes.
   3 special forces bdes.
   9 Reserve bdes.
   15 Peoples Army/Volunteer inf bdes.
AFV: 4,500 T-54/-55/-62/-72, 260 Ch T-69, 60 Romanian M-77 MBT; 100 PT-76 lt tks;
   about 3,200 AFV, incl BRDM, FUG-70, ERC-90, MOWAG Roland, 200 EE-9 Cascavel, EE-3 Jararaca armd cars,
   BMP MICV, BTR-50/-60/-152, OT-62/-64, 100 VCRTH (with HOT ATGW), Panhard M-3, EE-11 Urutu APC.
Arty, some 3,500 guns incl 75mm pack, 1,000 85mm, 50 SU-100 100mm SP, D-30 and ISU 122mm SP and M-46 130mm; 150 GHN-45 155mm gun/how;
   M-56pack, M-102 105mm, M-1938, SP-74 122mm, M-1943, M-1955 towed, M-1973 SP 152mm, M-114, M-109 SP 155mm how;
   FGT 108-R (SS-06) 108mm, BM-21 122mm, BM-14 140mm MRL;
   19 FROG-7, 9 Scud B, 15 SS-12 SSM; 120mm, 160mm mor.
ATK: SPG-9 73mm, B-10 82mm, 107mm RCL; 85mm, 100mm towed, 100 JPz SK-105 105mm SP guns; Sagger, SS-11, Milan, HOT ATGW.
AD: 4,000 23mm, ZSU-23-4 SP, M-1939 and twin 37mm, 57mm incl ZSU-57-2 SP, 85mm, 100mm and 130mm AA guns;
   SA-2/-3A6/-7/-9, 30 Roland' SAM.
(On order: 140 M-77, T-62 MBT; 100 EE-9 Cascavel, EE-3 Jararaca armd cars; 80 EE-11 Urutu APC; 85 155 GCT 155mm SP guns; SP-73 152mm SP how;
   6 Astros MLRS; SS-11 ATGW; X-40, Scud B SSM; SAM).
   (Some captured Iranian eqpt, incl tks, AFV, arty, ATGW, has been taken into service.)
RESERVES: 75,000.
Navy: 4,500.*
   1 frigate (trg).
   10 Sov Osa FAC(G) with 4 Styx SSM.
   5 Sov large patrol craft: SO-1, Poluchat<; (2 or 3 lost?).
   12 Sov P-6 FAC(T) ((7 lost?).
   10 Sov coastal patrol craft: Nyryat II, PO-2, Zhuk, (5 lost?).
   5 minesweepers: Sov T-43 ocean, Yevgenya< inshore.
   4 Sov Polnocny LCT (1 lost?).
   1 spt ship.
   (On order: 4 Lupo frigates, 6 Italian 650-ton corvettes.
Bases: Basra, Umm Qasr.
Air Force: 38,000 incl 10,000 AD personnel; some 580 combat ac, some 150 armed hel.*
   2 bbr sqns: 1 with perhaps 7 Tu-22, 1 with 8 Tu-16 (ex-Egypt).
   11 FGA sqns: 4 with some 100 MiG-23BM; 6 with some 95 Su-7 and 80 Su-20; 1 with 12 (2?) Hunter FB-59/FR-10; 5 Super Etendard.
   5 interceptor sqns with some 25 MiG-25, some 40 MiG-19, some 150 MiG-21, 45 Mirage F-1EQ, 4 F-1BQ.
   1 recce sqn with 5 MiG-25.
   2 tpt sqns with 10 An-2, 10 An-12, 8 An-24, 2 An-26, 9 11-76,2 Tu-124, 13I1-14, 1 Heron.
   11 hel sqns with 35 Mi-4, 15 Mi-6, 150 Mi-8, 40 Mi-24, 40 Alouette III (some with AS-12 ASM), 11 Super Frelon (some with Exocet AM-39 ASM),
   50 (15?) Gazelle (some with HOT), 13 Puma, 30 BO-105 (some with SS-11), 7 Wessex Mk 52.
   Trainers incl MiG-15/-21/-23U, Su-7U, Hunter T-69, 10 Yak-11, 50 L-29, 40 L-39, 48 AS-202/18A, 16 Flamingo, 50 PC-7 Turbo Trainer.
   AAM: Magic I, R-530, R-550, AA-1/-2/-6/-7/-8.
   ASM: 360 HOT, AS-11/-12, Swatter ATGW, Exocet AM-39, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt.
(On order, status unclear: some 100 MiG-23/-25, 39 Mirage F-l ftrs; 80 EMB-312 Tucano trg ac; 3 Super Frelon, 10 Gazelle, Lynx, 26 Puma, Mi-24,
   6 AS-61TS, 8 AB-212 (ASW) hel; MPS-1, 20 Exocet AM-39 ASM; Super 530 AAM.)
Para-Military Forces: Frontier Guards; security troops 4,800;
   People's Army 650,000; Perhaps 10,000 volunteers from Arab countries.
  
   ISRAEL
Population: 4,200,000.
Military service: men 39 months, women 24 months (Jews and Druze only; Christians may volunteer).
   Annual training for reservists thereafter up to age 54 for men, 34 (or marriage) for women.
Total armed forces: 141,000 (98,300 conscripts); mobilization to 500,000, of which 100,000 can report in about 24 hours.
GDP 1982: IS 557.613 bn ($22,978 bn). Est 1983: 1,350 bn ($24,015 bn).
Est def exp 1982: IS 200.0 bn ($8,242 bn). 1983: 280.0 bn ($4,981 bn). 1984: $4-8 bn.
   (Total war costs reported as an additional $1.5-2 bn.
   High inflation rates and continued occupation costs make defence expenditure estimates highly unreliable, and thus meaningless in shekel terms.)
GDP growth: 1.2% (1982), 1.1% (1983).
Inflation: 120.4% (1982), some 150% (1983).
FMA: some $1.5 bn (1982), some $1.7 bn (1983).
Debt: $28 bn (1982). $1=shekels 24.267 (1982), 56.214 (1983).
Army: 104,000 (88,000 conscripts, male and female), 600,000 on mobilization, incl civil defence units.
   11 armd divs.
   33 armd bdes (3 tk, 1 mech inf bns).
   10 mech inf bdes (5 para-trained).
   12 territorial/border inf bdes with Nahal militia.
   15 arty bdes (each 5 bns of 3 btys).
AFV: 3,600 MBT, incl 1,100 Centurion, 600 M-48, 1,210 M-60, 250 T-54A55, 150 T-62, 250 Merkava I/II;
   about 4,000 AFV/recce incl Ramta RBY, BRDM-1A2, Shoet Mk 2, M-2A3; 4,000 M-113, OT-62, BTR-50P APCt
Arty. M-46 130mm, 140 M-107 175mm SP guns; 70 M-101 105mm, 100 D-30 122mm, M-68/-71 155mm towed,
   300 Soltam L-33, M-50, M-72, 300 M-109 155mm, 48M-110 203mm SP how;
   122mm, 160mm, BM-24 240mm, MAR-290 290mm MRL;
   Lance SSM; 900 81mm, 120mm and 160mm mor (some SP).
   ATK: B-300 82mm RL; 106mm RCL; TOW, Cobra, Dragon, Picket, Milan ATGW.
AD: 2 btys with 24 Vulcan/Chaparral 20mm gun/msl systems, 900 20mm, ZSU-23-4 23mm SP, 30mm and 40mm AA guns; Redeye SAM.
(Does not include captured PLO equipment reported as some 120 T-34, T-54 APC, 130mm guns, BM-21 MRL, 2 SU-23-4 AA guns, SA-9 SAM.)
(On order: 125 M-60 MBT; Re'em AFV; 800 M-113 APC; 200 M-109A1B SP 155mm how, M-107 175mm SP guns; Lance SSM; TOW, Dragon ATGW.)
Navy: 9,000 (3,300 conscripts), 10,000 on mobilization.
   3 Type 206 subs.
   4 Aliya (Saar-4.5) corvettes with 4 Gabriel and 4 Harpoon SSM, 1 Bell 206 ASW hel.
   20 FAC(G): 8 Reshef (Saar-4) with 5 Gabriel III and 4 Harpoon SSM; 6 Saar-2 with 6 Gabriel; 6 Saar-3 with 5-8 Gabriel.
   2 Flagstaff 2 hydrofoil FAC(G) with 2 Gabriel and 2 Harpoon SSM.
   45 coastal patrol craft<: 37 Dabur, 2 Dvora, 6 Hawk.
   3 LSM, 6 LCT, 3 LCU.
   4 Seascan 1124N MR ac.
   Naval cdo: (300).
(On order: 2 Soar-5 corvettes, 10 Flagstaff hydrofoils, 3 Seascan MR ac.)
Bases: Haifa, Ashdod, Eilat.
Air Force: 28,000 (2,000 conscripts, in AD), 37,000 on mobilization; some 555 combat ac (perhaps 90 stored), 60 armed hel.
   15 FGA/interceptor sqns: 2 with 40 F/TF-15; 5 with 131 F-4E; 5 with 150 Kfir C1/C2/C7; 3 with 67 F-16A, 8 F-16B.
   4 FGA sqns with 130 A-4N/J Skyhawk.
   Recce: 13 RF-4E, 2 OV-1E; 4 E-2C AEW; 4 RU-21J, 2 C-130, 4 Boeing 707 ECM ac.
   1 tpt wing: incl 7 Boeing 707 (2 tanker mods), 20 C-130E/H, 18 C-47, 2 KC-130H.
   Liaison: 1 Islander, 5 Do-27, 14 Do-28D; 18 Cessna U-206C, 2 T-41D, 2 180; 12 Queen Air 80; 2 Westwind; 20 Super Cub.
   Trainers incl 73 TA-4E/H, 50 Kfir (incl TC-2), 85 Magister/Tzugit.
   Hel incl 30 AH-IS, 30 Hughes 500MD ATK, 8 Super Frelon, 33 CH-53A, 2 S-65E, 25 Bell 206, 60 Bell 212, 17 UH-1D hel.
   Drones: Mastiff 2, Scout, Teledyne Ryan 124R.
15 SAM bns with Improved HAWK .
   AAM: Sidewinder, AIM-7E/F Sparrow, Shafrir, Python III.
   ASM: Luz, Maverick, Shrike, Walleye, Bullpup, Gabriel III (mod).
(On order: 11 F-15, 75 F-16 ftrs; 60 Kfir-C1 and TC-2 trg ac; 200 Improved HAWK SAM; 200 SidewinderAAM.)
RESERVES (all services): 328,000.
Forces Abroad: Lebanon (10,000).
Para-Military Forces: Border Guards 4,500; BTR-152 APC. Arab Militia: small arms.
   Coastguard: 3 US PBR, 3 other patrol craft<.
  
   JORDAN
Population: 2,555,000 (excluding West Bank).
Military service: voluntary; People's Army (militia): conscription, 2 years.
Total armed forces: 76,300.
GNP 1982: JD 1.343 bn ($3,813 bn). 1983: 1.487 bn ($4,098 bn).
Est def budget 1983: JD 196 m ($540,094 m). 1984: 205 m ($541,755 m).* (* Incl internal security.)
GDP growth: 6.0% (1982), 5.5% (1983).
Inflation: 7.4% (1982), 5.0% (1983).
Est FMA: some $800 m (1982).
Debt: $2.1 bn (1982).
   $1=dinar 0.3523 (1982), 0.3629 (1983), 0.3784 (mid-1984).
Army: 68,000.
   6 armd bdes.
   4 mech bdes.
   1 indep Royal Guards bde.
   1 Special Forces bde.
   16 arty bns.
   2 AA bdes.
AFV: 150 M-47/-48, 200 M-60, some 200 Khalid, 200 Centurion MBT; 850 M-113, 32 Saracen APC.
Arty. 17 M-59 155mm guns; 30 M-102 105mm, 38 M-114 towed, 20 M-44, 190 M-109A2 SP 155mm, 40 M-115 towed, 40 M-110 SP 203mm guns/how;
   350 81mm, 107mm and 120mm mor.
ATK: 240 106mm and 120mm RCL; 250 TOW, 310 Dragon ATGW.
AD: 80 M-163 Vulcan 20mm, 16 ZSU-23-4, 200 M-42 40mm SP AA guns; 200 Redeye, 20 SAM-8, Improved HAWK SAM.
(On order: some 248 Khalid, 40 M-60A3 MBT; 78 M-113 APC; 200 GHN-45 155mm how.)
Navy (Coast Guard): 300.
   9 armed patrol craft<
Base: Aqaba.
Air Force: 8,000; 103 combat ac.
   3 FGA sqns with 46 F-5E/F.
   2 interceptor sqns with 35 Mirage F-1C/E.
   2 ocu with 17 F-5A, 5 F-5B.
   1 tpt sqn: 3 C-130B/H, 2 Sabreliner 75A, 2 C-212A.
   1 VIP sqn: 1 Boeing 727, 3 Falcon 20, 1 T-39 ac, 4 S-76 hel.
   1 hel sqn: 2 Alouette III, 7 S-76, 8 Hughes 500D hel.
   Trainers: 12 T-37C, 15 Bulldog, 1 C-212 ac.
   AAM: Sidewinder.
14 AD btys: 112 Improved HAWK SAM.
(On order: 24 AH-1Q Cobra hel with TOW; 6 Maverick ASM.)
RESERVES (all services): 35,000.
Para-Military Forces: 11,050; Civil Militia 7,500.
  
   KUWAIT
Population: 1,750,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 12,500.
GDP 1982: KD 5.728 bn ($19,903 bn).
Est def budget 1982/3: KD 330.0 m ($1,147 bn).* 1983/4: 399 m ($1,360 bn).* (* Incl National Guard.)
GDP growth: -7.6% (1982), 4% (1983).
Inflation: 7.7% (1982), 4.7% (1983).
   $1=dinar 0.2878 (1982), 0.2915 (1983), 0.2934 (mid-1984).
Army: 10,000.
   1 armd bde.
   2 mech inf bdes.
   1 SSM bn.
   70 Vickers Mk 1, 10 Centurion, 160 Chieftain MBT; 100 Saladin armd, 60 Ferret scout cars; 175 M-113, 100 Saracen APC;
   20 AMX Mk F-3 155mm SP how; FROG-1 SSM; 81mm mor; HOT, TOW, Vigilant ATGW; SA-7 SAM.
(On order: Scorpion lt tks, 188 M-113 APC, 56 M-113 SP TOW veh, 4,800 Improved TOW ATGW.)
Navy: 500 (coastguard).
   6 Lurssen TNC-45 FAC(G) with 4 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
   2 Lurssen FPB-57 FAC.
   47 coastal patrol craft< (15 armed).
   6 landing craft.
   (On order: 6 SRN-6 hovercraft; SA-365N
   Dauphin II hel; Exocet MM-40 SSM.)
Air Force: 2,000; 49 combat ac. (Excluding expatriate personnel.)
   2 FB sqns with 30 A-4KU.
   1 interceptor sqn with 17 Mirage F-1C, 2 F-1B.
   Tpts: 2 DC-9; 2 L-100-20, 4 L-100-30 (used also in civil role).
   3 hel sqns with 23 SA-342K Gazelle, 12 SA-330 Puma.
   Trainers incl 9 Strikemaster.
   1 SAM bn with Improved HAWK .
   AAM: R-550 Magic, Super 530, Sidewinder.
   (In store: 12 Lightning, 9 Hunter.)
(On order: 24 Mirage F-1C ftrs; 12 Hawk COIN/trg ac; 6 SA-332F Super Puma hel; 12 Exocet AM-39 ASM; AD radar and command system.)
Para-Military Forces: National Guard: Palace, border guard.
  
   LEBANON
Population: 2,700,000.
Military service: conscription, term unknown.
Total armed forces: 20,300.
Est GDP 1981: £L 17.0 bn ($3,941 bn). 1982: 12.30 bn ($2,593 bn).
Def budget 1982: £L 770 m ($162,327 m). Est exp 1983: 6.0 bn ($1,325 bn).*
   (Plus £L 3 bn ($955 m) spread over 10 years to rebuild the armed forces (most already spent in 1983).)
Budget 1984: 2.030 bn ($349,488 m ).
GDP growth: -2.5% (1982), -6% (1983).
Inflation: 20% (1982), 17% (1983).
FMA: $150 m (1982).
Debt: $350 m (1982).
   $1=£L 4.3139 (1981), 4.7435 (1982), 4.5282 (1983), 5.8085 (mid-1984).
Army: 19,000 (all units below strength).*
   (*Army divided on sectarian lines: perhaps 10,000 pro-Gemayel Christian (3 bdes); 2+ bdes half pro Sunni Muslim, half Christian; 1 bde pro-Shia.)
   1 mech inf bde (1 armd recce, 3 inf bns).
   5 inf bdes.
   1 armed recce bn
   9 inf bns (below strength)
   3 arty bns
   AA bns.
   142 M-48A5 MBT (storage); 13 AMX-13 lt tks;
   100 Saladin, 30 Ferret armd cars; 480 M-113, Saracen, 35 VAB APC;
   10 122mm, 36 155mm guns; 18 105mm how; 200 81mm, 83mm RPG-7 85mm, 88mm RL; 106mm RCL; ENTAC, 18 Milan, TOW ATGW;
   20mm, ZU-23 23mm, 30mm towed, M-42 40mm SP AA guns.
   (On order: 355 M-113A2 APC, 12 155mm how.)
Navy: 300.
   4 patrol craft (: 1 37 metre, 3 Byblos coastal.
Air Force: 1,000; 3 combat ac, 4 armed hel.
   1 sqn with 3 Hunter F-70.
   1 hel sqn with 11 Alouette II/III, 11 AB-212, 6 Puma, 4 Gazelle with SS-11/-12 ASM.
   Trainers: 6 Bulldog, 5 Magister.
   Tpts: 1Dove, 1 Turbo-Commander 690A.
   (On order: 6 Gazelle hel.)
Para-Military Forces: Internal Security Force 7,500: 30 Chaimite APC.
Border Guard (forming, to be 20,000). Customs: 5 Aztec patrol craft.
Private militias (strengths are estimates only):
Maronite Christian:
   Lebanese Forces Militia (Phalange) (6,000).
   21 M-4, T-54/-55 MBT, 50 155mm how, 3 patrol boats.
   Marada Brigade (1,000).
   National Liberation Party (few hundred).
Christian (some Shia):
   South Lebanon Army (formerly under Haddad now under Maj.-Gen. Lahad) (2,500).
   'Partisans of the Army' (Tyre area).
   'Forces of Kerbala' village militia.
Druze:
   Militia: 5,000.
   Popular Socialist Party (Jumblatt) (1,500).
   T-34/-54 MBT.
Sunni:
   Islamic Coalition (fewhundred).
   Mourabitoun Militia (underground; 1,500).
Shia:
   Amal (3,500).
  
   LIBYA
Population: 3,490,000.
Military service: selective conscription; term varies.
Total armed forces: 73,000.
GDP 1981: LD 9.192 bn ($31,044 bn). Est 1982: 8.445 bn ($28,520 bn). 1983: 7.728 bn ($26,100 bn).
Est def exp 1981: LD 165.0 m ($557,244 m). 1982: 210.0m ($709.22m).* (*Costs of Libya's military involvement in Chad unknown.)
GDP growth: -2.0% (1982), -2.0% (1983).
Inflation: 6% (1982), 9.0% (1983).
Debt: $1.7 bn (1982).
   $1= dinar 0.2961 (1981/3).
Army: 58,000.
   1 tk, 1 mech inf div HQ.
   20 tk bns.
   30 mech inf bns.
   1 National Guard bn.
   10 arty, 2 AA arty bns.
   2 special forces gps.
   3 AD regts.
   2 SSM bns.
   6 AD regts with SA-2, SA-3, SA-6; 9 div SAM bns with SA-6, SA-8, SA-9/-13.
AFV: 2,500 T-54/-55/-62, 300 T-72 MBT; 200 BRDM-2, 300 EE-9 Cascavel armd cars; 700 BMP MICV;
   900 BTR-50/-60, OT-62/-64, 100 EE-11 Urutu, Fiat 6614, 160 M-113A1 APC. (Some eqpt, incl 1,400 MBT in storage)
Arty. 360 130mm guns; some 60 M-l01 105mm, 330 D-30, 60 D-74 122mm towed, 78 M-1974 122mm SP, 48 M-1973 152mm SP, 200 Palmaria,
   18 M-109 155mm SP how; 450 81mm, 120mm, 160mm and 240mm mor;
   some 600 BM-11 107mm, BM-21/RM-70 122mm and M-51 130mm MRL; 48 FROG-7, 70 Scud B SSM.
ATK: 200 106mm RCL; 3,000 Vigilant, Milan and Sagger ATGW.
AD: 450 23mm incl ZSU-23-4 SP, 30mm incl M-53/59 SP, 57mm AA guns; 72 SA-2, 144 SA-3, 350 SA-6, SA-7/-8/-9/-13 SAM.
(On order: Fiat 6616, EE-9 armd cars; 100 Urutu APC; Astros II SS-40 MRLS.)
Navy: 6,500.
   6 Sov F-class subs.
   1 Vosper Mk 7 frigate with 4 Otomat SSM, 4 Albatros/Aspide SAM.
   8 corvettes: 4 Assad with 4 Otomat SSM, 1 with 1x4 Aspide SAM; 3 Sov Nanuchka II with 4 SS-N-2C SSM, 1x2 SA-N-4 SAM; 1 Vosper 440-ton.
   25 FAC(G): 12 Sov Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2C SSM; 3 Susa with 8 SS-12M SSM; 10 Beir (La Combattante) with 4 Otomat SSM.
   8 patrol craft: 4 Garian, 3 Benina, 1 coastal.
   6 Sov Natya minesweepers.
   1 LSD (log spt/HQ ship); 2 PS-700 LST; 3 Polnocny, 3 C-107 LCT.
   1 tpt, 1 Thornycroft repair ship.
   50 drone craft.
   (On order: 4 Assad corvettes, 1 Benina patrol craft; 16C-107 LCT.)
Bases: Tarabulus, Benghazi, Darnah, Tubruq, Bandiyah.
Air Force: 8,500; some 535 combat ac, 42 armed hel.
   (Some eqpt, incl 1,400 MBT, 450 combat ac (Tu-22, MiG-21/-23/-25, Su-22) in storage.
   Soviet, Syrian, Pakistani, N. Korean and Palestinian pilots also reportedly fly Libyan ac;
   expatriates form a large proportion of the technical support staff.)
   1 bbr sqn with 7 Tu-22 Blinder A.
   3 interceptor sqns and 1 ocu: some 26 Mirage F-1ED, 6 F-1BD, 143 MiG-23 Flogger E, 50 MiG-25 Foxbat A, 55 MiG-21, 5 MiG-25U.
   5 FGA sqns and 1 ocu: 45 Mirage 5D/DE, 13 5DD, 14 Mirage F-1AD, 18 MiG-23BM Flogger F, 14 MiG-23U, some 100 Su-20/-22 Fitter E/F/J.
   1 COIN sqn with 30 J-l Jastreb.
   1 recce sqn with 7 Mirage 5DR.
   2 tpt sqns: 18 An-26 Curl, 8 C-130H, 1 Boeing 707, 12 G-222, 2 Mystere-Falcon, 4 C-140 Jetstar, 2 CL-44, 17 11-76, 1 Corvette 200, 2 King Air,
   8 F-27-600, 3 LET-410.
   7 hel sqns: 2 with 30 Mi-24 Hind, 2 Mi-8; 1 with 12 Mi-14 Haze (ASW); 1 with 8 Super Frelon (SAR); 1 with 10 Alouette III;
   1 with 19 CH-47C; 1 with 5 AB-206, 2 AB212.
   Other hel inch 9 AB-47, 1 AS-61A.
   4 trg sqns: 2 with 61 Galeb ac; 2 with 20 Mi-2 (Hoplite) hel.
   Trainers incl 2 Tu-22 Blinder D, 100 L-39ZO, 12 Magister, 119 SF-260WL.
   3 SAM bdes with 30Crotale (60 systems).
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll, R-550 Magic.
   ASM: Swatter ATGW.
(On order: MiG-25, MiG-23, some 40 Mirage F-l ftrs; 10 Twin Otter tpts; 25 EMB-121 Xingu, 70SF-260 trg ac; Gazelle, 2 A-109 hel; Super 530 AAM.)
RESERVES: People's Militia, some 40,000.
Forces Abroad: Chad: up to 7,000, Lebanon: 'Volunteers' (800).
Para-Military Forces: Pan-African Legion some 10,000: 1 armd, 1 inf, 1 para/cdo bdes;
   some 75 T-54/-55, MBT; EE-9 MICV; BTR-50/-60 APC (army inventory).
   Customs/coastguard: 2 SAR-33 Lurssen-type FAC with SSM/SAM, 3 Jihan patrol craft.
   Muslim Youth. People's Cavalry Force parade unit.
  
   MOROCCO
Population: 23,350,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 144,000.
GDP 1982: MD 88.520 bn ($14,697 bn). Est def exp 1982: MD 8.0 bn ($1,328 bn). 1983: 7.80 bn ($1,097 bn).
GDP growth: 5.6% (1982), 0.6% (1983).
Inflation: 10.6% (1982), 7.0% (1983).
Est FMA: $115.0 bn (1982).
Debt: $10.8 bn (1982).
   $1=dirham 6.0230 (1982), 7.1113 (1983), 8.7228 (mid-1984).
Army: 125,000.
   4 mech inf bdes.
   1 lt security bde.
   1 para bde.
   1 AA gp.
   10 mech inf regts.
   9 arty groups.
   7 armd bns.
   1 Royal Guard bn.
   5 camel corps bns.
   2 desert cav bns.
   1 mountain bn.
   3 cdo bns.
   4 engr bns.
   4 armd car sqns.
AFV: 120 M-48, 40 AMX-13 lt tks; 50 EBR-75, 15 AMX-10RC, 162 AML-90, 250 Eland 90mm, 150 AML-245, 40 M-8,
   364 M-113, 200 VAB, 70 UR-416, 80 Ratel, 56M-3, Steyr 4K-7FA APC.
Arty. 20 M-101 105mm, 36 105mm It, 12 M-46 130mm, 152mm, 52 AMX-F-3 SP 155mm guns; 20M-114 155mm towed,
   42 M-1950, 22 105mm SP, 56 M-109 155mm SP how;
   300 60mm, 600 81mm, 70 82mm, 320 120mm mor; BM-21 122mm MRL.
ATK: 20 M-56 90mm, 121 Kuerassier 105mm SP ATK guns; 75mm, 106mm RCL; STRIM-89 RL, Dragon, Milan, TOW ATGW.
AD
: 100 20mm, 37mm, 57mm and 100mm towed, 40 M-l63 Vulcan 20mm SP AA guns; SA-7, 30Chaparral SAM.
(On order: 108 M-60 MBT; AML-90, 76 AMX-10RC armd cars; 126 VAB APC.)
Navy: 6,000 incl naval infantry.
   1 Descubierta frigate with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM, 1x8 Aspide SAM.
   4 Lazaga FAC(G) with 4 Exocet MM-38.
   2 PR-72 FAC.
   4 Murene large patrol craft.
   9 coastal patrol craft<.
   1 minesweeper.
   4 landing ships (3 Batral).
   1 naval inf bn (600).
   (On order: 2 PR-72 FAC.)
Bases: Casablanca, Safi, Agadir, Kenitra, Tangier.
Air Force: 13,000; 106 combat ac.
   5 FGA sqns: 3 with 22 Mirage F-1E, 18 F-1C; 2 with F-5 (5A, 14E,3 B, 4 F, 12 RF-5A).
   1 coin/recce sqn with 22 Magister, 6 OV-10 Bronco.
   1 tpt sqn with 12 C-130H, 3 KC-130H, 1 Gulfstream, 1 Falcon 50, 8 King Air, 3 Do-28D.
   33 AB-205A, 5 AB-206, 13 Hel incl AB-212, 27 Puma, 4 HH-43B SAR, 8 CH-47C.
   Trainers: 11 T-34C, 11 AS-201/18 Bravo, 28 SF-260M, 24 Alpha Jet.
   AAM: Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.
(On order 7 Do-28D tpt, 25 Gepal Mk IVtrg ac; 24 Gazelle, 19 AB-206 hel; 381 Maverick ASM.)
Forces Abroad: Equatorial Guinea: 300.
Para-Military Forces: 30,000 incl 11,000 Surete Nationale: 2 Rallye ac; 5 Alouette II/III, 3 6 Lama, 6 Gazelle, 6 Puma, 6 A-109 hel.
  
   OMAN
Est population: 1,000,000-1,600,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 21,500.* (* Including some 3,700 foreign personnel.)
GDP 1981: RO 2.148 bn ($6,219 bn). 1982: 2.488 bn ($7,203 bn). 1983: 2.625 ($7,600 bn).
Def budget 1983: RO 612 m ($1,772 bn). 1984: 677 m ($1,960 bn).
GDP growth: 4.9% (1982), 5.5% (1983).
Inflation: 2.8% (1982), -2.0% (1983).
Debt: $800m (1982).
   $1= rial 0.3454 (1981-^).
Army: 16,500.
   2 bde HQ.
   1 Royal Guard bde.
   1 armd regt (3 armd car, 2 tk sqns).
   2 fd arty regts, 2 med arty btys, 1 lt AA bty.
   1 recce bn.
   8 inf 'regts' (bns).
   1 special force.
   1 sigs regt.
   1 fd engr regt (2 sqns).
   1 para regt.
   6 M-60A1, some Quayid Al Ardh (Chieftain) MBT; 30 Scorpion recce;
   24 25-pdr (88mm), 39 105mm, 12 M-1946, 12 59-1 130mm guns; 60mm, 81mm mor; Milan ATGW; Blowpipe SAM.
(On order: some 15 Chieftain MBT being delivered).
RESERVES: National Volunteer Reserve Force.
Navy: 2,000.
   1 Royal Yacht.
   4 FAC(G) with Exocet SSM: 3 Province (2 with 8 ,1 with 6 MM-40), 1 Brooke Marine with 2 MM-38.
   4 Brooke Marine FAC.
   4 inshore patrol craft <.
   1 log spt ship (amph).
   4 LCM.
   1 trg ship.
   (On order. 1 log spt amph ship).
Bases: Muscat, Raysut, Ghanam (Goat) Island; (Wadam Alwi, under construction).
Air Force: 3,000; 52 combat ac.
   2 FGA sqns with 20 Jaguar S (O) Mk 1, 4 T-2.
   1 FGA/recce sqn with 12 Hunter FGA-6, 4 T-7.
   1 coin/trg sqn with 12 BAC-167.
   3 tpt sqns: 1 with 3 BAC-111, 1 Falcon 20; 2 with 7 Defender, 15 Skyvan, 3 C-130H.
   Royal fit with 1 Gulfstream, 1 DC-8, 1 VC-10 tpts; 2 AS-202 Bravo trainers; 4 AB-212, 2 Super Puma hel.
   2 hel sqns with 20 AB-205, 3 AB-206, 5 AB-214B.
   2 AD sqns with 28 Rapier SAM.
(On order: 1 C-130H, 2 DHC-5D tpts; 6 Bell 214ST hel; Exocet AM-39 ASM; 28 Blindfire radars.)
Para-Military Forces: tribal Home Guard (Firqats) 3,500. Police Coastguard: 19 coastal patrol craft<; 7 landing craft <.
   Air Wing: 1 Learjet, 2 Dornier 228-100, 2 Merlin IVA, 2 Buffalo ac; 5 AB-205, 3 AB-206 hel.
  
   QATAR
Population: 270,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 6,000.
Est GDP 1981: QR 24.888 bn ($6,839 bn). 1982: 28.758 bn ($7,903 bn).
Est def exp 1981/3: QR 3.260 bn ($896 m). (18-month transition budget about half for military aid to Iraq.)
   1983/4: 604m ($165.98 m). (Excl capital exp, est at QR 600 m, and military aid to Iraq.)
GDP growth: -9.4% (1982), -16% (1983).
Inflation: 11.5% (1982), 4% (1983).
   $1= rial 3.639 (1981/3).
Army: 5,000.
   1 Royal Guard regt.
   1 tk bn.
   5 inf bns.
   1 arty bty.
   1 SAM bty with Rapier.
   24 AMX-30 MBT; 10 Ferret scout cars; 30 AMX-10P MICV; 25 Saracen, 136 VAB APC;
   8 25-pdr guns (88mm), 6 Mk F-3 155mm SP how; 81 mm mor; Rapier SAM.
   (On order: 8 Commando Mk 3 APC; Blowpipe SAM.)
Navy: 700 incl Marine Police.
   3 La Combattante FAC(G) with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
   6 Vosper Thornycroft large patrol craft.
   36 coastal patrol craft< (2 75-ft, 2 45-ft, 7 P-1200 type, 25 Spear).
   2 Interceptor fast assault/SAR craft.
   3 Exocet MM-40 coast defence systems.
Base: Doha.
Air Force: 300; 11 combat ac; 2 armed hel.
   3 Hunter FGA-6, 1 T-79, 8 Alpha Jet FGA/trg ac.
   1 Islander, 1 Boeing 727, 2 707 tpt ac.
   2 SA-342 Gazelle, 2 Whirlwind, 4 Commando, 3 Lynx hel.
   SAM: 5 Tigercat.
   (On order: 14 Mirage F-1C ftrs, SA-330 Puma hel.)
Para-Military Forces: Police: 3 Lynx, 2 Gazelle hel.
  
   SAUDI ARABIA
Est population: 8-12,000,000.
Military service: conscription, males aged 18-35.
Total armed forces: 51,500.
GDP 1982: SR 524.73 bn ($153,099 bn). 1983: 414.45 bn ($l 19.967 bn).
Def budget* 1983/4: SR 75.733 bn ($21,952 bn). 1984/5: 79.900 bn ($22,731 bn). (* Includes budget for National Guard.)
GDP growth: 1.7% (1982), -10.8% (1983).
Inflation: 1.0% (1982), 0.1% (1983).
   $1=rial 3.4274 (1982), 3.4547 (1983), 3.5150 (mid-1984).
Army: 35,000.
   3 armd bdes (1 more to form).
   2 mech bdes.
   2 inf bdes (1 to be mech).
   1 AB bde (2 para bns, 3 special forces coys).
   1 Royal Guard regt (3 bns).
   5 arty bns.
   18 AA arty btys.
   14 SAM btys:. 12 with Improved HAWK (216 msls); 2 with 12 Shahine (48 msls) and AMX-30SA 30mm SP AA guns.
AFV: 300 AMX-30, 150 M-60A1 MBT;
   200 AML-60/-90 armd cars; 350 AMX-10P (some with HOT), some 20 VCC-1 (with TOW) MICV; 800 M-113, Panhard M-3 APC.
Arty. Model 56 105mm pack, 100 M-101/-102 105mm, 29 FH-70, 18 M-198 towed, M-109 and GCT 155mm SP how; 81mm, M-30 107mm mor.
ATK: 75mm, 90mm, 106mm RCL; TOW, Dragon, HOT ATGW.
AD: M-l63 Vulcan 20mm, AMX-30SA 30mm, 200 35mm, M-42 40mm SP AA guns; Redeye, Shahine, Improved HAWK SAM.
(On order. 100 M-60A3 MBT; 150 M-60A3 conversion kits; 60 AMX-10P, 140 BMR-600 some 180 VCC-1 TOW MICV (1984); Urutu APC;
   43 FH-70 155mm how; some 400 JPz SK-105 SP ATK guns; TOW ATGW; 100 Shahine, 200 Stinger SAM.)
Navy: 2,500.
   2 Fleet HQ.
   1 F-2000 frigate with 8 Otomat SSM, 1x26 Crotale SAM, 1 SA-365 hel.
   4 PCG-1 corvettes with 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   9 PGG-1 FAC(G) with 2x2 Harpoon SSM.
   1 large patrol craft (US coastguard cutter).
   3 Jaguar (Lurssen) FAC(T).
   4 MSC-322 coastal minesweepers.
   4 US LCU, 8 US LCM-6 LCM, 4 LCVP.
   24 AS-365N Dauphine 2 hel (4 SAR, 20 with AS-15TTASM).
(On order: 3 F-2000 frigates; 2 log spt ships; 2 Atlantic II MR ac; 8 BH-7 hovercraft, Otomat coast defence SSM, 200 AS-15TT ASM.)
Bases: Jiddah (Western Fleet), Al Qatif/Jubail (Eastern Fleet), Ras Tanura, Damman, Yanbu, Ras al Mishab.
Air Force: 14,000; 203 combat ac.
   3 FGA sqns with 65 F-5E.
   4 interceptor sqns: 1 with 15 Lightning F-53, 2 T-55; 3 (1 forming) with 62 F-15.
   4 E-3A airborne warning and control ac.
   2 ocu with 24 F-5F, 16 F-5B, 15 TF-15D.
   3 tpt sqns with 50 C-130E and C-130H, 8 2 hel sqns with 12 AB-206B, 14 AB-205, 10 AB-212.
   Trainers: 40 BAC-167.
   AAM: Red Top, Firestreak, Sidewinder, AIM-7F Sparrow.
   ASM: Maverick.
   (In reserve: 17 Lightning F-53/T-55.)
   (On order: 5 F-5E ftrs; 1 F-5F trainer; 10 RF-5E recce; 1 E-3A Sentry AWACS; 1 Boeing 747, 4 CN-235, 40 C-212-200 tpts;
   8 Boeing KE-3 (KC-707) tankers; 2 ECM ac; 22 AB-212, 8 KV-107 hel; 1,000 AIM-7F Sparrow, 1,177 Sidewinder AAM; 1,600 Maverick ASM.)
Para-Military Forces:
   National Guard (25,000): Bde HQ; 4 all-arms, 16 regular inf, 24 irregular inf bns, 1 ceremonial cav sqn, spt units;
   240 V-150Commando APC, M-l02 105mm how,81mm mor; 106mm RCL, TOW ATGW, 20mm Vulcan, 90mm AA guns.
   (On order: 489 Commando incl V-300 APC, V-150 SP 20mm AA, SP TOW, 90mm armed AFV.)
   Foreign contract military personnel: 10,000.
   Ministry of Interior: Counter-terrorist unit with hel.
   Frontier Force and Coastguard 8,500: 184 coastal, incl 16 SRN-6 hovercraft, 300 small patrol craft. (On order. 8 BH-7 hovercraft).
   General Civil Defence Administration units. 10 Kawasaki hel.
  
   SUDAN
Population: 23,250,000.
Military service: voluntary; conscription legislated but not yet implemented.
Total armed forces: 58,000.
Est GDP 1982: £S 5.909 bn ($6,300 bn). 1983: £S 9.230 bn ($7,100 bn).
Est def exp 1982: £S 220 m ($234.54 m). 1983: £E 300 m ($230.77 m).
GDP growth: 4.6% (1982), -2.7% (1982).
Inflation: 26% (1982), 31% (1983).
FMA: $100 m (1982).
Debt: $4.5 bn (1982).
   $1=£E 0.5349 (1981), 0.9380 (1982), 1.300 (1983).
Army: 53,000 (incl AD).
   6 Regional Commands.
   4 div HQ.
   2 armd bdes.:
   7 inf bdes.
   1 para bde.
   3 arty regts.
   1 engr regt.
   Air Defence (3,000):
   2 AA arty bdes.
   1 SAM bde with 3 btys of SA-2.
AFV: 53 T-55, 20 M-60A3 MBT; 55 M-41, 78 Ch Type-62 lt tks; 6 AML-90, 48 Saladin armd, 55 Ferret, BRDM-1/-2 scout cars; 20 Panhard M-3,
   50 BTR-50/-152, 30 OT-62/-64, 35 V-100 Commando, 30 M-113, 40 Walid APC.
Arty
. 30 D-44 85mm, 55 25-pdr (88mm), 25 100mm, 20 Ch 130mm guns; 18 105mm pack, 64 D-30 122mm, 6 F-3 SP 155mm how; 30 120mm mor.
ATK: 20 D-48 85mm ATK guns; Swingfire ATGW.
AD: ZU-23-2 23mm, 100 37mm, 80 40mm, 100mm towed guns; 20 SA-2, SA-7 SAM.
(On order: 24 M-163 Vulcan 20mm SP AA guns.)
Navy: 2,000.
   1 Yug Kraljevica, 4 Yug PBR large, 3 70-ton coastal patrol craft.
   2 Yug DTK-221 LCT, 1 DTM-231 LCU<.
Base. Port Sudan.
Air Force: 3,000; 34 combat ac.
   1 FGA/interceptor sqn: 2 F-5E/F, 8 MiG-21.
   1 FGA sqn with 8 Ch F-5, 6 Ch F-6, 10 MiG-17.
   1 COIN sqn with 3 Strikemaster (forming).
   1 tpt sqn with 6 C-130H, 1 Mystere-Falcon, 4 DHC-5D, 8 Turbo-Porter, 6 EMB-110P2.
   1 hel sqn with 9 Puma, 10 BO-105, 5 Bell 212.
   Trainers incl 3 Jet Provost Mk 55, 3 MiG-15UTI, 2 MiG-21U, 2 Ch FT-5, 2 Ch FT-6.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
(On order 10 F-5E, 6 Ch F-6 ftr, 7 Strikemaster Mk 90 (Jet Provost) COIN, 6 C-212, 2 C-130 tpt ac; 6 Bell 212 hel.)
Para-Military Forces: 3,500: National Guard (500); Republican Guard (500); Border Guard (2,500).
Opposition: Southern People's Liberation Movement: est 3,000.
  
   SYRIA
Population: 10,400,000.
Military service: 30 months.
Total armed forces: 362,500 (some 140,000 conscripts).
GDP 1981: £S 66.492 bn ($16,941 bn), 1982: £S 72.484 bn ($18,467 bn).
Def budget* 1983: £S 11.073 bn ($2,821 bn). 1984: £S 12.600 bn ($3,210 bn).
   (* Incl internal security budget of $S 613 m (1983), $S 635 m (1984). Additional def exp financed through supplementary support.)
GDP growth: 6.9% (1982),7.3% (1983).
Inflation: 14.3% (1982), 7.5% (1983).
Est FMA: $3.1 bn (1982).
Debt: $3.2 bn (1982).
   $1=£S 3.9250 (1981/4).
Army: 240,000 (120,000 conscripts, 50,000 reservists).
   4 armd divs (each 2 armd, 1 mech bdes; 1 is Presidential Guard unit).
   4 mech divs (each 1 armd, 2 mech bdes).
   3 indep armd bdes.
   4 indep mech bdes.
   5 arty bdes.
   9 para/cdo regts.
   3 SSM regts: 1 Scud, 1 Frog, 1 SS-21.
   102 SAM btys with SA-2/-3/-6/-8.
AFV: 1,800 T-54/-55, 1,200 T-62, 1,100 T-72 MBT; 200 BRDM recce/ATK vehs; 400 BMP MICV; 1,600 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, OT-64 APC.
Arty. 2,700 122mm (incl ISU-122 and M-1974 SP), M-46 130mm, M-1976 152mm and S-23 180mm guns; M-38, D-30 122mm,
   152mm how incl M-1943 and M-1973 SP; BM-21 122mm, 140mm, 240mm MRL;
   18 FROG-1, 12 SS-21, 18 Scud SSM; 120mm, 160mm, 240mm mor.
ATK: 57mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1,300 Sagger, Spigot and Milan ATGW.
AD: 23mm, 37mm, 57mm towed, ZSU-23-4, ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SA-2/-3/-6/-7/-8/-9 SAM.
AIR DEFENCE COMMAND: 50,000 (Army comd, Army and Air Force manning).
   63 SAM btys with SA-2/-3; 31 with SA-6; 8 with some 48 SA-5 (2 Soviet-manned sites); AA arty, and radar.
RESERVES: 460,000: 175,000 active (being reorganized); 9 mech and inf bdes.
Navy: 2,500.
   2 Sov Petya I frigates.
   20 Sov FAC(G) with Styx SSM: 6 Osa-I, 8 Osa-II; 6 Komai<.
   8 Sov P-4 FAC(T)<.
   1 Fr CH large patrol craft.
   4 Sov minesweepers: 1 T-43 ocean, 2 Vanya coastal, 1 Yevgenya inshore.
   3 Sov Zhuk coastal patrol craft.
   (On order 1981: 4 Nanuchka II corvettes.)
Bases: Latakia, Tartus, Minet el-Baida.
RESERVES: 2,500.
Air Force: 70,000; some 503 combat ac; some 90 armed hel.*
   (* Some aircraft believed to be in storage. Casualties and reinforcements of Lebanon during June 1982 are difficult to estimate.)
   11 FGA sqns: 4 with 85 MiG-17; 1 with 18 Su-7; 2 with 40 Su-20; 4 with 70 MiG-23BM Flogger F.
   12 interceptor sqns: 2 with 50 MiG-25 Foxbat A; 10 with 200 MiG-21PF/MF, 40 MiG-23 Flogger E.
   2 tpt sqns with 3 An-24, 4 An-26, 4 11-76, 8 I1-14, 4 I1-18, 2 Mystere 20F.
   Trainers incl 40 L-39, 60 L-29, 10 MiG-15UTI, 50 MBB-223 Flamingo.
   Hel incl 10 Mi-2, 95 Mi-8, 30 Mi-24, 4 Ka-25 (ASW), 45 Gazelle (35 with ATGW).
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   ASM: AT-2 Swatter ATGW.
   (On order: 12 Gazelle, 18 AB-212, 21 Super Frelon hel; AAM.)
Forces Abroad: Lebanon: 57,000, (3 divs); 800 MBT.
Para-Military Forces: 38,800:
   Defence Companies: 25,000: 4 armd bdes.
   Gendarmerie 8,000,
   Desert Guard (Frontier Force) 1,800. 2 Palestine Liberation Army bdes of 6,000 with some Syrian officers (nominally under PLO);
   90 T-54/-55 MBT; 105mm, 122mm, 152mm how; MRL; AT-3 Sagger ATGW; SA-7 SAM.
   Workers Militia (People's Army).
  
   TUNISIA
Population: 7,000,000.
Military service: 12 months selective.
Total armed forces: 35,100 (13,000 conscripts).
GDP 1982: TD 4.670 bn ($7,906 bn). 1983: 5.263 bn ($7,757 bn).
Def budget 1983: TD 764.18 m ($1,126 m). 1984: 339.64 m ($454,307 m). (* Incl equipment budgets.)
GDP growth: 0.3% (1982), 4.5% (1983).
Inflation: 13.7% (1982), 9.0% (1983).
FMA: $250 m (1982).
Debt: $3.7 bn (1982).
   $1= dinar 0.4938 (1981), 0.5907 (1982).
Army: 30,000 (12,000 conscripts).
   2 combined arms bdes (each with 1 armd, 2 mech inf bns).
   1 Sahara bde.
   1 para-cdo bde.
   1 armd recce regt.
   3 fd, 2 AA arty regts.
   1 engr regt.
AFV: 14 M-48 MBT; 40 AMX-13, 10 M-41 lt tks; 20 Saladin, 30 EBR-75, 10 AML-60 armd cars; 5OM-113Al, 18 EE-11 Urutu APC.
Arty
. 6 25-pdr (88mm), 48 M-101A1 105mm towed, 12 M-114A1 155mm how; 60mm, 81mm, 82mm, 107mm mor.
ATK: 54 JPz SK-105 105mm SP ATK guns; STRIM-89 RL; TOW, Milan, SS-11 ATGW.
AD: 45 37mm and 40mm AA guns; RBS-70, 62 MIM-72 Chaparral SAM.
(On order: 54 M-60A3 MBT; 12 M-106A2, (with 4.2-in. (107mm) mor), 20 M-113A2 (with TOW) APC; 19 M-109 155mm SP how; 800 TOW ATGW.)
Navy: 2,600 (500 conscripts).
   1 US Savage frigate.
   2 FAC(G): 5 La Combattante III with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM; 3 P-48 with 8 SS-12 SSM.
   4 Fr large patrol craft: 1 Le Fougeux, 3 P-48.
   2 Vosper Thornycroft 103-ft FAC(P).
   2 Ch Shanghai-II FAC.
   2 US Adjutant coastal minesweepers.
   12 coastal patrol boats<.
   (On order: 1 La Combattante FAC(G), 2 23-metre FAC.)
Bases: Tunis, Susa.
Air Force: 2,500 (500 conscripts); 8 combat ac.
   1 COIN sqn with 5 MB-326K, 3 MB-326L.
   Trainers: 17 SF-260, 7 MB-326B, 12 T-6, 12 Safir.
   Liaison: 4 S-208M ac.
   1 hel wing: 7 Alouette II, 5 Alouette III, 4 UH-1H, 1 Puma, 18 AB-205, 6 Bell 205-A1, 6 AS-35OB Ecureuil.
   (On order: 8 F-5E FGA, 6 F-5F trg, 1 C-130H tpt ac.)
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 5,000: 3 bns; 110 Fiat 6614 APC.
   National Guard 3,500.
  
   UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)
Population: 1,300,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 43,000.*
   (* The Union Defence Force and the armed forces of the United Arab Emirates
   (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah) were formally merged in 1976;
   Abu Dhabi and Dubai still maintain a degree of independence. Perhaps a third of the force is drawn from non-nationals.)
GNP 1982: Dh 128.403 bn ($34,978 bn).
Def budget 1983: Dh 8.892 bn ($2,422 bn). 1984: 6.855 bn ($1,867 bn). (Excl defence expenditure by Dubai.)
GDP growth: -5% (1982), -7% (1983).
Inflation: 10% (1982), 0% (1983).
   $1=dirham 3.6710 (1982/4).
Army: 40,000.
   3 regional commands: Western (Abu Dhabi), Central (Dubai), Northern (Ras al Khaimah).
   1 Royal Guard 'bde'.
   1 armd/armd car bde.
   2 inf bdes.
   1 arty, 1 AD bde (each 3 bns).
   100 AMX-30, 18 OF-40 Mk 1 (Lion) MBT; 60 Scorpion lt tks;
   90 AML-90, VBC-40 armd cars; AMX-10P MICV; 30 AMX VCI, VCRTT, 300 Panhard M-3, VAB APC;
   50 105mm guns; M-56 105mm pack, 20 AMX 155mm SP how; 81mm mor;
   84mm RCL; Vigilant ATGW;
   Rapier, Crotale, RBS-70 SAM.
   (In store: 70 Saladin armd, 60 Ferret scout cars; 12 Saracen APC.)
   (On order: 18 OF-40 Mk 2 MBT; 20 Scorpion lt tks; 66 Urutu APC with TOW; 54 TOW ATGW; 42 Improved HAWKSAM; 343 msls.)
Navy: 1,500.
   6 Lurssen TNC-45 FAC(G) with 2x2 Exocet MM-40 SSM.
   6 Vosper Thornycroft large patrol craft.
   3 Keith Nelson coastal patrol craft <.
   2 Cheverton spt tenders<
Base: Abu Dhabi.
Air Force (Police Air Wing & Central Air Force): 1,500; 43 combat ac, 7 armed hel.
   2 interceptor sqns with 25 Mirage 5AD, 3 5RAD, 2 5DAD.
   1 FGA sqn with 3 Alpha Jet.
   1 COIN sqn with 10 MB-326KD/LD.
   Tpts incl 2 C-130H, 1 L-100-30, 1 Boeing 720-023B, 1 G-222, 4 C-212, 5 Islander, 9 DHC-5D, 1 Cessna 182.
   Hel incl 7 Alouette III with AS-11, 8 AB-205, 6 AB-206, 3 AB-212, 9 Puma, 4 AS-332F Super Puma, 10 Gazelle.
   Trg ac: some 2 Hawk, 6 SF-260TP.
   AAM: R-550 Magic.
   ASM: AS-11/-12.
(On order: 18 Mirage 2000 ftrs (3 recce, 3 trg), 3 Alpha Jet FGA/trg, 1 G-222, 1 C-130H-3O tpt, 4 MB-339,
   some 24 Hawk (8 Mk 61, 16 Mk 63) trg ac; 4 AS-332F Super Puma, Lynx hel; Skyguard AD system with twin 35mm guns.)
Para-Military Forces: Coastguard: 47 coastal patrol boats/craft.
  
   YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 7,500,000.
Military service: conscription, 3 years.
Total armed forces: 36,550.
Est GDP 1981: YR 13.120 bn ($2,875 bn). 1982: 14.637 bn ($3,208 bn).
Est def exp 1981: YR 2.025 bn ($443,836 m). 1982: 2.404 bn ($526,904 m).
GDP growth: 5.3% (1982), 4.2% (1983)..
Inflation: 2.9% (1982), 5.0% (1983).
Debt: $1.3 bn (1982).
   $1=rial 4.5625 (1981/2).
Army: 35,000.
   1 armd bde.
   1 mech, 5 inf bdes.
   1 Special Forces bde.
   1 para/cdo bde.
   1 central guard force.
   3 arty bdes.
   3 AA arty, 2 AD bns (1 with SA-2 SAM).
AFV: 100 T-34, 500 T-54/-55, 64 M-60 MBT; 50 Saladin armd, Ferret scout cars; BMP MICV; 90 M-113, 300 BTR-40/-60/-152 APC.
Arty. 200 M-1942 76mm, M-102 105mm, M-38 122mm and M-115 155mm towed how; 30 SU-100 SP guns;
   200 82mm and 120mm mor; 65 BM-21 122mm MRL.
ATK: 75mm, 82mm RCL; LAW RL; 20 Vigilant, TOW, 24 Dragon ATGW.
AD: ZU-23 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm towed, 40 ZSU-23-4, 72 M-l63 Vulcan 20mm (20 SP) AA guns; SA-2/-7 SAM.
Navy: 550.
   4 Sov P-4 FAC(T) <.
   6 patrol craft<: 3 US Broadsword; 3 Sov (2 Zhuk, 1 Poluchat).
   2 T-4 LCM.
Base: Hodeida.
Air Force: 1,000; 76 combat ac (Some 15 ac in storage.)
   5 ftr sqns: 2 with 40 MiG-21; 1 with 10 MiG-17F; 1 with 11 F-5E; 1 with 15 Su-22.
   Tpts: 2 C-130H, 2 C-47, 2 Skyvan, 1 I1-14, 1 An-24, 3 An-26.
   Trainers: 4 F-5B, 4 MiG-15UTI.
   Hel: 20 Mi-8, 6 AB-206, 5 AB-212, 2 Alouette.
   1 AD regt with 12 SA-2 SAM.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AIM-9 Sidewinder.
Para-Military Forces: Ministry of National Security Force 5,000; tribal levies at least 20,000.
  
   YEMEN: PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (SOUTH)
Population: 2,200,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 27,500 (18,000 conscripts).
GDP 1981: YD 364.4 m ($1,055 bn). 1982: 318.8 m ($923 m).
Def exp 1981: YD 56.044 m ($162,258 m). 1982: 55.06 m ($159,409 m).
GDP growth: 2% (1982), 1.0% (1983).
Inflation: 15% (1982), 10.0% (1983).
Debt: $762 m (1982).
   $1= dinar 0.3454 (1981/3).
Army: 24,000.
   1 armd bde.
   1 mech bdes.
   10 inf 'bdes' (regts) (some being mechanized).
   1 arty bde.
   10 arty bns.
   1 SSM bde with FROG and Scud B.
   450 T-54/-55/-62 MBT; BRDM-2 scout cars; some 100 BMP MICV; 300 BTR-40/-60/-152 APC;
   350 M-1945 85mm, M-1955 100mm, M-46 and coastal 130mm guns; M-38 and D-30 122mm how; BM-21 122mm MRL;
   120mm, 160mm mor; 12 FROG-7, 6 Scud B SSM;
   200 ZU-23-2 23mm, 37mm, 57mm towed and ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; 6 SA-2, 3 SA-3, SA-6/-7 SAM.*
Navy: 1,000.
   1 Sov corvette (converted T-58 minesweeper).
   8 Sov Osa FAC(G) with 4 Styx SSM.
   2 Sov SO-1 large patrol craft.
   2 Sov P-6 FAC(T)<.
   2 Sov Zhuk FAC(P)<.
   1 Sov Ropucha LST; 3 Sov Polnocny LCT; 3 Sov T-4 LCA.
Bases: Aden, Perim Island.
Air Force: 2,500; 103 combat ac, some 15 armed hel.* (* Some eqpt believed in storage; some ac believed flown by Soviet and Cuban crews.)
   4 FGA sqns: 2 with 30 MiG-17F; 1 with 12 MiG-21; 1 with 25 Su-20/-22.
   3 interceptor sqns with 36 MiG-21F.
   1 tpt sqn with 3 An-24.
   1 hel sqn with 15 Mi-24, 30 Mi-8.
   1 SAM regt with 48 SA-2.
   Trainers: 3 MiG-15UTI.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   ASM: AT-2 Sagger.
Para-Military Forces: People's Militia 15,000.
   Public Security Force: 30,000 (increasing). 1 Tracker 2, 4 Spear, 1 Interceptor patrol craft.
  

Sub-Saharan Africa*

   Bilateral External Agreements
   The US has had mutual defence and assistance agreements with Ethiopia (1975), Ghana (1972), Kenya (1980), Liberia (1972), Mali (1972), Niger (1962), Senegal (1962) and Zaire (1972); most may now be in abeyance. Agreements with Somalia and Kenya allow limited US access to naval and air facilities; Somalia has received some military aid.
   The Soviet Union has Treaties of Friendship and Co-operation with Angola (October 1976), Mozambique (March 1977) and Ethiopia (November 1978, ratified April 1979). Relations with the Congo Republic are close but no such agreement is known to exist. Military aid has been given to Angola (under additional Military Co-operation Agreements, including one signed in May 1983), Ethiopia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Uganda and Zambia (1980). The Soviet Navy has facilities in the Dahlak Islands, Ethiopia. Reports of a Soviet facility in Sao Tome and Principe have been received.
   China has military assistance agreements with Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea, Mali and Tanzania, and provided aid to Mozambique and Zaire (under a 1982 sales credit).
   Britain maintains overflying, training and defence agreements with Kenya, helps Zimbabwe form and train her forces, and heads a Commonwealth Training Team (Australia, Britain, Canada, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Sierra Leone and Tanzania) which is helping to rebuild the Ugandan defence forces.
   France has signed defence and/or military co-operation agreements with Benin, Cameroon (February 1974), the Central African Republic, Congo, Djibouti (1977, including permission to deploy forces), Gabon (1974), Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali (since terminated), Mauritania, Niger, Senegal (March 1974), Togo, Upper Volta and Zaire. The agreement with Chad has led to a French military presence defending the government from Libyan backed insurgents.
   Belgium has a military co-operation agreement with Zaire.
   Spain has a military agreement with Equatorial Guinea (1981) and is providing training and some equipment.
   Cuba has some 19,000 men in Angola, training the Angolan armed forces and assisting with internal security, and 3,000 in Ethiopia. Cuban, Soviet and East German advisers are present in a number of other African countries.
   Some military links exist between South Africa and Israel, between Zaire and Israel, and between both Mozambique and Angola on the one hand, and East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania (1982) and Yugoslavia (1982) on the other. Hungary signed a Friendship Treaty with Ethiopia and with Mozambique in September 1980. North Korea signed a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation with Togo in October 1981; she also had a 100-man training team with Zimbabwe's elite armoured brigade and a smaller team in Uganda; Ethiopia signed a Treaty of Friendship with Libya and South Yemen in 1981.
   Multilateral Regional Agreements
   The Organization of African Unity (OAU), constituted in May 1963 to include all internationally recognized independent African states except South Africa, has a Defence Commission - responsible for defence and security co-operation and the defence of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its members. In 1979 this approved in principle an African Intervention Force and ordered planning for its formation, funding and equipping. Little progress has been reported. It did agree in 1981 on an Inter-African Force for Chad, with troops from Nigeria, Senegal and Zaire. OAU financing was inadequate; the Force was with drawn in June 1982.
   In 1961 the Central African Republic, Chad, the Congo and Gabon formed the Defence Council of Equatorial Africa, with French help. Chad's present position in relation to the Council is unclear.
   In May 1981 the Economic Community of Western African States (ECOWAS) adopted a Protocol on Mutual Assistance on Defence Matters calling for a joint Defence Commission, comprising Defence Ministers and their Chiefs of Defence Staff, and a Defence Council of the Heads of State. It is intended to create a joint force, using assigned units of the national armies, which could serve as an intervention or peace-keeping force. Of the then 16 ECOWAS members (Benin, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Upper Volta), 12 have signed, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and Mali declined, and Mauritania signed only after the Protocol was amended to call for the with drawal of foreign troops once ECOWAS could guarantee mutual defence.
   Bilateral Regional Arrangements
   Kenya signed a defence agreement with Ethiopia in November 1963 and a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation in January 1979; Kenya and Somalia agreed in 1981 to control border incursions. Sierra Leone and Guinea signed a Defence Agreement in 1971 and a Mutual Defence Pact in August 1981. In December 1981 Senegal and The Gambia signed a confederation pact which united the two countries as Senegambia. Although they stated their intent to integrate their armed forces, the Protocols still have not been signed. Djibouti signed a Friendship Treaty with Ethiopia and with the Somali Republic in early 1981. Nigeria and Benin signed a military co-operation agreement in January 1983 providing for joint exercises and unspecified 'other things'. Mozambique trains Tanzanian and Zimbabwe troops; the agreement providing this facility is unknown. Tanzania provides instructors for Uganda under a defence pact signed in August 1981. In March 1984 South Africa signed one agreement with Mozambique mutually to curb insurgency and another with Angola providing for disengagement by South African forces and neutral supervision of guerrilla activity.
   The only country in the area with an indigenous arms industry is South Africa, which builds equipment both under licence and of her own design.
  

Страны Африки к югу от Сахары*

   Двусторонние Внешние Соглашения
   У США были соглашения о взаимной обороне и помощи с Эфиопией (1975), Ганой (1972), Кенией (1980), Либерией (1972), Мали (1972), Нигером (1962), Сенегалом (1962) и Заиром (1972); большинство из них может теперь быть в состоянии неопределенности. Соглашения с Сомали и Кенией позволяют ограниченный доступ США к военно-морским и воздушным объектам; Сомали получила некоторую военную помощь.
   Советский Союз имеет договоры о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Анголой (октябрь 1976 года), Мозамбиком (март 1977 года) и Эфиопией (ноябрь 1978 года, ратифицирован в апреле 1979 года). Отношения с Республикой Конго тесные, но известно, что такого соглашения не существует. Военная помощь была оказана Анголе (в соответствии с дополнительными соглашениями о военном сотрудничестве, в том числе подписанным в мае 1983 года), Эфиопии, Гвинее, Гвинее-Бисау, Мали, Мозамбику, Нигерии, Сомали, Уганде и Замбии (1980 год). Советский флот имеет объекты на островах Далак, Эфиопия. Получены сообщения о Советском объекте в Сан-Томе и Принсипи.
   Китай заключил соглашения о военной помощи с Камеруном, Экваториальной Гвинеей, Гвинеей, Мали и Танзанией и оказал помощь Мозамбику и Заиру (в рамках кредита на продажу 1982 года).
   Великобритания поддерживает соглашения с Кенией о пролете, подготовке и обороне, помогает Зимбабве формировать и обучать свои силы и возглавляет группу подготовки Содружества (Австралия, Великобритания, Гайана, Канада, Ямайка, Кения, Сьерра-Леоне и Танзания), которая помогает восстановить угандийские силы обороны.
   Франция подписала оборонные и/или военные соглашения о сотрудничестве с Бенином, Камеруном (февраль 1974), Центральноафриканской Республикой, Конго, Джибути (1977, в том числе разрешение на развертывание сил), Габоном (1974), Кот д'Ивуаром, Мадагаскаром, Мали (так как прекращается), Мавританией, Нигером, Сенегалом (март 1974), Того, Верхней Вольтой и Заиром. Соглашение с Чадом привело к французскому военному присутствию, защищающему правительство от ливийских повстанцев.
   Бельгия заключила с Заиром соглашение о военном сотрудничестве.
   Испания заключила военное соглашение с Экваториальной Гвинеей (1981 год) и обеспечивает подготовку кадров и некоторое вооружение.
   Куба имеет около 19 000 людей в Анголе, обучение ангольских вооруженных сил и оказание помощи внутренней безопасности, и 3000 в Эфиопии. Кубинские, советские и восточногерманские советники присутствуют в ряде других африканских стран.
   Некоторые военные связи существуют между Южной Африкой и Израилем, между Заиром и Израилем, а также между Мозамбиком и Анголой, с одной стороны, и Восточной Германией, Болгарией, Румынией (1982 год) и Югославией (1982 год) - с другой. Венгрия подписала договор о дружбе с Эфиопией и Мозамбиком в сентябре 1980 года. Северная Корея подписала договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве с Того в октябре 1981 года; она также имела учебную группу в составе 100 человек с элитной бронетанковой бригадой Зимбабве и меньшую группу в Уганде; Эфиопия подписала договор о дружбе с Ливией и Южным Йеменом в 1981 году.
   Многосторонние Региональные Соглашения
   Организация Африканского Единства (ОАЕ), учрежденная в мае 1963 года и включающая в себя все международно признанные независимые африканские государства, за исключением Южной Африки, имеет комиссию по обороне , отвечающую за сотрудничество в области обороны и безопасности и защиту суверенитета, территориальной целостности и независимости ее членов. В 1979 году она утвердила в принципе африканские силы вмешательства и распорядился о планировании их формирования, финансирования и оснащения. Сообщается о незначительном прогрессе. В 1981 году она договорилась о создании Межафриканских сил для Чада с войсками Нигерии, Сенегала и Заира. Финансирование ОАЕ было недостаточным; силы были привлечены в июне 1982 года.
   В 1961 году Габон, Конго, Центральноафриканская Республика и Чад сформировали при содействии Франции Совет обороны Экваториальной Африки. Нынешняя позиция Чада в отношении Совета неясна.
   В мае 1981 года экономическое сообщество западноафриканских государств (ECOWAS) приняло протокол о взаимной помощи по вопросам обороны, предусматривающий создание совместной комиссии по вопросам обороны в составе министров обороны и начальников их штабов и Совета обороны глав государств. Предполагается создать совместные силы с использованием закрепленных за ними подразделений национальных армий, которые могли бы служить в качестве сил вмешательства или поддержания мира. Тогда ECOWAS 16 участников (Бенина, Кабо-Верде, Гамбия, Гана, Гвинея, Гвинея-Бисау, Кот-д'Ивуар, Либерия, Мали, Мавритания, Нигер, Нигерия, Сенегал, Сьерра-Леоне, Того и Верхняя Вольта), 12 подписали, Кабо-Верде, Гвинеи-Бисау и Мали снизились, и Мавритания подписали только после того, как протокол был изменен, чтобы вызвать для снятия иностранных войск после ECOWAS может гарантировать взаимной обороне.
   Двусторонние Региональные Соглашения
   Кения подписала соглашение об обороне с Эфиопией в ноябре 1963 года и Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве в январе 1979 года; Кения и Сомали договорились в 1981 году о контроле за вторжениями на границу. Сьерра-Леоне и Гвинея подписали соглашение об обороне в 1971 году и пакт о взаимной обороне в августе 1981 года. В декабре 1981 года Сенегал и Гамбия подписали пакт Конфедерации, который объединил обе страны в Сенегамбию. Хотя они заявили о своем намерении объединить свои вооруженные силы, протоколы до сих пор не подписаны. В начале 1981 года Джибути подписала договор о дружбе с Эфиопией и с Сомалийской Республикой. В январе 1983 года Нигерия и Бенин подписали соглашение о военном сотрудничестве, предусматривающее проведение совместных учений и неуказанных "других мероприятий". Мозамбик готовит войска Танзании и Зимбабве; соглашение о предоставлении этого объекта неизвестно. Танзания предоставляет Уганде инструкторов в соответствии с пактом об обороне, подписанным в августе 1981 года. В марте 1984 года ЮАР подписала соглашение с Мозамбиком взаимно обуздать мятежников и еще с Анголой, предусматривающий разъединение южно-африканских сил и нейтральным наблюдением за партизанской деятельностью.
   Единственной страной в этом районе, где имеется местная оружейная промышленность, является Южная Африка, которая производит вооружение как по лицензии, так и собственной конструкции.
  
   ANGOLA
Population: 7,800,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 43,000* (perhaps 27,000 conscripts).
   (* Some 19,000 Cuban and 450 E. German military operate ac and hy eqpt. There are also Portuguese and some 700 Soviet advisers and technicians.)
Est GDP 1981: K 100 bn ($4.0 bn).
Est def exp 1981: K 20.0 ($800 m). Debt: $2.5 bn (1982). $1=kwanza 25.0 (1981).
Army: 40,000.
   6 Military Regions.
   5 div HQ.
   2 mot inf bdes (each of 1 tk, 2 inf bns).
   17 inf bdes.
   4 AA arty bdes.
   10 tk bns.
   6 arty bns.
   10 SAM btys.
   175 T-34, 150 T-54, 120 T-62 MBT; some 50 PT-76 lt tks; 200 BRDM-1/-2, AML armd cars; 150 BTR-60/-152 APC;
   200 guns/how, incl 76mm, 85mm, 100mm, SU-100 SP, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm; 460 82mm, 40 120mm mor; 50 BM-21 122mm MRL;
   2,000 75mm, 82mm and 107mm RCL; Sagger ATGW;
   ZPU-4 14.5mm, ZU-23 23mm, 37mm towed, ZSU-23-4, 40 ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; 72 SA-6, SA-7,48 SA-8 SAM.
   (Delivery data incomplete; eqpt totals uncertain.)
Navy: 1,500.
   4 Osa-II FAC(G) with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
   4 Sov Shershen FAC(T).
   5 Port Argos large patrol craft.
   8 coastal patrol craft<: 3 Sov (1 Zhuk, 2 Poluchat); 5 Port (1 Jupiter, 4 Bellatrix). (Serviceability uncertain.)
   4 LCT: 3 Sov Polnocny, 1 Port Alfange.
   5 Sov T-4 LCM.
Bases: Luanda, Lobito, Mocamedes.
Air Force: 1,500; 64 combat ac, some 10 armed hel. (Delivery data incomplete; eqpt totals uncertain.)
   2 FGA sqns with 38 MiG-21MF, 25 MiG-17F ftrs.
   MR ac: 1 F-27MPA.
   2 tpt sqns: 6 Noratlas, 2 L-100-20, 3 C-47, 6 An-2, 18 An-26, 4 Turbo-Porter, 8 Islander, 10 Po-27, 1 F-27-400M, 1 FH-227.
   2 hel sqns: some 10 Mi-24, 35 Mi-8, 27 Alouette III and IAR-316B, 27 SA-365N Dauphin.
   Trainers incl 1 MiG-15UTI, 6 Yak-11, 6 PC-7.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   SAM: 20 SA-3 Goa.
   (On order: some 6 PC-7 Turbo- Trainer ac.)
Para-Military Forces: Militia 10,000; 11+ inf bns; 'Organization of Popular Defence': 500,000.
Opposition: UNITA, some 15,000 'regulars', 20,000 spt militia; BM-21 122mm MRL, 82mm mor, 75mm RCL, 12.7mm hy machine guns.
  
   CAMEROON
  
Est population: 9,400,000.
Total armed forces: 7,300.
GDP 1981/2: fr CFA 2,038 bn ($6,869 bn).
Def budget 1982/3: fr CFA 27.796 bn ($78,376 m). 1983/4: 34.912 bn ($84,934 m).
Debt: $2.5 bn (1982).
   $1=francs CFA 296.68 (1981/2), 354.65 (1982/3), 411.05 (1983/4).
Army: 6,600.
   1 armd car bn.
   1 para/cdo bn.
   4 inf bns.
   1 engr bn.
   5 fd, 6 AA arty btys.
   HQ regt, spt units.
   M-8 armd, Ferret scout cars; some 38 Commando, M-3 half-track APC;
   6 75mm pack, 16 M-101 105mm how; 60mm, 20 81mm, 16 120mm mor;
   13 57mm ATK guns; 89mm ACL-STRIM RL; 40 106mm RCL; Milan ATGW;
   18 Type-58 14.5mm, 18 twin 35mm, 18 Type-63 37mm, 18 40mm AA guns.
   (On order some 17 V-150 Commando APC.)
Navy: 350.
   3 FAC(G): 2 P-48S Combattante with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM, 1 PR-48 with 8 SS-12.
   2 Ch Shanghai-II FAC.
   9 coastal patrol craft <.
   2 LCM, 5 LCVP, 1 LCU, 6 lt assault craft.
   (On order: 1 PR-48 large patrol craft.)
Bases: Douala, Port Gentil.
Air Force: 350; 12 combat ac, 2 armed hel.
   1 mixed sqn.
   1 Presidential fit.
   6 Alpha Jet FGA; 4 Magister COIN; 2 Do-128D-6 (MR); 3 C-47, 1 DHC-4, 4 DHC-5D, 3 C-130, 2 HS-748, 7 Broussard, 1 Boeing 727-20 tpts;
   1 Puma, 3 Alouette II/III, 4 Gazelle (2 with HOT ATGW), 1 SA-365 Dauphin II hel.
Para-Military Forces: 5,000. Gendarmerie: Regional groups.
  
   CONGO
  
Est population: 1,700,000.
Total armed forces: 8,700.
Est GDP 1982: fr CFA 590.0 bn ($1,796 bn).
Def budget 1983: fr CFA 26.289 bn ($68,987 m). 1984: 21.597 ($51.117 m).
Debt: $1.7 bn (1981).
   $1=francs CFA 328.62 (1982), 381.07 (1983), 422.50 (mid-1984).
Army: 8,000.
   1 armd bn (5 sqns).
   2 inf bns.
   1 arty gp.
   1 engr bn.
   1 para/cdo bn.
   35 T-54/-55, 15 T-59 MBT; 14 Ch T-62, 3 PT-76 lt tks; 25 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars; M-3, 20 BTR-50, 20 BTR-60, 44 BTR-152 APC;
   6 M-116 75mm pack, 8 M-1942 76mm, 10 M-1944 100mm, 8 M-1938 122mm how; 8 BM-21 MRL; 82mm, 10 120mm mor;
   5 57mm ATK guns; 57mm RCL; 28 37mm AA guns (some T-34 MBT in store).
Navy: 200.
   1 Sov Shershen FAC(T).
   3 Ch Shanghai FAC.
   3 13-metre ARCO Type 43, 2 11.4-metre Type 38, 3 Piraha coastal, 4 Ch Yulin river patrol craft <.
Air Force: 500; 21 combat ac.
   1 MiG-15, 20 MiG-17 FGA.
   1 F-28, 5 An-24, 5 Il-14, 3 C-47, 1 Fregate, 2 Broussard tpts.
   4 L-39 trg ac.
   1 Puma, 4 Alouette II/III hel.
Para-Military Forces: 3,000
  
   ETHIOPIA
Est population: 32,000,000-40,000,000.
Military service: conscription, 30 months, incl police, border guard.
Total armed forces: 306,000.*
   (* Some 1,400 Soviet, 3,000 Cuban and about 250 E.German technicians and advisers operate ac and hy eqpt. Some S. Yemeni troops may also serve.)
GDP 1982/3: EB 9.794 bn ($4,731 bn).
Def budget 1981/2: EB 910 m ($439.61 m). (Incl public security budget.)
GDP growth: 0% (1982).
Inflation: 15-20% (1982).
   $1= birr 2.07 (official).
   (* War situation makes equipment data suspect; US equipment probably not now serviceable.)
Army (incl People's Militia): 300,000.
   1 armd div.
   23 inf divs (3 mot, 2 mountain, 3 lt) with some 20 tk bns.
   4 para/cdo bdes.
   30 arty bns.
   30 AD bns.
   40 M-47, 150 T-34, 800 T-54/-55, 30 T-62 MBT; 40 M-41 lt tks;
   100 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars, 40 BMP-1 MICV; about 70 M-113, 600 BTR-40/-60/-152, V-150 Commando APC;
   some 700 guns/how, incl M-116 75mm pack, 52 M-101 105mm, 250 122mm (incl SP), M-1954 130mm, M-1955/D-20 152mm, 12 towed,
   12 M-109 SP 155mm;
   60mm, 81mm, 82mm, 100 M-38 120mm, 280 M-2/-30 4.2-in. (107mm), 120mm mor; BM-21 122mm MRL;
   M-1955 100mm ATK guns; Sagger ATGW;
   ZU-23 23mm, 37mm towed, ZSU-23-4 23mm, M-1950, ZSU-57-2 57mm SP AA guns; SA-2/-3/-6/-7 SAM.*
Navy: 2,500.*
   2 Sov Petya frigates.
   7 Sov Osa-II FAC(G) with 4 SS-N-2A.
   9 large patrol craft: 1 Yug Kraljevica, 4 US PGM, 4 Swiftship 105-ft.
   3 coastal patrol craft: 1 Sov Poluchat, 2 Zhuk.
   1 Sov Polnocny LSM.
Bases: Massawa, Assab.
Air Force: 3,500; some 160 combat ac; 24 armed hel.*
   10 FGA sqns: 1 with 10 MiG-17; 6 with 100 MiG-21; 2 with 38 MiG-23; 1 with 12 Sukhoi.
   1 tpt regt with 14 An-12, 4 An-22, 14 An-26, 1 I1-14.
   Trainers incl MiG-21U.
   Hel incl 32 Mi-8, 24 Mi-24.
RESERVES: All citizens 18-50 do 6 months trg. Assigned to Army, Police and Border Guard).
Para-Military Forces: 169,000. Mobile emergency police force (9,000). Border Guard.
Opposition: Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF) some 6,500; (14 'bdes');
   Eritrean Liberation Front-People's Liberation Forces (ELF-PLF) some 10,000;
   People's Liberation Front Revolutionary Guard (PLFRG) some 5,000;
   Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) some 12,000;
   Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) 5,000;
   Western Somali Liberation Front. Captured eqpt incl T-54/55 MBT; APC; 76mm, 85mm, 120mm, I30mm arty; BM-21 MRL; 23mm, 37mm, 40mm AA guns.
  
   GHANA
Population: 13,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 12,600.
GDP 1981: C 76.655 bn.
   (Continuing economic crisis, hyper-inflation and the introduction of multiple exchange rates make meaningful dollar conversions impossible at present.)
Def exp 1980: C 426.0 m.
GDP growth: -2.8% (1981).
Inflation: 220% (1981).
Debt: $1.8 bn (1982).
   $1=cedi 2.7502 (1980/1 off.).
Army: 10,000.
   2 bdes (6 inf bns and spt units).
   1 recce bn.
   1 para bn.
   1 mor bn.
   1 fd engr bn.
   1 sigs bn.
   1 AB coy.
   25 Saladin armd cars; 100 MOWAG Piranha APC; 81mm, 28 Tampella 120mm mor; 50 Carl Gustav 84mm RCL; SA-7 SAM.
Forces Abroad: Lebanon (UNIFIL): 1 bn (705).
Navy: 1,200.
   2 Kromantse ASW corvettes.
   4 FAC: 2 FPB-57, 2 FPB-45.
   4 large patrol craft: 2 Dela, 2 Br Ford.
   4 Spear II coastal patrol craft.
Bases: Sekondi, Tema.
Air Force: 1,400; 10 combat ac.
   1 COIN sqn with 10 MB-326F/KB.
   1 tpt sqn with 6 Skyvan 3M.
   1 comms/liaison sqn with 5 F-27, 1 F-28.
   Hel: 2 Alouette III, 2 Bell 212.
   1 trg sqn with 11 Bulldog.
   (On order: 8 SF-260TP coin/trg ac.)
Para-Military Forces: Border Guard 5,000; 3 bns. People's Militia.
  
   GUINEA
  
Est population: 5,550,000.
Total armed forces: 9,900.
Est GDP 1981: Sy 34.987 bn ($ 1.635 bn).
Est def exp 1981: Sy 1.710 bn ($79.91 m). $1=sylis 21.399 (1981).
Army: 8,500.
   1 armd bn.
   5 inf bns.
   1 arty bn.
   1 engr bn.
   1 cdo bn.
   1 special force bn.
   1 AD bn.
   45 T-34/-54 MBT; 20 PT-76 lt tks; 25 BRDM-1/-2 armd cars; 40 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC;
   76mm, 85mm, 105mm, 122mm guns/how; 20 M-1938/43 120mm mor; 57mm ATK guns;
   37mm, 57mm, 100mm AA guns; SA-7, SA-8,24 SA-6 SAM.
Navy: 600.
   6 Ch Shanghai-ll FAC.
   2 Sov Shershen, 6 P-6 FAC (PK.
   7 coastal patrol craft<, incl 5 Sov (3 Poluchat, 2 MO-6).
   1 T-58 minesweeper, 2 LCU.
Bases: Conakry, Kakanda.
Air Force: 800; 6 combat ac.
   6 MiG-17F FGA (serviceability questionable).
   4 I1-14, 4 An-14, 2 I1-18, 2 C-119, 1 Yak-40 tpts.
   1 Reims F-337 lt ac.
   Trg ac: 2 MiG-15UTI, 5 Yak-18, 3 L-29.
   Hel: 1 Bell 47G, 1 Puma, 1 Gazelle, 1 UH-12B.
Para-Military Forces: 9,000; People's Militia: 7,000; Gendarmerie (1,000); Republican Guard 1,000.
  
   GUINEA-BISSAU
Est population: 610,000.
Total armed forces 6,050.
Est GDP 1981: pG 8.963 bn ($235 m).
Def exp 1981: pG 307.9 m ($8,073 m).
   $1=Guinean pesos 38.14 (1981).
Army: 5,700.
   4 inf bns.
   1 engr unit.
   1 tk sqn.
   10 T-34 MBT; BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, 20 Ch Type-56 APC; 85mm, 105mm, 122mm guns; 8 120mm mor; 89mm RL; 75mm RCL;
   23mm, 57mm AA guns; SA-7 SAM.
Navy: 275.
   6 FAC(P): 2 Ch Shantou, 2 Sov (1 Shershen, 1P-60<)
   6 coastal patrol craft<, incl 1 Sov Poluchat.
   2 T-4 LCVP, LCU.
   (On order 4 coastal patrol craft <.)
Base: Bissau.
Air Force: 75.
   2 Do-27, 2 Yak-40 tpts, 1 Reims FTB-337 lt ac.
   1 Alouette II, 2 Alouette III, 1 Mi-8 hel.
Para-Military Forces: 5,000.
  
   KENYA
Population: 18,900,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 13,650.
GDP 1983: K Sh 82.206 bn ($6,793 bn).
Est def exp 1981/2: K Sh 2.010 bn ($197,796 m). 1982/3: 2.900 bn ($239,630 m).
GDP growth: 2.0% (1982), 3.5% (1983).
Inflation: 22.0% (1982), 25% (1983).
Est FMA: $40m (1983).
   $1=shillings 10.162 (1981/2), 12.102 (1982/3).
Army: 13,000.
   2 bdes (1 with 2, 1 with 3 inf bns).
   2 armd bns.
   1 armd recce bn.
   2 arty bns.
   2 engr bns.
   1 indep air cav bn.
   6 inf bns (cadre).
   1 para bn.
   76 Vickers Mk 3 MBT; 30 AML-60, 38 -90, 8 Shorland armd cars; 50 UR-416, 12 Panhard M-3 APC; 40 lt,
   16 pack 105mm guns; 12 M-109 155mm SP how; 20 81mm, 10 120mm mor;
   50 Carl Gustav 84mm, Wombat 120mm RCL; Milan, 8 Swingfire ATGW;
   32 Hughes hel (15 500 Scout, 15 500MD with TOW ATGW, 2 500D trg).
Navy: 650.
   4 Brooke Marine FAC(G): (1 37.5-metre, 3 32.6-metre), 2 with Gabriel SSM.
   3 Vosper 31-metre (Simba) large patrol craft.
   (On order 5 patrol boats; Gabriel SSM).
Base: Mombasa.
Air Force: disbanded 1982.
   Inventory 28 combat ac: 9 F-5E, 2 F-5F FGA, 5 BAC-167 Strikemaster, 12 Hawk T-52 COIN,
   5 DHC-4 Caribou, 6 DHC-5D Buffalo, 7 Do-28D, 1 Nord 262, 1 Turbo Commander, 1 Navajo lt tpt, 14 Bulldog 103 trg ac;
   10 Puma, 2 Bell 47G hel;
   Sidewinder AAM; Maverick ASM.
   Being re-formed under Army.
Para-Military Forces: Police (General Service Unit) 1,800: Police Air Wing, 7 Cessna lt ac, 3 Bell hel.
  
   MADAGASCAR
Population: 9,700,000.
Military service: 18 months.
Total armed forces: 21,100.
GDP 1982: fir M 1,046 bn ($2,991 bn).
Def budget 1983: fr M 29.0 bn ($67,371 m). 1984: 31.730 bn ($55,729 m).
Debt: $1.4 bn (1983).
   $1=Malagasy francs 349.71 (1982), 430.45 (1983), 569.36 (mid-1984).
Army: 20,000.
   2 bn gps.
   1 engr regt.
   1 sigs regt.
   1 service regt.
   7 construction regts.
   12 PT-76 lt tks; 8 M-8 armd, M-3A1, 10 Ferret, BRDM-2 scout cars; M-3A1 half-track APC;
   12 ZIS-3 76mm guns; 12 122mm how; 81mm mor;
   106mm RCL; 50 ZPU-4 14.5mm AA guns.
Navy: 600 (incl 150 marines).
   1 PR-48 large patrol craft.
   1 Batram landing craft with 8 SS-12 SSM.
   7 LCM: 4 N. Korean Nampo, 3 US.
   1 marine coy.
Air Force: 500; 12 combat ac.
   1 FGA sqn with 4 MiG-17,8 MiG-21FL.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 HS-748 (VIP); 4 An-26, 1 Yak-40, 1 C-53D, 5 C-47, 1 Defender, An-12, 1 Aztec, 3 Super Skymaster, 5 lt ac.
   1 hel sqn with 1 Bell 47, 3 Alouette II/III, 2 Mi-8.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 8,000, incl maritime police with 5 patrol craft.
  
   MAURITANIA
Est population: 1,800,000.
Total armed forces: 8,470.
GDP 1981: OM 34.504 bn ($716.79 m).
Est def exp 1982: OM 3.500 bn ($67,326 m).
GDP growth: 4.0% (1982), 2.0% (1983).
Inflation: 12.6% (1982), 1.0% (1983.
Debt: $1 bn (1982). $1=Ouguiyas 48.137 (1981), 51.986 (1982).
Army: 8,000.
   1 inf bn.
   1 arty bn.
   1 Camel Corps.
   3 armd recce sqns.
   1 AA bty.
   1 engr coy.
   1 para coy.
   15 EBR-75 hy, 39 AML-60, 14 -90 armd cars; 40 M-3 half-track, 4 M-3 APC;
   81mm, 120mm mor; 57mm, 75mm, 106mm RCL;
   14.5mm, ZU-23-2, 6 37mm AA guns; SA-7 SAM.
Navy: 320.
   8 patrol craft: 1 Fr Rapiere, 3 Barcelo,4<.
Bases: Port Etienne, Nouadhibou.
Air Force: 150; 9 combat ac.
   5 Defender, 4 Cessna 337 COIN.
   4 Cheyenne MR.
   1 DHC-5D, 1 Caravelle, 2 Skyvan, 2 Islander tpts.
Para-Military Forces: 2,500.
  
   MOZAMBIQUE
Est population: 12,000,000.
Military service: conscription (selective): 2 years (incl women).
Total armed forces: 15,650.* (* Cuban, East German and Soviet advisers reported.)
Est GNP 1981: m 86.10 bn ($2,950 bn).
Est def exp 1982: m 6.0 bn ($196,721 m). $1=metiga 29.19 (1981), 30.50 (1982).
Army: 14,000 (perhaps 75% conscripts).
   1 tk bde (Presidential Guard).
   7 inf bdes (each 1 tk, 3 inf, 2 mech, 2 arty, 1 AD bns, spt units).
   195 T-34, some 90 T-54/-55 MBT; 35 BRDM-1/-2 scout cars; 200 BTR-60/-152 APC;
   250 M-1942 76mm, M-1945 85mm, M-1955 100mm, M-1938-63 122mm and LM-1946/-1954 130mm guns; M-101 105mm how;
   BM-21 122mm MRL; 325 60mm, 82mm and 120mm mor; 75mm, B-10 82mm, B-11 107mm RCL; Sagger ATGW;
   300 20mm, ZU-23 23mm, 37mm, 57mm towed and ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; 30 SA-3, SA-7, 10 SA-8 SAM.
Navy: 650.
   14 coastal patrol craft<: 4 Sov (3 Zhuk, 1 Poluchat), 6 Port (1 Antares, 3 Jupiter, 2 Bellatrix), 4 Neth.
   1 Port Albarda LCT.
Bases: Maputo, Beira, Nacala, Pemba, Metangula.
Air Force: 1,000; 35 combat ac.
   3 FGA sqns with 35 MiG-17.
   1 hel sqn with 4 Mi-8.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 Tu-134, 4 An-26, 6 Noratlas, 4 Cessna 182.
   Trg ac: L-39, 7 Zlin, 3 MiG-15.
Para-Military Forces: Border Guard 6,000: 4 bdes.
   Provincial, People's Militias, Local Militias (village self-defence force).
Opposition: National Resistance Movement of Mozambique (MNR): perhaps 6,000 trained, 3,000 reserve.
  
   NIGERIA
Population: 82,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 133,000.
GDP 1982: N 44.884 bn ($66,673 bn).
Def exp 1983: N 1.050 bn ($1,451 bn).
Revised def budget 1984: 928.2 m ($1,240 bn).
GDP growth: -2.2% (1982),-5% (1983).
Inflation: 25% (1982/3).
Debt: $14.8 bn (1983).
   $1=naira 0.6732 (1982), 0.7234 (1983), 0.7486 (mid-1984).
Army: 120,000.
   1 armd div (4 armd, 1 mech bdes).
   1 composite div (incl 1 AB, 1 air portable, 1 amph bdes).
   2 mech divs (each 3 mech bdes).
   1 Guards bde (1 armd recce, 3 inf bns).
   4 arty bdes
   4 engr bdes organic to divs (1 each).
   4 recce bns
   40 T-55, 25 Vickers Mk 3 MBT; 50 Scorpion lt tks;
   20 Saladin, 90 AML-90 armd, 55 Fox scout cars; 10 Saracen, 6 M-3 VPC, 4 AMX VTT, 26 Steyr 4K-7FA APC;
   76mm, 200 D-30/-74 122mm, M-46 130mm guns; 200 M-56 105mm pack how; 200 81mm mor;
   20mm, 40mm towed, 30 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; Blowpipe, 16 Roland SAM.
(On order 11 Vickers Mk 3 MBT; 70 4K-7FA APC; 25 Bofors FH-77B 155mm, 25 Palmaria 155mm SP how; Swingfire ATGW; Blowpipe, 16 Roland SAM
Navy: 4,000.
   2 ASW frigates: 1 Meko 360 with 2x4 Otomat SSM, 1x8 Aspide SAM, 1 Lynx hel; 1 Nigeria (trg).
   4 corvettes: 2 Vosper Thornycroft Mk 9 (Hippo) with 2x3 Seacat SAM; 2 Mk 3 (may not be operational).
   6 FAC(G): 3 Lurssen Type-57 with 4 Otomat SSM; 3 La Combattante III with 2x2 Exocet MM-38.
   8 large patrol craft: 4 Brook Marine, 4 Abeking & Rasmussen.
   48 coastal patrol boats.
   2 Ro-Ro 1300 (Crocodile) LST.
   Hel: 3 Lynx Mk 89 MR, SAR.
   (On order: 1 MCM vessel, 9 coastal patrol launches, 2 LCT).
Bases: Apapa (Lagos; Western Command), Calabar (Eastern Command).
Air Force: 9,000; 42 combat ac.
   3 FGA/interceptor sqns: 1 with 16 Alpha Jet; 2 with 18 MiG-21MF; 8 Jaguar.
   1 SAR sqn with 2 F-27MPA MR ac; 20 BO-105C/D hel.
   2 tpt sqns with 9 C-130H-30, 4 F-27, 1 F-28 (VIP), 1 Gulfstream III (VIP), 1 Beech Super King Air.
   3 service sqns with 13 Do-28D, some 8 Do-128-6.
   Hel incl 14 Puma.
   Trg: 2 MiG-21U, P-149D, 25 Bulldog ac; 15 Hughes 300 hel.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   (On order 10 Jaguar, 8 Alpha Jet FGA; 5 G-222 tpt; some 10 Do-128-6 utility; 12 MB-339 trg ac; 5 CH-47 Chinook hel.)
Para-Military Forces: Coastguard (forming); 3 landing craft, 27 launches.
   Police: 4 hel, 18 launches, 7 hovercraft (5 AV Tiger).
  
   SENEGAMBIA
   (Senegal and The Gambia signed and ratified a Confederation Pact in December 1981, and action to combine their forces continues.
   The pre-Confederation organizations and inventories are shown separately below; a Gambian Army has formed but Gambia's other Services
   are civilian manned. (In December 1983 a defence confederal budget of fr CFA 3.451 bn was introduced.)
  
   SENEGAL
Est population: 6,300,000.
Military service: conscription; selective.
Total armed forces: 9,700.
GDP 1981: fr CFA 689.4 bn ($2,324 bn).
Est def exp 1982/3 fr CFA: 18.0 bn ($50,754 m). 1983/4: 22.0 bn ($53,522 m).
GDP growth: -4.5% (1981).
Inflation: 12% (1982), 15% (1983).
Debt: $150 m (1983).
   $1=francs CFA 296.68 (1981/2), 354.65 (1982/3), 411.045 (1983/4).
Army: 8,500.
   4 Military Zone HQ.
   5 inf bns.
   1 engr bn.
   1 trg bn.
   1 Presidential Guard (horsed).
   1 recce sqn.
   1 arty bty.
   1 AA arty bty.
   2 para coys.
   3 construction coys.
   10 M-8, 4 M-20, 54 AML-60/-90 armd cars; 40 Panhard M-3, 12 VXB-170, M-3 half-track APC;
   6 M-116 75mm pack, 6 M-101 105mm how; 8 81mm, 8 120mm mor; STRIM-89 RL; Milan ATGW;
   21 M-693 20mm, 40mm AA guns.
Navy: 700.
   9 patrol craft: 1 PR-72M, 3 P-48 large, 5 coastal<.
   1 LCT, 2 LCM.
Base: Dakar.
Air Force: 500.
   MR/SAR: 1 EMB-111, 1 DHC-6.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 Boeing 727-200, 1 Caravelle (VIP); 5 C-47, 6 F-27-400M, 2 Broussard.
   Trg ac incl 7 Rallye 235G, 1 Reims Cessna F-337 lt, 2 Magister.
   Hel incl 1 Gazelle, 1 Puma, 2 Alouette II.
Forces Abroad: Lebanon (UNIFIL): 1 bn (559).
Para-Military Forces: 6,800; 12 VXB-170 APC.
  
   THE GAMBIA
Est population: 670,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces 475.
GDP 1981/2: D 491.40 m ($225.651 m). $1=dalasi 2.1777 (1981/2).
Army (Field Force): 400.
   1 coy.
   8 Ferret scout cars; 4 M-20 3.5-in. (89mm) RL.
Navy: (50).
   2 coastal patrol boats: 1 31-ton Tracker, 1 17-ton Lance.
Base
: Banjul.
Air: (25).
   1 Skyvan 3M, 1 Defender tpts.
  
   SOMALI DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Est population: 6,000,000.
Military service: conscription (males 18-40) 2 years.
Total armed forces: 62,550.
Est GDP 1982: S Sh 15.0 bn ($1,395 bn). 1983: 20.0 bn ($1,267 bn).
Def budget 1983: S Sh 1.933 bn ($122,435 m). 1984: 2.602 bn ($148,211 m).
GDP growth: 9.0% (1982), 4.0% (1983).
Inflation: 24.0% (1982), 45.0% (1983).
Est FMA 1983: $40 m.
Debt: $1 bn (1982). $1=Somali Shillings 10.750 (1982), 15.788 (1983), 17.556 (mid-1984).
   (* Spares are in short supply and much equipment is unserviceable.)
Army: 60,000.
   3 corps, 8 div HQ.
   3 tk/mech bdes.
   20 inf bdes.
   1 cdo bde.
   1 SAM bde.
   13 fd, l0 AA arty bns.
   55 T-34, 45 T-54/-55, 100 M-47, 40 Centurion MBT;
   50 BRDM-2 recce, AML-90 armd cars, BTR-40/-50/-60, 100 BTR-152, V-150 Commando, 44 M-113 (24 -113A1 with TOW),
   300 Fiat 6614/6616 APC/AFV;
   about 150 76mm, M-1945 85mm and M-1955 100mm, 60 122mm guns/how; 81mm, 250 120mm mor;
   400 STRIM-89 RL; 106mm RCL; 60 TOW, 100 Milan ATGW;
   250 14.5mm, ZU-23 23mm, 37mm, 57mm and 100mm towed, 12 Vulcan 20mm, 10 ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; 6 SA-2, 6 SA-3, some SA-6 SAM.*
   (On order: 100 M-47 MBT, 40 Centaure twin 20mm AA guns.)
Navy: 550.*
   2 Sov Osa-II FAC(G) with Styx SSM.
   8 Sov FAC(T): 4 Mol, 4 P-6<.
   5 Sov Poluchat large patrol craft<.
   1 Sov Polnocny LCT, 4 Sov T-4 LCM<.
Bases: Berbera, Mogadishu, Kismayu.
Air Force: 2,000; 64 combat ac*
   3 FGA sqns with 9 MiG-17, 10 Hunter FGA-76, 2 T-77.
   3 ftr sqns with 7 MiG-21MF, 30 Ch F-6.
   1 COIN sqn with 6 SF-260W.
   1 tpt sqn with 5 Islander, 2 An-24/-26, 3 C-47, 4 G-222,4 P-166-DL3 recce/tpt.
   1 hel sqn with 4 Mi-4, 2 Mi-8, 1 AB-204, 4 AB-212 (2 VIP).
   Trainers incl 6 P-148, 2 MiG-15UTI.
   Other ac: 8 SF-260W.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   (On order: SIAI S-211 COIN, 6 C-212 tpt ac; 4 Augusta Bell hel.)
Para-Military Forces: 29,500. Police (8,000), 2 Do-28 ac;
   Border Guards (1,500); People's Militia (20,000).
  
   SOUTH AFRICA
Population: 26,800,000 (excl 'homelands').
Military service: 24 months, 8 camps totalling up to 240 days, then reserve commitment to age 65.
Total armed forces: 83,400 (53,300 conscripts; total mobilizable strength 404,500).
GDP 1982: R 78.611 bn ($70,936 bn). 1983: 87.911 bn ($76,578 bn).
Est def exp 1983/4: R 3.100 bn ($2,700 bn).* Def budget 1984/5: 3.755 bn ($2,940 bn).* (*Excl internal intelligence and security force budgets.)
GDP growth: -1.2% (1982), -2.9% (1983).
Inflation: 14% (1982), 11% (1983).
Debt: $15.5 bn (1982).
   $1=rand 1.1082 (1982/3), 1.1480 (1983/4), 1.2770 (mid-1984).
Army: 67,400 (10,000 White, 5,400 Black and Coloured regulars, 2,000 women, 50,000 conscripts); 9 territorial commands.
   2 div HQ (1 armd, 1 inf).
   1 armd bde (2 tk, 2 MICV-borne inf bns).*
   1 mech bde (1 tk, 3 MICV-borne inf bns).*
   4 mot bdes (each 3 inf bns, 1 armd car bn).*
   1 para bde (3 para bns).*
   1 special recce regt.
   9 fd, 4 med, 7 lt AA arty regts.*
   1 AA missile regt (3 Crotale, 3 Tigercatbtys).
   15 fd engr sqns.
   3 sigs regts, 3 sigs sqns.
   (*Cadre formations completing the 2 divs when brought to full strength on Citizen Force mobilization.)
   Some 250 Centurion/Olifant MBT; 1,400 Eland 90 armd cars; 1,200 Ratel MICV (20mm/60mm/90mm gun); 500 lt APC incl Buffalo, Hippo, Rhino;
   65 25-pdr (88mm), 75 5.5-in. (140mm) towed, 50 Sexton 25-pdr SP, 40 G-5 towed, G-6 SP 155mm how;
   Valkiri 127mm SP MRL; 81mm, 200 120mm mor;
   900 6-pdr (57mm) and 17-pdr (76mm), M-67 90mm ATK guns; 84mm, 106mm RCL; SS-11, 120 ENTAC ATGW;
   20mm, 55 K-63 twin 35mm, 25 L/70 40mm, 15 3.7-in. (94mm) AA guns; 54 Cactus (Crotale), 54 Tigercat SAM.
RESERVES: Active Reservists serve in the Citizen Force for 12 years, in which they spend 720 days in uniform.
   They then serve 5 years in the Citizen Force Reserve and may be allocated to the Commando Force, where they serve 12 days a year up to age 55.
Navy: 6,000, incl 900 marines, 2,300 conscripts.
   3 Daphne subs.
   1 President (Br Type-12) ASW frigate with 1 Wasp hel (trg).
   8 MOD (Minister of Defence) (Reshef-type) FAC(G) with 6 Skerpioen (Gabriel-type) SSM.
   3 FAC(G) with 2 Skerpioen SSM.
   4 Br Ford, 2 mod Ton large patrol craft.
   6 Br Ton minesweepers, 2 Ton minehunters.
   1 fleet replenishment ship.
   30 Namacurra armed harbour patrol craft.
   1 ocean, 1 inshore hydrographic ships.
   (On order: 4 MOD, 3 Dvora-type FAC(G).)
MARINES: (900; 600 conscripts); 9 local harbour defence units.
Bases: Simonstown, Durban.
RESERVES: 2,000 Citizen Force.
Air Force: 10,000 (1,000 conscripts); 304 combat ac (incl 93 with Citizen Force), at least 10 armed hel.
Main Threat Area Command:
   2 lt bbr sqns: 1 with 5 Canberra B (I) 12, 3 T-4; 1 with 6 Buccaneer S-50.
   4 FGA sqns: 1 with 32 Mirage F-1AZ; 3 with 82 MB-326M/K Impala I/II.
   2 FGA/interceptor/recce sqns: 1 with 21 Mirage IIICZ/EZ, 6 RZ/R2Z; 1 with 13 F-1CZ.
   4 hel sqns with 5 Super Frelon, 35 Puma, 40 Alouette II.
   3 tpt sqns: 1 with 7 C-130B, 9 Transall C-160Z; 1 with 7 DC-4, 12 C-47; 1 with 4 HS-125 Mercurius, 1 Viscount 781.
   3 liaison sqns with 15 AM-3C Bosbok, 25 C-4M Kudu.
Southern Air Command:
   2 MR sqns with 18 Piaggio P-166S-DL3MAR Albatross.
   2 attack sqns with 25 Impala I/II.
   1 ASW hel sqn with 10 Wasp HAS-1.
   2 utility hel sqns with 7 Super Frelon, 13 Puma, 27 Alouette III.
   1 tpt sqn with 12 C-47B.
Western Air Command:
   Namibia; no integral operational sqns.
Training Command:
   6 trg schools with 100 T-6G Harvard; 60 Impala I/II; 26 Mirage III (some 10 EZ, some R2Z, some 10 D2Z); 12 C-47 ac;
   30 Alouette II/III hel.
   AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, Sidewinder, Kukri V-3 (Sidewinder-type).
   ASM: AS-20/-30.
RESERVES: Citizen Force 25,000. 93 Impala COIN ac. 15 L-100 (Hercules) in civil airline service.
South West Africa Territory Force (SWATF):
   14,000: Formed 1 Aug 1980. Separate force, South African control.
   Conscription: 24 months (all race groups), selective, with Citizen Force (Reserve) commitment.
   Four Area Commands. (Northern, Eastern, Central and Southern) comprising 26 Area Force units organized similarly to the Commandos
   in South Africa, 1 engr, 1 sigs bns.
   Air element (one sqn) with lt ac manned by Citizen Force.
   Northern sector has six Regular SWATF lt inf bns, one mounted Specialist unit.
Mobile Reserve: 1 mot inf bde (3 mot inf bns, 1 armd car regt, 1 arty regt, spt units). 1 mot inf bn regulars, rest Citizen Force.
Para-military: Industrial Defence units.
Para-Military Forces: Commandos 90,000: inf bn-type protective units in formations of 5+; 12 months initial, 19 days annual trg.
   13 Air Commando sqns with private ac.
   South African Police 35,500 (19,500 White, 16,000 Non-white),
   Police Reserves 20,000. Coastguard to form; 7 MR ac planned.
Opposition: South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) (some 8,000): possibly 7 field bns: T-34/-54 MBT; BTR APC; RPG-7 ATGW; SA-7 SAM.
  
   TANZANIA
Population: 20,500,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces, 40,350.
GDP 1981/2: T Sh 47.853 bn ($5,503 bn).
Est def exp 1981/2: T Sh 2.745 bn ($315,662 m). 1982/3: 3.0 bn ($307,314 m).
GDP growth: -4% (1982), -5% (1983).
Inflation: 35% (1982), 40% (1983).
Debt: $2.9 bn (1983).
   $1=shillings 8.696 (1981/2), 9.762 (1982/3).
Army: 38,500.
   2 div HQ.
   8 inf bdes.
   1 tk bn.
   2 fd arty bns, 2 AA arty bns (6 btys).
   2 mor bns.
   1 SAM bn with SA-3, SA-6.
   2 ATK bns.
   2 sigs bns.
   30 Ch Type-59 MBT; 30 Ch Type-62, 36 Scorpion lt tks; 20 BRDM-2 scout cars; 50 BTR-40/-152 APC;
   40 ZIS-3 and Ch Type-54 76mm, 200 122mm, 50 130mm guns; 350 82mm and 120mm mor;
   540 Ch Type-52 M-20 75mm RCL; 50 BM-21 122mm MRL;
   280 ZPU-2/-4 14.5mm, 40 ZU-23, 120 Ch Type-55 37mm AA guns; 9 SA-3, 12 SA-6, 40 SA-7SAM.
Navy: 850.
   10 FAC(G): 6 Ch Shanghai-W, 4 GDR P-6<.
   4 Ch Huchwan hydrofoil FAC(T).
   12 coastal patrol craft<: 2 GDR Schwalbe, 2 GDR 50-ton, 4 Ch Yulin; 4 Vosper Thornycroft 75-ft in Zanzibar.
   2 Ch LCM.
Bases: Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar.
Air Force: 1,000; 29 combat ac.
   3 ftr sqns (Ch ac): 11 F-7, F-6, F-4.
   1 tpt sqn: 1 HS-125-700, 1 An-2, 3 HS-748, 6 DHC-5D.
   Trainers: 2 MiG-15UTI, 6 Cherokee, 6 Cessna 310, 2 404.
   Hel: 2 Bell 47G, 5 AB-205, 6 AB-206.
   (On order: An-26, An-32 tpt ac.)
Forces Abroad: Mozambique: trg team, 200; Seychelles: 120.
Para-Military Forces: Police Field Force; 1,400, Police Marine Unit; Citizen's Militia; 50,000.
  
   UGANDA
Population: 14,500,000.
Total armed forces: 18,000.
Est GNP 1981: U Sh 177.980 bn ($3,556 bn).
Est def exp 1981: U Sh 5.600 bn ($111.884 m). $1=shillings 50.052 (1981).
Army: 18,000 (20,000 planned).
   3 bde HQ.
   Some 18 inf bns.
   10 T-34/-54/-55, 3 M-4 MBT; 150 BTR-40/-152, OT-64 and Saracen APC;
   60 76mm, 20 122mm guns; 40 Sagger ATGW; 40 23mm, 40mm AA guns; SA-7 SAM.* (* Serviceability doubtful.)
Air Force: (100; part of Army).
   6 AS-202B trg ac.
Para-Military Forces: Armed Police Special
   Force: 3,000. People's Militia: perhaps 20,000.
  
   ZAIRE REPUBLIC
Population: 32,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 26,000.
GDP 1981: Z 23.603 bn ($5,384 bn). 1982: 31.296 bn ($5,443 bn).
Def exp 1980: Zaires 419.0 m ($149,643 m).
GDP growth: -2% (1982), 1% (1983).
Inflation: 35% (1982), 50% (1983).
Est FMA: $20m (1983).
Debt: $5.5 bn (1983).
   $1=zaires 2.800 (1980), 4.384 (1981), 5.750 (1982).
Army: 22,000.
   3 Military Regions.
   1 inf div:
   1 armd bde.
   2 inf bdes (each 3 inf bns, 1 spt bn).
   1 Special Forces div:
   1 para bde (3 para bns, 1 spt bn).
   1 special force (cdo) bde.
   1 Presidential Guard bde.
   60 Ch Type-62 lt tks; 95 AML-60, 60 AML-90 armd cars; 12 M-113, K-63, 60 M-3, BTR-152, M-3 half-track APC;
   120 75mm pack, 122mm, 130mm guns/how; 82mm, 4.2-in. (107mm), 120mm mor;
   Blindicide 83mm, 107mm RL; 57mm ATK guns; 57mm, 75mm, 106mm RCL; 37mm, 40mm AA guns.
   (On order: 120mm mor.)
Navy: 1,500 incl marines.
   4 Ch Shanghai II FAC.
   51 patrol craft<: 4 Huchwan hydrofoils, 6 Sewart, 3 N. Korean P-4, 8 US, 30 others.
MARINES: (600).
Bases: Banana, Matadi (coast), Kinshasa (river), Kalemie (lake).
Air Force: 2,500; 39 combat ac.
   1 ftr sqn with 7 Mirage 5M/5DM.
   3 COIN sqns with 20 Reims Cessna FTB-337;
   6 MB-326K; 6 AT-6G.
   1 tpt wing with 6 C-130H, 2 DC-6, 2 DHC-4A, 2 Buffalo, 8 C-47, 4 C-54, 2 MU-2, 1 Fakon-20.
   1 hel sqn: 3 Alouette III, 4 Puma, 1 Super Frelon (VIP).
   Trg ac incl 27 Cessna (15 310, 12 150), 13 MB-326GB, 9 SF-260MC.
   (On order: S-211 coin/trg, 4 F-27-500 tpt ac.)
Forces Abroad: Chad: 2,000, para units (inf), 6 combat ac.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 22,000; 40 bns.
  
   ZAMBIA
Population: 6,600,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 14,300.
GDP 1982: K 3.564 bn ($3,840 bn). 1983: 4.222 bn ($3,375 bn).
Est def exp 1981: K 283 m ($325,887 m).
GDP growth: 3.6% (1982), 1% (1983).
Inflation: 11% (1982), 20% (1983).
   $1=kwacha 0.8684 (1981), 0.9282 (1982), 1.251 (1983).
Army: 12300.
   1 armd regt (incl 1 armd recce bn).
   6 inf bns.
   3 arty btys, 2 AA arty btys.
   1 engr bn, 2 sigs sqns.
   4 T-34, 30 T-54/55 and Type-59 MBT; 130 BRDM-1/-2 armd cars; 13 BTR-60 APC;
   76mm, 35 130mm guns; 18 105mm pack, 25 122mm how; 50 BM-21 122mm MRL;
   M-18 57mm, Carl Gustav 84mm RCL; Sagger
   ATGW; 50 M-75 triple 20mm, 40 37mm, 55
   57mm, 16 85mm AA guns; SA-7 SAM.
Air Force: 1,800; 44 combat ac.
   2 FGA sqns: 1 with 12 Ch F-6; 1 with 14 Sov
   MiG-21.
   1 coin/trg sqn with 18 MB-326GB.
   2 tpt sqns: 1 with 10 Do-28, 3 C-47; 1 with 6
   DHC-2, 5 DHC-4, 5 DHC-5D.
   1 VIP fit with 3 Yak-40, 1 HS-748.
   Trainers incl 8 SF-260MZ, 20 Safari, 2 Ch
   BT-3, 5 Jastreb/Galeb.
   1 hel sqn with 3 AB-205A, 3 AB-206, 2
   AB-212, 2 Bell 47G, 11 Mi-8.
   1 SAM bn; 3 btys with 12 Rapier, 3 Tigercat, SA-3 Goa.
Para-Military Forces: 1,200. Police Mobile Unit (PMU) 700; 1 bn of 4 coys. Police Para-Military Unit (PPMU) 500; 1 bn of 3 coys.
  
   ZIMBABWE
Population: 8,300,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 41,300.
GDP 1982: $Z 5.005 bn ($US 5.775 bn).
Def exp 1982/3: $Z 291.2 m ($US 336.026 m).
Def budget 1983/4: 418.0 m ($US 458.585 m).
GDP growth: 2% (1982), -4% (1983).
Inflation: 15% (1982), 20% (1983).
Debt: $US 2.5 bn (1983).
   $US 1= $Z 0.8666 (1982/3), 0.9115 (1983/4).
Army: 40,000.
   6 bde HQ (incl 1 Presidential Guard).
   1 armd regt.
   35 inf bns.
   1 arty regt.
   1 cdo bn, 1 para bn.
   7 engr, 6 sigs sqns.
   10 T-34, 18 T-54, 20 Ch T-59 MBT;
   90 EE-9 Cascavel, 28 AML-90 Eland armd, 15 Ferret, BRDM-2 scout cars; 20 BTR-152, UR-416, Buffalo, Hippo, Hyena, Leopard, Crocodile APC;
   18 25-pdr (88mm), M-56 105mm pack, 8 122mm, 8 5.5-in. (140mm) guns/how; 81mm mor; 106mm RCL; 8 SA-7 SAM.
Air Force: 1,300; some 35 combat ac.
   1 lt bbr sqn with 5 Canberra B-2, 2 T-4.
   1 FGA sqn with 7 Hunter FGA-9/T-7.
   1 ftr sqn with 7 Hawk T-54.
   1 coin/recce sqn: 9 Cessna 337 (0-2) Lynx.
   2 trg/recce/liaison sqn with 17 SF-260W/C Genet.
   1 tpt sqn with 6 C-212-200 (VIP), 12 C-47, 6 Islander.
   2 hel sqns with 26 Alouette II/III, 10 Bell/AB 205A.
   2 AA arty sqns: 14.5mm, 20mm, 23mm, 37mm.
   2 security sqns.
   (On order: 12 Ch F-6, 12 F-7, 5 Hunter ftrs; 10 SIAI S-211 coin/trg, 5 SF-260TP trg ac; 2 AB-412 (vip) hel).
Forces Abroad: Mozambique: 600.
Para-Military Forces: Zimbabwe Republic Police Force, incl Air Wing, 10,000. Police Support Unit 3,000. National Militia 20,000.
  
   For the Armed Forces of other African states, see overleaf.
   ARMED FORCES OF OTHER AFRICAN STATES*
    []
    []
    []
    []
  

Asia and Australia

  

CHINA

   Chinese defence policy has long maintained a balance, at times uneasy, between two concepts: nuclear force to deter strategic attack and People's War - mass mobilization of the population to deter or repel conventional invasion. Despite changes in the political leadership, there remain many supporters of the strategic concept that mass manpower is still the primary deterrent. The need to modernize the forces has been recognized. Programmes to re-equip, reorganize and enhance their military effectiveness are being implemented, but slowly.
   The conventional arms inventory of the People's Liberation Army (PLA), technically much less advanced than that of wealthier nations, is being gradually updated by replacing Soviet and Soviet-type equipment with indigenous designs and some Western technology. The United States has agreed in principle to sell logistic and dual-purpose equipment and technology. China has obtained computers and radars and is negotiating the sale of a wide range of defensive and non-combat military equipment. Britain has sold aircraft engines, artillery and fire control equipment and radar. France has sold helicopters and radar. But the current phase of economic readjustment has meant a succession of cuts in the defence budget between 1980 and 1983, and the pace of modernization will be quite slow.
   Nuclear Weapons
   The research programme continues, but no nuclear test has been recorded since 1980. At least 26 tests have been made since 1964. A nuclear force capable of reaching large parts of the Soviet Union and Asia is operational.
   A multi-stage ICBM with a limited range of 6,000-7,000 km was first tested in 1976. Two types of ICBM are now deployed, one with a range of some 13,000 km, the other some 10,000 km. No indication has been received of the deployment of multiple warheads, but a missile has been successfully used (and thus tested) as a launcher for three space research satellites. Deployment continues of an IRBM with an estimated 5,500 km range. Deployment of an MRBM with a range of some 1,800 km may be complete. China's first SSBN - the Daqingyu or Xia class - is reported still to be on trials; her SLBM is reported as the CSS-NX-3, a variant of the DF-3 IRBM. Four more of these boats are said to be under construction and as many as twelve may be planned. Two Han-class nuclear-powered submarines with six missile tubes are now in service; the cruise missile they are said to carry has been tested to a reported range of 1,600 km. So far all ballistic missiles have been liquid-fuelled. Solid propellants being developed are reported to have powered the 1980 ICBM test vehicle and may power the DF-5 ICBM. The missile forces are manned by the Second Artillery, which is directly controlled by the Ministry of Defence. There are no reports of tactical nuclear munitions (artillery, rockets, mines). If such munitions are available, fighter aircraft could be used for tactical delivery, and for longer ranges there are some 120 B-6 medium bombers, with a combat radius of up to 3,000 km.
   Conventional Forces
   The PLA embraces all arms and services, including naval and air elements. Essentially a defensive force, the PLA lacks facilities and logistic support for protracted large-scale operations at any significant distance outside Chinese borders. China is organized in 11 Military Regions (MR) with 28 Military Districts (MD). The field army's Main Force (MF) divisions are commanded by the Ministry of National Defence, although command is being transferred to the MR in which they are stationed and which are already responsible for their administration. They are available for operations in any region. Extensive reorganization of the Local Forces (LF), Border and Internal Defence forces and para-military units intended to defend their own Provinces is taking place. The field army strength is declining as transfers to the regional forces continue. Artillery, engineer and railway units are controlled by the Ministry of National Defence. Infantry units account for most of the ground-force manpower and 119 of the some 158 MF line divisions; there are only 12 armoured divisions.
   The naval and air elements of the PLA have only about one-fifth of the total manpower, compared with about a quarter for their counterparts in the Soviet Union, but naval strength is increasing. The naval force is organized in three fleets, two of them controlled by the Northern Naval Region. The naval air arm is shore-based, and there is an independent Coast Defence Force. The air component is organized into 8 Regions and 3 minor geographic commands; combat organization is similar to the Soviet system, with air armies of divisions of three regiments each with some 45 aircraft.
   Major weapons systems include Type-59 MBT, Type-60/-63 amphibious and Type-62 light tanks and Type-531 APC; modified R- and W-class medium-range diesel submarines, SSM destroyers, frigates, fast patrol boats, amphibious transports and landing craft; J-6/-7 and Q-5 fighters, SA-2-type SAM. Production rates for this equipment are, at best, broad estimates only. Actual rates may be considerably lower than many such estimates suggest.
   Bilateral Agreements
   There is a mutual defence agreement with North Korea, dating from 1961, and an agreement to provide free military aid. There are friendship and non-aggression pacts with Afghanistan, Burma, Nepal (1960) and Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge). Chinese military equipment and logistic support have been offered to a number of countries. Major recipients include Albania, Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan and Tanzania.
   Gross National Product and Defence Expenditure
   Official Chinese sources claim a GNP figure of 989.4 bn yuan for 1982 and 1,105.2 bn for 1983, an increase of 11.7%. National income is reported by the IMF to be 424.7 bn yuan for 1982 and 467.3 bn for 1983. (GNP figures include the service and other sectors.) Western estimates of GNP have varied greatly, from $260 bn to $600 bn in 1982, and it is difficult to choose from a range of figures, variously defined and calculated.
   Since 1981 the Chinese government has released official defence budget figures. In 1983 the defence budget amounted to 17.713 bn yuan ($8,959 bn), while for 1984 the figure of 17.870 bn yuan ($8,189 bn) was reported. These figures are not comparable to Western defence estimates, since they exclude a number of items, notably pay and allowances for the troops. Chinese budgetary practices are not known in detail, but they are certainly different from those in the West. Because of the differences, the official budget figure must be considered as an indicator of proportion, rather than a clear measurement of actual costs.
  

КИТАЙ

   Оборонная политика Китая долгое время поддерживала баланс, порой непростой, между двумя понятиями: ядерная сила для сдерживания стратегического нападения и народная война - массовая мобилизация населения для сдерживания или отражения вторжения обычными силами. Несмотря на изменения в политическом руководстве, остается много сторонников стратегической концепции о том, что массовая живая сила по-прежнему является основным сдерживающим фактором. Была признана необходимость модернизации сил. Программ перевооружения, реорганизации и повышения их эффективности осуществляются, но медленно.
   Запасы обычных вооружений Народно-освободительной армии (НОАК), технически гораздо менее совершенные, чем у более богатых стран, постепенно обновляются путем замены советского оборудования местными конструкциями и некоторыми западными технологиями. Соединенные Штаты в принципе согласились продавать логистическое оборудование и технологии двойного назначения. Китай приобрел компьютеры и радары и ведет переговоры о продаже широкого спектра оборонительной и не боевой военной техники. Великобритания продала авиационные двигатели, артиллерийское и противопожарное оборудование и радары. Франция продала вертолеты и радары. Однако нынешний этап экономической перестройки означает последовательное сокращение оборонного бюджета в период 1980-1983 годов, и темпы модернизации будут довольно медленными.
   Ядерное оружие
   Исследовательская программа продолжается, но с 1980 года не было зарегистрировано ни одного ядерного испытания. С 1964 года было проведено не менее 26 испытаний. Действующие ядерные силы, способные достичь значительной части территории Советского Союза и Азии.
   Многоступенчатая МБР с ограниченной дальностью 6000-7000 км была впервые испытана в 1976 году. Два типа МБР теперь развернуто, один с диапазоном около 13 000 км, другой около 10 000 км. Никаких указаний на развертывание нескольких боеголовок получено не было, однако ракета была успешно использована (и, таким образом, испытана) в качестве пусковой установки для трех спутников космических исследований. Развертывание БРСД с дальность примерно 5,500 км продолжается. Развертывание МБР с дальностью действия около 1800 км может быть завершено. Сообщается, что первая ПЛАРБ Китая - класс Daqingyu или Xia - все еще находится на испытаниях; ее БРПЛ обозначенная как CSS-NX-3, вариант БРСД DF-3. Еще четыре из этих лодок, как говорят, находятся в стадии строительства, и еще двенадцать могут быть запланированы. В настоящее время на вооружении находятся две атомные подводные лодки класса Han с шестью ракетными установками; крылатая ракета, которую, как утверждается, они несут, была испытана на дальности 1600 км. До сих пор все баллистические ракеты были жидкостными. Сообщается, что разрабатываемые твердотопливные двигатели были на испытательном аппарате МБР 1980 года и могут быть на МБР DF-5. Ракетные войска подчинены Второй артиллерии, которая непосредственно контролируется Министерством обороны. Сообщений о тактических ядерных боеприпасах (артиллерия, ракеты, мины) нет. При наличии таких боеприпасов для тактической доставки можно было бы использовать истребители, а для более дальних дистанций - около 120 средних бомбардировщиков В-6 с боевым радиусом действия до 3000 км.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   НОАК имеет все виды вооружений и служб, включая военно-морские и воздушные элементы. НОАК, будучи по существу оборонительными силами, не располагает средствами и материально-технической поддержкой для проведения длительных крупномасштабных операций на любом значительном расстоянии за пределами китайских границ. Китай организован в 11 военных регионов (MR) с 28 военных округов (MD). Дивизии основных сил полевой армии (MF) находятся под командованием Министерства национальной обороны, хотя командование переходит к МР, в котором они дислоцируются и которые уже отвечают за их управление. Они доступны для действий в любом регионе. Проводится широкомасштабная реорганизация местных сил (LF), пограничных и внутренних сил обороны и воинских подразделений, призванных защищать свои провинции. Численность полевой армии сокращается по мере продолжения переброски в региональные силы. Артиллерийские, инженерные и железнодорожные подразделения контролируются Министерством национальной обороны. На пехотные подразделения приходится большая часть сухопутных сил сил и 119 из 158 дивизий MF; есть только 12 бронированных дивизий.
   Военно-морские и военно-воздушные элементы НОАК имеют лишь около одной пятой общей численности личного состава по сравнению с примерно четвертью их коллег в Советском Союзе, однако численность военно-морских сил увеличивается. Военно-морские силы организованы в три флота, два из которых контролируются Северным Военно-морским регионом. Военно-воздушные силы базируются на берегу, и существуют независимые силы береговой обороны. Воздушная составляющая организована в 8 регионов и 3 малых географических командования; боевая организация похожа на советскую систему, с воздушными армиями дивизий трех полков каждый с некоторыми 45 самолетов.
   Основные системы вооружения включают ОБТ Тип-59, амфибии Тип-60/-63, легкие танки Тип-62 и БТР тип-531; модифицированные R - и W-классы средних дизельных подводных лодок, эсминцы, фрегаты, быстроходные патрульные катера, десантные транспорты и десантные суда; J-6/-7 и Q-5 истребители, ЗРК типа SA-2. Темпы производства этого оборудования в лучшем случае являются лишь общими оценками. Фактические могут быть значительно ниже, чем предполагают многие такие оценки.
   Двусторонние соглашения
   Есть договор о взаимной обороне с Северной Кореей, с 1961 года и соглашение о предоставлении бесплатной военной помощи. Существуют договоры о дружбе и ненападении с Афганистаном, Бирмой, Непалом (1960 год) и Кампучией ("Красные Кхмеры"). Ряду стран была предложена китайская военная техника и материально-техническая поддержка. Основными получателями помощи являются Албания, Египет, Ирак, Пакистан и Танзания.
   Валовой национальный продукт и расходы на оборону
   Официальные китайские источники утверждают, что показатель ВНП составляет 989,4 млрд юаней за 1982 год и 1,105.2 млрд за 1983 год, рост на 11,7%. Национальный доход, как сообщает МВФ, будет 424.7 млрд юаней за 1982 и 467.3 млрд. За 1983 год. (ВНП включает обслуживание и другие отрасли.) Западные оценки ВНП сильно варьировались - от 260 млрд. долл. США до 600 млрд. долл. США в 1982 году, и трудно сделать выбор из ряда цифр, по-разному определенных и рассчитанных.
   С 1981 года китайское правительство опубликовало официальные цифры оборонного бюджета. В 1983 году оборонный бюджет составил 17.713 млрд юаней (8,959 млрд долл.), а в 1984 году 17.870 млрд юаней ($8,189 млрд). Эти цифры не сопоставимы с западными оценками в области обороны, поскольку они исключают ряд статей, в частности выплату жалования и надбавок военнослужащим. Китайская бюджетная практика не известна в деталях, но она, безусловно, отличается от западной. Из-за этих различий показатель официального бюджета следует рассматривать как показатель пропорциональности, а не как четкое измерение фактических расходов.
  
   CHINA
Population: 1,039,000,000.
Military service: conscription; Army, 3 years; Navy/Air 4 years. Technical volunteers can serve 8-12 more years to maximum age 35.
Total regular forces: 4,000,000.*
   (* The term 'People's Liberation Army' comprises all services; the Ground, Naval and Air components of the PLA are listed separately for
   purposes of comparison.)
GNP and defence expenditure: see note above.
Debt 1982: $4.7 bn.
   $1=1.887 yuan (1982), 1.9772 (1983), 2.1821 (mid-1984) (official rate).
Strategic Forces:
OFFENSIVE:
(a) Missiles:
   ICBM: 2 DF-5 (Dong Feng; = East Wind): range 13,000 km; 5 MT warhead. 4 DF-4: range 10,000 km; 3 MT.
   IRBM: 60 DF-3: range 5,500 km; 2 MT.
   MRBM: 50 DF-2: range 1,800 km; 20 KT.
(b) Submarines:
   1 Daqingyu (Xia) SSBN with 12 CSS-NX-3 (mod DF-3, range perhaps 2,800 km - possibly 1x2 MT warhead) in development.
   (On order: 4 Daqingyu SSBN reported).
DEFENSIVE:
(a) Tracking stations in Xinjiang (cover central Asia) and Shanxi (northern border) and a limited shipborne capability.
(b) Ballistic missile EW phased-array radar complex.
(c) Air Force AD system with over 4,000 naval and air force fighters, about 100 Honggi-2 (Red Flag, SA-2-type) SAM units and over
   16,000 AA guns; capable of limited defence of key urban and industrial areas, military installations and weapons complexes.
(d) A civil defence shelter/evacuation/local defence system in Beijing and other key cities.
Army*: 3,160,000.
Main Forces (Field Army):
   11 Military Regions, 27 Military Districts, 1 indep MD, 3 Garrison Commands.
   Some 35 Armies (46,300 men), each normally of 3 divs, 1 arty regt and spt tps (some have 1 indep tk regt, some have 1 arty, 1 AA regts), comprising:
   13 armd divs.
   118 inf divs.
   Some 17 field arty divs.
   16 AA arty divs.
   Some indep arty, AA regts.
   Some 21 sigs, CW regts; 20 indep recce, engr, sigs, chemical bns (Army tps).
   50 indep engr regts.
Local Forces (29 provinces; being reorganized).
   73 divs (70 LF (border/internal defence), 3 garrison).
   140 indep regts.
AFV: 11,450 Sov IS-2 hy (trg), T-34 (trg), T-54, Ch Type-59 and T-69 (mod Type-59) MBT; Type-62 It and Type-60/-63 lt amph tks;
   2,800 Type 531, Type-55/-56 (BTR-40/-152) /-63 APC.
Arty. 12,800 Type-56 85mm (fd/ATK), (Type-59?) 100mm, Type-60 122mm, Type-59 130mm towed, 1SU-122/-152 SP (trg?) guns;
   Type-66 152mm towed gun/how; Type-54 122mm and Type-56 152mm towed, 122mm SP how (Type-531 chassis);
   4,500 Type-63 12x107mm, 40x122mm, Type-63 19x130mm (incl SP), BM-13-16 16x132mm, BM-14-16 16x140mm, 10 x 180mm and 10x320mm MRL;
   14,000 Type-53 82mm, Type-55 120mm and Type-56 160mm mor.
ATK: 40mm, 57mm, 90mm RL; 7,800 57mm, 175mm and 82mm RCL; Type-55 57mm, Type-54 76mm guns; Sagger-type ATGW.
AA: 15,000: Type-63 37mm (incl twin SP), Type-59 57mm, Type-56 85mm and Type-59 100mm guns.
DEPLOYMENT: Excl arty and engrs, MF and LF divs may be:
North-East: Shenyang MR (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning MD): 4 armd, 19 inf; 13 LF.*
North: Beijing MR (Beijing, Tienjiang Garrison Commands; Hebei, Nei Monggol, Shanxi MD): 4 armd, 25 inf; 13 LF.
North-West: Lanzhou MR (Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi MD): 1 armd, 8 inf; 2 LF.*
West: Uriimqi MR (North and South Xinjiang MD): 5 inf; 7 LF.*
South-west: Chengdu MR (Sichuan, Xizang MD): 8 inf; 4 LF.*
South: Kunming MR (Guizhou, Yunnan MD): 7 inf.
   Guangzhou MR (Guangdong, Hunan, Guanxi MD, Hainan (an MD-equivalent) ): 11 inf; 8 LF.*
Centre: Wuhan MR (Henan, Hubei MD): 2 armd, 10 inf, 3 AB (Air Force); 6 LF.
East: Jinan MR (Shandong MD): 1 armd, 9 inf; 6 LF.
   Nanjing MR (Shanghai Garrison Command; Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang MD): 1 armd, 10 inf; 9 LF.
   Fuzhou MR (Fujian, Jiangxi MD): 6 inf; 5 LF.
   (*There are 2-3 divs worth of border tps in these MR.)
Navy*: 350,000 incl Naval Air Force and Coast Defence Forces: 2 SSN, 100 diesel attack subs; 36 major surface combat ships.
   2 Han SSN.
   100 diesel subs (1 Golf missile (trials), 76 R, 21 W-class, 2 Ming trg).
   14 GW destroyers: 10 O-51 Lu'da (Kotlin-type) with 2x3 HY-2 (Hai Ying; =Sea Eagle; Styxtype) SSM; 4 Anshan (ex-Sov Gordy) with 2x2 HY-2.
   22 frigates: 17 GW (11 O-37 Jianghu with 2x2 HY-2, 2 Jiangdong with 2x2 SAM; 4 Chengdu (ex-Sov Riga) with 1x2 H Y-2 ); 5 Jiangnan (Riga-type).
   8 patrol escorts: 6 ex-Jap, 1 ex-Br, 1 ex-Aus.
   216 FAC(G) with HY-2: 116 Osa/Huangfen (4 msls), Hola (2 msls), 98 Hoku<, 1 Homa hydrofoil (2 msls).
   48 patrol craft: 28 Hainan, 20 Kronshtadt.
   341 FAC: 10 Shanghai I, 295 Shanghai II/III/IV/V, 3 Haikou, 30 Swatow, 3 Shandong hydrofoils<.
   290 FAC(T) <: 140 Huchwan I/II hydrofoils; 70 P-6, 80 P-4.
   About 120 coastal and river patrol craft <.
   23 T-43 ocean minesweepers.
   18 LST incl ex-US 511-1152, 35 LSM, 6 inf landing ships, 320 LCU, 150 LCM; some 61-ton hovercraft.
   7 sub, 6 other spt, 10 supply ships; 23 tankers.
   (On order (reports tentative): 4 Han SSN; 4 Lu'da DDG; 8 Jianghu (4 mod), 2 Jiangdong FFG; Huangfen, Hoku FAC(G); 3 LST.)
Coastal Defence Forces: (38,000): indep arty regts deployed near naval bases, offshore islands, and other vulnerable points;
   85mm, 100mm, 130mm guns; HY-2 ('CSSC-2') land based SSM.
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES:
North Sea Fleet about 500 vessels (over half (), incl 2 sub sqns; from the Yalu River to south of Lianyungang.
   Qingdao (HQ), Luda, Liishun, Huludao, Weihai, Chengshan.
East Sea Fleet: about 750 vessels (about 400 <) with air, AD and coastal missile units; from south of Lianyungang to Dongshan.
   Ningbo (HQ), Zhoushan, Taohua Dao, Heimen, Wenzhou, Fuzhou.
South Sea Fleet: about 600 vessels (some half (), incl 25 subs, 200 FAC, amph; from Dongshan to Vietnamese frontier.
   Zhanjiang (HQ), Shantou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Yulin, Beihai.
   Some 800 ocean-going vessels and several thousand junks could augment the existing limited sealift capacity.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (38,000); about 800 shore based combat aircraft,* org in 3 bbr, 6 fighter divs, incl some H (Hong; = bomber) -6, about
   100 H-5 torpedo-carrying and 50 I1-28 lt bbrs;
   some 600 fighters, incl J (Jian; = ftr) -5/-6/-7 interceptors;
   H-5 recce,
   8 ex-Sov Be-6 MR/ASW ac;
   40 Z (Zhi; = helicopter) -5, 12 Super Frelon ASW hel; some 60 lt tpt ac.
   Naval fighters are integrated into the national AD system.
Air Force*: 490,000, incl strategic forces and 220,000 AD personnel; some 5,300 combat ac*
   (Many Chinese aircraft designs stem from Soviet types. Using Chinese terms,
   H-5=I1-28, H-6=Tu-16, J-5=MiG-17, J-6=MiG-19, Q-5=MiG-19, J-7=MiG-21, J-8=MiG-23,Y-5=An-2, Y-7= An-24, Y-8=An-12 ac;
   Z-5=Mi-4, Z-6=Mi-8 hel. In export models the J is generally read as F.)
   8 Military Air Regions, 3 minor regional comds, HQ Beijing; combat elms org in Armies of varying numbers of air divs
   (each with 3 regts of 3 sqns of 3 fits of 4-5 ac, 1 maintenance unit, some tpt and trg ac). Tpt ac in regts only.
   Med bbrs: 120 H-6.
   Lt bbrs: some 500 H-5.
   FGA: some 500 J-4 and Q (Qiang = attack) -5.
   Ftrs: some 4,000, incl 400 J-5, some 60 regts with about 3,000 J-6/B/D/E, 200 J-7, 30 J-8.
   Recce: Some 130 JZ-6, HZ-5 ac.
   Tpts: Some 550 fixed-wing, incl some 300 Y (Yun = transport) -5/An-2, some 10 Y-7 (An-24), Y-8 (An-12),
   some 75 ex-Sov Li-2, I1-14, I1-18 (to be retired), 18 Trident.
   (These could be supplemented by some 400 ac, incl some 150 hy tpts, from Civil Aviation Administration).
   Hel: 400: incl Z-5/-6; Z-9 (Fr SA-365N Dauphin), Alouette III, SA-321 Super Frelon.
   Trainers: incl CJ-5/-6, MiG-15UTI, JJ-4/-5/-6, HJ-5.
   AAM: PL-2 Atoll-type.
Airborne tps: 1 corps of 3 divs, 1 indep div: 82mm, 120mm mor; 82mm RCL; 37mm AA guns.
   20 AA arty divs, 28 indep AD regts (100 SAM units) with CSA-1 SAM, 16,000 57mm, 85mm and 100mm guns.
RESERVES: ex-Service to age 45. Perhaps 5,000,000 with service in the past 5 years.
Para-Military Forces: Some 12,000,000.
   Militia.
Basic Militia: some 4.3 million; men and women aged 18-28 who have had, or will have, military service, grouped in the Armed Militia;
   serve with the Regulars for 30-40 days per year; organized into about 75 cadre divisions and 2,000 regts and a Naval (Maritime)
   Militia with armed trawlers.
Ordinary Militia: up to 6 million (ages 18-35), including the Urban Militia, receive some basic training but are generally unarmed.
   Some play a local AD role; all support the security forces.
   People's Armed Police Force (Ministry of Security): ex-soldiers and personnel transferred from some 4 LF divs;
   Internal Defence divs and 30 indep regts; border security, patrol and internal security duties; small arms only.
  

OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES AND AUSTRALASIA

   Bilateral Agreements
   The United States has mutual co-operation and security treaties with Japan (1960), the Republic of Korea (1954) and the Philippines (1951, 1983); military co-operation agreements with Australia (1951, 1963, 1974 and 1980); and a military aid agreement with Thailand. That with Taiwan lapsed on 1 January 1980; arms supply and production arrangements continue under the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act. Washington also provides continuing military aid to Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Thailand. There are major US bases in Japan, South Korea and the Philippines (agreement renewed 1983), and air (B-52) and naval refuelling facilities in north and west Australia.
   In 1965 Britain purchased the Chagos Archipelago, which included Diego Garcia and three other islands, from Mauritius for $3 m and established it as the British Indian Ocean Territory. A joint US/British base was constructed on Diego Garcia, and a small British naval contingent was deployed there. Agreements in 1966, 1972 and 1976 provided for the development of a major US naval and air support facility with a 50-year tenure. The three small islands have since been turned over to the Seychelles. Britain has a Defence Agreement with Sri Lanka (1974) and one with Brunei which provides Gurkha troops and a British Forces training area.
   The Soviet Union has Treaties of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance with Afghanistan (1978), India (1971), Mongolia (1966), North Korea (1961) and Vietnam (1978). She concluded a Stationing of Forces Agreement with Afghanistan in April 1980. An agreement with India in December 1982 provides for collaboration on design and manufacture of naval vessels; other co-production arrangements are reported. Bulgaria has Friendship Treaties with Cambodia (1960), Laos (1979), Mongolia (1967) and Vietnam (1979), as have Czechoslovakia with Laos and Vietnam (1980) and Afghanistan (1981), Hungary with Afghanistan (1982), and East Germany with Vietnam (1977), Kampuchea (1980) and Afghanistan (1982).
   The People's Republic of China has Friendship and Non-Aggression Treaties with Afghanistan, Burma and Nepal.
   Cuba and Vietnam signed a Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation on 5 October 1982. Libya and North Korea signed a Treaty of Alliance or Friendship and Co-operation in November 1982, which is to permit exchanges of military data, specialists and supplies. North Korea and Tanzania have an agreement covering aspects of defence and security.
   Australia has an agreement and subsidiary arrangements for the development of and assistance to the Papua New Guinea Defence Force, and some 135 personnel are on loan to it. She has supplied defence equipment to the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia and most of the smaller Pacific island states under a number of arrangements.
   In July 1977 Vietnam and Laos signed a series of agreements which contained military provisions and a border pact, and may have covered the stationing of Vietnamese troops in Laos. A similar series of agreements seems to have been negotiated between Vietnam and the Heng Samrin regime in Kampuchea in February 1979 and December 1982.
   Multilateral Agreements
   In 1951 Australia, New Zealand and the United States signed a tripartite treaty (ANZUS), which came into effect on 29 April 1952 and is of indefinite duration. Each agrees to 'act to meet the common danger' in the event of attack on either metropolitan or island territory of any one of them, or on armed forces, public vessels or aircraft in the Pacific.
   The Manila Pact, signed on 8 September 1954 by Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand and the United States, remains in force, though France and Pakistan subsequently withdrew, and the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), set up to implement it, was disbanded in 1977. The Pact calls for action by each Party to meet the common danger posed by armed aggression, and for consultation if any other threat is posed to the territory, sovereignty or political independence of any Party. Since 1962 the US commitment to Thailand has been based on this Pact.
   The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), set up in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand and joined by Brunei in 1984, is intended to foster regional economic development, not military co-operation. Under the rubric of the promotion of regional peace and security it has become concerned with the Vietnamese presence in Kampuchea. It supports the Kampuchean resistance movements politically, but reported arms transfers to the rebels are believed to be national initiatives rather than multilateral.
   Five-Power Defence Arrangements (Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and Britain), relating to the defence of Malaysia and Singapore, came into effect on 1 November 1971. In the event of any externally organized or supported armed attack or threat of attack against Malaysia or Singapore, the five governments would consult together for the purpose of deciding what measures should betaken, jointly or separately. Britain with drew her forces in March 1976, but New Zealand troops remain in Singapore, as do Australian air units in Malaysia and Singapore, with a small army component attached. Australian and New Zealand naval units visit Malaysia and Singapore regularly.
   Economic Factors
   After showing exceptionally low growth rates in 1982, the Asian economies recovered well in 1983. Regional average growth in real GNP/GDP amounted to some 4%, compared with some 1-2% in 1982. Singapore, the two Koreas and Taiwan led the recovery, while Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia and the Philippines continued to stagnate. Unlike those of Latin "America and Africa, all Asian countries were able to control their inflation rates, the highest rates being those of the Philippines and Sri Lanka (10% and 14% respectively). The same two countries, plus South Korea and New Zealand, also faced serious debt problems: the Philippines' debt-to-GNP ratio exceeded 70%, while those of the other three were in the 40-50% range.
  

ДРУГИЕ АЗИАТСКИЕ СТРАНЫ И АВСТРАЛИЯ

   Двусторонние соглашения
   Соединенные Штаты имеют договоры о взаимном сотрудничестве и безопасности с Японией (1960 год), Республикой Корея (1954 год) и Филиппинами (1951, 1983 годы); соглашения о военном сотрудничестве с Австралией (1951, 1963, 1974 и 1980 годы); и соглашение о военной помощи с Таиландом. 1 января 1980 года; соглашения о поставках и производстве оружия продолжают действовать в соответствии с Законом о тайваньских отношениях 1979 года. Вашингтон также оказывает постоянную военную помощь Индонезии, Южной Корее, Малайзии, Пакистану, Филиппинам и Таиланду. Есть крупные американские базы в Японии, Южной Корее и на Филиппинах (соглашение продлено в 1983 году), а также воздушные (B-52) и военно-морские заправочные объекты в Северной и Западной Австралии.
   В 1965 году Британия приобрела архипелаг Чагос, в который входили Диего-Гарсия и три других острова, у Маврикия за $3 млн и провозгласила его британской территорией в Индийском океане. На Диего-Гарсии была построена совместная американо-британская база, и там был развернут небольшой британский военно-морской контингент. Соглашения 1966, 1972 и 1976 годов предусматривали создание крупного объекта военно-морской и воздушной поддержки США сроком на 50 лет. Три маленьких острова время на Сейшелы. Великобритания имеет соглашение об обороне со Шри-Ланкой (1974) и с Брунеем, которое предоставляет войска Гуркха и учебный район британских сил.
   СССР заключила договоры о дружбе, сотрудничестве и взаимной помощи с Афганистаном (1978), Индией (1971), Монголией (1966), Северной Кореей (1961) и Вьетнамом (1978). В апреле 1980 года они заключили с Афганистаном соглашение о дислокации сил. Соглашение с Индией, заключенное в декабре 1982 года, предусматривает сотрудничество в области проектирования и изготовления морских судов; сообщается о других соглашениях о совместном производстве. Болгария имеет договоры Дружбы с Камбоджой (1960), Лаосом (1979), Монголией (1967) и Вьетнамом (1979), Чехословакия с Лаосом и Вьетнамом (1980) и Афганистаном (1981), Венгрия в Афганистаном (1982), и Восточная Германия с Вьетнамом (1977), Кампучией (1980) и Афганистаном (1982).
   Китайская Народная Республика имеет договоры о дружбе и ненападении с Афганистаном, Бирмой и Непалом.
   5 октября 1982 года Куба и Вьетнам подписали Договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве. Ливия и Северная Корея подписали в ноябре 1982 года Договор о союзничестве или дружбе и сотрудничестве, который должен разрешить обмен военными данными, специалистами и поставками. Северная Корея и Танзания имеют соглашение, охватывающее аспекты обороны и безопасности.
   Австралия заключила соглашение и заключила дополнительные соглашения о создании Сил обороны Папуа-Новой Гвинеи и оказании им помощи, и ей было предоставлено в аренду около 135 военнослужащих. Она поставляла вооружение Филиппинам, Малайзии, Сингапуру, Таиланду, Индонезии и большинству малых островных государств Тихого океана в соответствии с рядом договоренностей.
   В июле 1977 года Вьетнам и Лаос подписали ряд соглашений, которые содержали военные положения и пограничный пакт, и, возможно, охватывали размещение вьетнамских войск в Лаосе. Аналогичная серия соглашений, как представляется, была заключена между Вьетнамом и режимом Хэн Самрина в Кампучии в феврале 1979 года и декабре 1982 года.
   Многосторонние договоры
   В 1951 году Австралия, Новая Зеландия и Соединенные Штаты подписали трехсторонний договор (ANZUS), который вступил в силу 29 апреля 1952 года и действует бессрочно. Каждый из них соглашается "действовать в ответ на общую опасность" в случае нападения либо на столичную, либо на островную территорию любого из них, либо на вооруженные силы, морские суда или воздушные суда в Тихом океане.
   Манильский пакт, подписанный 8 сентября 1954 года Австралией, Великобританией, Новой Зеландией, Пакистаном, Соединенными Штатами, Таиландом, Филиппинами и Францией, остается в силе, хотя впоследствии Франция и Пакистан вышли из него, а Организация Договора о Юго-Восточной Азии (SEATO), созданная для его осуществления, была распущена в 1977 году. Пакт призывает каждую из сторон принять меры для устранения общей угрозы, создаваемой вооруженной агрессией, и провести консультации, если какая-либо другая угроза угрожает территории, суверенитету или политической независимости любой из сторон. С 1962 года обязательства США перед Таиландом основываются на этом пакте.
   Ассоциация государств Юго-Восточной Азии (ASEAN), созданная в 1967 году Индонезией, Малайзией, Филиппинами, Сингапуром и Таиландом и к которой в 1984 году присоединился Бруней, призвана содействовать региональному экономическому развитию, а не военному сотрудничеству. Под рубрикой "содействие региональному миру и безопасности" она обеспокоена вьетнамским присутствием в Кампучии. Она оказывает политическую поддержку Кампучийским движениям сопротивления, однако поступающие сообщения о поставках оружия повстанцам считаются национальными инициативами, а не многосторонними.
   Соглашения об обороне пяти держав (Австралия, Малайзия, Новая Зеландия, Сингапур и Великобритания), касающиеся обороны Малайзии и Сингапура, вступили в силу 1 ноября 1971 года. В случае любого организованного извне или поддерживаемого вооруженного нападения или угрозы нападения на Малайзию или Сингапур пять правительств будут проводить совместные консультации с целью принятия решения о том, какие меры следует принять совместно или по отдельности. Великобритания с привлечением своих сил в марте 1976 года, но новозеландские войска остаются в Сингапуре, как и австралийские авиационные подразделения в Малайзии и Сингапуре, с небольшим армейским компонентом. Военно-морские силы Австралии и Новой Зеландии регулярно посещают Малайзию и Сингапур.
   Экономические факторы
   После исключительно низких темпов роста в 1982 году азиатские экономики хорошо восстановились в 1983 году. Среднеобластной рост реального ВНП/ВВП составил около 4%, по сравнению с 1-2%в 1982 году. Сингапур, две Кореи и Тайвань возглавили процесс восстановления, в то время как Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Индонезия и Филиппины продолжали стагнировать. В отличие от стран Латинской Америки и Африки, все азиатские страны смогли контролировать свои темпы инфляции, причем самые высокие показатели были на Филиппинах и Шри-Ланке (10% и 14% соответственно). Те же две страны, а также Южная Корея и Новая Зеландия также столкнулись с серьезными долговыми проблемами: соотношение долга Филиппин к ВНП превысило 70%, в то время как у трех других стран этот показатель находился в диапазоне 40-50%.
  
   AFGHANISTAN
Est population: 14-17,000,000 (including exiles).
Military service: conscription 15-55; 3 years+ non-combatants, 4 years).
Total armed forces: 46,000.*
   (*Actual strength suspect. Divs reported to average 2,500 (i.e. about quarter strength). Desertion is common.
   The Soviet High Command in Afghanistan effectively controls the Afghan forces;
   it is not possible to differentiate between Soviet and Afghan holdings of identical equipment.)
Est GDP 1981/2: Afs 121.44 bn ($2.40 bn).
Est def exp 1980: Afs 10.500 bn ($207,510 m). 1981: 16.500 bn (5326.087 m).
Est FMA: $ 300 m (1980/1).
Debt: $1.0 bn (1981). $1=afghanis 50.60 (1980/4).
Army: 40,000 (mostly conscripts).*
   3 corps HQ.
   11 inf divs.
   3 armd divs.
   2 mountain inf regts.
   1 arty bde with 3 arty regts.
   3 cdo regts.
   50 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100 T-62 MBT; 60 PT-76 lt tks; 40 BMP-1 MICV; 400 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152 APC;
   900 76mm, M-1944 100mm guns and M-30 122mm, D-1 152mm how; 82mm, 100 120mm 160mm mor; 50 BM-13-16 132mm MRL;
   SPG-9 73mm, 82mm RCL; 76mm, 100mm ATK guns; 350 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed, 20 ZSU-23-4 AA guns.
RESERVES: No viable reserve force identified; call-up from ex-servicemen, Youth League and regional tribes from age 20 to age 40.
Air Force: 6,000 (incl Air Defence Comd); perhaps 150 combat ac, some 20 armed hel.*
   12 FGA sqns: 4 with some 40 MiG-17, 3 with 35 with 12 Su-17 Fitter C.
   1 ocu with MiG-15/-17/-19/-21/-23UTI/U, Il-18U.
   2 attack hel sqns with some 20 Mi-24.
   4 tpt sqns: 1 VIP with 2 I1-18D, 4 An-24 Coke; 3 with some 10 An-2, 10-15 An-26.
   1 tpt hel regt (4 sqns) with some 12 Mi-4, up to 40 Mi-8.
   1 flying school with Yak-18, L-39C.
   1 AD div: 2 SAM bdes (each 3 bns) with 120 SA-2, 115 SA-3; 1 AA bde (2 bns) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns; 1 radar bde (3 bns).
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 30,000.
   Border Force.
   Ministry of Interior: Khad (secret police); Sarandoy 'Defence of the Revolution' forces, largely ex-military to age 55 org in provincial regts.
   Regional militias incl, 'Revolution Defence Groups' (Civil Defence), Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards, Khalqi Youth, tribal.
Opposition: Perhaps 90,000 guerrillas (possibly 20,000 intermittently active) supported by some 15 exile political groups (6 active).
   Eqpt: small arms, T-55 MBT; BMP MICV, BTR-60 APC; D-30 122mm how; AGS-17 30mm grenade launchers;
   2-in. (51mm), 60mm, M-41 82mm mor; RPG-7 RL; SPG-9, 3 75mm, 82mm RCL; 12.7mm, 14.5mm AA machine guns, ATK mines; some SA-7 SAM.
  
   AUSTRALIA
Population: 15,410,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 72,345.
GDP 1981/2: $A 155.170 bn ($US 171.458 bn). 1982/3: 169.880 bn ($US 159.422 bn).
Def exp 1982/3: $A 4.942 bn ($US 4.638 bn). 1983/4: 5.446 bn ($US 4.945 bn).
GDP growth: -2% (1982), 1.8% (1983).
Inflation: 10% (1982), 11% (1983).
   $US 1 = $A 0.9050 (1981/2), 1.0656 (1982/3), 1.1014 (1983/4).
Army: 32,680.
   1 inf div with 3 bdes of 2 inf bns.
   1 armd regt.
   2 cav regts.
   4 arty regts (1 med, 2 fd, 1 AD); 1 locating bty.
   1 fd engr, 1 construction, 1 fd survey regts.
   5 sigs regts.
   1 Special Air Service regt.
   3 tpt regts (one air support).
Army Aviation:
   1 regt (2 recce, 1 comd spt, 1 utility sqns).
   1 avn school + base workshop bn.
   103 Leopard 1A3 MBT; 790 M-113 APC, incl 63 MICV with 76mm gun (48 with Scorpion, 15 with Saladin turret);
   some 34 5.5-in. (140mm) guns (to late 1984); 227 105mm, some 6 M-198 155mm how; 51 M-40 106mm RCL; 12 Milan ATGW launchers;
   Redeye, 20 Rapier SAM launchers;
   15 Turbo-Porter, 11 Nomad ac; 47 Bell 206B-1 Kiowa hel;
   36 watercraft, 87 LARC-5 amph vehs.
   (On order: some 30 M-198 155mm how.)
RESERVES: 30,300 (with trg obligations); 2 inf div HQ, 4 bde HQ, 188 fd, spt, log and trg units; 1 cdo bn, 1 regional surveillance force.
Navy: 16,988 (incl Fleet Air Arm).
   6 Oxley (Oberon) submarines.
   3 Perth (US Adams) ASW msl destroyers with Standard SAM, 2 Ikara ASW.
   4 Adelaide (FFG-7) frigates with 1 Harpoon SSM, 1 Standard SAM, 2 hel (to get AS-350 hel, early 1985).
   6 River frigates with 1x4 Seacat SAM/SSM, 1 Ikara ASW.
   13 PCF-420 Freemantle, 8 Attack large patrol craft.
   1 mod Br Ton coastal minehunter.
   6 LCT (1 with Reserve).
   1 hy amph tpt ship; 1 destroyer tender with 1 Wessex hel; 2 trg ships (1 Daring destroyer, 1 ex-ocean ferry); 1 fleet tanker.
FLEET AIR ARM: (1,310); 8 combat hel.
   1 ASW hel sqn with 8 Sea King Mk 50.
   1 utility/SAR hel sqn with 10 Wessex 31B, 4 UH-1B, 4 Bell 206B, 6 AS-35OB Squirrel; 2 HS-748 EW ac (trg).
   1 trg sqn with 2 Wessex 31B hel.
(On order: 3 FFG-7 frigates, 2 PCF-420 large patrol craft, 2 MCM catamarans; Harpoon SSM, 2 Phalanx 20mm AA systems.)
Bases: Sydney, Melbourne, Jervis Bay, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Cockburn Sound.
RESERVES: 1,200 (with trg obligations); 5 patrol craft, 1 LCT.
Air Force: 22,677; 133 combat ac.
   2 FGA/recce sqns with 16 F-111C, 4 F-111A, 4 RF-111C.
   3 interceptor/FGA sqns with 58 Mirage IIIO/D.
   2 MR sqns: 1 with 6 P-3B Orion; 1 with 10 P-3C.
   1 ocu with 19 Mirage IIIO/D, 10 MB-326H.
   1 forward air controller fit: 6 CA-25 Winjeel.
   6 tpt sqns: 2 with 24 C-130E/H; 1 with 4 Boeing 707-338C (to be tanker ac); 1 with 4 CC-08 (C-7A Caribou) ac, 4 UH-1B hel;
   1 with 17 CC-08; 1 with 2 BAC-111, 2 HS-748, 3 Mystere 20.
   1 med tpt hel sqn with 8 CH-47 Chinook.
   2 utility hel sqns with 31 UH-1B/H Iroquois.
   Trainers incl 81 MB-326H (72 being uprated), 8 HS-748T2, 48 CT-4/4A Airtrainer.
   AAM: Sidewinder, R-530.
   (4 Chinook hel in reserve.)
(On order: 75 F/A-18 FGA/interceptor/trg, 10 P-3C MR, 69 A-10 Wamira trg ac; 18 AS-350 Ecureuil utility hel; R-550 Magic AAM; Harpoon ASM.)
RESERVES: 1,400 (with trg obligations) in 8 auxiliary sqns.
Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO): 110; 8 UH-1H hel. Malaysia/Singapore: 1 sqn with 20 Mirage IIIO, 1 fit with CC-08 ac.
   Papua New Guinea: 135; 2 engr units, 106 advisers.
   Indian Ocean: 1 destroyer, 2 patrol boats. Trg gps in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore.
Para-Military Forces: Bureau of Customs: 10 Searchmaster MR ac.
  
   BANGLADESH
Population: 96,500,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 81,300.
GDP 1981/2: Tk 264.990 bn ($13,223 bn). 1982/3: 285.070 bn ($11.999 bn).
Est def exp 1982/3: Tk 4.200 bn ($176,784 m). 1983/4: 4.600 bn ($184.0 m).
GDP growth: 1% (1982/3), 4% (1983/4)
Inflation: 10.0% (1982/3). 9.0% (1983/4).
Debt: 4.0 bn (1983).
   $1=taka 20.040 (1981/2), 23.7578 (1982/3), 25.0 (1983/4).
Army: 73,000.
   5 inf div HQ.
   12 inf bdes (32 inf bns).
   2 armd regts.
   9 arty regts.
   7 engr bns.
   20 Ch Type-59, 30 T-54/-55 MBT; 6 M-24 Chaffee lt tks;
   30 Model 56 pack, 50 M-101 105mm, 5 25-pdr (88mm), Type-54 122mm guns/how; 81mm, 50 Type-53 120mm mor;
   6-pdr (57mm), Ch Type-54 76mm ATK guns; 30 106mm RCL.*
Navy: 5,300.* (* Spares are short; some eqpt unserviceable.)
   3 Br frigates (1 Type 61, 2 Type 41).
   4 Ch Hoku FAC(G) with 2 HY-2 SSM.
   8 Ch Shanghai II FAC.
   4 large patrol craft (2 Yug Kraljevica, 2 Ind Akshay).
   1 Ch Hainan FAC(P).
   4 P-4 FAC(T) <.
   5 Shamjala FAC.
   5 Pabna river patrol boats <.
   1 trg ship.
Bases: Chittagong (HQ), Dacca, Khulna, Chalna.
Air Force: 3,000: 27 combat ac*
   2 FGA sqns with 17 Ch F-6.
   1 interceptor sqn with 8 MiG-21MF, 2 -21U.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 An-24, 3 An-26.
   1 hel sqn with 11 Bell 212,4 Mi-8, 1 Mi-4.
   Trainers incl 8 Magister, 16 Ch CJ-6.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
Para-Military Forces: 80,000: Bangladesh Rifles 30,000, Armed Police Reserve 36,000, Bangladesh Ansans (Security guards) 14,000.
  
   BRUNEI
Population: 210,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces 3,950. (All services form part of the Army.)
Est GDP 1981: $B 9.720 bn ($US 4.629 bn). 1982: 9.100 bn ($US 4.136 bn).
Est def exp 1982: $B 429 m ($US 195 m). 1983: 350 m ($US 162.791 m).
GDP growth: -12% (1982).
Inflation: 6% (1982), 4% (1983).
   $US 1 = $B 2.10 (1981), 2.20 (1982), 2.15 (1983).
Army: 3,500.
   2 inf bns (3rd forming).
   1 armd recce sqn.
   1 AD bty with Rapier.
   1 engr sqn.
   1 sigs sqn.
   16 Scorpion lt tks; 2 Sultan armd cars; 24 Sankey AT-104 APC; 16 81mm mor; 12 Rapier/Blindfire SAM.
Navy: (350).
   3 Waspada FAC(G) with 2 Exocet MM-38 SSM.
   3 Perwira coastal, 3 Rotork river patrol craft <.
   2 Loadmaster landing craft.
   24 assault boats.
   1 special boat sqn.
Base: Muara.
Air Force: (100); 6 combat ac.
   1 COIN sqn with 6 Saab 105CB.
   1 hel sqn with 10 Bell 212.
   1 composite sqn with 2 SF-260 ac, 3 Bell 206A/B hel.
   VIP fit: 1 BO-105, 1 Bell 212, 1 S-76 hel.
   Mischel: 2 Bell 212, 1 206A.
   (On order 1 AUH-76 (S-76) armed hel.)
Para-Military Forces: Royal Brunei Police elms (1,750); Gurkha Reserve Unit (900).
  
   BURMA
Population: 38,800,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 180,500.
GDP 1982/3: K 46.945 bn ($5,960 bn). 1983/4: 50.600 bn ($6.30 bn).
Est def exp 1982/3: K 1.650 bn ($209,487 m). 1983/4: 1.770 bn ($220,366 m).
GDP growth: 6.5% (1982), 7.0% (1983).
Inflation: 5.2% (1981), 5.0% (1982).
Debt: $1.6 bn (1981).
   $1=kyat 7.8764 (1982/3), 8.0321 (1983/4).
Army: 163,000.
   9 Regional commands, 1 garrison.
   3 Lt inf divs (under central control, each with 3
   Tactical Operational Comds = bdes; 10 bns). (3 more div HQ reported forming.)
   16 bdes (Tactical Operational Comds).
   2 armd bns.
   85 inf bns (incl in divs and bdes).
   4 arty bns.
   1 AA bty..
   24 Comet MBT; 40 Humber armd, 45 Ferret scout cars;
   50 25-pdr (88mm), 5.5-in. (140mm) guns/how; 120 76mm, 80 M-101 105mm how; 80 120mm mor;
   50 6-pdr (57mm) and 17-pdr (76.2mm) ATK guns; 84mm Carl Gustav RCL; 10 40mm AA guns.*
Navy: 10,000.* (* Spares are short; some equipment is unserviceable.)
   4 corvettes: 2 US (1 PCE-827, 1 Admirable), 2 Nawarat.
   36 gunboats (150-
   46 river patrol craft<
   1 US LCU, 8 US LCM, 1 spt vessel.
Baser. Bassein, Mergui, Moulmein, Seikyi, Sinmalaik, Sittwe.
Air Force: 7,500; 38 combat ac*
   2 COIN sqns with 16 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer, 16 SF-260WB, 6 AT-33A.
   3 tpt sqns: 1 F-27F, 5 FH-227, 7 Pilatus PC-6/-6A, 2 DHC-5D.
   Liaison fit: 6 Cessna 180, 1 Cessna 550.
   4 hel sqns: 10 KB-47G, 2 KV-107/II, 7 HH-43B, 10 Alouette III, 14 UH-1.
   Trainers incl 10 SF-260MB, 9 T-37C.
Para-Military Forces: 73,000. People's Police Force (38,000); People's Militia (35,000).
   Fishery Dept: 3 Osprey, 12 patrol boats").
Opposition:
   Burmese Communist Party: 12,000 regulars; 8,000 militia.
   Kayan New Land Party: perhaps 100.
   Karen National Liberation Army: some 7,500; 5 bdes, 3 indep bns.
   Shan State Army: some 3,500.
   Shan United Revolutionary Army: some 900-1,200.
   Shan United Army: 4,000.
   Palaung State Liberation Army: few hungred
   Pa-O National Army: few hungred
   Wa National Army: few hungred
   Kachin Independence Army: 8,000; 4 bdes.
   Karenni Army: perhaps 600; 4 'bdes'.
   Mon State Army: two groups: one some 500; other perhaps 200.
   Kawthoolei Muslim Liberation Front (Karen linked) absorbed OMMAT Liberation and Rohingya Patriotic Fronts.
  
   FIJI
Population: 680,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 2,660.
Est GDP 1981: $F 1.088 bn ($US 1.275 bn). 1982: 1.010 bn ($US 1.084 bn).
Est def exp 1982: $F 9.320 m ($US 10.0 m).
Debt: $US 300m (1983).
   $US 1= $F 0.8532 (1981), 0.932 (1982).
Army: 2,500.
   3 inf bns.
   1 engr coy.
   1 arty tp.
   Spt units.
   4 25-pdr (88mm) guns/how; 12 81mm mor.
Navy: 160.
   3 US Redwing coastal minesweepers.
   3 marine survey vessels.
Base: Suva.
Forces Abroad: 1,095; 2 inf bns. Lebanon (UNIFIL) (626); Egypt (Sinai MFO) (469).
  
   INDIA
Population: 743,300,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 1,120,000.
Est GDP 1982/3: Rs 1,665.0 bn ($172,924 bn). 1983/4: 1,815.0 bn ($176.0 bn).
Est def exp 1983/4: Rs 58.620 bn ($5,684 bn).
Def budget 1984/5: 68.0 bn ($6,326 bn).
GDP growth: 5.0% (1982), 2.0% (1983).
Inflation: 9.0% (1982), 7.0% (1983).
Debt: $23 bn (1982).
   $1=rupees 9.6285 (1982/3), 10.3123 (1983/4), 10.750 (1984).
Army: 960,000.
   5 Regional Commands.
   8 corps HQ.
   2 armd divs.
   1 mech div.
   18 inf divs.
   10 mountain divs.
   5 indep armd bdes.
   7 indep inf bdes.
   1 para bde.
   17 indep arty bdes, incl about 20 AD regts.
AFV: 700 T-54/-55, 300 T-72, 1,900 Vijayanta MBT, 250 BMP-1 MICV; 500 OT-62/-64, BTR-60 APC.
Arty. Yug M-48 76mm, 25-pdr (88mm) (retiring), 100 100mm, 200 105mm, 550 M-46 130mm (some SP), 5.5-in. (140mm) (retiring), S-23 180mm guns;
   75/24 75mm mountain, 105mm (incl M-56 pack, Abbot SP), D-20 152mm how; 81mm, 500 120mm, 20 160mm mor.
ATK: M-18 57mm, Carl Gustav 84mm, M-40 106mm RCL; 6-pdr (57mm) ATK guns; SS-11-B1, Milan, AT-3 Sagger ATGW.
AD: 20mm, 40mm, L/60mm, L/70mm, 500 3.7-in. (94mm) towed, ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-6/-7/-9, 40 Tigercat SAM.
(On order T-72M MBT, BRDM recce, BMP-1/-2/BMD MICV, Milan ATGW launchers, 3,700 msls.)
RESERVES: 200,000. Territorial Army 50,000.
Navy: 47,000, incl naval air force.
   8 Sov F-class submarines.
   1 Br Majestic aircraft carrier (capacity 18 attack, 4 ASW ac, ASW hel).
   1 Br Fiji cruiser (trg).
   3 Sov Kashin II GW destroyers with 4 Styx SSM, 2x2 SA-N-1 SAM, 1 Ka-25 hel.
   23 frigates: 2 Godavari with 2 Styx SSM, 1 SA-N-4 SAM, 2 Sea King hel; 6 Leander with 2x4 Seacat SAM, 1 hel; 2 Br Whitby with 3 Styx SSM;
   10 Sov Petya II; 3 Br Leopard (trg).
   3 Sov Nanuchka corvettes with 4 SS-N-2 SSM, 1 SA-N-4 SAM.
   8 Sov Osa-I (6 FAC(G), 2 FAC), 8 Osa-II with 4 Styx SSM.
   1 Abhay, 6 SDB-2 large patrol craft.
   6 Sov Natya ocean, 4 Br Ham minesweepers; 6 Sov Yevgenya inshore minehunters.
   6 Sov Polnocny LCT, 4 LCU.
(On order Sov T-class, 4 Type 1500 subs, 2 Kashin GW destroyers, 4 Godavari (mod Leander) FFG, 2 Nanuchka corvettes, 6 Polnocny LCT, Exocet SSM.)
Bases: Western Fleet: Bombay, Goa.
   Southern Fleet: Cochin.
   Eastern Fleet: Vishakapatnam, Port Blair.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (2,000); some 37 combat ac, 23 combat hel.
   1 attack sqn with 15 Sea Hawk FGA-6 (being retired), 8 Sea Harrier FRS Mk-51 (2 T-60 trg) (10 ac in carrier).
   1 ASW sqn with 5 Alize 1050 (4 in carrier).
   2 MR sqns with 4 L-1049 Super Constellation, 3 I1-38 May.
   1 comms sqn with 18 Defender (some MR).
   4 ASW hel sqns with 10 Sea King (carrier, frigates); 5 Ka-25 Hormone (in Kashins); 8 Alouette III (in frigates).
   1 SAR/liaison hel sqn with 10 Alouette III.
   2 trg sqns with 6 HJT-16 Kiran, 2 Sea Hawk FB-5 ac; 3 Alouette III, 4 Hughes 269 hel.
(On order: 10 Sea Harrier Mk 51, 1 T-60; 3 I1-38 MR ac; 12 Sea King Mk 42B hel; Sea Eagle SSM; Exocet AM-39 ASM.)
Air Force: 113,000; some 920 combat ac; some 60 armed hel.
   4 Air Commands.
   3 lt bbr sqns (1 maritime role): 35 Canberra B (I) 58/B (I) 12 (to be replaced); 18 Jaguar.
   15 FGA sqns: 1 with some 18 Hunter F-56A (Jaguar to replace); 3 with 50 Jaguar GR-1, 6 T-2; 2 with 36 Su-7BM;
   1 with 18 HF-24 Marut (MiG-23BN to replace); 4 with 72 MiG-23BN Flogger H; 4 with 72 Ajeet.
   21 AD sqns: 19 with 400 MiG-21/FL/PFMA/MF/bis; 2 with 45 MiG-23MF Flogger B.
   2 recce sqns: 1 with 8 Canberra PR-57, 4 HS-748; 1 with 12 MiG-25R, 1 MiG-25U.
   9 tpt sqns: 3 with 90 An-32; 2 with 30 An-12B; 2 with 20 DHC-3; 1 with 12 DHC-4; 1 with 9 HS-748M.
   1 HQ comms sqn with 7 HS-748M, 2 Boeing 737-248 (leased).
   Liaison fits and dets with 15 HS-748, C-47.
   6 tpt hel sqns with 72 Mi-8.
   8 liaison hel sqns with 100 SA-316B Chetak (Alouette III), some 60 SA-315B Cheetah (Lama); some with 4 AS-11B ATGW.
   Trg Comd: 3 trg and conversion sqns with 12 Canberra T-4/-13/-67, 30 Hunter F-56/T-66, 40 MiG-21U, 16 Su-7U; MiG-21, Su-7,
   13 MiG-23UM Flogger CL; 60 HT-2, 83 HJT-16 Kiran, 15 Marut Mk IT, some HPT-32 (replacing HT-2), 44 TS-11 Iskra, 27 HS-748 ac; Chetak hel.
   AAM: R-23R/T Apex, R-60 Aphid, R-550.
   ASM: AS-30; AS-11B (ATGW).
   30 SAM sqns with 180 Dvina V 750VK, SA-2, SA-3.
   Air Defence Ground Environment System.
(On order 36 Mirage 2000H, 4 TH, 115 Jaguar (to be locally assembled), some 100 MiG-27M Flogger D/J, MiG-21bis, 20 Ajeet ftrs; 6 An-32, Do-228,
   20 I1-76, 10 HS-748 tpts; 90 Kiran Mk 2, 140 HPT-32, 171 Hawk trg ac; Mi-8, Mi-24, 45 Chetak hel; R-23R Apex, R-60 Aphid AAM.)
Para-Military Forces: Border Security Force 85,000; 175,000 in other organizations.
   Coastguard 2,000: 2 Br Type 14 frigates, 2 FAC(P), 5 Poluchat large patrol craft, 2 air sqns with 2 F-27, 5 Defender ac, 4 Chetak hel.
   (On order 3 offshore, 9 inshore patrol vessels, 9 lt tpt ac, 6 hel.)
  
   INDONESIA
Population: 158,300,000.
Military service: selective.
Total armed forces: 281,000.
GDP 1982: Rp 59,633 bn ($88,458 bn). 1983: 72,111 bn ($73.331 bn).
Est def exp 1982/3: Rp 1,935 bn ($2,870 bn). 1983/4: 2,485 bn ($2,527 bn).
GDP growth: 0% (1982), 4.5% (1983).
Inflation: 10% (1982), 12% (1983).
Debt: $23.6 bn (1982).
   $1=rupiahs 674.14 (1982/3), 983.36 (1983/4).
Army: 210,000.
   4 Regional, 16 Military Area Commands.
   4 inf divs (each 2 bdes).
   1 armd cav bde (10 cav bns, spt units).
   2 indep inf bdes, 11 indep inf regts (39 inf bns).
   2 AB inf bdes (6 bns).
   2 fd arty regts (6 bns).
   1 AA arty regt (3 bns).
   4 special warfare gps.
   8 indep fd arty bns.
   7 indep AA arty bns; 4 indep btys.
   2 construction engr regts (4 bns); 4 indep bns.
   1 fd engr regt (2 bns); 6 indep bns; 10 indep dets.
   33 indep inf bns.
   4 indep AB inf bns.
   Marine transport.
   Army Aviation:
   1 composite sqn; 1 hel sqn.
AFV: 93 AMX-13, 41 PT-76 lt tks; 75 Saladin armd, 60 Ferret scout cars; 200 AMX-VCI MICV, 60 Saracen, 60 V-150 Commando, BTR-40/-152 APC.
Arty, some 30 M-1938 76mm pack, 170 105mm guns/how; 480 81/82mm, M-43 120mm mor; 480 M-67 90mm, M-40 106mm RCL.
AA: 20 20mm, 90 M-l 40mm, 200 57mm AA guns.
Avn: 5 NC-212 Aviocar, 2 Aero Commander 680, 1 Beech 18 ac; 6 Bell 205, 2 Alouette III, 16 BO-105 hel.
Amph: 1 LST, 20 LCU, 14 small tpt ships.
(On order 100 AMX-13 lt tks, 50 AMX L-30 105mm SP how; 2 NC-212-200 Aviocar ac; 6 Bell 212, 26 Super Puma hel.)
Navy: 42,000 incl naval air and marines.
   3 subs: 2 Type 209, 1 Sov PF-class (trg).
   9 frigates: 3 Fatahillah with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM (1 with 1 Wasp hel); 4 US Jones; 2 Sov Riga.
   14 large patrol craft: 3 Sov Kronshtadt, 4 Yug Kraljevica, 2 Kelabang, 3 Attack, 1 US PGM-39, 1 Komar.
   4 Dagger FAC(G) with 4 Exocet SSM.
   2 Lurssen TNC-45 FAC(T).
   6 Aus Carpentaria coastal patrol craft <.
   2 Sov T-43 ocean minesweepers.
   1 comd/spt ship; 1 trg ship with 4 Exocet, 1 hel.
   12 LST, 4 LCU, 2 control craft.
   Spt: 4 cargo ships, 4 tankers, 2 tpts.
(Plus non-operational incl: 1 Pattimura frigate; 1 Kronshtadt, 2 Kelabang, 2 PGM-39, 2 Attack patrol craft; 1 /?-class coastal minesweeper, 1 comd/spt ship.)
Bases: Jakarta (Tanjung Priok), Surabaya.
NAVAL AIR: (1,000); 17 combat ac, 10 combat hel.
   10 Wasp ASW hel.
   11 Nomad N-22B, 6 N-22L MR ac.
   Other ac incl 6 C-47, 3 Aero Commander ac; 1 Alouette II, 4 BO-105 hel.
MARINES: (12,000).
   2 inf regts (6 bns); 1 combat spt, 1 admin spt, 1 trg regts.
   30 PT-76 lt tks; 40 AMX-10 PAC-90 MICV; 57 APC incl 25 AMX-10P; 40 M-38 122mm how; 40mm AA guns.
(On order 1 T-209 sub, 3 Tribal frigates, 2 PB-57 FAC,* 2 minehunters, 4 jetfoil patrol boats*; 2 Nomad, 4 NC-212, 18 NC-235 tpt ac;
   26 AS-332F Super Puma hel.*) (* May be for Coastguard.)
Air Force: 29,000; 83 combat aircraft.
   6 Air Regions:
   2 FGA sqns with 30 A-4E, 4 TA-4H Skyhawk.
   1 interceptor sqn with 11 F-5E, 4 F-5F.
   1 COIN sqn with 15 OV-10F.
   1 MR sqn with 1 C-130H-MP, 3 Boeing 737-200, 5 HU-16.
   4 tpt sqns: 2 with 21 C-130B/H/HS, 1 L-100-30;
   2 with 1 C-140 Jetstar, 7 C-47, 1 SC-7 Skyvan, 8 F-27, 13 NC-212A4, 1 Boeing 707, 12 Cessna 207/401/402.
   3 hel sqns: 1 with 9 Sikorsky UH-34T; 2 with 5 Bell 204B, 12 47G, 9 SA-330L Puma, 6 SA-332 Super Puma, 1 SA-332L (VIP), 12 Hughes 500;
   6 NBO-105 (with forestry).
   3 trg sqns: 13 Hawk T-53, 15 T-34C1 (ocu), 7 Cessna T-41D, 20 AS-202 Bravo.
   5 bns Quick Reaction Tps.
   (On order 8 NC-212-200, 32 NC-235 tpt, 9 T-34C1, 3 Hawk trg ac; (N) BO-105, SA-332 Super Puma Bell U-4I2, BK-117 hel.)
Other HQ:
   National Strategic Command: HQ only; to command Strategic Reserve forces in strategic operations.
   Incl army, KOSTRAD, naval forces incl marines, combat and tpt ac.
KOSTRAD = Strategic Reserve Command: army command (16,500-19,000 men) under direct control of the Commander of the Armed Forces: 3 inf, 2 A Bbdes, spt arms and services.
KOPKAMTIB = Command for the Restoration of Order and Security: no forces assigned.
KOPPASSANDHA = Special Forces Command: 4,000; 4 special para/cdo gps.
Para-Military Forces: Police mobile bde* org in coys: 12,000; 2 BO-105 hel. Militia, about 70,000. Coastguard: many small patrol boats.
   Customs: 12 28-metre, 8 57-metre Lurssen patrol boats. Civil Defence Force (millions registered).
   (*Part of Department of Defence and Security.)
  
   JAPAN
Population: 120,800,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 245,000 (ceiling 272,162).
Est GDP 1982: yen 264,707 bn ($1,060.5 bn). 1983: 279.500 bn ($1,178.9 bn).
Def budget: 1983/4: yen 2,754.2 bn ($11.617 bn). 1984/5: 2,934.600 ($12,488 bn).
GDP growth: 3.3% (1982), 3.0% (1983).
Inflation: 3% (1982), 3.5% (1983).
Debt: $114.1 bn (1982).
   $1=yen 249.607 (1982/3), 237.085 (1983/4), 235.000 (mid-1984).
Army: 155,000.
   5 Army HQ (Regional Commands).
   1 armd div.
   12 inf divs (5 at 7,000, 7 at 9,000 men each).
   2 composite bdes.
   1 AB bde.
   1 arty bde, 2 arty gps; 8 SAM gps (each of 4 btys).
   1 sigs bde.
   5 engr bdes.
   Army Aviation:
   1 hel bde: 24 sqns.
AFV: some 550 Type 61 (retiring), some 470 Type 74 (increasing) MBT; 430 Type 60, 120 Type 73 APC.
Arty. 354 105mm (incl some 20 Type 74), some 370 155mm SP (incl 166 Type 75), 70 203mm (incl 10 SP) guns/how;
   50 Type 30 SSM; 800 81mm, 560 107mm mor (some SP); 50 Type 75 130mm SP MRL.
ATK: 1,600 75mm, Carl Gustav 84mm, 106mm (incl Type 60 SP) RCL; 228 Type 64, 25 Type 79 ATGW.
AD: 110 35mm twin, 37mm, 40mm (incl M-42 SP), 75mm AA guns; 10 Type 81 Tan, 100 HAWK, 100 Improved HAWK SAM.
Avn: 33 ac and 354 hel: 21 LR-1, 2 TL-1, 9 L-19 ac; 2 AH-1S, 58 KV-107, 80 UH-1H, 65 UH-1B, 20 TH-55, 147 OH-6J/D hel.
(On order 72 Type 74 MBT; 9 Type 73 APC; 24 Type 75 155mm, 24 M-110A2 203mm SP how; 8 Type 75 130mm MRL; Type 79 hy ATGW; 224 84mm RCL;
   70 Stinger, 7 Type 81 Tan launchers, 48 Improved HAWK SAM; 3 OH-6D, 7 HU-1H hel.)
RESERVES: 43,000.
Navy: 44,000 (including naval air).
14 submarines: 5 Yushio, 1 Uzushio, 2 Asashio.
32 destroyers:
   2 Shirane with Sea Sparrow SAM, 1x8 ASROC ASW msl launcher,
   3 ASW hel; 2 Haruna with 1x8 ASROC, 3 ASW hel;
   5 Hatsuyuki with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1 Sea Sparrow; 1x8 ASROC, 1 ASW hel;
   3 Tachikaze with Tartar/Standard SAM, 1x8 ASROC;
   1 Amatsukaze with 1 Standard SAM, 1x8 ASROC;
   4 Takatsuki with 1x8 ASROC; 6 Yamagumo with 1x8 ASROC;
   3 Minegumo with 1x8 ASROC; 2 Akizuki;
   1 Murasame;
   3 Ayanami.
18 frigates: 3 with 2x4 Harpoon SSM (2 Yubari, 1 Ishikari), 11 Chikugo with 1x8 ASROC; 4 Isuzu.
4 large patrol craft: 2 Mizutori, 2 Umitaka.
5 FAC(T).
9 coastal patrol craft <.
3 MCM spt ships, 30 coastal minesweepers (11 Hatsushima, 19 Takami), 6 Nanago MCM boats.
1 Katori, 2 Ayanami trg, 8 trg/spt ships incl 1 Azuma, 2 Harukaze.
6 LST (3 Miura, 3 Atsumi); 2 LSU.
Bases: Yokosuka, Kure, Sasebo, Maizuru, Ominato.
NAVAL AIR ARM: (12,000); 81 combat ac, 63 combat hel.
   6 Air Wings.
   7 MR sqns with 9 P-3C, 58 P-2J, 14 PS-1.
   6 ASW hel sqns with 56 HSS-2/2A.
   1 MCM hel sqn with 7 KV-107.
   1 tpt sqn with 4 YS-11M, 1 B-65.
   1 utility sqn with 3 UP-2J.
   1 test sqn with 4 P-3C, 2 P-2J ac; 2 HSS-2A hel.
   7 SAR fits with 8 US-1 ac, 13 S-61A/2 hel.
   5 trg sqns incl ocu with 19 P-2J, 6 YS-1 IT, 18 TC-90, 7 B-65, 32 KM-2 ac; 11 HSS-2, 3 OH-6J/D, 4 Bell 47G hel.
(On order: 3 Yushio subs; 2 Type 171 DDG, 8 Hatsuyuki DDG; 4 Hatsushima MCM; 1 supply ship; 19 P-3C, 2 TC-90 ac; 13 HSS-2B,
   1 SH-60B Seahawk ASW, 10 H-6D, 1 US-1A hel.)
RESERVES: 600.
Air Force: 46,000; some 270 combat ac.
   6 combat air wings; 1 combat air gp; 1 recce sqn.
   3 FGA sqns with 50 F-1.
   10 interceptor sqns: 2 with some 40 F-15J/DJ (2 more forming); 6 with 110 F-4EJ; 2 with 50 F-104J.
   1 recce sqn with 14 RF-4EJ: early warning gp with 4 E-2C.
   1 aggressor trg sqn with 5 T-2, 6 T-33.
   1 tactical tpt wing of 3 sqns with 25 C-1, 10 YS-11.
   1 SAR wing (10 dets) with MU-2 ac, 29 V-107 hel.
   1 air test wing with F-4EJ, F-15J, F-104J/DJ, 2 T-l, 6 T-2, 2 T-3, T-33A, C-1, 4 C-130H.
   1 air traffic control and weather wing with YS-11, MU-2J, T-33A.
   5 trg wings: 10 sqns with 40 T-1A/B, 59 T-2, 40 T-3, 50 T-33A.
   AAM: Sparrow, Falcon, Sidewinder.
Air Defence:
   3 aircraft control and warning wings and 1 group with 28 radar sites.
   6 SAM gps: 19 sqns with 180 Nike-J.
(On order 53 F-15J-/DJ, 6 F-l fighters, 2 C-130H tpt, 8 T-2 trg, 42 E-2C AEW ac; 1 V-107 hel; 4 Type 81 Tan SAM launchers.)
Para-Military Forces: Coast Guard: 42 large patrol vessels, 5 with 1 hel; 47 med, 19 small, 220 coastal patrol vessels (2040; 1 C-130HMP, 5 YS-11, 2 Skyvan, 2 King Air ac, 5 Bell 212 hel.
   (On order. 1 large, 2 med, 1 coastal patrol craft.)
  
   KAMPUCHEA/CAMBODIA
   (* No reliable data since April 1975 available.)
Est population: 6-7 million.
Military service: conscription, 18 months minimum.
Total armed forces: some 30,000.
Armed Forces: some 30,000.
   4 inf divs.
   3 indep inf bdes.
   Some 50 indep units incl cav (recce), arty, AD, pioneer.
   T-54/-55 MBT; PT-76 lt tks; V-100, M-113, BTR-40/-60/-152 APC; M-1942 76mm, M-1938 122mm how;
   Type-63 107mm, BM-13-16 132mm, BM-14-16 140mm MRL; 82mm, 120mm mor, B-10 82mm, B-11 107mm RCL;
   M-1938 37mm, M-1950 57mm AA guns.
   (On order tks, arty, ships, ac, Mi-8 hel reported; details unknown.)
   Provincial Forces: HQ; bn, coy district and sub district units.
Para-Military Forces: Militia; Regional Armed Forces/Self Defence forces (org in coys); People's Police force.
Opposition: Coalition of Democratic Kampuchea: Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge), some 35,000 org in bdes and bns;
   Kampuchean People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF), some 13,000 (plus perhaps 7,000 unarmed reserves), small arms, incl mor, RCL;
   Annie Nationals Sihanoukienne (ANS), perhaps 5,000. Though formally merged, the three forces appear to operate independently.
  
   KOREA: DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (NORTH)
Population: 19,600,000.
Military service: Army, Navy 5 years; Air Force 3-4 years.
Total armed forces: 784,500.
Est GNP 1983: won 36.0 bn ($19,149 bn).
Def budget 1983: won 3.602 bn ($1,916 bn). 1984: 3.831 bn ($2,038 bn).* (*South Korean sources estimate that North Korea spent $3,250 bn on defence in 1982.)
GNP growth: 9.6% (1982), 7.3% (1983).
Inflation: 5% (1982).
Est debt: $3.0 bn (1982).
   $1=won 0.94 (1983/4 off.), 1.88 (adj.).
Army: 700,000.
   9 corps HQ.
   2 armd divs.
   3 mot inf divs.
   34 inf divs.
   2 AA divs, 3 indep AA regts.
   5 indep tk bdes.
   9 indep inf bdes (5-8 bns; up to 8,500 men).
   2 indep tk regts.
   2 hy arty, 2 mor regs, 120 arty bns, 120 arty bns: org in divs, bdes and regts 6 SSM bns with 54 FROG.
   5 river crossing regts (13 bns).
AFV: 300 T-34, 2,200 T-54/-55/-62, 175 Type-59 MBT; 100 PT-76, 50 Type-62 lt tks;
   140 BA-64 armd cars; BMP-1 MICV; 1,000 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, Type-531 APC.
Arty. 3,300 76mm, 85mm, 100mm, M-30 122mm, M-46 130mm and S-23 180mm towed guns; 800 SU-76 and SU-100 SP guns; 122mm, 152mm how;
   11,000 82mm, 120mm, 160mm and 240mm mor, 2,000 107mm, 122mm, 140mm, 200mm and 240mm MRL; 54 FROGS/-! SSM.
ATK: 1,500 B-10 82mm and B-ll 107mm RCL; 45mm, 57mm, Type-52 75mm ATK guns; AT-3 Sagger ATGW.
AD: 8,000 23mm, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm towed, ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SA-7 SAM.
RESERVES: 260,000, 23 divs (cadre, no hy eqpt). Up to 3,000,000 have some Reserve commitment.
Navy: 33,500'.
   21 subs (4 Sov W-, 4 Ch /(-class, 13 local-built).
   4 Najin frigates (2 may be in reserve).
   24 FAC(G): 4 Soju, 10 Osa-I (4 Styx SSM); 10 Komar (2 Styx SSM)<.
   33 large patrol craft: 2 Sov Tral, 15 SO-1, 3 Sariwan, 6 Ch Hainan, 7 Taechong.
   155 FAC: 20 Sov MO-IV<; 23 Ch (15 Shanghai II, 8 Shantou<), 4 Chodo, 4 K-48, 66 Chaho<, 38 Chong-Jin <.
   182 FAC(T): 80 Sov (4 Shershen, 64 P-6<, 12 P-40; 102< (9 Sinpo, 15 Iwon, 6 An Ju, 72 Ku Song/Sin Hung).
   30 coastal patrol craft< (10 Sov KM-4, 20 misc gunboats).
   3 Nantze LSM, 9 LCU, 15 LCM, 80 Nampo landing craft<
   2 coast defence msl regts with Samlet in 6 sites; M-1931/-37 122mm, SM-4-1 130mm, M-1937 152mm guns.
RESERVES: 40,000.
Baser. East Coast: Wonsan, Cha-ho, Chongjin, Kimchaek, Toejo. West Coast: Nampo, Haeju, Pipaqwan, Sagwan-ri.
Air Force: 51,000; some 740 combat ac.
   3 lt bbr sqns with 70 I1-28.
   13 FGA sqns: 1 with 20 Su-7; 9 with some 290 MiG-15/-17; 3 with some 100 MiG-19/Q-5.
   12 interceptor sqns with 160 MiG-21, some 100 MiG-19.
   Tpts incl 250 An-2, 10 An-24, 5 I1-14, 4 I1-18, 2 Tu-154B, 1 I1-62.
   Hel incl 40 Mi-4, 20 Mi-8.
   Trainers incl 20 Yak-11, 70 Yak-18, 100 MiG-15UTI/-19UTI/-21U, I1-28, 30 CJ-6.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
   4 SAM bdes (12 bns, 40 btys) with 250 SA-2, in 45 sites.
Forces Abroad: Iran 300; Madagascar 100; Uganda 40.
Para-Military Forces: Bureau of Reconnaissance Special forces (100,000): 1 HQ: 22 regts; 4 recce, 3 cdo, 1 river crossing regts; 5 AB, 3 amph bns.
   Security forces and border guards: 38,000.
   Workers-Farmers Youth Red Guard (civilian militia) 4,000,000: HQ (corps equivalent) in each of 9 Provinces and 3 towns.
   Bde HQ in towns; bns, coy/pl at village, farm, factory etc., some with small arms, some AA arty.
  
   KOREA: REPUBLIC OF KOREA (SOUTH)
Population: 41,600,000.
Military service: Army and Marines 30 months, Navy and Air Force 3 years.
Total armed forces: 622,000.
GDP 1982: won 52,878 bn ($72,324 bn). 1983: 59,455 bn ($76,642 bn).
Est def exp 1983: won 3,419 bn ($4,407 bn). 1984: 3,452 bn ($4,315 bn).* (* Excl 1982-6 plans to purchase some $3.5 bn worth of new equipment from the US.)
GDP growth: 7% (1982), 9.3% (1983).
Inflation: 7.2% (1982), 3.4% (1983).
Debt: $37 bn (1982).
   $1=won 731.13 (1982), 775.75 (1983), 800 (mid-1984).
Army: 540,000.
   3 Army, 6 Corps HQ.
   2 mech inf divs (each 3 bdes: 3 mech inf, 3 mot, 3 tk, 1 recce bns; 1 fd arty bde).
   20 inf divs (each 3 inf regts, 1 recce, 1 tk, 1 engr bn, arty gp).
   11 indep bdes incl 3 AB (4 AB, 1 recce, 1 hel bns, arty gp), 2 special forces, cdo, inf, 'Capital Command'.
   2 AA arty bdes.
   2 SSM bns with Honest John.
   2 SAM bdes: 3 HAWK, 2 Nike Hercules bns.
   1 army aviation bde.
AFV: 1,200 M-47/-48 (incl 600 A5) MBT; 500 M-113/-577, 350 Fiat 6614 APC
Arty. 2,500 M-53 155mm, M-107 175mm SP guns and M-101 105mm, M-114 towed, 100 M-109A2 SP 155mm, M-115 towed, 20 M-110 SP 203mm how;
   130mm MRL; 5,300 81mm and 107mm mor; 12 Honest John SSM.
ATK: 8 M-l8 76mm, 50 M-36 90mm ATK guns; LAW RL; 57mm, 75mm, 106mm RCL; TOW ATGW.
AD: 66 Vulcan 20mm, 40 40mm AA guns; 110 HAWK, 100 Nike HerculesSAM.
Avn: 14 O-2A ac; 100 UH-1B, Hughes 500MD Defender (50 with TOW), 100 OH-6A, 100 Scout hel.
   (On order. TOW ATGW; Stinger, 56 OH-6A, 20 Hughes 500MD/TOW hel).
RESERVES: Regular Army Reserves 1,400,000: 23 inf divs (cadre). Homeland Reserve Defence Force 3,300,000.
Navy: 49,000 incl marines.
   11 US destroyers: 7 Gearing with 8 HarpoonSSM (2 with 1 Alouette III hel), 2 Sumner, 2 Fletcher.
   8 frigates: 1 Ulsan with 8 Harpoon; 7 US (1 Rudderow, 6 Lawrence/Crosley).
   3 US Auk corvettes.
   11 US large patrol craft with Standard SAM (8 PSMM-5 with 4, 1 Asheville with 2).
   12 other large patrol craft incl 8 US Cape.
   2 Kist FAC(G) with 2 Exocet.
   6 CPIC FAC(P).
   4 coastal patrol crafK incl 2 Schoolboy I/II.
   8 MSC-268/-294 coastal minesweepers, 1 minesweeping boat<.
   33 US landing ships (8 LST, 9 LSM, 6 LCU, 10 LCM).
   2 ASW sqns: 1 with 22 S-2A/F ac; 1 with 10 Hughes 500MD hel; 12 Alouette III hel fits.
Bases: Chinhae (HQ),Cheju, Inchon, Mokpo, Mukho, Pukpyong, Pohang, Pusan.
RESERVES: 25,000.
Marines: (20,000).
   2 divs, 1 bde.
   M-47 MBT; LVTP-7 APC.
   (On order 1 sub, 7 CKX corvettes, 20 FAC(G) (7 types), 75 Harpoon SSM; 40 LVTP-7).
RESERVES: 60,000.
Air Force: 33,000; some 440 combat ac.
   7 combat, 2 tpt wings.
   18 FGA sqns: 14 with 260 F-5A/B/E/F; 4 with 70 F-86F.
   4 AD sqns with 72 F-4D/E.
   1 COIN sqn with 24 OV-10G, some A-37.
   1 recce sqn with 10 RF-5A.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 6 UH-1H, 20 UH-1B/H.
   5 tpt sqns with 10 C-54, 16 C-123J/K, 2 HS-748, 6 C-130H, Aero Commander.
   Trainers incl: 20 T-28D, 33 T-33A, 39 T-37C, 20 T-41D, 35 F-5B, 63 F-5F.
   AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.
   (On order 30 F-16A, 6 F-16B, 36 F-5E, 30 F-5F ftr, 25 T-27 Tucano trg ac; Maverick ASM.)
RESERVES: 55,000.
Para-Military Forces: Civilian Defence Corps (to age 50) 4,400,000; Student Homeland Defence Corps (Schools) 1,820,000.
   Coastguard: 25 small craft, 9 Hughes 500D hel.
  
   LAOS
Est population: 4,000,000.
Military service: conscription, 18 months minimum.
Total armed forces: 53,700.
Est GNP 1980: k 4 bn ($400 m).
Est def exp 1981: k 260 m ($26 m).* (*Data unreliable.)
Est FMA: $ 100 m (1982).
   $1= kip 10 (1980/81, off.).
Army: 50,000.
   4 inf divs.
   1 arty div.
   7 indep inf regts.
   1 engr regt.
   2 construction regts, indep construction bns.
   5 arty, 9 AA arty bns.
   65 indep inf coys.
   1 lt ac liaison fit.
   30 T-34/-54/-55 MBT; 25 PT-76 lt tks; 8 BTR-40, 40 BTR-152, M-113 APC;
   80 M-116 75mm, M-1942 76mm, M-101 105mm, D-30 122mm, M-114 155mm how; 81mm, 82mm, 107mm (4.2-in.) mor; M-18/A1 57mm, 107mm RCL;
   M-1939 37mm, M-1950 57mm AA guns.
Navy: 1,700.
   6 river patrol craft, incl Sov Shmel.
   (Perhaps 25 more vessels, incl 4 LCM, 7 tpts< in reserve).
Air Force: 2,000; 20 combat ac.
   3 FGA sqns with some 20 MiG-21.
   1 tpt sqn with 2 Yak-40, 5 An-24, 2 An-26, 6 An-2.
   1 hel sqn with 10 Mi-8, 2 Mi-6, Mi-4.
   Trg: MiG-17/-21UTI.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
Para-Military Forces: Militia, Self-Defence forces.
  
   MALAYSIA
Population: 15,850,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 124,500.
GDP 1982: $R 61.196 bn ($US 26.204 bn). 1983: 67.480 bn ($US 29.070 bn).
Def exp 1982: $R 4.978 bn ($US 2.144 bn). 1983: 5.480 bn ($US 2.361 bn). Budget 1984: 5.0 bn ($US 2.170 bn). (All figures include internal security budget.)
GDP growth: 4.2% (1982), 5.5% (1983).
Inflation: 5.8% (1982), 3.7% (1983).
Debt: $US 9.5 bn (1982).
   $1=ringgits 2.3354 (1982), 2.3213 (1983), 2.3044 (mid-1984).
Army: 100,500.
   1 corps, 4 div HQ.
   12 inf bdes, consisting of 36 inf bns (1 APC), 4
   cav, 4 fd arty, 1 AA arty, 5 sigs regts; administrative units.
   1 Special Service bde gp.
   25 Scorpion lt tks; some 46 SIBMAS, 140 AML armd, 93 Ferret scout cars; AT-105, 200 V-100/-150 Commando, some 10 Stormer,
   some 320 Condor APC; 12 5.5-in. (140mm) guns, 114 Model 56 105mm pack how; 81mm mor;
   M-20 89mm RL; 150 106mm, 5 120mm RCL; SS-11 ATGW; 70 12.7mm, 25 40mm AA guns.
   (On order some 25 Scorpion lt tks; 'some 138 SIBMAS AFV, some 10 Stormer, some 140 Condor APC (being delivered).)
RESERVES: Malaysian Territorial Army 45,000; Local Defence Corps, some 15,000.
Navy: 11,000 (being expanded).
   2 frigates: 1 Yarrow (1x4 Seacat SAM); 1 Type 41.
   8 FAC(G) with 4 or 2 Exocet MM-38 SSM: 4 Handalan (Spica-M), 4 Perdana.
   6 Jerong FAC.
   21 large patrol craft: 3 Kedah, 4 Sabah, 14 Kris.
   2 Br Ton coastal minesweepers.
   2 US 5I1-1152 LST, 29 small amph vessels.
   1 spt, 1 fleet ammunition ship.
   (On order 2 FS-1500 frigates with Exocet, 2 1,300-ton patrol vessels, 4 Spica-M FAC(G)
   (Exocet MM-40), 4 Lerici minehunters, 2 LST.)
Bases: Woodlands (Singapore; trg base), Kuantan, Labuan, Lumut.
RESERVES: about 600.
Air Force: 13,000 (being expanded); 34 combat ac.
   2 Air Regions, (5 bns), 1 Spt Command.
   1 FGA sqn with 13 F-5E, 4 F-5F, 2 RF-5E.
   2 coin/trg sqns with 12 MB-339.
   1 MR sqn with 3 PC-130H..
   3 tpt, 1 liaison sqns: 1 with 6 C-130H; 2 with 14 DHC-4A; 1 with 2 HS-125, 2 F-28, 12 Cessna 402B.
   2 tpt hel sqns with 36 S-61A-4; 2 liaison sqns with 24 SA-316B Alouette III.
   3 trg schools: with 11 Bulldog 102, 40 PC-7 ac; 7 Bell 47, 2 Alouette hel.
   AAM: Sidewinder.
   (On order 34 A-4S FGA, 6 TA-4 trg (plus 20 more for spares), 4 NC-212 Aviocar tpt ac; Super Sidewinder AAM.)
RESERVES: 600: 10 CL-41G6 Tebuan trg ac.
Para-Military Forces: Police Field Force 12,000;
   21 bns (incl 2 Aboriginal), Shorland armd cars and SB-301 APC, 210 patrol boats<; 4 Cessna 206.
   Area Security Units (Home Guard): 3,100 men in 89 units;
   Border Scouts (in Sabah, Sarawak): 1,200.
   People's Volunteer Corps (RELA), over 350,000.
  
   MONGOLIA
Population: 1,800,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 36,500.
Est def exp 1983: tugriks 816.4 m ($247,394 m).
Budget 1984: 763.8 m ($231,455 m).
Est FMA: $600 m (1982).
   $1=tugrik 3.30 (1983/4, off.).
Army: 33,000.
   2 inf divs.
   1 inf bde (may be forming a div).
   T-54/-55/-62 MBT; BRDM-2 recce; BMP MICV; 70 BTR-60/-152 APC;
   ZIS-3 76mm, 100mm incl SU-100 SP, 122mm, 130mm guns; M-1937 152mm gun/how; 152mm how; Snapper ATGW; 37mm, 57mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 40,000.
Air Force: 3,500 (100 pilots); Soviet technicians;
   12 combat ac. (Operates civil air line.)
   1 ftr sqn with 12 MiG-21.
   At least 2 tpt sqns with 20 An-2, 19 An-24, 1 An-26.
   1 hel sqn with Mi-8, 10 Mi-4.
   Trainers: Yak-11/-18, 3 PZL-104 Wilga utility.
Para-Military Forces: Ministry of Public
   Security (15,000): Militia (Police), internal security troops, frontier guards; BTR-40/-152.
  
   NEPAL
Population: 16,100,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 25,000.
GDP 1981/2: NR 30.539 bn ($2,361 bn). 1982/3: 33.929 bn ($2,459 bn).
Def budget 1983/4: NR 464 m ($30,386 m).
GDP growth: 4% (1982), -1.3% (1983).
Inflation: 13% (1982),14% (1983).
   $1=rupees 12.936 (1981/2), 13.796 (1982/3), 15.270 (1983/4).
Army: 25,000.
   6 inf bdes (1 Palace garrison bn).
   1 arty bn.
   1 engr bn.
   Guard incl 1 cav sqn, 1 garrison bn.
   1 para bn.
   1 tpt bn.
   1 air sqn (1 comms fit, 1 Army fit).
   6 75mm pack, 4 3.7-in. (94mm) mountain how; 15 4.2-in. (107mm), 18 120mm mor; 2 40mm AA guns;
   3 Skyvan, 1 HS-748 ac; 4 Chetak (Alouette III), 2 Puma hel.
Para-Military Forces: Police force 15,000.
  
   NEW ZEALAND
Population: 3,300,000.
Military service: voluntary, supplemented by Territorial Army service: 7 weeks basic, 20 days per year.
Total armed forces: 12,692.
GDP 1982/3: $NZ 31.235 bn ($US 22.783 bn). Est 1983/4: 33.0 bn ($US 21.682 bn).
Def exp 1982/3: $NZ 652.10 m ($US 475.638 m).
Budget 1983/4: 715.32 m ($US 469.987 m).
GDP growth: 3.2% (1982), 0% (1983).
Inflation: 15.8% (1982), 12.6% (1983).
Debt: $US 10.2 bn (1982).
FMA: $US 0.51 m (1982/3), $US 0.55 m (1983/4).* (* Defence Mutual Assistance Programme,)
   $US 1=$NZ 1.3710 (1982/3), 1.5221 (1983/4).
Army: 5,548.
   2 inf bns.
   1 arty bty.
   1 lt armd sqn.
   26 Scorpion lt tks; 72 M-113 APC; 10 5.5-in. (140mm) guns; 41 105mm (incl pack) how; 71 81mm mor; 22 106mm RCL.
RESERVES: 1,410 Regular, 6,288 Territorial. 6
   Territorial inf bns, 4 fd, 1 med arty btys, 1 recce, 1 APC, 1 ATK sqns.
Navy: 2,827.
   4 Leander frigates: with 1 Wasp hel, Seacat SAM:
   1 with 1x4 SAM; 2 with 2x4; 1 with 2x4, Ikara ASW.
   4 Lake patrol craft.
   2 inshore patrol craft.
   7 Wasp hel.
Base. Auckland.
RESERVES: 708 Regular, 400 Territorial.
Air Force: 4,317; 33 combat ac.
   1 FGA sqn with 9 A-4K, 3 TA-4K Skyhawk.
   1 OCU with 16 BAC-167 Strikemaster.
   1 MR sqn with 5 P-3B Orion.
   2 med tpt sqns with 5 C-130H, 6 Andover (to retire), 2 Boeing 727-100C.
   1 tpt hel sqn with 6 Sioux, 11 UH-1D/H.
   1 comms sqn with 4 Andover, 3 Cessna 421C.
   Trainers: 4 Airtourer, 15 CT-4 Airtrainer, 3 F-27 Friendship ac; 3 Sioux hel.
RESERVES: 866 Regular, 201 Territorial.
Forces Abroad: Singapore: 1 inf bn with log spt; 1 spt hel unit (3 UH-1). Egypt (Sinai MFO): 35; 2 UH-1 hel.
  
   PAKISTAN
Population: 92,450,000 (excl Afghan refugees).
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 478,600.
GDP 1982/3: Rs 366.15 bn ($28,831 bn). Est 1983/4: 415.41 bn ($30,859 bn).
Def exp 1982/3: Rs 23.224 bn ($1,829 bn). Est 1983/4: 25.219 bn ($1,873 bn).
GDP growth: 6.6% (1982), 4.5% (1983).
Inflation: 12% (1982), 9.0% (1983).
FMA: $1.6 bn (1983). (FMA commitment 1983/7.)
Debt: $10.4 bn (1983).
   $1=rupees 12.6998 (1982/3), 13.4616 (1983/4).
Army: 450,000.
   7 Corps HQ; 1 Territorial Command.
   2 armd divs.
   16 inf divs.
   4 indep armd bdes.
   5 indep inf bdes.
   7 arty bdes.
   2 AA arty bdes.
   6 armd recce regts.
   6 SAM btys with 6 Crotale (each 4 msls).
   1 special services group.
AFV: 370 M-47/-48 (incl A5), 51 T-54/-55, 1,000 Type-59 MBT; 500 M-113, 50 UR-416 APC.
Arty, some 1,000 25-pdr (88mm), Type-59 100mm, 130mm, 5.5-in. (140mm) and 155mm guns and M-116 75mm pack, 105mm incl pack,
   12 M-7 SP, 155mm towed, M-109 SP, M-115 203mm how; 122mm MRL; 107mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: 75mm, 3.5-in. (89mm) RL; Type 52 75mm, 106mm RCL; Cobra, 200 TOW ATGW.
AD: 14.5mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm AA guns; 6 Crotale SAM.
Aviation: 1 liaison sqn with 20 Supporter ac.
   4 hel sqns.
   Indep army observation fits.
   45 O-1E, Cessna 421, 50 Mashshaq (Saab Safari), Turbo Commander, Queen Air ac;
   some 15 Bell AH-1S, 16 Mi-8, 35 Puma, 23 Alouette III, 13 Bell 47G hel.
(On order: M-113 APC; 75 M-198 towed, 100 M-109A2 SP 155mm, 40 M-110 SP 203mm how;
   TOW ATGW launchers (incl 24 M-901 Improved TOW SP, 1,000 msls); some
   5 AH-IS hel; 144 RBS-70 SAM launchers, 400 msls.)
RESERVES: 500,000.
Navy: 11,000.
   11 subs: 2 Agosta, 4 Daphne, 5 SX-404 midget.
   8 destroyers: 1 Br County, 2x4 Seacat SAM, 1 Alouette hel; 6 US Gearing with 1x8 ASROC ASW; 1 Br Battle.
   4 Ch Hainan FAC(P), 1 Town patrol craft.
   4 Ch Hoku FAC(G) (2 msls).
   12 Ch Shanghai-Il FAC.
   4 Ch Huchwan hydrofoil FAC (TX.
   19 coastal patrol craft: 1 Spear, 18 MC-55 Type.
   3 US Adjutant and MSC-268 coastal MCM.
   1 US Mission underway replenishment tanker.
   1 Br Dido cruiser (cadet trg/AA ship; nonoperational).
NAVAL AIR: 3 combat ac, 6 combat hel.
   1 ASW/MR sqn with 3 Atlantic with Exocet ASM.
   2 ASW/SAR hel sqns with 6 Sea King ASW with Exocet AM-39, 4 Alouette III.
   ASM: AM-39 Exocet.
Base: Karachi.
RESERVES: 5,000.
Air Force: 17,600; 314 combat ac.
   9 FGA sqns: 1 with 17 Mirage IIIEP; 4 with 50 Mirage 5PA3; 4 with 52 Ch Q-5.
   9 interceptor/FGA sqns with 170 Ch F-6; (1 converting to F-16 (6) ).
   1 recce sqn with 13 Mirage IIIRP.
   1 ocu with some 6 F-16.
   2 tpt sqns: 1 with 13 C-130B/E, I L-100; 1 with 1 Falcon 20, 1 F-27-200 (with Navy), 1 Super King Air, 1 Bonanza.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 6 HH-43B, 4 Alouette III.
   1 utility hel sqn with 4 Super Frelon, 12 Bell 47G.
   1 trg sqn with 20 T-33A, 4 MiG-15UTI.
   Other trainers incl 2 Mirage 5DPA2, 3 Mirage IIIDP, 25 Mashshaq (Saab Supporter), 35 T-37C, 45 Ch FT-5 (MiG-17U), 12 CJ-6, 24 Reims FTB-337.
   AAM: Sidewinder, R-530, R-550 Magic.
   (On order 28 F-16, 14 Ch Q-5 FGA.)
RESERVES: 8,000.
Forces Abroad: 30,000 contract personnel: Saudi Arabia (20,000); Jordan, Libya, Oman, UAE.
Para-Military Forces: 109,100: National Guard (22,000); Frontier Corps (65,000); Pakistan Rangers (15,000); Coast Guard (2,000); Frontier Constabulary (5,100).
  
   PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Population: 3,400,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 3,232 (all part of army).
GDP 1982: K 1.798 bn ($2,438 bn). 1983: 1.940 bn ($2,326 bn).
Est def exp 1983: K26.9 m ($32,250 m). Budget 1984: 27.4 m ($30,444 m).
GDP growth: -1.5% (1982), 2.0% (1983).
FMA: $15.0 m (1982), 16.0 m (1983).
   $1=kina 0.7375 (1982), 0.8341 (1983), 0.9000 (mid-1984).
Army: 2,846.
   2 inf bns.
   1 engr bn.
   1 sigs sqn.
   Log units.
Navy: 300.
   5 Attack large patrol craft.
   2 310-ton landing craft.
Bases: Port Moresby, Lombrum.
Air Force: 86.
   1 tpt sqn with 6 C-47, 4 Nomad MR ac.
Para-Military Forces: 4,600 Police.
  
   PHILIPPINES
Population: 53,400,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 104,800.
GDP 1982: P 340.360 bn ($39,855 bn). 1983: 380.820 bn ($34,268 bn).
Est def exp 1983: P 7.404 bn ($666,247 m). Budget 1984: 8.420 bn ($601,343 m).
GDP growth: 2.7% (1982), 1.0% (1983).
Inflation: 12.7% (1982), 10% (1983).
FMA: $1.75 bn (1981).
Debt: $24.5 bn (1982).
   $1=pesos 8.54 (1982), 11.113 (1983), 14.002 (mid-1984).
Army: 60,000.
   5 inf divs.
   1 special warfare bde.
   1 special security bde (1 armd, 2 inf, 2 COIN bns, spt units).
   (1 ranger regt (2 ranger, 1 mountain bns, 5 scout coys) being reactivated.)
   2 engr bdes.
   1 lt armd regt.
   4 arty regts.
   28 Scorpion lt tks; 45 MICV; 80 M-113, 20 Chaimite APC;
   200 105mm (incl pack), 12 M-114 155mm how; 81mm, 107mm mor; M-20 75mm, M-67 90mm, M-40 106mm RCL.
   (On order. 24 M-167A1 towed Vulcan AD systems.)
RESERVES: 20,000, 18 bns; some 70,000 more have Reserve commitments.
Navy: 28,000 (9,600 marines, 2,000 Coast Guard).
   7 US frigates: 4 Casco, 1 Savage, 2 Cannon.
   10 US corvettes: 2 Auk, 7 PCE-827, 1 Admirable.
   3 PSMM-5 FAC(G) with 4 Exocet.
   16 large patrol craft, incl 1 command ship, 4 Katapangan, 5 PGM-39/-71, 2 US PC-461.
   62 coastal patrol craft.
   31 US landing ships (3 spt, 24 LST, 4 LSM), 61 LCM, 7 LCVP, 3 LCU.
   1 SAR sqn with 9 Islander ac, 5 BO-105 hel.
   3 marine bdes (9 bns) with 30 LVTP-5, 55 LVTP-7 APC; 150 105mm how; 4.2-in. (107mm) mor.
   (On order 2 ex-US destroyers, 3 PSMM-5 FAC(G), 50 patrol boats, 12 LST, 1 trg ship.)
Base: Sangley Point/Cavite, Zamboanga.
RESERVES: 12,000.
Air Force: 16,800; 82 combat ac.
   1 FGA sqn with 24 F-8H.
   1 AD sqn with 19 F-5A, 3 F-5B.
   3 COIN sqns: 1 with 16 SF-260WP; 2 with 20 T-28D.
   1 hel wing with 50 UH-1H, some 7 H (S) -76, 2 S-70AS (tpt).
   1 Presidential tpt sqn with 1 Boeing 707, 1 BAC-111, 1 YS-11 ac; 1 S-62A, 2 UH-1N, 1 Puma hel.
   5 tpt sqns: 1 with 4 C-130H; 1 with 5 C-47, 8 F-27, 3 F-27MR; 1 with 12 Nomad; 1 with 12 Islander ac; 1 with 12 BO-105 hel.
   1 liaison sqn with O-1E, 1 Cessna U-17A/B, 8 Beaver (being with drawn).
   4 trg sqns: 1 with 10 T/RT-33A; 1 with 12 T-41D; 1 with 30 SF-260MP; 1 with 10 T-34A.
   1 weather sqn with 3 Cessna 210.
   AAM: Sidewinder.
   (On order 16 Bell 412, 10 S-76, 12 UH-1H hel.)
RESERVES: 16,000.
Para-Military Forces: (Ministry of Defence): Philippine Constabulary 43,500 (1 bde, 13 bns, 180 provincial coys); by law part of armed forces.
   Civil Home Defence Force 65,000.
Opposition: Moro National Liberation Army: 1,000. New People's Army: 10,000
  
   SINGAPORE
Population: 2,550,000.
Military service: 24 months; officers/NCOs 30 months.
Total armed forces: 55,500 (34,800 conscripts).
Est GDP 1982/3: $S 32.300 bn ($US 15.125 bn).
Est def exp 1983/4: $S 2.294 bn ($US 1.081 bn). Budget 1984/5: 2.260 bn ($US 1.075 bn).* (* Incl defence development budget.)
GDP growth: 6.3% (1982), 7.9% (1983).
Inflation: 4.0% (1982), 1.1% (1983).
Debt: $US 2.0 bn (1982).
   $US1=$S 2.1355 (1982/3), 2.1226 (1983/4), 2.1015 (mid-1984).
Army: 45,000 (30,000 conscripts).
   1 div HQ.
   1 armd bde (1 recce, 1 tk, 2 APC bns).
   3 inf bdes (each 3 inf bns).
   6 arty bns.
   1 cdo bn.
   6 engr, 3 sigs bns.
   350 AMX-13 lt tks; 720 M-113, 280 V-100/-150/-200 Commando APC;
   60 155mm how; 60mm, 81mm, 50 120mm mor (some SP in M-113); 89mm RL; Carl Gustav 84mm, 90 106mm RCL; 20mm, 35mm, L-70 40mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 150,000; 2 armd div, 6 inf bde HQ; 18 inf, 1 cdo, 9 arty, 6 engr, 2 sigs bns. Annual trg to age 40 for men; 50 for officers.
Navy: 4,500 (1,800 conscripts).
   6 TNC-45 FAC(G) each with 5 GabrielII SSM.
   6 Vosper A/B FAC.
   2 large patrol craft (trg ships).
   12 Swift coastal patrol craft.
   2 US Redwing coastal minesweepers.
   6 US 511-1152 LST (1 in reserve), 6 landing craft<.
   (On order 3 FPB-57 FAC.)
Base: Paulau Brani (Singapore).
Air Force: 6,000 (3,000 conscripts); 167 combat ac.
   2 FGA sqns with 41 A-4S/SI, 6 TA-4S Skyhawk.
   1 FGA sqn with 21 Hunter FGA-74.
   1 recce sqn with 7 Hunter FR-74S, 4 T-75S.
   1 AD sqn with 24 F-5E, 3 F-5F.
   3 coin/trg sqns: 1 with 18 BAC-167; 1 with 11
   SF-260W, 12 SF-260MS; 1 with 20 T-33A.
   1 tpt/SAR sqn with 8 C-130B/H.
   2 hel sqns with 36 UH-1B/H, 3 AB-212, 6 AS-350B Ecureuil.
   4 SAM sqns: 1 with 28 Bloodhound 2; 1 with 10 Rapier, 1 with 6 Improved HAWK; 1 with Bofors RBS-70.
   AAM: Sidewinder-9J/P.
   (On order 70 A-4SI (being rebuilt), 30 SIAI S-211 ac; 22 AS-332 Super Puma hel; Rapier/Blindfire SAM; 200 Maverick ASM.)
Forces Abroad: Brunei: (500); trg school.
Para-Military Forces: Police/marine police
   7,500: 49 patrol craft; Gurkha guard units;
   People's Defence Force, some 30,000.
  
   SRI LANKA (CEYLON)
Population: 15,800,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 16,560.
GDP 1982: Rs 100.140 bn ($4,812 bn). 1983: 122.322 bn ($5,199 bn).
Est def exp 1982: Rs 1.400 bn ($67,269 m). 1983: 1.80 bn ($76,501 m).
GDP growth: 4.1% (1982).
Inflation: 11% (1982), 14% (1983).
Debt: $ 2.6 bn (1982).
   $1=rupees 20.812 (1982), 23.529 (1983).
Army: 11,000.
   5 inf bdes (each with 1 regular, 2 reserve bns).
   1 recce regt (bn) 1 (each with one
   1 fd arty, 1 AA regts [ regular and
   1 engr regt J one reserve unit
   1 sigs bn.
   Support services.
   18 Saladin armd, 15 Ferret scout cars; 10 BTR-152 APC; 12 76mm, 12 85mm guns; 12 82mm, 12 4.2-in. (107mm) mor;
   M-60 82mm RCL; 24 40mm, 12 3.7-in. (94mm) AA guns.
RESERVES: 14,000; 10 bns, plus supporting services and a Pioneer Corps.
Navy: 2,960.
   8 FAC: 7 Sooraya (Ch Shanghai-ll), 1 Sov Mol.
   26 coastal patrol craft<
   (On order 2 large patrol craft.)
Bases: Trincomalee, Karainagar, Colombo, Tangalla, Kalpitiya.
RESERVES: Naval Volunteer Force 582.
Air Force: 2,600.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 HS-748, 2 DC-3, 3 Riley, 1 Heron, 3 Cessna 337, 1 206, 1 421C.
   1 hel sqn with 7 Bell 206, 2 SA-365.
   Trainers incl 4 Cessna 150/152, 7 Chipmunk, 3 Dove.
   (In storage: 5 MiG-17F, 1 MiG-15UTI, 2 Jet Provost Mk 51 ac; 4 Bell 206,2 Ka-26 hel.)
RESERVES: 1,000; 3 sqns Air Force Regt, 1 sqn Airfield Construction Regt.
Para-Military Forces: Police Force 14,500.
   Volunteer Force 5,000. Home Guard.
  
   TAIWAN
Population: 19,600,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 484,000.
GDP 1982/3: $NT 1,829 bn ($US 45.385 bn). Est 1983/4: 1,993 bn ($US 49.825 bn).
Est def exp 1983/4: $NT 135.9 bn ($US 3.398 bn).* Budget 1984/5: 141.9 bn ($US 3.574 bn).* (* Estimates for each year run up to $NT 165.0 bn.)
GDP growth: 3.8% (1982), 6.0% (1983).
Inflation: 3.0% (1982), 2.0% (1983).
FMA: $US 830 m (1982-3).
Debt: $US 9.2 bn (1982).
   $US1=$NT 40.3 (1982/3), 40.0 (1983/4), 39.7 (mid-1984).
Army: 330,000.
   3 Army, 6 Corps HQ.
   12 hy inf divs.
   6 Lt inf divs.
   6 armd/inf bdes.
   3 AB bdes.
   4 tk gps.
   20 fd arty bns.
   5 SAM bns: 2 with Nike Hercules, 3 with HAWK .
   6 army aviation sqns.
   309 M-48 MBT; 325 M-24 (90mm gun), 795 M-41 lt tks; M-8 armd cars; M-3 half-track, 1,100 M-113, 150 V-150 Commando APC;
   390 M-59 155mm guns/how; 350 M-116 75mm pack, 550 M-101 (T-64) 105mm, 90 M-114 (T-65) 155mm, 10 M-115 203mm towed,
   225 M-108 105mm, 125 M-109A-1 155mm, 75 M-110 203mm SP how;
   81mm mor; Kung Feng (Worker Bee) towed and SP 127mm MRL; Hsiung Feng (Drone Bee = Gabriel-type) coastal defence SSM,
   Ching Feng (Green Bee =Nike Hercules-type) SSM/SAM;
   150 M-18 76mm SP ATK guns; 500 106mm RCL; Kun Wu (Fire God = TOW type 6), TOW (some SP) ATGW;
   300 40mm AA guns (some M-42 SP); 400 Nike Hercules, 800 HAWK, 20 Chaparral SAM;
   118 UH-1H, 2 KH-4, 7 CH-34 hel.
(On order: 164 M-113 APC (incl variants), 125 M-109 155mm, 75 M-110A 203mm SP how; 1,000 TOW, Kun Wu ATGW; 504 MIM-72F Chaparral msls;
   370 Improved HAWK SAM.)
DEPLOYMENT: Quemoy: 60,000; Matsu: 20,000.
RESERVES: 1,500,000: 9 divs; an additional 1.3 million have some Reserve obligation.
Navy: 38,000.
2 US Guppy-II submarines.
23 US destroyers:
   10 Gearing with 1 hel (4 with 3 Hsiung Feng (HF) SSM, 7 with 1x8 ASROC);
   1 Gearing radar picket with 3 HF;
   8 Sumner (1 with 1x3, 2 with 2x3 HF);
   4 Fletcher with 1x2 Sea Chaparral SAM.
9 US frigates: 8 Lawrence, 1 Crosley.
3 US Auk corvettes.
   28 FAC(G) with # F SSM: 2 Lung Chiang with 4x1, 26 Tzu Chiang (Dvora) with 2x1.
   30 coastal patrol craft.
   14 US Adjutant and MSC-268 coastal MCM.
   2 LSD, 23 LST, 4 LSM, 22 LCU, some 400 small landing craft.
   1 repair ship; 2 tpts; 7 tankers.
(On order 2 Lung Chiang, 4 Tzu ChiangFAC(G); 10 ASW hel; ASROC ASW; 170 Standard SM-1, 284 Improved Sea ChaparralSAM.)
Bases: Tsoying, Makung (Pescadores), Keelung.
RESERVES: 45,000.
Marines: 39,000.
   3 divs.
   LVT-4/-5 APC; 105mm, 155mm how; 106mm RCL.
RESERVES: 35,000.
Air Force: 77,000; 547 combat ac, 12 armed hel.
   5 combat wings.
   13 ftr sqns with 226 F-5E, 30 F-5F, 42 F-100A/D, 60 F-104G.
   1 interceptor sqn with 19 F-104A.
   1 recce sqn with 8 RF-104G.
   1 MR sqn with 9 S-2A, 20 S-2E.
   1 ASW hel sqn with 12 Hughes Defender 500MD.
   1 SAR sqn with 8 UH-16B ac, 10 UH-1H hel.
   6 tpt sqns with 20 C-47, 5 C-54, 1 C-118B, 40 C-119, 10 C-123, 1 Boeing 720B, 4 727-100.
   Ocu: 82 F-5A/B, 30 F/TF-104G, 6 F-104D, 15 F-100F.
   Trainers incl 55 PL-1B Chien Shou, 50 T-CH-1, 32 T-33/-38, 10 T-28, AT-3.
   2 hel sqns with 7 UH-19, 10 Bell 47G.
   AAM: Sidewinder, Shafrir.
   ASM: Bullpup, AGM-65A Maverick.
   (On order 39 F-104G, 27 TF-104G, 60 F-5E/F ftr, 12 C-l30 tpt, 50 XAT-3 trg ac; Sparrow AAM.)
RESERVES: 90,000.
Para-Military Forces: Taiwan Garrison Command, 25,000.
  
   THAILAND
Population: 50,700,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 235,300.
GDP 1982: baht 846.14 bn ($36,789 bn). 1983: 928.55 bn ($40,372 bn).
Def exp 1982/3: baht 35.500 bn ($1,543 bn).*
Budget 1983/4: 37.989 bn ($1,652 bn).* (*Excl Internal Security Budget.)
GDP growth: 5.2% (1982), 3.8% (1983).
Inflation: 5.3% (1982), 4.0% (1983).
FMA: $142 m (1982), $70 m (1983).
Debt: $11.7 bn (1982).
   $1= baht 23.0 (1982/4).
Army: 160,000.
   4 Regions; 4 Army HQ.
   1 cav div (2 cav, 1 arty regts).
   1 armd div (1 tk, 1 cav, 1 mech regts).
   7 inf divs (5 with 1 tk bn).
   2 special forces divs.
   1 arty div, 1 AA div (2 AA arty regts).
   11 engr bns.
   8 indep inf bns.
   4 recce coys.
AFV: 150 M-48A5 MBT; 200 M-41 (most in reserve), 144 Scorpion, M-24 lt tks;
   32 Shorland Mk 3 recce; 340 M-113, M-3A1 halftrack, 120 V-150 Commando, 20 Saracen APC.
Arty. 300 M-116 75mm pack, M-101/-101 mod 105mm, 80 M-114, some 24 M-198 155mm how; 81mm, 120mm mor.
ATK: M-72 LAW RL; 57mm, M-20 75mm, 215 106mm RCL; TOW, Dragon ATGW.
AA: 24 20mm M-163 Vulcan, 80 M-1/L-70/M-42 SP 40mm AA guns, Redeye SAM.
Army Aviation: 3 airmobile coys, some hel fits.
   4 C-47, 1 King Air tpt, 80 O-1 13 U-17A, 1 Beech 99 It, 23 T-41A trg ac; 76 UH-1B/H, 4 CH-47A, 15 OH-13H, 3 OH-58A, 11 TH-55A hel.
(On order 40 M-48A5, 16 M-60A3 MBT; 56 Cascavel armd cars; 148 M-113 (incl variants), 164 V-150 Arc;
   34 M-114, 38 M-198 155mm how; 105mm MRL; Blowpipe SAM; 2 Bell 214ST, 4 UH-60A hel.)
RESERVES: 500,000. 4 div HQ.
Navy: 32,200, incl naval air and marines.
   6 frigates: 1 Yarrow-type with 1x4 Seacat SAM;
   2 PF-103; 2 US Tacoma; 1 Cannon.
   6 FAC(G): 3 Breda BMB-230 with 4 Exocet SSM; 3 TNC-45 with 5 Gabriel SSM.
   3 MV-400 FAC.
   19 US large patrol craft: 6 PC-461, 10 PGM-71, 3 Cape.
   31 coastal, 40 river patrol craft<.
   4 US Bluebird coastal minesweepers, 5 minesweeping boats <.
   5 LST, 3 LSM, 2 LSIL-351, 1 LCG, 10 LCU, 26 LCM (all US), 4 LCA, 12 LCVP.
   3 trg ships: 2 Br (1 Algerine, 1 Flower), 1 Maeklong.
NAVAL AIR: some 15 combat ac.
   1 MR/ASW sqn with 10 S-2F.
   1 MR/SAR sqn with 4 F-27MPA, 4 Searchmaster, 2 HU-16B, 2 CL-215, 5 C-47.
   1 trg/SAR hel sqn with 11 UH-1H/N.
   1 observation sqn with 13 U-17, 10 0-1 A, 7 6-2, 2 LA-4 ac.
MARINES: (13,000).
   1 bde: 2 inf, 1 arty regts; 1 amph assault bn; 40 LVTP-7 amph APC, 24 GC-45 155mm guns/how, support weapons.
(On order. 1 Descubierta frigate, 4 PSMM-5 FAC(G), 2 corvettes, 4 large, 3 coastal patrol craft; Harpoon SSM; 10 Exocet MM-39 coast defence msls;
   2 F-27MPA MR ac.)
Bases: Bangkok, Sattahip, Songkla, Phangnga.
Air Force: 43,100; 188 combat ac.
   1 FGA sqn with 13 F-5A/B.
   2 AD sqns with 34 F-5E, 5 F-5F.
   7 COIN sqns: 1 with 22 T-28D; 2 with 25 OV-10C;
   1 with 15 A-37B; 1 with 25 AU-23A; 1 with 14 AC-47; 1 with 14 T-33A, 3 RT-33.
   1 recce sqn with 4 RF-5A, 6 RC-47D, 3 Arava 201, 1 Queen Air 65, 1 Cessna 340.
   3 tpt sqns, incl Royal fit: 1 with 10 C-47, 2 Merlin IVA; 2 with 16 C-123B, 3 C-130H; 8 HS-748; 1 737-200, some 15 N-22B Nomad, 5 NC-212 Aviocar.
   3 liaison sqns with 4 U-10, 23 O-1.
   2 hel sqns: 18 CH-34C, 27 UH-1H, 2 Bell 412.
   Trainers incl 10 T-37B, 6 O-1A, 9 T-41A, 16 SF-260MT, 23 CT-4, some 7 Fantrainer.
   AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.
   Airfield defence troops: 4 bns; Blowpipe SAM.
(On order 8 F-5E, 2 RF-2E, 6 RC-47; 2 Merlin IVA, some 5 Nomad, 6 HS-748, 1 C-130H-30 tpt; 47 Fantrainer trg ac; 4 UH-60 hel;
   AIM-9P AAM; BlowpipeSAM.)
Para-Military Forces: Volunteer Defence Corps 33,000.
   Marine Police 1,700.
   Police Aviation 500; 3 Skyvan, 8 PC-6, 2 DHC-4, 1 Do-28, 2 Cessna 310, 1 Airtourer, 1 CT-4 ac; 27 Bell 205, 13 206, 1 S-62, 6 HH-12, 1 KH-4 hel.
   Border Patrol Police 20,000. Special Action Force 3,800. Rangers 13,000. Village Scouts.
   National Defence Volunteers. 20 V-150 Commando APC, 1 Coastguard cutter.
   (On order 7 Nomad.)
  
   VIETNAM
Population: 58,840,000.
Military service: 3 years; specialists 4 years; some ethnic minorities 2 years.
Total armed forces: 1,227,000 (excl paramilitary).
GNP 1982/3: estimates range from $6.0 bn to $16.0 bn.
Est FMA: $1 bn (1982).
Debt: S5.3 bn (1982).
Army: 1,000,000. (* Incl Forces Abroad.)
   16 Corps HQ.
   1 armd div.
   56 inf divs. (* Inf div strengths vary by geographic location, composition and role between 5,000 and 15,000, but 10,500 is 'average'.)
   10 marine bdes.
   7 engr, 15 economic construction divs. (Men beyond normal military age; unit strength about 3,000 each, fully anned, with military and economic role;
   most in northern Vietnam,)
   5 fd arty divs (some 10 regts).
   4 indep engr bdes.
   10 indep armd regts.
AFV: 1,500 T-34/-54/-55/-62, Type-59, 400 M-48 MBT; 450 PT-76 and Type-60/63, 150 M-41 lt tks;
   M-8, M-20 armd cars; BRDM-2 recce; 1,500 BTR-50/-60, Ch Type-55/-56, Type-531, 1,200 M-113, V-100 Commando APC.
Arty. 300 76mm, 85mm, 100mm, 122mm, 200 130mm, M-107 175mm guns; 75mm pack, M-101/-102 105mm, 122mm, 100 152mm, M-114 155mm how;
   90 SU-76, SU-100, ISU-122, 200 M-109 155mm and M-110 203mm SP how;
   Type-63 107mm, BM-21 122mm, BM-14-16 140mm MRL; 60mm, 81mm, 82mm, 107mm, 120mm, 160mm mor.
ATK: Type-36 57mm, 75mm, 82mm, Type-51 88mm, 107mm RCL.
AD: 3,000 23mm, 30mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm, Type-63 37mm, M-42 40mm, ZSU-23-4, ZSU-57-2 SP AA guns; SA-6/-7/-9 SAM.t
Navy: 12,000. (Much US eqpt is inoperable.)
   6 frigates: 4 Sov Petya, 2 US (1 Bamegat, 1 Savage).
   10 FAC(G) with Styx SSM: 8 Sov Osa-II, 2 Komar.
   17 Sov FAC(T): 8 Shershen, 3 P-4<, 6 P-6<.
   22 Ch FAC: 8 Shanghai, 14 Swatow.
   6 Sov SO-1, 19 US PGM-59/-71 large patrol craft.
   9 Sov coastal patrol craft<: 6 Zhuk, 3 PO-2.
   3 US 510-1152, 3 Sov Polnocny LST.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 10 Mi-4.
   Perhaps some 1,300 ex-US, South Vietnamese naval vessels, naval and civilian junks and coasters could augment this force.
Bases: Cam Ranh Bay, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ha Tou, Ho Chi Minh City. Kampuchea: Kompong Som.
Air Force: 15,000; 290 combat ac, 40 armed hel (plus many in store).
   4 Air Divs.
   3 FGA regts with 70 MiG-17, 40 Su-7/-20 (Su-22 reported).
   4 interceptor regts with 180 MiG-21bis/F/PF, MiG-15.
   3 tpt regts (350 ac) incl 20 An-2 and 20 Li-2, 9 An-24, 50 An-26, 2 An-30, 6 Tu-34, 11 Yak-40, 7 I1-14, 2 I1-18; 2 C-130, 1 DC-3, 4 DC-4, 2 DC-6,
   2 Boeing 707, 7 U-17.
   1 hel div (3 hel regts; 150 ac) 25 Mi-6, 40 Mi-8, 25 Mi-24, 15 Ka-25,45 UH-1.
   4 trg regts (60 ac) incl L-29, L-39, MiG-17, MiG-21.
   AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
Air Defence Force: 60,000: 4 AA divs (30,000):
   1,000 85mm, 100mm and 130mm towed; 20 SAM regts (20,000): some 60 sites with SA-2/3; 6 radar bdes (10,000): 100 sites.
RESERVES (all services):
   'Tactical Rear Force' 500,000 semi-mobilized first-line quick reinforcement org.
   'Strategic Rear Force': 2,500,000.
Forces Abroad (numbers fluctuate): Laos: 40,000
   (3 inf divs and spt tps). Kampuchea/Cambodia: 160,000 (2 Front HQ, 12 army divs plus spt tps, naval base, fighter ac incl MiG-21).
Para-Military Forces:
   Border Defence Forces 60,000.
   Peoples Regional Force (militia; 500,000): 1 regt
   HQ at each provincial capital; local inf coys, small arms. Some Northern regts org in divs. Some AA eqpt.
   People's Self Defence Force: (1,000,000): Two components:
   Urban; Rural (People's militia): local coy-sized units in towns, some mobile police function and support. Small arms.
   Armed Youth Assault Force (South Vietnam) (1,500,000): Young People only. Training incl use of inf weapons, some field service.
  

Latin America

   Continental Treaties and Agreements
   The Act of Chapultepec. Signed by Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the US, Uruguay and Venezuela in March and April 1945, this Act declared that if any aggression across boundaries established by treaty occurs, or threatens, the signatories will consult to agree upon measures up to and including the use of armed force to prevent or repel it.
   The Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Treaty of Rio). Signed in September 1947 by all parties to the Act of Chapultepec plus El Salvador and Trinidad and Tobago but except Ecuador and Nicaragua, this Treaty expands the Act, constrains signatories to settle disputes among themselves peacefully and provides for collective self-defence should any member be subjected to external attack. It came into force on 3 December 1948 and has been invoked some twelve times since. Cuba withdrew in March 1960.
   The Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS). Dated April 1948, the Charter embraces declarations based upon the Treaty of Rio. The members of the OAS - the signatories to the Act of Chapultepec plus Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, El Salvador, Grenada, Jamaica, St Kitts-Nevis (1984), St Lucia, St Vincent, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago - are bound to settle internal disputes peacefully and take collective action in the event of external attack upon any signatory. Amendments (Rio, 1965; Bogota, 1966) reiterated the goal of peaceful settlement of disputes. In 1965/6 an Inter-American Peace Force was formed for service in the Dominican Republic. Subsequent attempts to create a permanent force failed, but an Inter-American Defence Board has been formed to co-ordinate planning. Declarations condemning Communism in the Western Hemisphere, signed in Bogota in 1948 by 17 nations (Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic and the US abstaining), were reiterated at Caracas (1954, 1973), San Jose (1960), Punta del Este (1962) and Washington (1972).
   The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty). This was signed in February 1967 by 25 Latin American countries, 24 of which have ratified it (Argentina has not). Brazil and Chile will not implement it until all other Latin American states have done so. Cuba and Guyana have not signed it. The Treaty therefore is not in force for those five countries. Britain and the Netherlands have ratified it for the territories with in the Treaty area for which they are internationally responsible and, with France and the US, have signed Protocol I (which commits states outside the region to accept, for their territories with in it, the Treaty restrictions regarding the emplacement or storage of nuclear weapons); Britain, China, France, the USSR and the US have signed Protocol II (an undertaking not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against the parties to the Treaty). An Agency was set up to monitor compliance.
   Regional Agreements
   The 1903 treaty with the Republic of Panama, granting the United States virtual sovereign rights over the Canal Zone in perpetuity, was renegotiated, and the resulting 1977 Treaties came into force in October 1979. About 40% of the former Canal Zone will remain under US control until 31 December 1999. Panama received 11 of 14 US bases. Defence of the Canal will be the joint responsibility of both nations, with Panama assuming an increasing role until the total accession of the Canal to her sovereignty. The US has guaranteed the area's neutrality after 2000.
   Belize (British Honduras) became independent on 21 September 1981. Britain agreed to leave troops as protection and to train the Belizean defence forces 'for an appropriate time'. The US is also providing aid and training. Under the 'Commonwealth Pact', if a threat to Belize's independence occurs, Britain, Barbados, Bahamas, Canada, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago will meet and consult.
   The Central American Defence Council (CONDECA; El Salvador, Honduras and Panama) formed in 1965 to contain Nicaraguan influence, is reported to have been revived and to be creating a common military training centre. In November 1981 El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras agreed an informal alliance against Cuba, Nicaragua and domestic guerrilla movements in each member country. The US provides assistance to Honduran-based rebels against Nicaragua and to the Government against rebels in El Salvador. A similar regional grouping, the Communidad Democrdtica Centroamericana (Costa Rica, Honduras and El Salvador; observers, Colombia, the US and Venezuela) agreed in January 1982 to provide mutual aid in case of external aggression. Argentina and Peru reportedly entered into a Military Pact in late 1982. A Caribbean Defence Pact, signed in October 1982 between Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, St Lucia and St Vincent, was joined by St KittsNevis on 8 February, 1984. Grenada reportedly will join after November 1984.
   The US has had a bilateral agreement with Cuba for jurisdiction and control over Guantanamo Bay since 1934. In 1960 she stated that it could be modified or abrogated only by mutual agreement and that she had no intention of giving such an agreement. She has also leased 2.3 square miles from Bermuda for a naval and air base since 1941.
   The US, which has bilateral military sales arrangements at varying levels with most countries of the region, concluded a status of forces agreement with Antigua in 1977/8. The USSR has no known formal defence agreements with any of the states in the area.
   Cuba and Vietnam signed a 25-year Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation in October 1982. Cuba and the USSR supplied arms to Grenada before October 1983 and to Nicaragua. Most countries in the region, however, obtain their major equipments from Western, rather than Communist, countries.
   Argentina and Brazil are designing and manufacturing for export their own military equipment. Brazil has sold hers to the Middle East (Algeria, Iraq, Libya, Tunisia), Africa (Zambia), and Belgium and Canada, as well as Latin America, and has a training agreement with Suriname. Chile is assembling Mirage 50 aircraft and light AFV under licence and reportedly has made some transfers to Paraguay.
   Economic Factors
   For the past three years Latin American countries generally have experienced a continuous decline in GDP. The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) reports an overall drop of 3%, and a 6% decline in real per-capita income. Massive international debts have caused many countries (especially Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina) serious problems in meeting demands for repayment of their international borrowings. (Brazil and Mexico alone account for 25% of the world debt total.) These factors, coupled with hyper-inflation (in some countries over 400%) and an over-valued dollar, have distorted the economic profile of most Latin American countries. The economic data in this section must therefore be viewed with great caution, since in most cases international comparison in dollar terms is not possible at present.
  

Латинская Америка

   Континентальные договоры и соглашения
   Акт Чапультепека. Подписали Аргентина, Боливия, Бразилия, Чили, Колумбия, Коста-Рика, Куба, Доминиканская Республика, Эквадор, Гватемала, Гаити, Гондурас, Мексика, Никарагуа, Панама, Парагвай, Перу, США, Уругвае и Венесуэле в марте и апреле 1945 года, этот акт заявил, что при любой наступающей или угрожающей агрессии в границах, установленных договором, подписавшие его стороны будут консультироваться, чтобы согласовать меры, вплоть до применения вооруженной силы для предотвращения или отражения.
   Межамериканский договор о взаимной помощи (договор Рио). Подписанный в сентябре 1947 года всеми участниками акта Чапультепек плюс Сальвадор и Тринидад и Тобаго, но за исключением Эквадора и Никарагуа, этот договор расширяет этот закон, принуждает подписавшие его стороны урегулировать споры между собой мирным путем и предусматривает коллективную самооборону в случае, если какой-либо член подвергнется внешнему нападению. Он вступило в силу 3 декабря 1948 года и с тех пор применялся примерно двенадцать раз. Куба с вышла марте 1960 года.
   Устав Организации Американских Государств (ОАГ). От апреля 1948 года Устав охватывает декларацией на основании договора от Рио. Члены ОАГ - стороны, подписавшие акт Чапультепека, а также Антигуа и Барбуда, Барбадос, Доминика, Гренада, Сент-Китс - Невис (1984 год), Сент-Люсия, Сент-Винсент, Суринам, Тринидад и Тобаго, Сальвадор и Ямайка - обязаны урегулировать внутренние споры мирным путем и принять коллективные меры в случае внешнего нападения на любую из подписавших его сторон. Поправки (Рио, 1965 год; Богота, 1966 год) подтверждают цель мирного урегулирования споров. В 1965/6 году для службы в Доминиканской Республике были сформированы Межамериканские силы мира. Последующие попытки создать постоянные силы не увенчались успехом, однако для координации планирования был сформирован Межамериканский Совет обороны. В Каракасе (1954, 1973), Сан-Хосе (1960), Пунта-дель-Эсте (1962) и Вашингтоне (1972) были вновь подтверждены декларации, осуждающие коммунизм в Западном полушарии, подписанные в Боготе в 1948 году 17 странами (Бразилия, Чили, Доминиканская Республика и США воздержались).
   Договор о запрещении ядерного оружия в Латинской Америке (договор Тлателолко). Он был подписан в феврале 1967 года 25 латиноамериканскими странами, 24 из которых ратифицировали его (Аргентина не ратифицировала). Бразилия и Чили не будут осуществлять его до тех пор, пока все другие латиноамериканские государства не сделают этого. Куба и Гайана его не подписали. Поэтому договор не действует для этих пяти стран. Великобритания и Нидерланды ратифицировали его для территорий с в договоре территория, за которую они несут международную ответственность, а с Францией и США, подписали протокол I (которая обязывает государства за пределами региона, чтобы принять, для их территорий в договор ограничений, касающихся доставки или хранения ядерного оружия); Великобритания, Китай, Франция, СССР и США подписали протокол II (обязательство не применять и не угрожать применением ядерного оружия против участников Договора). Было создано Агентство по контролю за соблюдением.
   Региональные соглашения
   Договор 1903 года с Республикой Панама, предоставляющий Соединенным Штатам фактические суверенные права в отношении зоны канала на бессрочной основе, был пересмотрен, и в результате в октябре 1979 года вступили в силу договоры 1977 года. Около 40% бывшей зоны канала будет оставаться под контролем США до 31 декабря 1999 года. Панама получила 11 из 14 американских баз. Защита канала будет совместной обязанностью обеих стран, при этом Панама будет играть все более активную роль вплоть до полного присоединения канала к своему суверенитету. США гарантировали нейтралитет региона после 2000 года.
   Белиз (Британский Гондурас) стал независимым 21 сентября 1981 года. Британия согласилась оставить войска в качестве защиты и подготовить белизские силы обороны "на соответствующее время". США также предоставляют помощь и обучение. В соответствии с "пактом Содружества" в случае возникновения угрозы независимости Белиза Великобритания, Барбадос, Багамские острова, Гайана, Канада, Тринидад и Тобаго и Ямайка будут встречаться и консультироваться.
   Сообщается, что Центральноамериканский Совет обороны (CONDECA; Гондурас, Панама и Сальвадор), созданный в 1965 году для сдерживания Никарагуанского влияния, возродился и создает общий центр военной подготовки. В ноябре 1981 года Гватемала, Гондурас и Сальвадор заключили неофициальный союз против Кубы, Никарагуа и внутренних партизанских движений в каждой из стран-членов. США оказывают помощь гондурасским повстанцам против Никарагуа и правительству против повстанцев в Сальвадоре. Аналогичная региональная группировка - "Центр Америки" (Гондурас, Коста-Рика и Сальвадор; наблюдатели, Венесуэла, Колумбия и США) - в январе 1982 года согласилась предоставить взаимную помощь в случае внешней агрессии. Согласно сообщениям, Аргентина и Перу заключили военный пакт в конце 1982 года. 8 февраля 1984 года Сент-Китсневис присоединился к Карибскому пакту об обороне, подписанному в октябре 1982 года между Антигуа, Барбадосом, Доминикой, Сент-Люсией и Сент-Винсентом. Гренада, как сообщается, присоединится после ноября 1984 года.
   С 1934 года США заключили двустороннее соглашение с Кубой о юрисдикции и контроле над заливом Гуантанамо. В 1960 году она заявила, что оно может быть изменено или отменено только по взаимному согласию и что она не намерена давать такое согласие. Она также арендовала 2,3 квадратных мили от Бермудских островов для военно-морской и воздушной базы с 1941 года.
   США, которые имеют двусторонние соглашения о военных продажах на различных уровнях с большинством стран региона, заключили соглашение о статусе сил с Антигуа в 1977/8 годах. СССР не имеет известных официальных оборонных соглашений ни с одним из государств региона.
   Куба и Вьетнам подписали 25-летний договор о дружбе и сотрудничестве в октябре 1982 года. Куба и СССР поставляли оружие Гренаде до октября 1983 года и Никарагуа. Однако большинство стран региона получают основное оборудование из западных, а не коммунистических стран.
   Аргентина и Бразилия разрабатывают и производят на экспорт собственную военную технику. Бразилия продала свою продукцию на Ближнем Востоке (Алжир, Ирак, Ливия, Тунис), Африке (Замбия), Бельгии и Канаде, а также Латинской Америке и заключила соглашение о подготовке кадров с Суринамом. Чили осуществляет сборку самолетов "Мираж 50" и легких БМП по лицензии и, как сообщается, осуществила некоторые поставки в Парагвай.
   Экономические факторы
   В течение последних трех лет латиноамериканские страны, как правило, переживали непрерывное снижение ВВП. Межамериканский банк развития (МБР) сообщает об общем снижении на 3% и 6% реального дохода на душу населения. Огромные международные долги вызвали у многих стран (особенно у Мексики, Бразилии, Венесуэлы и Аргентины) серьезные проблемы с удовлетворением требований о погашении их международных займов. (Только на Бразилию и Мексику приходится 25% мирового долга.) Эти факторы в сочетании с гиперинфляцией (в некоторых странах свыше 400%) и завышенной стоимостью доллара привели к искажению экономического профиля большинства латиноамериканских стран. Поэтому экономические данные в этом разделе следует рассматривать с большой осторожностью, поскольку в большинстве случаев международное сопоставление в долларовом выражении в настоящее время невозможно.
  
   ARGENTINA
Population: 29,500,000.
Military service: Army and Air Force 1 year, Navy 14 months.
Total armed forces: 153,000 (108,000 conscripts.)
GDP 1981: $123.0 bn.
Est def exp 1983: $2.80 bn. Budget 1984: $1.90 bn*
   (*High inflation and fluctuating exchange rates make these figures unreliable.
   The figures also apparently exclude foreign arms purchases (est $10 bn 1978-82). Excl 1984 security budget ($652m).)
GDP growth: -5.4% (1982), 2% (1983).
Inflation: 210% (1982), 435% (1983).
Debt: $44.0 bn (1983).
Army: 100,000 (80,000 conscripts).
   5 army corps; 5 Military Regions; 1 Garrison HQ.
   2 armd cav bdes (each 2 armd cav, 1 tk regts; 1 arty bn).
   1 mech, 4 mot inf bdes (each 3 regts, plus armd cav sqn,engr, arty bns).
   3 mountain inf bdes (each 3 regts; arty, engr bn; recce det).
   1 jungle bde.
   1 AB bde (3 AB regts, 1 arty gp).
   (1 air cav bde to form 1984/5.)
   16 arty bns (2 SP; 12 with brigades.)
   1 Presidential Guard tk regt.
   4 indep cav regts (3 horsed).
   1 indep mech inf regt.
   1 AB trg regt.
   5 AD bns.
   1 indep engr gp (regt), 5 indep engr bns.
   5 log bns.
   1 aviation bn (5 dets); 1 spt coy.
AFV: 125 M-4 Sherman, 130 TAM MBT; 50 M-41, 60 AMX-13 lt tks;
   VBC-90 armd cars; 300 AMX-VTP, some 150 TAM VCPT MICV; 85 M-3, 125 M-113, 80 MOWAG Roland, 5 BDX APC.
Arty. 18 M-59 155mm towed guns; 180 105mm incl M-56 pack, 70 M-114 155mm towed, 20 M-2A1/M-101 105mm, 24 Mk F3, 6 M-109 155mm SP how;
   SALM-Pampera 105mm; SAPBA-1 127mm MRL;
   81mm, 200 120mm (some SP in VCTM MICV) mor, 227Kuerassier 105mm SP ATK guns; 75mm, 90mm, 105mm RCL;
   Rh 202 twin HSS-669 20mm, HS-83/4 30mm, K-63 35mm, 40mm, 88mm, 50 M-1A1 90mm (trg) AA guns.
Msls: SS-11/-12, Bantam, Cobra, Mathogo, Mamba ATGW; Tigercat, Blowpipe, Roland, SAM-7 SAM.
Air. 3 G-222, 3 DHC-6, 5 Turbo-Commander 690A, 2 Turbo-Porter, 5 Merlin IIIA, 2 Queen Air, 1 Sabreliner, 49 Cessna (15 182, 20 U-17A/B, 7 207,
   2 Citation, 5 T-4D) ac;
   9 A-109, 31 Bell (7 206, 18 UH-1H, 2 47G, 4 212), 6 FH-1100, 1 CH-47C, 6 SA-315B Lama, 12 SA-330 Puma, some 6 AS-332B Super Puma hel.
   (On order. 85 TAM MBT; 25 155mm SP how conversion kits; 198 Kuerassier SPATK; some 18 AS-332B (being delivered), 9 A-109 hel.)
RESERVES: 250,000: National Guard, 200,000; Territorial Guard 50,000.
Navy: 36,000 (18,000 conscripts), incl naval air force and marines.
   3 subs: 2 Type 209, 1 TR-1700.
   1 Br Colossus aircraft carrier (up to 12 Super EtendardA-4, 6 S-2 ac; 4 S-61 hel).
   10 destroyers: 4 Meko 360H-2 with 2x4 Exocet MM-40 SSM, 1x8 Aspide multi-role msls, 2 Lynx hel;
   2 Type 42 with 4 Exocet MM-38, 1x2 Sea Dart SAM, 1 Lynx hel;
   4 US (3 Sumner, 1 Gearing with 4 Exocet).
   6 corvettes with Exocet SSM: 3 Espora (Meko 140) with 4 MM-40, 1 hel; 3 Fr A-69 with 4 MM-38.
   5 patrol ships: 2 US Cherokee, 2 King (1 trg), 1 US Sotoyomo.
   1 large patrol vessel.
   2 TNC-45 FAC(G).
   4 Dabur FAC(P).
   2 USHiggins FAC(T) <.
   6 Br Toncoastal minesweepers/hunters.
   1 LST, some LCVP, 4 LCM <.
   3 tankers: 1 14,000-, 1 6,000-, 1 1,600-ton.
   Some 10 coast defence batteries: 12 M-1898 87mm, 16 M-3 155mm, 12 280mm guns.
   (On order. 2 TR-1400, 3 TR-1700 subs, 6 Espora corvettes.)
Bases: Buenos Aires, Rio Santiago, Puerto Belgrano, Mardel Plata, Ushuaia.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (3,000); 54 combat ac, 8 combat hel.
   3 attack sqns with 24 A-4Q, 14 Super Etendard.
   2 MR sqns: 1 with 3 S-2A, 6 S-2E; 1 with 7 L-188E Electra.
   2 tpt sqns with 8 Super King Air, 1 HS-125, 3 F-28.
   1 liaison sqn with 5 Queen Air, 3 Turbo-Porter.
   1 Antarctic fit with 3 PC-6,1 C-45.
   Hel incl 6 SH-3D/NR ASW, 8 Alouette A-103 (III), 2 WG-13 (Sea Lynx).
   3 trg sqns with 4 EMB-326GB Xavante, 11 T-34C, 12 T-28, 10 MB-339A.
   ASM: 20 Exocet AM-39.
   (On order 6 EMB-326 trg ac; 6 WG-13 hel.)
MARINES: (10,000).
   2 Fleet Forces:
   1 marine inf bde (2 bns, 1 amph recce gp, 1 fd arty bn, 1 hy mor, 1 ATK, 1 engr coys.)
   1 marine inf bde (2 bns).
   1 amph spt force:
   2 special forces gps.
   1 amph veh bn.
   1 AA regt.
   1 sigs bn.
   1 service/log bn.
   6 indep inf (security) coys.
   12 Panhard ERC-90 Lynx recce; 15 LVT-3/-4, 19 LVTP-7, 15 LARC-5, 6 MOWAG Roland APC;
   40 105mm how; 81mm, 106mm mor, 75mm, 90mm, 105mm RCL; 20 Bantam ATGW; 20mm, 35mm AA guns; 7 Tigercat SAM.
Air Force: 17,000 (10,000 conscripts); 170 combat ac, 18 armed hel; 6 more maybe armed.
   9 air bdes (1 more forming).
AD Command (4 bdes):
   4 FGA/interceptor sqns: 2 (1 ocu) with 15 Mirage IIIEA, 22 IIICJ; 2 with 9 5P; 32 Dagger (Nesher).
Air Operations Command:
   1 bbr sqn with 6 Canberra B-62,2 T-64.
   3 FGA sqns with 54 A-4P Skyhawk.
   2 COIN sqns with 30 IA-58A Pucara.
   1 COIN hel sqn with 12 Hughes 500M (369 HM), 6 UH-1H.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 5 Lama.
   5 tpt sqns with 4 Boeing 707, 8 C-130E/H, 1 KC-130H, 3 Learjet 35A, 4 C-47, 13 F-27, 5 F-28, 5 DHC-6, 14 IA-50 GuaraniW, 2 Merlin IVA ac;
   2 S-58T (VIP) hel.
   1 Antarctic sqn with 1 DHC-6, 1 LC-47 ac; 2
   S-61R/NR, 4 UH-19, 2 CH-47C (SAR); 15 Bell (3 UH-1D, 4 47G, 8 212) hel.
   1 comms sqn with 13 Shrike Commander.
Air Training Command: 24 Paris, 12 EMB-326GB Xavante, 48 T-34C, 35 Cessna 182.
   AAM: R-530.
   ASM: AS-11/-12; Pescador ('Kingfisher').
(On order: 100 IA-58 Pucara COIN; 2 C-130, 16 Turbo-Commander tpt; 100 IA-63, 10 MB-339 trg ac, 3 AS-332B Super Puma hel.)
Para-Military Forces: (Ministry of Defence): 21,000.
   Gendarmerie 12,000: Shorland armd cars, 40 M-113 APC, 22 lt ac, 3 hel, mainly for frontier duties.
   Argentine Naval Prefecture (coastguard) 9,000: 20 large (9 Halcdn with 1 hel; 1 more on order), 19 coastal patrol craft; 5 SC-7 Skyvan ac;
   6 Hughes 500M Defender, 3 Puma hel.
  
   BOLIVIA
Population: 6,250,000.
Military service: 12 months, selective.
Total armed forces: 27,600.
Est GDP 1981: pB 162.81 bn ($6,643 bn). 1982: 398.458 bn ($6,214 bn).
Def budget 1981: pB 4.441 bn ($181,191 m). 1982: 6.006 bn ($93,668 m).
GDP growth: -9.2% (1982).
Inflation: 300% (1982), 330% (1983).
Debt: $3.6 bn (1983).
   $1=pesos 24.510 (1981), 64.12 (1982).
Army: 20,000.
   6 Military Regions: 4 corps (1 forming 1984), 10 div HQ.
   6 cav regts (horsed).
   2 mech inf regts (each 2 bns).
   13 inf regts (incl 1 Presidential Guard, 2 mountain), each with 2 bns.
   3 arty regts.
   2 ranger regts.
   1 para regt.
   2 armd bns.
   6 engr bns.
   24 EE-9 Cascavel armd cars; 18 M-113, 15 V-100 Commando, 22 MOWAG Roland, 24 EE-11 Urutu APC;
   26 75mm guns; 6 M-116 75mm pack, 6 M-101 105mm how; 60mm, 45 81mm mor; 36 JPz-SK Kuerassier 105mm SP ATK guns; 37mm AA guns.
Navy: 3,600 (incl 550 marines).
   1 lt cargo ship.
   40 lake and river patrol craft (35<).
   1 Cessna U-206G, 2 AT-6G ac.
   1 marine bn.
Bases: Tiquina, Puerto Busch, Riberalta, Trinidad, Guayaramerin.
Air Force: 4,000; 22 combat ac; 9 armed hel.
   1 fighter/trg sqn with 12 T-33A/N, 5 F-86F.
   2 COIN sqns with 5 AT-6G.
   1 Special Operations Group with 9 Hughes 500 armed hel.
   1 SAR hel sqn with 5 SA-315B Gaviao (Lama).
   1 tpt sqn: 1 Electra, 1 L-100-30, 1 C-130H, 1 Sabreliner, 2 Learjet, 2 Arava, 2 CV-440, 3 CV-580, 8 C-47, 3 King Air, 6 F-27, 2 U-3A.
   Utility ac incl 1 Turbo-Porter, 27 Cessna (3 172K, 3 Turbo-Centurion, 8 185/U-17A, 9 U-206C/G, 2 414, 2 421); 5 UH-1H, 2 Bell 212 hel.
   Trg ac incl: 4 T-6G, 3 T-41D, 18 T-23 Uirapuru, 4 SF-260M, 25 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer.
   1 para bn.
   1 airbase defence regt (Bofors L/40mm AA guns).
  
   BRAZIL
Population: 131,000,000.
Military service: 12 months.
Total armed forces: 274,000 (134,200 conscripts).
Est GDP 1982: Cr$ 45,000 bn ($250,682 bn). 1983: 131,000 bn ($227,021 bn).
Est def exp 1981: Cr$ 145.0 bn ($1,557 bn). 1982: 330.0 bn ($1,838 bn).
GDP growth: 1.4% (1982), -3.3% (1983).
Inflation: 100% (1982), 211% (1983).
Debt: $94 bn (1983).
   $1=cruzeiros 93.12 (1981), 179.51 (1982), 577.04 (1983).
Army: 183,000 (132,000 conscripts) (to be 282,000).
   4 army, 2 regional comd, 12 military region, 8 div HQ.
   1 armd cav bde.
   3 armd inf bdes.
   4 mech cav bdes.
   12 motor inf bdes.
   1 AB bde.
   1 AA arty bde.
   10 fd arty regts (2 hy, 1 AB).
   8 coast arty gps.
   10 AA arty gps (5 hy).
   2 special forces bdes (6 'jungle' inf bns).
   2 engr gps.
AFV: 75 M-4 MBT; some 250 M-3A1, 24 X-1A2, 315 M-41B lt tks; 196 EE-9 Cascavel, 29 M-8 armd cars; 170 EE-11 Urutu, 22 M-59, some 600M-113 APC.
Arty. 500 M-116 75mm pack, 413 105mm, 150 M-114 155mm towed, some 60 M-7/-108 105mm SP how;
   some 240 57mm to 12-in. (304.8mm) coast arty guns incl some 100 Mk5 6-in. (152mm); 81mm, 4.2-in. (107mm), 120mm mor;
   SS-06 108mm, SS-40 180mm, SS-60 300mm incl SP MRL.
ATK: 240 M-18A1 57mm, M-20 75mm, 106mm RCL; 3.5-in. (89mm) RL; 300 Cobra ATGW.
AD: 30 35mm, 30 40mm, some 180 57mm, M-2A1 90mm AA guns; 4 Roland II SAM.
(On order. 50 X-1A2 lt tks; SS-60 (FGT-X40) 300mm MRL, TOW ATGW.)
RESERVES: Trained first-line 1,115,000: 400,000 subject to immediate recall. Second-line (limited trg) 225,000; state military police schools, centres.
Navy: 46,000 incl naval air force, marines (2,200 conscripts).
   7 subs: 3 Oberon, 4 US Guppy II/III.
   1 Br Colossus ASW carrier (converting to attack) (capacity 7-8 S-2E ASW ac; 12-13 SH-3D Sea King hel).
   10 US destroyers: 5 Sumner (1 with 1x 4 Seacat SAM, 4 with 1 Wasp hel); 2 Gearing with ASROCASW, 1 Wasp hel; 3Fletcher.
   6 Niteroi frigates with 2x3 Seacat SAM, 1 Lynx hel: 2 GP with 2x2 Exocet SSM, 4 ASW with Ikara.
   9 Imperial Marinheiro patrol vessels.
   5 river patrol ships: 2 Pedro Teixeira, 3 Roraima.
   1 river monitor with 1x3-in. (76mm), 2x40mm, 2x47mm, 6x20mm guns.
   6 Piratini large patrol craft.
   6 Aratu (Schutze-type) coastal minesweepers.
   2 US LST, 3 LCM, 4 US 1610 LCU.
   28 river tpts.
   1 fleet spt tanker; 1 repair, 1 spt ships; 5 ocean, 18 harbour tugs; 1 riverine oiler, 18tpts.
Bases: Rio de Janeiro, Aratu (Salvador, Bahfa), Val-de-Caes (Belem), Natal, Ladario (Mato Grosso province), Rio Negro (Amazonas province).
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (700); 17 combat hel.
   2 ASW hel sqns with 4 SH-3D, 4 ASH-3H Sea King, 9 WG-13 Sea Lynx.
   1 utility hel sqn with 8 Wasp HAS-1, 9 AS-350B Esquilo (Ecureuil).
   1 hel trg sqn with 13 Bell Jet Ranger II.
MARINES: (13,500).
   Fleet Force: 1 amph div (1 comd, 3 inf, 1 service bns, 1 arty gp).
   1 Reinforcement Comd: 5 bns incl 1 engr, 1 special operations, supply.
   Internal Security Force: 6 Regional, 1 Special Operations Gps.
   5 EE-9 Cascavel armd cars; 30 M-113, 5 EE-11 Urutu APC; 8 M-102 105mm how; SS-06 108mm MRL.
   (On order 2 Type 209 subs, 4 corvettes, 1 trg ship; 12 Exocet SSM; 60 Tigerfish torpedoes; 12 LVTP-7A1 APC).
Air Force: 45,000; 215 combat ac.
Air Defence Command: (14 combat ac)
   1 interceptor gp (2 sqns) with 13 F-103E (Mirage IIIEBR), 1F-103D (DBR).
Tactical Command: 8 gps (155 combat ac).
   2 FGA sqns with 32 F-5E,4 F-5B.
   5 COIN sqns with 100 AT-26 Xavante.
   2 recce sqns with 8 RC-95, 11 RT-26 Xavante.
   4 liaison sqns: 27 Neiva C/U/L-42, 2 EMB-810C (U-7A) Seneca ac, 23 UH-1H hel.
   1 hel sqn with 2 UH-1H, 6 SA-330 Puma.
Maritime Command: 4 gps (46 combat ac).
   1 ASW sqn with 8 S-2E; 7 S-2A (trg).
   3 MR/SAR sqns with 5 RC-130E, 14 EMB-110, 12P-95 (EMB-111).
Transport Comd: 6 gps (12 sqns), 6 indep sqns:
   2 sqns with 9 C-130E/H, 1 with 2 KC-130H, 4 with 19 C-115 (DHC-5); 2 Boeing 737, 23 EMB-810C, 9 HS-125, 12 C-91 (HS-748),
   90 EMB-110 Bandeirante (50 C-95, 20 C-95A, 20 -B),6 EMB-121 (VU-9) Xingu, 6 Seneca ac.
Training Command:
   50 T-23 Uirapuru (being replaced by 100 YT-17), 80 T-25 Universal (being replaced), some 38 T-27,90 AT-26, some EMB-110, 5 Neiva U-42 ac;
   16 Bell 47 (H-13J), 8 UH-1D hel.
   1 calibration unit: 2 HS-125 (EC-93, U-93), 2 C-95A, 4 EC-95
   AAM: R-530, Piranha (MAA-1).
(On order 88 AM-X, 12 EMB-120 Brasilia tpt, 100 YT-17 (A-123) Tangard, some 80 T-27 Tucano (EMB-312) trg ac; Piranha AAM.)
Para-Military Forces: Some 185,000 Public Security Forces in state, military police orgs (State Militias) under Army control and considered an Army Reserve.
  
   CHILE
Population: 12,000,000.
Military service: 2 years (Army and Navy only).
Total armed forces: 96,000 (33,000 conscripts).
GDP 1981: pC 1,288.9 bn ($33,049 bn). 1982: 1,228.7 bn ($24,135 bn).
Est def exp 1980: pC 80.0 bn ($2,051 bn). 1981: 82.0 bn ($2,103 bn).
GDP growth: -14% (1982), - 1 % (1983).
Inflation: 10% (1982), 27.0% (1983).
Debt: $11 bn (1982).
   $1=pesos 39.00 (1980/1), 50.909 (1982).
Army: 53,000 (30,000 conscripts).
   6 div HQ.
   2 armd regts.
   8 cav regts (3 mech, 5 horsed).
   24 inf regts (14 with 2 bns, 10 mountain with 1 to 4 bns each).
   10 arty bns (6 fd, 3 mountain, 1 AA).
   7 engr bns.
   1 hel-borne ranger unit.
   Army Aviation: 1 composite gp with 1 tac bn and spt unit.
   150 M-4A3, 21 AMX-30 MBT; 15 M-3, 50 M-41 lt tks; 200 EE-9 Cascavel armd cars; 60 M-113, 150 Cardoen/MOWAG Piranha, 250 EE-11 Urutu, APC;
   124 105mm how; 12 Mk F3 155mm SP how; M-l 81mm, 120mm mor; M-18 57mm, 106mm RCL; Milan/Mamba ATGW;
   HS-639/665 20mm, 35mm AA guns.
Avn: 6 C-212A10 tpts, 1 Citation, 8 Dakota 236, 4 Navajo, 18 R-172 Hawk XP trg ac;
   12 SA-330FL Puma, 1 AS-332 Super Puma, 10 SA-315B Lama, 2 AB-206B hel.
   (On order 50 Piranha, Orca, Alacrdn, APC).
RESERVES: 240,000.
Navy: 28,000 (3,000 conscripts), incl naval air and marines.
   1 Type 209, 2 Oberon subs.
   2 cruisers: 1 Br County with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM, 1x2 Seaslug, 2x2 Seacat SAM, 1 hel; 1 Swed Gota Lejon.
   4 destroyers: 2 Almirante with 4 Exocet MM-38, 2x4 Seacat, 2 US Sumner with 1 hel.
   2 Leander frigates with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM, 1x4 Seacat SAM, 1 hel.
   2 Saar-lV FAC(G) with 6 Gabriel SSM.
   4 Lurssen-type FAC(T).
   4 US large patrol craft: 2 Sotoyomo, 1 Cherokee, 1 PC-1638.
   22 coastal patrol craft, 20<.
   1 5I1-1152 LST, 2 Batral lt, 2 amph tpts, 3 LSM, 1 LCU.
   3 tankers, 66 spt ships/tpts.
   (On order 1 Type 209 subs, 1 GW destroyer (1984), 1 Reshef FAC).
Bases: Talcahuano, Valparaiso, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Puerto Williams, Iquique, Arica.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (500); 5 combat ac.
   1 MR sqn with 5 EMB-111N.
   1 utility sqn with 3 EMB-110N Bandeirante, 3 C-212A.
   1 hel sqn with 9 Alouette III, 4 SH-57 (Bell 206A).
   1 trg sqn with 10 Pilatus PC-7.
MARINES: (5,000).
   4 bn gps, each with 1 inf bn+, 1 coast, 1 AA arty btys.
   MOWAG Roland, LVTP-5 APC; 16 105mm, 35 155mm how; 16 GPF M-3 155mm coast guns; 50 60mm, 50 81mm mor; 20 37mm AA guns; Crotale SAM.
Air Force: 15,000; 102 combat ac.
   4 Air Bdes.
   4 combat wings and 2 gps; each wing also has a comms fit with ac/hel.
   2 FGA sqns with 31 Hunter F-71, 15 F-5E, 3 F-5F.
   2 COIN sqns with 29 A-37B.
   1 ftr/recce sqn with 11 Mirage 50FC, 9 C-101 Aviojet.
   2 photo recce sqns with 2 Canberra PR-9, 2 Learjet 315-A.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 Boeing 727-22C, 1 707-351C, 2 C-130H, 5 DC-6B, 9 Beech 99A, 1 King Air 90 ac; 2 SA-315B Lama, 1 Bell 47 hel.
   Utility/liaison fits incl 17 DHC-6, 3 Twin Bonanza ac, 3 S-55T, 4 Lama hel.
   1 trg wing, 3 flying schools: 4 Hunter T-72, 30 T-34A, 25 T-37B/C, 8 T-41A, 4 Piper T-35 Pillan, 10 Cessna 180, 10 Piper Dakota 236 ac;
   6 UH-1H, 3 Bell 212 hel.
   AAM: AIM-9L Sidewinder, Shafrir.
   ASM: AGM-65B Maverick, AS-11/-12.
   1 AA arty regt of 5 gps with GAI-CO1 twin 20mm, K-63 twin 35mm, 24 M-1A1 37mm AA guns; Blowpipe, 12 Cactus (Crotale) SAM, 4 radar sqns.
   (On order: 3 Mirage 50 ftr, 13 C-101BB, 2 EMB-120 tpt, Dakota, Pillan ac; 3 Super Puma hel.)
Para-Military Forces: 27,000 Carabineros.
  
   COLOMBIA
Population: 28,200,000.
Military service: 2 years.
Total armed forces: 69,700 (28,500 conscripts).
GDP 1981: pC 2,005 bn ($36,795 bn), 1982: 2,458.8 bn ($38,358 bn).
Def exp 1983: pC 35.940 bn ($455,762 m). Est budget 1984: pC 31.240 bn ($320,568 m).
GDP growth: -0.5 (1981), 1.3% (1982).
Inflation: 25% (1982), 17% (1983).
Debt: $10.6 bn (1982).
   $1=pesos 54.491 (1981), 64.102 (1982), 78.857 (1983), 97.452 (mid-1984).
Army: 57,000 (28,500 conscripts).
   10 inf bdes ('Regional Bdes'): 6 with 3 inf, 1 arty, 1 engr gp, 1 mech or horsed cav gp; 4 with 2 inf bns only.
   1 trg bde, incl Presidential Guard (mech bn).
   1 indep mech gp.
   1 Ranger, 1 para, 1 AA bns.
   12 M-3A1 lt tks; 41 M-8,200 EE-9 Cascavel armd cars; 15 EE-11 Urutu, 45 M-3A2 halftrack, M-113A1 APC;
   48 M-101 105mm how; 125 81mm, 148 107mm mor; 30 M-1A1 40mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 70,000.
Navy: 8,500 (incl 2,500 marines).
   2 Type 209 subs.
   2 SX-506 midget subs (in reserve).
   2 destroyers: 1 Holland, 1 US Sumner.
   4 frigates: 3 FS-1500 with 8 Exocet MM-40 SSM, 1 USCourtney.
   3 US Cherokee large patrol craft.
   6 gunboats: 2 Asheville, 3 Arauca, 1 Barranquilla.
   2 coastal, 8 river patrol craft.
   2 marine bns; 3 indep coys, cdo units.
   (On order 1 FV-1500 corvette.)
NAVAL AIR: forming late 1984 with 1 ac sqn, 4 hel fits.
Bases: Cartagena, Buenaventura (2 more are planned).
Air Force: 4,200; 46 combat ac, 17 armed hel.
Combat Command:
   2 FGA sqns: 9 Mirage 5COA, 2 5COR, 2 5COD; 12 Kfir C-2.
   1 COIN sqn with 12 AT-33A and 9 A-37D.
   1 recce hel sqn: 10 Hughes 500C (OH-6A), 7 Hughes 300C.
Military Air Transport Command:
   Tpt sqn: 1 C-130E, 4 C-54, 20 C-47, 3 HS-748, 3 Arava, 2 F-28, 10 DHC-2, 1 Aero Commander 560A, 12 PC-6 Turbo-Porter.
   Hel sqn: 19 UH-1B/H, 13 Bell 205A1, 20 SA-315B Lama.
Training and Support Command:
   11 T-37C, 27 T-41D, 3 RT-33, 12 T-33A, 25 T-34A/B, 10 A-37B ac; 8 Bell 47 (OH-13), 2 Hughes 300C hel.
Skyguard/Sparrow AD system.
   AAM: R-530.
   (On order 2 F-27 tpt, 14 EMB-326 Xavante trg ac; 12 UH-1H, 9 Hughes 300C hel; AIM/RIM-7F Sparrow AAM; ASM.)
Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO) 500.
Para-Military Forces: National Police 50,000; 1 HS-748 ac, 30 hel; Coastguard: 9 craft<.
  
   CUBA
Population: 10,000,000.
Military service: 3 years.
Total armed forces: 153,000 (some 94,500 conscripts).
Est GNP 1981: pC 12.085 bn ($16,525 bn).* 1982: 12.251 bn ($15,488 bn).*
   (* The Cuban economy is heavily subsidized through Soviet aid (est. $3.0-4.5 p.a.). GNP in 1974 pesos.)
Est def exp 1982: pC 990 m ($1,252 bn). (Official budget pC 228.40 m ($312,320 m).)
GNP growth: 2.5% (1982), 5% (1983).
Est FMA: $300 m (1981), 300 m (1982).
Debt: $3.5 bn (1983).
   $1=pesos 0.7313 (1981), 0.7910 (1982).
Army: 125,000 (incl proportion of Ready
   Reserve) (some 75,000 conscripts).
   3 Regional Commands, 2 Army, 4 Corps HQ.
   3 armd divs (2 cadre).
   3 mech divs.
   13 inf divs (8 cadre, others at about 60%).
   1 AB assault bde; Special Force (1,000) 2 bns.
   8 indep inf regts.
   1 arty div (3 fd arty bdes).
AFV: 350 T-34,350 T-54/-55, some 150 T-62 MBT; 40 PT-76 lt tks; some 150 BRDM-1/-2 armd cars; some 100 BMP MICV; 400 BTR-40/-60/-152 APC.
Arty. 1,200 guns/how incl: M-1942 76mm, 85mm, 100 SU-100 SP, 122mm, M-46 130mm, D-l, D-2, ML-20 152mm;
   BM-21 122mm, BM-14 140mm, BM-24 240mm MRL; 65 FROG-A/-1 SSM; M-43 120mm mor,
   additionally, some 60 JS-2 hy, T-34/85 tks, SU-100 SP guns may be static defence arty.
ATK: M-1943 57mm guns; 57mm RCL; Sagger, Snapper ATGW.
AD: At least 26 regts: 1,500 AA guns incl: ZU-23, 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm towed, ZSU-23-4 23mm, 30mm M-53 (twin) /BTR-60P, ZSU-57 57mm SP;
   SA-7/-9 SAM.
RESERVES: Ready Reserves 190,000 (serve 45 days per year); to fill out Regular and 18 Reserve inf divs.
Navy: 12,000 (8,500 conscripts).
   4 Sov subs: 3 F-class; 1 F-class (non-operational; trg).
   2 Sov Koni frigates.
   11 Sov large patrol craft: 9 SO-1, 2 Kronshtadt.
   26 Sov FAC(G) with Styx SSM: 5 Osa-I, 13 Osa-II, 8 Komar<.
   26 Sov FAC(T): 8 Turya, 6 P-6<, 12 P-4 <.
   22 SovZhuk FAC(P) <; 12 coastal patrol craft<
   12 Sov minesweepers: 2 Sonya, 10 Yevgenya<.
   2 Polnocny LSM, 7 T-4 LCM.
NAVAL INFANTRY: (some 350); 1 amph assault bn.
COASTAL DEFENCE:
   M-1931/37 122mm, M-1937 152mm, SM-4-1 130mm guns; 50 Samlet SSM.
Bases: Cienfuegos, Cabanas, Havana, Mariel, Punta Ballenatos, Banes.
Air Force: 16,000, incl air defence forces (11,000 conscripts); 250 combat ac, some 38 armed hel.
   4 FGA sqns: 1 with 15 MiG-17; 3 with 36 MiG-23BN Flogger F.
   16 interceptor sqns: 2 with 30 MiG-21F; 3 with 34 -21PFM; 2 with 20 -21PFMA; 8 with 100 -21bis; 1 with 15 MiG-23 FloggerE.
   4 tpt sqns: 16 I1-14, 35 An-2, 3 An-24, 22 An-26,4 Yak-40.
   8 hel sqns: 60 Mi-4, 40 Mi-8 (perhaps 20 armd), Trainers incl 2 MiG-23U, 10 MiG-21U, some An-2, 30 Zlin 326, some L-39.
   AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll, AA-8 Aphid.
   30 SAM bns: 28 with 60 SA-2, 140 SA-3; 2 with 12 SA-6.
   The Civil Airline has 9 11-62, some 4 Tu-154, which are used as tp tpts.
Forces Abroad: Angola 19,000;
   Congo 750; Ethiopia 3,000; Mozambique 750; Other Africa 500; Iraq 2,000; Libya 3,000; S. Yemen 300; Nicaragua 3,000; Afghanistan ?500.
Para-Military Forces: Ministry of Interior State Security 15,000; Frontier Guards 3,500; some 22 craft.
   Ministry of Defence: Youth Labour Army 100,000; Civil Defence Force: 100,000;
   Territorial Militia 530,000.
  
   DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
Population: 6,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 23,000.
GDP 1982: $RD 7.877 bn ($US 7.877 bn). Est 1983: 8.735 bn ($US 8.735 bn).
Def exp 1982: $RD 127.9 m ($US 127.9 m). 1983: 129.3 m ($US 129.3 m).
GDP growth: 1.6% (1982).
Inflation: 7.6% (1982), 8% (1983).
Debt: $2.1 bn (1982).
   $1=peso 1.00 (1982/3).
Army: 14,000.
   3 Defence Zones.
   3 inf bdes (10 bns).
   1 fd arty regt (2 bns).
   1 mixed armd bn.
   1 Presidential Guard (mounted rifle) bn.
   1 engr bn.
   13 AMX lt tks; 20 AML armd cars; 8 V-150 Commando, 25 M-3A1 half-track APC; 20 M-101 105mm how; 24 120mm mor.
Navy: 4,500, incl naval inf.
   1 Cdn River frigate (trg).
   5 US corvettes: 2 Admirable (ex-minesweepers), 3 Cohoes.
   5 large patrol craft (3 US Argo, in reserve).
   11 coastal patrol craft (8<).
   1 LSM, 2 LCU.
   1 naval inf bn; 1 cdo unit.
Bases: Santo Domingo, Bani, Haina.
Air Force: 4,500; 19 combat ac.
   1 ftr sqn with 8 F-51D Mustang (to retire), 11 T-34B Mentor.
   1 tpt sqn with 5 C-47, 1 DHC-2, 1 Aero Commander.
   1 hel sqn with 2 Bell 205A-1, 2 UH-12E, 6 OH-6A, 3 Alouette II/III, 2 H-19, 2 UH-1.
   1 Presidential tpt fit with 1 SA-365 Dauphin 2.
   Trg: 12 T-6G, 2 AT-11, 2 T-33A, 3 Cessna 170, 4 T-41D, T-34.
   1 para gp.
   1 AA arty bn: 20 40mm AA guns.
Para-Military Forces: Gendarmerie 10,000.
  
   ECUADOR
Population: 9,700,000.
Military service: 2 years, selective.
Total armed forces: 39,300.
GDP 1982: ES 408.9 bn ($13,618 bn). Est 1983: 573.5 bn ($13.0 bn).
Est def exp 1982: ES 6.898 bn ($229,734 m). 1983: 7.898 bn ($179,032 m).
GNP growth: 1.4% (1982).
Inflation: 25% (1982), 50% (1983).
Debt: $8.0 bn (1983).
   $1=sucres 30.026 (1982), 44.115 (1983).
Army: 30,000.
   4 Military zones.
   6 div HQ.
   2 armd bdes
   9 inf bdes (3 'jungle')
   1 Presidential Guard regt.
   1 special forces (AB) bde of 4 units.
   3 arty gps.
   3 AA bns (12 btys).
   2 engr bns.
   45 M-3, 150 AMX-13 lt tks; 27 AML-60, 18 AML-90 armd cars; 20 M-113, 55 AMX-VCI APC;
   M-56 pack, 18 M-101 105mm towed, 10 Mk F3 155mm SP how; 12 160mm mor; 28 M-167 20mm, 30 40mm AA guns; 240 BlowpipeSAM.
Avn: 3 DHC-5D, 3 Turbo-Porter, 1 Learjet, 2 King Air, 3 Arava, 6 Cessna (2 T-41D, 3 172G, 1 185D) tpt ac;
   5 Puma, 3 Super Puma, 12 Gazelle, 1 Lama, 1 Alouette III hel.
Navy: 4,500 incl some 1,000 marines.
   2 Type 209 submarines.
   2 US destroyers: 1 Gearing, 1 Lawrence.
   6 Esmeraldas corvettes with 4 Exocet MM-40 SSM, 1x4 Albatros/Aspide SAM, 1 AB-212 hel.
   6 FAC(G): 3 Quito (Lurssen) with 4 Otomat SSM, 3 Manta with 4 Gabriel 2.
   7 coastal patrol craft <.
   4 US LSM.
   1 Super King Air, 3 T-34C, 1 Arava, 1 Cessna 320E ac; 2 Alouette III hel.
   3 marine bns, 2 on garrison duties; 1 cdo.
Bases: Guayaquil, San Lorenzo, Galapagos Islands.
Air Force: 4,800; 65 combat ac.
   4 Wings.
   1 lt bbr sqn with 3 Canberra B-6.
   2 interceptor sqns: 1 with 15 Mirage F-1JE, 2 F-1JB; 1 with 10 F-5E, 2 -5F.
   2 FGA sqns: 9 Jaguar (7 S, 2 B), 12 Kfir C-2.
   1 COIN sqn with 6 A-37B.
   1 COIN/trg sqn: 6 BAC-167 Strikemaster Mk 89.
   Military Air Transport Gp (incl civil/military airline): 1 Boeing 727-2T3, 4 707, 3 720, 4 Electra, 1 C-130H, 1 L-100-30, 2 DC-6B, 2 HS-748, 5 Arava.
   Liaison/SAR fits: 1 Navajo ac; 2 SA-330C Puma, 6 SA-316 Alouette III, 2 Bell UH-1D hel.
   Training ac incl 20 T-34C, 10 T-41, Cessna A-150, T-33A.
   AAM: R-550 Magic.
   1 para sqn.
Para-Military Forces: coastguard (500): 2 PGM-71, 14 small patrol craft.
  
   EL SALVADOR
Population: 5,300,000.
Military service: conscription, selective, 2 years.
Total armed forces: 41,650 (being increased).
GDP 1981: C 8.647 bn ($3,459 bn). 1982: 8.915 bn ($3,566 bn).
Est def exp* 1982: C 347.5 m ($139.0 m). 1983: 393.75 m ($157.50 m). (* Including 'public security sector' budget.)
GDP growth: -9.5% (1981), -6.0% (1982).
Inflation: 12% (1981), 14% (1982).
Est FMA: $82 m (1982), $126 m (1983), $200 m (1984).
   $1=colones 2.50 (1981/3).
Army: 39,000.
   3 Military zones.
   4 inf bdes (9 bns).
   1 mech cav regt.
   1 arty bde (2 bns).
   14 indep inf bns.
   1 engr bn.
   1 AA arty bn
   1 para bn j
   3 special forces bns.
   12 AMX-13 lt tks; 18 AML-90 armd cars; 10 M-113, 20 UR-416 APC;
   30 M-101, 6 Yug M-56 105mm, 6 M-114 155mm how; 81mm, 8 UB-M52 120mm mor; M-18 57mm, M-20 75mm RCL; LAW RL;
   20mm, L/70 40mm AA guns.
RESERVES: 12 inf regts (48 bns).
Navy: 300.
   6 patrol boats: 3 31 -metre Cam craft, 1 20-metre
   Sewart, 2 US river C
Air Force: 2,350 (incl AD and security gp); 59 combat ac, 9 armed hel.
   2 FGA sqns with 11 Ouragan, 18 Super Mystere B-2.
   1 lt COIN sqn with 7 Magister, 17 A-37.
   1 recce unit with 6 O-2.
   1 tpt sqn with 5 C-47, 2 DC-6B, 5 Arava, 2 C-123K.
   2 hel sqns: 1 COIN with 9 UH-1H; 1 SAR/liaison with 3 SA-315B Lama, 2 Alouette III, 1 FH-1100.
   Trg: 3 T-34, 8 T-6, 6 T-41, 9 Cessna (7 180, 1 182, 1 185), 3 CM-170 Magister.
   1 para bn.
   1 AA arty bn with Yug M-55 20mm (some SP) guns.
   (On order: 9 UH-1H hel.)
Para-Military Forces: National Guard 2,500; National Police 4,500; Treasury Police 2,500; Orden (territorial civil defence force) perhaps 70,000 (2,000 effective).
Opposition: perhaps 10,000. Direccidn Revolucionaria Unificada (DRU) - political wing Frente Democrdtico Revolucionaria (FDR),
   military wing Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberacion Nacional (FMLN): 8,000 plus 6,000 'reserves' claimed - plus 4 smaller gps.
  
   GUATEMALA
Population: 8,200,000.
Military service: conscription; 24-30 months.
Total armed forces: 40,000 (being increased). (National Armed Forces are combined; the Army provides logistic support to the Navy and Air Force.)
GDP 1982: q 8.607 bn ($8,607 bn). 1983: 8.724 bn ($8,724 bn).
Est def exp 1982: q 92.0 m ($92.0 m) *. (* Excl 'private-sector contributions' (some $60m).)
GDP growth: -0.5% (1982), -3.5% (1983).
Debt: $1.6 bn (1982).
   $1=quetzal 1.00 (1982/3).
Army: 38,000.
   4 Regional bde HQ:
   1 armd bn.
   17 inf bns.
   4 fd arty gps (12 btys).
   1 AA arty gp (2 btys).
   1 engr bn.
   4 recce sqns.
   1 Presidential Guard bde.
   1 Special Forces bde (2 bns).
   8 AMX-13, 10 M-41A3, 7 M-3A1 lt tks; 8 M-8, 10 RBY-1, 6 M-3A1 armd cars; 15 M-113, 7 V-150 Commando APC;
   12 M-116 75mm pack, 36 M-101 105mm how; M-1 81mm, 12 M-30 4.2-in. (107mm), 12 ECIA 120mm mor; 12 M-1A1 40mm AA guns.
Navy: 1,000 incl 650 marines (4 coys).
   15 coastal patrol craft.
   1 LCM; 2 small tp carriers.
   8 small craft; some armed.
   12 Zodiac-type assault boats (marines).
Baser. Santo Tomas de Castillas, Sipacate.
Air Force: 1,00; 16 combat ac, 4 armed hel.
   1 COIN sqn with 10 A-37B, 6 PC-7 Turbo Trainer.
   1 tpt sqn with 1 DC-6B, 10 C-47, 8 Arava.
   1 comms sqn with 17 Cessna: 4 170A/B, 8 172K, 2 180.2U-206C, 1 310.
   1 hel sqn with 25 Bell (perhaps 6 operational): 9 UH-1D (4 armed), 1 212, 6 412, 5 206B, 4 206L-1.
   1 Presidential fit with 1 Super King Air 200.
   Trg: 5 PC-7 Turbo-Trainer, 5 T-33A, 3 T-37C, 12 T-41.
Para-Military Forces: National Police 9,500; Treasury Police 2,100;
   Territorial Militia (500,000) formed; 70,000 may be armed. 10 armed lt ac.
  
   HONDURAS
Population: 4,250,000.
Military service: conscription; 18-24 months.
Total armed forces: 17,200 (12,250 conscripts).
GDP 1982: L 5.626 bn ($2,813 bn). 1983: 5.889 bn ($2,944 bn)
Est def exp 1981: L 90.3 m ($45.15 m). 1982: 120.0 m ($60.0 m).
Est FMA: $ 32.0 m (1982), $50.0 m (1983).
Debt: $1.9 bn (1982).
   $1=lempiras 2.00 (1981/2).
Army: 15,500 (12,000 conscripts).
   1 inf bde (1 tk, 3 inf bns).
   1 Presidential Guard (2 inf bns).
   3 inf bns (one mech).
   3 arty bns.
   1 engr bn.
   1 special forces bn.
   16 Scorpion lt tks; 12 RBY Mk 1 recce; M-116 75mm pack, 24 M-102 105mm how; M-1 81mm, 30 120mm mor; 106mm RCL.
Navy: 500 (50 conscripts).
   9 Swift ships patrol craft: 1 106-ft, 3 105-ft fast, 5 65-ft coastal<.
Bases: Puerto Cortes, Amapala.
Air Force: 1,200 (200 conscripts); 30 combat aircraft.
   1 FGA sqn with 12 Super Mystere B2.
   1 COIN sqn with 4 F-86E Sabre, 10 A-37B, 4 Tucano (8 F-8E in reserve).
   1 tpt sqn with 10 C-47, 2 Arava, 1 Electra, 1 Westwind.
   1 spt sqn with 1 Beech Baron, 4 Cessna (2 180, 2 185), 1 PA-31 Cheyenne ac; 2 S-76 hel.
   1 hel sqn with 10 UH-1H (on loan), 5 UH-1B.
   Trg: 12 T-28A, 7 T-41A.
   (On order. 4 Tucano COIN, 4 C-101BB Aviojet trg).
Para-Military Forces: Public Security Forces (FUSEP) (national police) 4,500.
  
   MEXICO
Population: 78,000,000.
Military service: voluntary, with part-time conscript militia.
Total armed forces: 120,000 regular, 250,000 part-time conscripts.
GDP 1981: pM 5,875 bn ($239,649 bn). 1982: 9,256 bn ($164,108 bn).
Est def exp 1983: pM 72.0 bn ($ 599.530 m). Budget 1984: 94.243 bn ($581,747 m).
GDP growth: -0.2% (1982).
Inflation: 100% (1982), 104% (1983).
Debt: $90 bn (1983).
   $1=pesos 24.515 (1981), 56.402 (1982), 120.094 (1983), 162.0 (mid-1984).
Army: 94,500 regular, 250,000 conscripts.
   1 inf div HQ.
   1 mech bde gp (Presidential Guard) (3 bns).
   2 inf bde gps (each of 2 inf, 1 armd recce, 1 arty bns).
   1 AB bde (2 bns).
   1 armd regt.
   1 recce regt.
   35 Zonal Garrisons inch 28 indep cav (being mot), 3 arty regts, 64 indep inf bns.
   AA, engr and support units.
   40 M-3A1, 20 M-5A1 lt tks; 70 M-3A1, 15 M-8, 40 Panhard ERC-90, 15 MAC-1 armd cars; 50 HWK-11, 3 M-3 APC;
   18 M-116 75mm pack, 50 M-101 105mm towed, some 40 M-8 75mm and M-7 105mm SP how; 1,600 60mm, 81mm, 4.2-in. (107mm) and 60 120mm mor,
   35 M-3 37mm ATK guns; 40 12.7mm AA guns.
   (On order 27 Panhard recce veh.)
Navy: 20,000, incl naval air force and marines.
   3 US destroyers: 2 Gearing, 1 Fletcher.
   6 frigates: 4 US Lawrence/Crosley, 1 Durango, 1 US Edsall (trg ship).
   6 Halcon (B-119) corvettes with 1 BO-105 hel.
   34 US patrol ships: 18 Auk, 16 Admirable ex-minesweepers.
   32 Azteca large patrol craft.
   14 patrol craft<: 5 Polimar, 2 Azueta, 1 Guanajuato coastal, 6 river.
   2 US 5I1-1152, 1 De Soto LST; 1 repair ship.
   Coastal defence: M-1902/1906 75mm, L/27 120mm guns.
Bases: Gulf: Vera Cruz, Tampico, Chetumal, Ciudad del Carmen, Yukalpeten.
   Pacific: Acapulco, Ensenada, La Paz, Puerto Cortes, Guaymas, Mazatlan, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Puerto Madero, Lazaro Cardenas.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (300); 8 combat ac.
   1 MR sqn with 8 HU-16 Albatross.
   1 liaison sqn with 1 Learjet 24D, 3 F-27, 6 Bonanza; 11 Cessna (3 150J, 3 180, 3 310, 2 337).
   1 hel sqn with 4 Alouette II, 5 Bell 47G, 5 MBB BO-105.
   Trg: 4 T-34B Mentor.
MARINES: (4,500).
   3 bn HQ.
   19 security coys.
   (On order. 6 Azteca and Olmeca, 4 Aguila patrol boats.)
Air Force: 5,500 (2,000 para bde); 85 combat ac.
   1 interceptor sqn with 10 F-5E, 2 F-5F.
   6 COIN sqns with 55 PC-7, 10 T-33.
   1 photo/recce sqn with 8 Aero Commander 500S.
   2 SAR sqns: 1 with 8 Arava ac; 1 with 2 Alouette
   II/III, 1 Hiller 12E, 3 Puma, 17 Bell (1 47G, 5
   206B, 1212, 10 205A) hel.
   1 Presidential (tpt) sqn with 9 Boeing 727, 2 737, 1 F-27, 1 Jetstar, 1 Electro, 1 HS-125-400, 5 Sabreliner, 1 Cessna 310R ac; 1 Bell 212, 2 Puma hel.
   4 tpt sqns with 3 DC-6/-7, 2 C-118, 5 C-54, 12 C-47, 3 Skyvan, 1 Islander, 6 CF-27, 2 DHC-5D, 1 Cessna 182, 2 U-206E.
   Trg: some 12 T-28D, 1 Baron, 20 Beech F-33-9, 2 King Air, 34 Musketeer, 5 PC-7 Turbo Trainer, 20 CAP-10B ac.
   1 para bn.
Para-Military Forces: Coastguard; 6 patrol craft.
   17 ac and hel incl: 1 C-47, 2 Baron, 6 C-45, 2 Cessna 402, 4 Alouette HI, 2 Bell UH-1H.
  
   NICARAGUA
Population: 3,200,000.
Military service: conscription, 2 years.
Total armed forces: 61,800.
Est GDP 1981: $C 26.250 bn ($US 2.612 bn).
Est def exp range 1981: $C 0.945-1.7 bn ($US 94.03-169.154 m). 1982: 2.1-2.3 bn ($US 208.955-228.856 m).
GDP growth: - 3 % (1982), 3% (1983).
Inflation: 22% (1982).
Debt: $2.4 bn (1982).
   $1 =cordobas 10.050 (1981/2).
Army: 60,000 (incl 12,000 Reserves).
   7 Military Regions.
   1 mot inf bde.
   3 armd bns.
   12 inf bns (being reorganized).
   3 COIN (lt inf) bns.
   1 fd arty gp (3 bns).
   1 engr bn.
   1 AA arty gp (9 btys; with Air Force).
   3 M-4A3, 60 T-54/-55 MBT; 10 PT-76 lt tks; 20 BRDM-2, 20 Staghound armd cars; 80 BTR-40/-60/-152 APC;
   30 M-1942 76mm guns; 12 105mm, 24 M-1938 122mm how; 12 D-30, some 12 D-20 152mm gun/how;
   perhaps 12 BM-21 122mm MRL; 24 120mm mor; SPG-9 73mm RCL; 48 ZIS-2 57mm AA.
Navy: 300.
   1 Fr, 4 Dabur, 1 Sewart, 8 other coastal patrol craft; 1 LCM.
Air Force: 1,500, incl AD; 12 combat ac.
   1 COIN sqn: 3 T-33A, 3 T-28D, 6 SF-260 Warrior.
   1 tpt sqn: 1 C-212A, 1 Arava, 4 C-47, An-2, 1 Falcon 20.
   1 hel sqn: 2 OH-6A, 2 Alouette III.
   Trg: 6 L-39.
AD (Army/Air Force): 138 ZPU-4 14.5mm, ZU-23 23mm, 6 M-1939 37mm, some M-1950 57mm guns, SA-7 SAM.
   (On order: MiG-21 ftrs; 100 Matra LRF-2 68mm ASM pods.)
RESERVES: (all services): 60,000, 12,000 on duty in army.
Para-Military Forces: Border Guard, some 4,000 (under Army); 6 bns. Civilian Militia, perhaps 40,000. Ministry of Interior Troops.
Opposition: some 15,000; perhaps 5,000 combat elms. Democratic Revolutionary Alliance, Nicaraguan Democratic Force.
  
   PARAGUAY
Population: 3,600,000.
Military service: 18 months; Navy 2 years.
Total armed forces: 16,900 (10,900 conscripts).
GDP 1981: Pg 708.69 bn ($5,625 bn). 1982: 737.04 bn ($5,850 bn).
Est def exp 1981: Pg 11.04 bn ($87,619 m). 1982: 14 bn ($111.111 m).
GDP growth: -2.5% (1982).
Inflation: 7.7% (1982), 18% (1983).
   $1 =guaranies 126.00 (1981/2).
Army: 12,500 (9,000 conscripts).
   3 corps HQ.
   1 cav div (bde) (2 mech cav regts, 1 mot inf bn, 1 arty bty).
   6 inf divs (cadre; bn gps).
   2 indep cav regts.
   1 indep inf bn.
   1 Presidential Escort regt.
   1 spt comd with 1 arty regt, 5 engr bns, sigs; 1 log comd.
   16 M-4A3 MBT; 15 M-3A1 lt tks; 12 M-8 recce, 12 M-3 APC; 25 Model 1935 75mm, 10 M-101 105mm how; 24 20mm, 12 M-1A1 40mm AA guns.
RESERVES: some 25,000; 12 inf regts on mobilization.
Navy: 2,500 (1,200 conscripts).
   2 Humaita river defence vessels.
   3 corvettes (Arg Bouchard minesweepers).
   13 patrol craft: 1 large, 12 coastal<.
   1 US LSM (with hel deck: UH-12); 2 LCU.
   6 spt/cargo ships.
   1 marine 'regt' (bn) (400).
   Coastal Defence: 8 M-1911 3-in. (76.2mm), 6 mobile 152mm guns.
NAVAL AIR FORCE (55):
   Utility ac: 1 C-47, 9 Cessna (4 U-206, 4 150M, 1 210).
   Trg ac: 2 T-6G.
   Hel: 2 OH-13, 2 UH-12E.
   (On order: 1 45-metre river patrol vessel).
Bases: Asuncion/Puerto Sajonia, Bahfa Negra, Puerto Presidente Stroessner.
Air Force: 1,900 (700 conscripts); 15 combat ac.
   1 composite sqn:
   COIN fit: 8 EMB-326 Xavante, 7 AT-6G.
   Liaison fit: 7 Cessna (5 185, 1 337, 1 402) ac.
   Hel fit: 14 Bell 47G/OH-13A, 2 UH-12/SL-4.
   1 tpt sqn with 2 C-54, 3 DC-6B, 1 C-13 ID, 23 C-47, 1 DHC-6 (VIP), 1 DHC-3, PBY-5A.
   Trg: 10 Neiva T-25, 12 T-37C, 8 T-23 Uirapuru, 10 T-6, 5 T-41, 8 Fokker S-11, 1 MS-760A.
   1 para regt (bn).
   (On order Xavante COIN, 4 C-212 Aviocar, 10 Bandeirante tpt, Uirapuru trg ac.)
Para-Military Forces: internal security forces (1,500).
  
   PERU
Population: 19,800,000.
Military service: 2 years, selective.
Total armed forces: 135,500 (some 71,000 conscripts).
GDP 1981: S 8,416.0 bn ($19,903 bn). 1982: 13,813 bn ($19,802 bn).
Def exp 1982: S 1,134 bn ($1,626 bn).* Budget 1983: 1,345 bn ($828 m).
   (* Original budget reportedly reduced by 50%. New aircraft purchase (some $700 m) financed by long-term credit.
   Arms purchase debt to USSR some $750 m.)
GDP growth: 0.7% (1982), -12% (1983).
Inflation: 80% (1982), 125% (1983).
FMA 1982: $700 m.
Debt: $11.6 bn (1982).
   $1=soles 422.85 (1981), 697.57 (1982), 1,625 (1983).
Army: 75,000 (51,000 conscripts).
   5 Military Regions.
   2 armd divs (bdes).
   1 cav div; 3 horsed regts.
   7 inf divs (bdes, each of 4 bns, 1 arty gp).
   1 para-cdo div (bde; 1 para, 2 cdo bns).
   1 jungle div (bde).
   2 indep fd arty gps.
   1 AA gp, 1 SAM gp.
   2 indep inf gps.
   4 engr bns.
   3 armd recce regts.
   2 air sqns: 1 liaison, 1 hel.
   270 T-54/-55, 25 M-4A3 MBT; 110 AMX-13 lt tks; 60 M-8/-20, 35 M-3A1, 20 Fiat 6616 scout cars; 150 M-113, 120 UR-416 APC;
   10 M-56 pack, 170 M-101 105mm, 30 122mm incl SP, 30 M-1954 130mm, 36 M-114 155mm guns/how; 300 M-1951 120mm mor;
   40 40mm, M-3 76mm towed, ZSU-23-4 SP AA guns; SA-3/-7 SAM.
Avn: 3 Helio H-391 ac; 29 Mi-8, 6 Alouette II hel.
   (On order 80 TAM, 100 SPz-12-3 MICV; 150 M-113 APC; 2 Nomad lt tpt ac.)
Navy: 20,500 (perhaps 7,000 conscripts) incl naval air, marines.
   12 subs: 6 Type 209,6 US (2 Guppy I, 4 Abtao).
   2 Neth De Ruyter cruisers (1 with 3 SH-3D hel).
   10 destroyers: 2 Br Daring with 8 Exocet MM-38 SSM; 8 Neth (1 Holland, 7 Friesland).
   2 Carvajal frigates with 8 Otomat SSM, 1x8 Albatros/Aspide SAM, 1 AB-212 hel.
   6 PR-72P FAC(G) with 4 Exocet MM-38 SSM.
   5 river gunboats.
   4 lake patrol craft<.
   2 US LST, 2 US LSM.
   2 tpts; 3 replenishment, 2 spt tankers.
NAVAL AIR FORCE: 9 combat ac; 10 combat hel.
   1 ASW sqn with 7 S-2E Tracker.
   1 ASW hel sqn with 4 SH-3D, 6 AB-212.
   1 MR sqn with 2 F-27MPA.
   1 utility hel sqn with 5 Bell 206B.
   Tpts: 2 C-47, 1 Aztec.
   Trg: 6 T-34A/C, 3 Beech B-200 ac; 4 Bell 47G hel.
MARINES: (2,200).
   1 Marine bde (3 bns): amph veh, V-100 armd cars, 40 V-200 Chaimite APC, twin 20mm AA guns, 84mm RL.
   3 coast defence btys: 18 155 mm how.
   (On order 2 Lupo frigates, 2 Van Straelen MCM, 3 EMB-111 MR ac).
Bases: Callao, San Lorenzo Island, Talara, Iquitos (river), Puno (lake), Madre de Dios (river).
Air Force: 40,000 (some 13,000 conscripts); 91 combat ac, some 16 armed hel.
   2 lt bbr sqns with 15 Canberra B-2/B (I) -8.
   6 FGA sqns: 2 with 16 Mirage 5P; 4 with 31 Su-22.
   2 COIN sqns with 25 A-37B (MB-339 replacing).
   1 COIN hel sqn with some 16 Mi-24.
   1 photo recce sqn with 2 Queen Air A-80, 2 Learjet 25B.
   4 tpt sqns: 7 L-100-20, 2 DC-8-62CF, 16 An-26, 8 DHC-6, 14 DHC-5, 6 Turbo-Porter, 5 C-47, 1 Mystere 2 OF.
   2 hel sqns: 6 Alouette III, 6 Mi-6, 5 Mi-8, 3 BO-105, 37 Bell (9 206B, 16 212, 12 214ST).
   Presidential Fit: 1 F-28 ac.
   4 trg sqns: 19 T-41D, 23 T-37B/C, 10 Queen Air A-80, some 16 MB-339A.
   ASM: AS-30, 30 Exocet AM-39.
   (On order 26 Mirage 2000P/DP (status uncertain), some 50 MB-339 coin/trg ac; 8 UH-60A hel.)
Para-Military Forces: Guardia Civil, 26,500, with MOWAG Roland APC.
   Coastguard (700) with 23 patrol craft. Republican Guard 5,000.
  
   URUGUAY
Population: 3,000,000.
Military service: voluntary.
Total armed forces: 29,800.
GDP 1981: SUR 120.704 bn ($US 11.155 bn). 1982: 128.403 bn ($US 9.232 bn).
Est def exp 1981: SUR 4.221 bn ($US 390.111 m). 1982: 5.445 bn ($US 391.473m).
GDP growth: -1.3% (1981), -8.7% (1982)..
Inflation: 20% (1982), 50% (1983).
Debt: $4.3 bn (1982).
   $1=new pesos 10.820 (1981), 13.909 (1982).
Army: 22,300.
   4 div HQ (regional).
   3 cav bdes (6 armd/mot, 5 horsed regts).
   5 inf bdes, each with 3 bns (incl 1 armd inf, 1 AB, 1 tpt bns).
   1 arty div: 5 fd, 1 AA gps.
   1 horsed cav bde (2 regts + Presidential Guard).
   1 engr bde: 4 combat engr, 1 road, 1 construction, 1 spt bns.
   1 comms bde: 1 comms, 1 spt bns.
   17 M-24, 29 M-3A1, 22 M-41A1 lt tks; 12 FN-4-RM-62, 16 EE-3 Jararaca, 15 EE-9 Cascavel scout cars; 15 M-113, 55 Condor APC;
   12 Bofors M-1902 75mm, 40 M-101A1, 8 M-102 105mm, 8 M-114A2 155mm how; 6 M-167 Vulcan 20mm AA guns.
   (On order: 15 Scorpion lt tks.)
Navy: 4,500 incl naval air, naval infantry.
   3 US frigates: 1 Dealey, 2 Cannon.
   1 US Auk corvette.
   4 large (1 US Adjutant, 3 Vigilante), 4 coastal patrol craft<.
   4 LCM.
NAVAL AIR FORCE (459): 7 combat ac.
   1 ASW fit with 6 S-2A/G.
   1 MR fit with 1 Super King Air 200T.
   Tpts: 5 Expediter (C-45J); 1 Super Cub utility.
   Trg: 2 T-6G, 9 T-28, 1 T-34B, 2 T-34C ac.
   Hel fit: 2 Bell 47G, 2 OH-13, 2 SH-34J, 1 Bell 222 SAR.
NAVAL INFANTRY: 1 bn (450).
Base: Montevideo.
Air Force: 3,000; some 24 combat ac.
   2 COIN sqns: 1 with 5 AT-33A, 7 A-37B; 1 with 6 IA-58B Pucara.
   1 recce/trg sqn with 6 T-6G.
   1 SAR sqn: 8 U-17A ac; 2 Bell 212, 10 UH-1B/H hel.
   3 tpt sqns with 5 C-212, 5 C-47,6 Queen Air80, 1 Learjet (VIP), 6 EMB-110B/C; 2 F-27, 2 FH-227.
   Trg: 6 T-41D, 34 T-34B.
   (On order: 6 Pucara COIN ac).
Forces Abroad: Egypt (Sinai MFO), 70.
Para-Military Forces: Metropolitan Guard: 650.
   Republican Guard: 520. Coastguard: 1,500; 6 coastal patrol craft<
  
   VENEZUELA
Population: 15,600,000.
Military service: 18 months, selective.
Total armed forces: 44,250 (some 10,000 conscripts).
GDP 1981: Bs 285.21 bn ($66,444 bn). 1982: 291.27 bn ($67,856 bn).
Def exp 1982: Bs 4.944 bn ($1,152 bn). Est 1983: 5.100 bn ($1,188 bn).
GNP growth: 0.6% (1982).
Inflation: 8.3% (1982), 6.0% (1983).
Debt: $32.6 bn (1982)
   $1 =bolivares 4.2925 (1981/3).
Army: 27,500.
   5 div HQ (regional).
   1 armd bde (3 med, 1 lt tk bns).
   6 inf bdes (11 hy, 13 lt inf bns).
   1 ranger bde (6 bns).
   1 cav regt (horsed).
   1 AB regt (2 bns).
   2 indep mech bns.
   6 arty gps, 1 AA arty gp.
   5 engr bns.
   75 AMX-30 MBT; 40 AMX-13 lt tks; 10 AML-245, 12 M-8, 60 M-706E1 armd cars; Fuchs/Tramportpanzer 1, 25 AMX-VCI, 100 V-100 APC;
   40 75mm pack, 50 M-56 105mm pack, 35 M-101 105mm towed, 20 Mk F3 155mm SP how; 25 160mm SP MRL; 81mm, 120mm mor,
   35 M-18 76mm SP ATK guns; 106mm RCL; SS-11, AS-11 ATGW; 50 40mm towed; AML S530 twin 20mm SP AA guns.
Army Aviation:
   1 tpt sqn with 1 Islander, 4 IAI-202 Arava, 2 G-222, 1 Queen Air, 1 Super King Air, 9 Cessna (3 182, 6 206).
   1 hel sqn with 2 Bell 206,4 UH-1H, 4 205A1.
Navy: 12,000 incl naval air and marines.
   3 subs: 2 Type 209, 1 US Guppy II.
   8 frigates: 6 Sucre (Lupo) with 8 Otomat SSM, 1x8 Albatros/Aspide SAM, 1 AB-212 hel (2 on refit); 2 Almirante Clemente.
   6 Vosper Thornycroft FAC(G) with 2 Otomat SSM, 3 '121-ft'.
   1 LST, 1 LSM, 12 LCVP (all US).
   3 transports (one on refit).
NAVAL AIR FORCE: (3,500). 6 combat ac; 6 combat hel.
   1 sqn with 6 S-E Tracker ac.
   1 ASW hel sqn (afloat) with 6 AB-212AS.
   1 SAR sqn with 3 C-212/200MR.
   1 tpt sqn: 1 DHC-7, 1 HS-748, 1 King Air, 2 Cessna 310/310R, 2 402 ac, 6 Bell 47J hel.
MARINES: (4,250).
   3 bns.
   1 arty bn.
   1 AA coy.
   1 amph coy.
   11 LVTP-7 APC, 18 105mm how, 6 M-42 40mm twin SP AA guns.
   (On order 4 LST; 2 C-212Aviocar tpts; 6 AB-212 ASW hel; 30 EE-11 Urutu APC).
Bases: Caracas, Puerto Cabello, La Guaira, Puerto de Hierro, Falcon.
Air Force: 4,750; 85 combat ac.
   2 lt bbr/recce sqns: 20 Canberra (12 B-82, 5 B (I) -82, 1 PR-83, 2 T-84).
   1 FGA sqn: 12Mirage (5 IIIEV, 5 5V, 2 5DV).
   3 interceptor/FGA sqns (1 forming): 2 with 14 (QF-5A, 2 (QF-5D; 1 with 16 Mirage (10 IIIEV, 4 5V,2 5DV); 6 F-16 (3 -A, 3 -B).
   1 COIN sqn with 15 OV-10E Bronco.
   1 Presidential (tpt) sqn with 1 Boeing 737, 1 DC-9, 1 Gulfstream 2, 1 Cessna 500 ac; 2 Bell UH-1H hel.
   2 tpt sqns with 5 C-130H, 5 C-47, 7 C-123A, 2 G-222.
   2 utility/liaison/recce sqns with 3 King Air, 9 Queen Air, 8 Cessna 182N ac; 4 Bell 47G, 13 Alouette III hel.
   1 hel sqn with 14 Bell (10 UH-1D/H; 2 214ST, 2 412).
   Trg: 12 Jet Provost, 20 T-2D Buckeye (12 armed), 23 T-34 Mentor.
   AAM: R-530 Magic.
   1 para bn.
   (On order 15 F-16A, 15 (QF-5A ftrs, 24 Pucara (6 trg),6 G-222 tpt, 4 (QF-5B, 3 F-16B/D trg).
Para-Military Forces: Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacion: 20,000: 25 UR-416 MICV; 15 Shorland APC; 120 60mm mor, 3 Arava, 1 Islander, 1 King Air ac; 3 Agusta 109A, 3 Bell (2 206B, 1 214ST) hel; (Coastguard) 40 coastal patrol craft.
  
   ARMED FORCES OF OTHER LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES*
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TABLES AND ANALYSES

  
   NOTE
   The tabular presentation of data on nuclear-capable weapon systems has been changed in this edition. Table 1, which includes systems in Chinese and South Korean hands, now gives world-wide coverage of nuclear-capable systems reported as deployed, with inventories and weapon and warhead characteristics, where known. Table 2 amplifies this by listing deployed launcher totals for categories of system (except some maritime systems) which directly affect the European Theatre. No attempt has been made to compare totals directly, chiefly because weapon loading and the use to which dual-capable systems are put are so uncertain. Not every example of a nuclear-capable system necessarily has a nuclear role - indeed there may be no nuclear warheads available for it - nor are crews invariably trained in nuclear delivery.
  
   ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ
   Табличное представление данных о системах ядерного оружия было изменено в этом издании. В таблице 1, которая включает в себя системы в китайских и южно-корейских руках, теперь дает глобальный охват ядерно-способных систем отчетности как развернуто, с запасами и оружием, и боевой части характеристики, где известно. Таблица 2 усиливает это, перечисляя развернутые пусковые установки по категориям систем (за исключением некоторых морских систем), которые непосредственно влияют на европейский театр действий. Не предпринималось попыток непосредственно сопоставить общие показатели, главным образом потому, что загрузка оружия и применение систем двойного назначения являются столь неопределенными. Не каждый пример системы, обладающей ядерным потенциалом, обязательно играет ядерную роль - в действительности для нее могут и не существовать ядерные боеголовки, - равно как и экипажи, прошедшие подготовку в области ядерной доставки.
  
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ANALYSIS

  

The East-West Conventional Balance in Europe

   Assessing the conventional balance between NATO and the Warsaw Pact using comparisons of manpower, combat units or equipment contains quite a large margin of uncertainty. There are a number of characteristics which it is almost impossible to evaluate: the quality of units or equipment, geographical advantages, doctrine, military technology, deployment, training, logistic support, morale, leadership, tactical initiative, terrain, weather, political will and alliance cohesion. Such comparisons must in any case be set within the wider political and strategic contexts, including the nuclear balance, world-wide force deployments, the reinforcement potential of both sides and, most important, the relative strengths of the respective navies and long-range tactical and support air forces.
   One cannot foretell the form and scope of any hostilities, their duration, their management or their results. Recent local conflicts have shown that the expenditure of materiel tends to run well above even the highest previous estimates. The impact of this factor on the ability to sustain combat, on the theatre logistics arrangements, or on the national infrastructures cannot be estimated. Yet all these factors have a bearing on the employment of the forces in Europe, on their reinforcement and on the resources needed to supply them.
   Direct comparisons between items of military equipment are also difficult. It is possible to compare, for example, the numbers of tanks of each side, but the tanks in the respective Alliances are obviously not equivalent in terms of battle-worthiness. Some are old and unmodernized: others are modern and sophisticated. The former may not move as fast, take such advantage of the terrain, fire with the same chance of a first-round hit, resist fire so well or communicate with each other so well. Moreover, although the tank is still highly regarded as perhaps one of the best anti-tank weapons, other and very efficient tank-killers exist - such as armed helicopters, modem ground-attack aircraft, vehicle-mounted guided anti-tank weapons and mines. In short, there are many static and dynamic factors which must be considered if a true comparison of forces is to be made.
   Bearing those considerations in mind, therefore, the question of numerical balance are reviewed in the table accompanying this essay using a number of different static indicators under the headings of Manpower, Divisions (including divisional equivalents), Ground Force Equipment, Naval Units, Naval and Maritime Aircraft, and Land Attack Aircraft and Fighters. Totals are given for NATO in Central and Northern Europe (taken together) and Southern Europe, for US Forces in Europe or in sea areas adjacent to Europe and, by category, for NATO as a whole. Compared with these totals will be the equivalents for the Non-Soviet Warsaw Pact, for the Soviet Union's forces opposed to NATO and the totals for each category.
   Defining the Combat Zone
   One of the central problems for analysis is whether to compare forces at a very high level of aggregation (i.e. Alliance totals) or to attempt to define more realistic interactions (i.e. by fronts). It has to be acknowledged that quite large elements of the forces of both sides are not necessarily committed at the outset to specific combat zones. A substantial degree of flexibility exists, especially with Soviet reserve forces, to switch these at will. The Northern and Central European sectors are shown here as one entity, yet this is inevitably an incomplete notion. The Norwegian land forces, for example, have deployed a major element of their active field forces to protect the northern approaches to the country, against which the Soviet forces in the northern Leningrad Military District pose a substantial potential threat (and have plans to reinforce the far north in war). The Norwegian Navy must assign its larger vessels to support the Atlantic coastal flank of the forces in northern Norway, but the Soviet Baltic Fleet poses a threat to southern Norway, forcing the Navy to attend also to that area. The Norwegian Air Force has to be prepared to support both sectors. The West German province of Schleswig Holstein, although also part of NATO's Northern Command, must anticipate attack both from the direction of East Germany and from the sea.
   NATO's Southern Flank Commander has to be prepared to defend three widely separated fronts, each with its own peculiar tactical and supply requirements. Italy must contest any Pact threat from Central Europe. Greece and Turkey must between them defend Thrace and the Aegean Sea and its air space, while Turkey must also defend her eastern border in the Caucasus.
   Manpower
   The total number of men in uniform for all countries is given. Yet many of those in the armed forces of the super-powers may well be committed outside the NATO area. The totals for those forces available for combat and actually located in Europe include, for NATO, French and Canadian forces in Germany, but not Spanish forces. For the USSR, those in the Kola Peninsula opposite Norway are included, as are those in the Trans-Caucasus MD facing Turkey. In the event of hostilities erupting, or threaten ing to erupt, the combat zones could be augmented. This could be done either by moving standing forces to Europe or by mobilizing the reserves, either for combat in place or to be moved to Europe by those outside powers. Again, not all of the total reserves in these states would be available for deployment in the European theatre or could necessarily be mobilized and moved in time to affect the outcome of hostilities.
   Mobilization
   The rate at which nations can mobilize will depend upon the system adopted, staff procedures and competence, distances and the transport facilities available. The rate at which nations will mobilize will depend on the warning received, on political will, on the ability to make decisions and put them into effect, and on how far enemy action obstructs mobilization. The Warsaw Pact countries have maintained reserves based upon conscripts who have completed their period of obligatory service. Those released less than five years previously would probably be available for immediate service; after more than five years the men would need refresher training.
   The Soviet Union, in particular, uses the Military District organization for recalling and placing reservists into skeleton formations ('Category 2' and 'Category 3' divisions) for war.
   The links between the central USSR and the borders are more than adequate for rapid movement towards potential battlefronts, so long as they stay free from attack. The limitations of Soviet internal communications might make it difficult to switch divisions from one part of the USSR to another.
   Within Europe many countries can mobilize in place. In the case of Britain, movement to the mainland of Europe is less easy and is liable to interdiction. Those countries which must move reinforcements across the Atlantic clearly face the possibility of serious interruption. Finally, the United States, Britain and Canada do not have a pool of trained reserve manpower comparable to that available to other nations which have universal conscription.
   Formations
   The normal measure of force comparison is the division, defined as the smallest force capable of independent combat action - generally an all arms force with its own logistics support. In all cases the term 'Tank' includes tank and armoured divisions; 'Mech' includes mechanized, motorized and motor rifle divisions; 'Other' includes airborne, air portable, air assault, mountain, amphibious and light infantry divisions. Not all national armies field divisional organizations in peacetime. To simplify the presentation, three brigades (nine battalions of armour, infantry or a mix) are considered to be a divisional equivalent - setting aside provision of support elements, including artillery, field engineers and logistics support units, etc. The first category in the Table shows divisions actually in place in Europe and manned in peacetime. For NATO they include, besides forces of the Continental states adjacent to the NATO fronts, Britain's BAOR, Canadian forces, France's Third Corps and the US Army in Europe. For the Soviet Union, this includes the formations in the Kola Peninsula and about half those in the Trans-Caucasus, in addition to those already in Eastern Europe.
   The divisions earmarked for reinforcement prior to mobilization are listed separately. So also are those potential reinforcing divisions which would have to be mobilized from the reserves and earmarked for Europe as follow-on forces. In the case of the Soviet Union, formations for primary reinforcement include those divisions in the Western and Southern Theatres of the Soviet Union, two Category 1 divisions in Byelorussia and the Category 2 divisions in the Leningrad, Baltic, Byelorussian, Carpathian, and North Caucasus MD. Secondary reinforcement would include the Category 3 divisions and those cadre or 'shadow' formations in the above MD - equivalent to the existing organization plus the formations in the 'in depth' Military Districts, Kiev and Odessa, and, most probably, the cadre 'shadow' formations. Not included in these figures are territorial defence/Home Guard units, and no attempt has been made to calculate the force augmentation provided by support arms units under Corps/Army, Army or Army Group/Front control. There have been some significant changes in divisional readiness and deployment categories over earlier years, due partly to reorganization and partly to different assumptions about states of readiness. These assumptions, of necessity have had to be arbitrary.
   Equipment
   Equipment holdings can be broken down into categories. The complicating factors are that total holdings of equipment do not necessarily match the sum of what appears to be held on divisional establishments (there are equipment reserves, the holdings of non-divisional units and stockpiles to add), and not all equipment will be in theatre at the outbreak of hostilities. Soviet formations moving from the western USSR will be expected to take their full unit inventories. Some American reinforcing formations, on the other hand, plan to equip themselves from stockpiles in Europe. For these reasons, the Table includes for each side only the total holdings of and in the inventories of the reinforcing formations in the Warsaw Pact.
   Naval Forces
   In the case of NATO, we show the numbers of vessels presumed to be in the Eastern Atlantic, Channel, North Sea and Mediterranean. For the Warsaw Pact, we include the Soviet Northern, Baltic and Black Sea Fleets, together with non Soviet Pact vessels in the Baltic and Black Seas. Soviet naval forces in the Mediterranean are drawn from the Black Sea Fleet or, in the case of submarines, from the Northern Fleet. As with ground force equipment, there are great disparities within categories, both with respect to capability and age. Classification by type of naval or maritime aircraft conforms to the nomenclature used in the country entries. The figures include both land- and sea-based aircraft with a clear maritime role in the above sea areas.
   Air Force
   Assessment of land attack aircraft, fighters and armed helicopters requires assumptions similar to those made for ground forces. The figures for US aircraft represent those based in Europe and do not take account of possible reinforcements from the continental US; the Soviet estimates show aircraft deployed in the territories of the Pact allies, together with a possible reinforcement of air units from the Western MD. The bomber figures given here are for all medium range bombers, regardless of whether or not they might be reserved for nuclear delivery. The number of multi-role aircraft on both sides obviously complicates any listing by mission categories. Ground attack aircraft (FGA) often have at least a limited self-defence capability but function primarily in the former role. National terminologies generally separate the standard airsuperiority fighter and the interceptor, usually making the distinction organizationally as well.
   Commonality and Technology
   The accompanying table shows that the Warsaw Pact enjoys numerical advantage in virtually all categories of weapons shown, the notable exceptions being most naval vessel types and naval aircraft. What these figures do not show, however, is a primary advantage enjoyed by the Warsaw Pact - namely that the weapons in service, and the tactical doctrines for their use, are common throughout the Pact. NATO suffers from doctrines by no means identical from country to country and from a wide variety of everything from weapon systems to support vehicles, with consequent duplication of supply systems and some considerable difficulties of interoperability. The question of technological superiority is impossible to answer without the test of combat.
   In general, however, Soviet equipment is thought to be rugged, relatively immune to mishandling and fairly reliable. Crew comfort and safety standards are significantly lower than those demanded in the West. While these factors may not be detrimental to efficiency in the short term, under the stress of combat the accident rate could rise and efficiency decline rather severely.
   Logistics
   NATO's logistic system is based almost entirely on national supply lines, and the difficulties are compounded by lack of standardization between nations and by lack of central co-ordination. In these respects it is markedly inferior to that of the Warsaw Pact. Certain NATO countries, too, still lack sufficient spares and ammunition, although there has recently been some attempt to remedy this situation. Some Pact nations may also suffer from shortages, but the fact that their equipment is standardized will enable them to restock more quickly. The Soviet logistic system, which uses a mix of rail, road and pipeline, has been greatly improved in recent years.
   Air Power
   Warsaw Pact doctrine has long envisaged the use of surface-to-surface missiles to deliver highexplosive, nuclear and chemical warheads against targets deep in enemy rear areas. In addition, the rising Soviet inventory of modem fighter-bombers poses an increasingly significant long-range threat. The Pact's defence against air attack combines a large number of interceptors with an impressive array of surface-to-air missiles and artillery. While advanced electronic counter-measures could probably go some way to nullify these defences, NATO air forces nevertheless face an increasingly formidable task in maintaining close air support for NATO ground forces on the European battlefield. Since NATO depends on its air forces to counter the apparent numerical superiority in Pact ground force numbers, their ability to penetrate Pact air defences could be a critical factor. Of particular concern is that NATO has yet to adopt a common IFF (Identification Friend or Foe) system and could lose aircraft to friendly air defence fire.
   However, it probably still enjoys a narrowing margin of overall electronic superiority, and may enjoy somewhat greater flexibility in command and control in combat conditions.
   The Warsaw Pact continues to enjoy the benefits of standardized aircraft servicing and handling facilities. Although its aircraft generally cannot operate from unimproved runways, there are a very large number of modern airfields available to the Pact with hardened aircraft shelters. NATO, on the other hand, still suffers from too few airfields and too many types of air craft, although considerable improvements have been made in interoperability, in preparing airfields to receive aircraft from outside the theatre (the co-located operating base (COB) concept) and in hardening its airfields.
   Summary
   The numerical balance - particularly in equipment - continues to move gradually in favour of the East. At the same time, the West has largely lost the technological edge in conventional equipment which allowed NATO to believe that quality could substitute for numbers. Because of the presence in the equation of so many unknown and unknowable factors, one cannot necessarily conclude that NATO would suffer defeat in war, nor that the Warsaw Pact would see its advantage as being sufficient to risk an attack, but one can conclude that there is still sufficient danger in the trend to require remedies in the Western Alliance, particularly as manpower shortage becomes a problem by the end of the 1980s.
   Our conclusion remains that the conventional overall balance is still such as to make general military aggression a highly risky undertaking. Though tactical redeployments could certainly provide a local advantage in numbers sufficient to allow an attacker to believe that he might achieve limited tactical successes in some exposed areas, there would still appear to be insufficient overall strength on either side to guarantee victory. The consequences for an attacker would still be somewhat unpredictable, and the risks - particularly of nuclear escalation - incalculable.
  
   For the table accompanying this essay, see overleaf.
  

Неядерный баланс Восток-Запад в Европе

   Оценка обычного баланса между НАТО и Варшавским договором с использованием сравнений живой силы, боевых единиц или техники содержит довольно большой запас неопределенности. Существует ряд характеристик, которые практически невозможно оценить: качество подразделений или техники, географические преимущества, доктрина, военная техника, развертывание, подготовка, материально-техническое обеспечение, боевой дух, лидерство, тактическая инициатива, рельеф местности, погода, политическая воля и сплоченность альянса. В любом случае такие сопоставления должны проводиться в более широком политическом и стратегическом контексте, включая ядерный баланс, развертывание сил во всем мире, потенциал укрепления обеих сторон и, что наиболее важно, относительную мощь соответствующих военно-морских сил и тактических сил дальнего радиуса действия и военно-воздушных сил поддержки.
   Невозможно предсказать форму и масштабы любых военных действий, их продолжительность, управление ими или их результаты. Недавние локальные конфликты показали, что расходы материальных средств, как правило, намного превышают даже самые высокие предыдущие оценки. Влияние этого фактора на способность вести боевые действия, на материально-техническое обеспечение театра военных действий или на национальную инфраструктуру оценить невозможно. Все эти факторы оказывают влияние на использование сил в Европе, на их усиление и на ресурсы, необходимые для их предоставления.
   Прямые сравнения между предметами военной техники также затруднены. Можно сравнить, например, количество танков каждой из сторон, но танки в соответствующих альянсах явно не эквивалентны с точки зрения боеспособности. Некоторые из них старые и немодернизированные, другие современные и совершенные. Первые не могут двигаться быстро, использовать преимущества местности, стрелять с высоким шансом на попадание с первого выстрела, хорошо сопротивляться огню или хорошо общаться друг с другом. Кроме того, хотя танк по-прежнему высоко ценится как, возможно, одно из лучших противотанковых средств, существуют и другие весьма эффективные средства уничтожения танков , такие, как вооруженные вертолеты, современные штурмовики, установленные на транспортных средствах управляемые противотанковые вооружения и мины. Короче говоря, есть много статических и динамических факторов, которые необходимо учитывать, чтобы провести истинное сравнение сил.
   Принимая эти соображения, таким образом, вопрос численного равновесия рассматриваются в таблице, сопровождающей это сочинение, используя ряд статических показателей в рубриках живой силы, подразделений (включая выделенные эквиваленты), наземных сил, вооружения, морских частей, морских самолетов, и наземных штурмовиков и истребителей. Итоговые данные приводятся для НАТО в Центральной и Северной Европе (вместе взятых) и Южной Европе, для сил США в Европе или в прилегающих к Европе морских районах и, по категориям, для НАТО в целом. По сравнению с этими итогами будут эквиваленты для несоветского Варшавского договора, для сил Советского Союза, противостоящих НАТО, и итоги для каждой категории.
   Определение зоны боевых действий
   Одна из центральных проблем для анализа заключается в том, следует ли сравнивать силы на очень высоком уровне (т. е. общие итоги Альянсов) или попытаться определить более реалистичные взаимодействия (т. е. фронты). Следует признать, что довольно крупные элементы сил обеих сторон не обязательно с самого начала направляются в конкретные зоны боевых действий. Существует значительная гибкость, особенно советских резервных сил, изменяемых по желанию. Северный и Центральноевропейский секторы показаны здесь как единое целое, но это неизбежно неполное понятие. Норвежские сухопутные войска, например, развернули основной элемент своих активных полевых сил для защиты северных подступов к стране, против которых советские войска в Северном Ленинградском военном округе представляют существенную потенциальную угрозу (и имеют планы усиления Крайнего Севера в условиях войны). Норвежский военно-морской флот должен назначить свои более крупные суда для поддержки Атлантического прибрежного фланга сил в Северной Норвегии, но Советский Балтийский флот представляет угрозу для Южной Норвегии, заставляя флот также охранять этот район. Норвежские ВВС должны быть готовы поддержать оба сектора. Западногерманская провинция Шлезвиг-Гольштейн, хотя и является частью Северного командования НАТО, должна ожидать нападения как со стороны Восточной Германии, так и с моря.
   Командующий южным флангом НАТО должен быть готов защищать три широко разделенных фронта, каждый со своими специфическими тактическими и снабженческими потребностями. Италия должна противостоять любой угрозе пакта со стороны Центральной Европы. Греция и Турция должны совместно защищать Фракию и Эгейское море и их воздушное пространство, в то время как Турция также должна защищать свою восточную границу на Кавказе.
   Личный состав
   Приведено общее количество военных по всем странам. Тем не менее, многие из тех, кто находится в Вооруженных силах сверхдержав, вполне могут быть задействованы за пределами зоны НАТО. Итоги для тех, силы для борьбы и фактически расположены в Европе, включают, НАТО, французских и канадских войск в Германии, но не испанцев. Для СССР, те. что на Кольском полуострове против Норвегии, а те, которые в Закавказском ВО против Турции. В случае возникновения боевых действий или угрозы их возникновения зоны боевых действий могут быть расширены. Это можно было бы сделать либо путем переброски постоянных сил в Европу, либо путем мобилизации резервов, либо для ведения боевых действий, либо для переброски в Европу этих внешних держав. Опять же, не все общие резервы в этих государствах будут доступны для развертывания на европейском театре действий или могут быть в обязательном порядке мобилизованы и своевременно перемещены, с тем чтобы повлиять на исход военных действий.
   Мобилизация
   Темпы мобилизации стран будут зависеть от принятой системы, процедур и компетентности персонала, расстояний и имеющихся транспортных средств. Темпы мобилизации государств будут зависеть от полученного предупреждения, политической воли, способности принимать решения и претворять их в жизнь, а также от того, насколько действия противника препятствуют мобилизации. Страны Варшавского договора сохранили резервы, основанные на призывниках, прошедших обязательную службу. Те, кто был уволен менее пяти лет назад, вероятно, будут доступны для немедленного использования; по прошествии более пяти лет мужчины должны будут пройти переподготовку.
   Советский Союз, в частности, использует организацию военного округа для отзыва и расстановки резервистов в каркасные формирования (дивизии "категория 2" и "категория 3") для ведения войны.
   Связи между центральным СССР и границами более чем достаточны для быстрого продвижения к потенциальным фронтам, пока они остаются свободными от нападения. Ограничения советских внутренних коммуникаций могут затруднить переход дивизий из одной части СССР в другую.
   В Европе многие страны могут мобилизоваться. В случае Великобритании передвижение на материковую часть Европы является менее легким и может быть воспрещено. Те страны, которые должны перебросить подкрепления через Атлантику, явно сталкиваются с возможностью серьезного прерывания. Наконец, Соединенные Штаты, Великобритания и Канада не имеют резерва подготовленных кадров, сопоставимого с резервом, имеющимся в распоряжении других стран, имеющих всеобщий призыв.
   Формирования
   Нормальным мерилом сравнения сил является дивизия, определяемая как наименьшая сила, способная к самостоятельным боевым действиям, - как правило, все вооруженные силы с собственной материально-технической поддержкой. Во всех случаях термин "Tank" включает танковые и бронетанковые дивизии; "Mech" включает механизированные, мотострелковые и мотострелковые дивизии; "Other" включает воздушно-десантные, воздушно-десантные, штурмовые, горные, десантные и легкие пехотные дивизии. Не все национальные армии действуют полевыми дивизионными организациями в мирное время. Для упрощения представления три бригады (девять батальонов бронетанковой, пехотной или смешанной) рассматриваются в качестве дивизионного эквивалента , за исключением вспомогательных подразделений, включая артиллерию, полевых инженеров и подразделения материально-технического обеспечения и т.д. Первая категория в таблице показывает существующие в Европе и укомплектованные в мирное время подразделения. Для НАТО они включают, помимо сил континентальных государств, прилегающих к фронтам НАТО, британская BAOR, канадские войска, третий корпус Франции и армию США в Европе. Для Советского Союза включены формирования на Кольском полуострове и около половины на Закавказье, в дополнение к тем, которые уже находятся в Восточной Европе.
   Дивизии, предназначенные для усиления до мобилизации, перечислены отдельно. Так же как и те потенциальные дивизии, которые должны быть мобилизованы из резервов и направлены в Европу в качестве последующих сил. В случае Советского Союза к формациям для первоначального усиления относятся дивизии Западного и Южного театров Советского Союза, две дивизии 1-й категории в Белоруссии и дивизии 2-й категории в Ленинградском, Прибалтийском, Белорусском, Закарпатском и Северо-Кавказском округах. Вторичные подкрепление будет включать дивизий 3 категории и эти кадровые или "теневые" формирования военных округов - эквивалент существующей организации плюс формирования в глубинных округах, Киевском и Одесском, и, скорее всего, кадровые 'теневые' формирования. В эти цифры не включены подразделения территориальной обороны/ополчения, и не было предпринято попыток рассчитать увеличение сил, обеспечиваемое подразделениями вспомогательного оружия звеньев корпуса/армия, армии или группы армий/фронта. В предыдущие годы произошли некоторые существенные изменения в категориях готовности и развертывания дивизий, что отчасти объясняется реорганизацией и отчасти различными предположениями о состоянии готовности. Эти предположения, по необходимости должны были быть произвольным.
   Вооружение
   Запасы вооружения можно разбить на категории. Усложняющих факторов, что общий фонд оборудования не обязательно соответствует сумме в дивизионных учреждениях (есть вооружение резервов, не дивизионных частей и складов, которые добавлены), и не все оборудование будет на театре после начала военных действий. Ожидается, что советские формирования, двигающиеся из западной части СССР, возьмут свои полные запасы. Некоторые американские формирования, с другой стороны, планируют вооружиться из запасов в Европе. По этим причинам в таблицу для каждой стороны включены только общие запасы и запасы укрепляющих формирований Варшавского договора.
   Морские силы
   В случае НАТО мы показываем количество судов, предположительно находящихся в Восточной Атлантике, Ла-манше, Северном море и Средиземном море. Для Варшавского договора, мы включаем советские Северный, Балтийский и Черноморский флоты, вместе с несоветскими судами договора в Балтийском и Черном морях. Советские военно-морские силы в Средиземном море привлекаются из Черноморского флота или, в случае подводных лодок, из Северного флота. Как и в случае с наземным вооружением, существуют большие различия между категориями как в плане возможностей, так и в плане возраста. Классификация по типу военно-морского судна или морского самолета соответствует номенклатуре, используемой в записях страны. Эти цифры включают как наземные, так и палубные самолеты с четкой морской ролью в морских районах.
   Воздушные силы
   Оценка наземных ударных самолетов, истребителей и вооруженных вертолетов требует предположений, аналогичных тем, которые делаются для наземных сил. Цифры для американских самолетов представляют собой базирующиеся в Европе и не учитывают возможные подкрепления из континентальной части США; советские оценки показывают самолеты, развернутые на территориях союзников по пакту, вместе с возможным усилением авиационных подразделений из Западного округа. Число бомбардировщиков приведенный здесь для всех средних бомбардировщиков, независимо от того, могут ли они быть зарезервированы для доставки ядерного оружия. Количество многоцелевых самолетов с обеих сторон, включение в перечень любых миссий. Штурмовики часто обладают по меньшей мере ограниченным потенциалом самообороны, но функционируют главным образом в прежнем качестве. Национальных терминологий вообще отдельная стандарт истребитель превосходства в воздухе и перехватчик, как правило, различаются в организационном плане.
   Общность и технология
   Прилагаемая таблица показывает, что Варшавский договор обладает численным преимуществом практически во всех категориях оружия, за исключением большинства типов морских судов и морских самолетов. Однако эти цифры не свидетельствуют о том, что Варшавский договор обладает главным преимуществом , а именно о том, что оружие, находящееся на вооружении, и тактические доктрины его применения являются общими для всего пакта. НАТО страдает от доктрин, отнюдь не идентичных в разных странах, и от широкого спектра всего, от систем вооружения до вспомогательных транспортных средств, с последующим дублированием систем снабжения и некоторыми значительными трудностями оперативной совместимости. На вопрос о технологическом превосходстве невозможно ответить без испытания боем.
   В целом, однако, советское оборудование считается прочным, относительно невосприимчивым к неправильному обращению и достаточно надежным. Уровень комфорта и безопасности экипажа значительно ниже, чем на Западе. Хотя в краткосрочной перспективе эти факторы могут и не сказываться на эффективности, в условиях боевых действий аварийность может возрасти, а эффективность значительно снизиться.
   Логистика
   Материально-техническая система НАТО почти полностью основана на национальных линиях снабжения, и трудности усугубляются отсутствием стандартизации между странами и Центральной координации. В этом отношении она заметно уступает Варшавскому договору. Некоторые страны НАТО также по-прежнему испытывают нехватку запасных частей и боеприпасов, хотя в последнее время предпринимаются попытки исправить эту ситуацию. Некоторые страны ОВД также могут испытывать нехватку, но тот факт, что их оборудование стандартизировано, позволит им быстрее пополнять запасы. Советская логистическая система, в которой используется сочетание железнодорожного, автомобильного и трубопроводного транспорта, в последние годы значительно улучшилась.
   Авиация
   Доктрина Варшавского договора уже давно предусматривает использование ракет класса "земля-земля" для доставки обычных, ядерных и химических боеголовок к целям, расположенных глубоко в тылу противника. Кроме того, растущая советская номенклатура современных истребителей-бомбардировщиков представляет собой все более серьезную угрозу дальнего радиуса действия. Защита ОВД от воздушного нападения сочетает в себе большое число перехватчиков с впечатляющим набором ракет класса "земля-воздух" и артиллерии. Хотя новейшие электронные контрмеры, вероятно, могли бы каким-то образом свести на нет эту оборону, военно-воздушные силы НАТО, тем не менее, сталкиваются со все более сложной задачей поддержания тесной воздушной поддержки наземных сил НАТО на европейском поле боя. Поскольку НАТО зависит от своих военно-воздушных сил в борьбе с очевидным численным превосходством в численности сухопутных сил ОВД, их способность проникать через ПВО пакта может быть критическим фактором. Особую озабоченность вызывает то, что НАТО еще не приняла общую систему идентификации друзей или врагов и может потерять самолеты из-за дружественного огня ПВО.
   Тем не менее, он, вероятно, все еще пользуется сужающимся пределом общего электронного превосходства и может обладать несколько большей гибкостью в командовании и управлении в боевых условиях.
   Варшавский договор по-прежнему пользуется преимуществами стандартизированного обслуживания и самолетов. Хотя его самолеты, как правило, не могут работать с неосвоенных взлетно-посадочных полос, существует очень большое количество современных аэродромов с защищенными укрытиями. С другой стороны, НАТО по-прежнему страдает от слишком малого числа аэродромов и слишком большого числа типов самолетов, хотя в плане оперативной совместимости и укрепления аэродромов были достигнуты значительные улучшения, хотя были достигнуты значительные улучшения в плане оперативной совместимости, подготовки аэродромов к приему самолетов за пределами театра действий (концепция совместной оперативной базы (ССБ)) и укрепления ее аэродромов.
   Резюме
   Численный баланс - особенно в области оборудования - продолжает постепенно смещаться в пользу Востока. В то же время Запад в значительной степени утратил технологическое превосходство в обычном вооружении, что позволяло НАТО верить, что качество может заменить количество. Из-за наличия в уравнении такого множества неизвестных и непознаваемых факторов, не обязательно заключить, что НАТО будет терпеть поражение в войне, ни в том, что Варшавский договор бы увидеть свое преимущество достаточным, чтобы рискнуть напасть, но можно сделать вывод, что есть еще достаточно серьезная угроза в тренде требовать средства защиты в западном альянсе, в частности, дефицит личного становится проблемой в конце 1980-х годов.
   Наш вывод состоит в том, что обычный общий баланс по-прежнему, что делает общей военной агрессии весьма рискованное мероприятие. Хотя тактические передислокации, безусловно, могут обеспечить локальное преимущество в количестве, достаточном для того, чтобы позволить нападающему полагать, что он может достичь ограниченных тактических успехов в некоторых открытых районах, по-прежнему будет недостаточно общей силы с обеих сторон, чтобы гарантировать победу. Последствия для нападающего по-прежнему были бы несколько непредсказуемыми, а риски - особенно ядерной эскалации - неисчислимы.
  
   Таблицу, сопровождающую это эссе.
  
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Economic Trends and Defence Expenditure

   4.
   Compared to 1982, when the world's real GNP/GDP achieved virtually a zero growth rate, 1983 showed signs of quite strong recovery with the achievement of world-wide net growth of over 2.1%.' Even the non-oil-producing developing countries realized an overall 1.6% growth (0.1% in 1982). Nevertheless, many individual countries in Africa and Latin America continued to suffer and their economies to decline. The Arab oil-exporting countries, on the other hand, while still showing negative growth of 1.1% (led by Qatar with -16%) did considerably better than in 1982, when output fell by an average of 4.3%.
   Despite these encouraging signs, and perhaps even better prospects for 1984, other and longerterm problems are present: high unemployment rates, fiscal deficits, high interest rates and high inflation rates - in some cases amounting to hyper-inflation. For many developing countries, debt servicing has become a financial nightmare, and between 1977 and 1983 (according to the OECD) developing country debt increased by 147% from $329 bn to $812 bn.2 Latin American countries' debt increased by 184% (from $109 bn to $310 bn), that of African countries by 133% (from $30 bn to $70 bn), and Middle Eastern indebtedness by 154% (from $22 bn to $56 bn).2 Debt as percentage of exports and services constituted 44% for Latin America in 1983, 25% for Africa (excluding South Africa), 21% for the Middle East, and 11% for Asia.
   Eastern Europe, especially Poland and Hungary, also had serious debt problems; together they owed about $85.0 bn, equivalent to about 15% of their combined 1983 GDP. Poland's external debt/service ratio is the highest in Europe at 177% (followed by Portugal at 130%). Eastern Europe's NMP growth rates also did not meet the planned figures but, like those of Western Europe and the US, showed signs of recovery.
   Despite the huge debt problems and budget deficits, military spending in real terms has not decreased significantly. Indeed, in many cases expenditure has gone up as a result of either regional security problems - e.g., in the cases of Central America and Iran-Iraq (and thus also of the adjacent Gulf states) - or the increase in tension in East-West relations. Another, and potentially significant factor is the high cost of new technology. This applies especially to sharply rising research and development costs, which must bemeteitherby government or industry in the producing countries or by the export buyers.
   The United States and NATO
   After a decline in real defence spending in the post-Vietnam period, both the Carter Administration and subsequently (and especially) the Reagan Administration embarked on defence spending increases amounting to an average of about 9% per annum since 1980 (for FY 1985 an increase of 13% in real terms is planned).
   Whether the US Congress will continue to support the Administration in this may be doubted, and a levelling off of the rate of increase can be anticipated. However, the money committed forward (Total Obligational Authority, or TOA) for long-lead items is considerable, and it seems fairly certain that US budget will not decline in real terms.
   European economic and social problems and rising public resistance to defence expenditure increases - in view of cutbacks in other sectors - will make it difficult for governments, whatever their political complexion, to persuade their legislatures to vote more funds. (Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Portugal have particular problems here.) Even West Germany will not be able to meet the 3% annual increase in real terms which was agreed by NATO Ministers in 1978. She has commited herself only to a nominal 3.8% per annum increase over the next few years, and if inflation approaches that figure real growth will be close to zero. The British government, too, is committed to a 3% annual real increase 'in addition to the Falkland costs' on average until 1986, but thereafter little or no real growth is fore seen.3 France has launched a five-year defence plan which totals fr 830,000m, but this will represent less than 2.1% real annual growth, and in any case almost a third of the funding is allocated to the nuclear programme. The rest of NATO Europe has fallen short of the 3% increase agreed in 1978, and will certainly fall short of the 1983-8 NATO force goals agreed in 1982.
   Warsaw Pact
   While it is difficult to calculate the real cost of non-Soviet Warsaw Pact defence expenditure, the availability of Romanian, Hungarian and Polish consumer price indices makes it possible broadly to estimate real defence expenditure trends. On the basis of this data it appears that between 1975 and 1982 Warsaw Pact defence expenditure increased by an average of 3.6% per annum in 1975 prices. Poland appears to have undertaken a major increase in military outlays over the two years from 1982 to 1984 (some 36%, based on 1979 prices), while East Germany has sustained an average increase of 6% per annum (1975 prices). Romania, who has frozen her defence budget at the 1982 level, showed a decrease of about 1.1%.
   Middle East
   Middle Eastern countries spent about $72 bn on the military sector in 1983, of which 39% was spent by the states comprising the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC), 18% by Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Syria, and 38% by Iran and Iraq. There is no indication that defence expenditures have decreased in 1984. The continuing Gulf War (the costs of which can only be estimated) and fear of its escalation have forced surrounding states to continue to buy arms in substantial quantities, despite reduced revenues and large current account deficts. The construction of a sophisticated air defence system by Saudi Arabia, at an estimated cost of $16 bn, and the development of similar systems in other Gulf states have forced these governments to maintain high defence outlays. Also, the GCC countries continue to provide financial support to Iraq, hitherto estimated at some S40 bn since 1980. It is only this aid, plus large credits from France (estimated at $5 bn) and the USSR (no estimate possible), that enables Iraq to continue the war.
   The Palestinian conflict consumed at least $13 bn in 1983. Israel's hyper-inflation (400%+ in mid-1984) makes it impossible to calculate real defence costs, nor is it possible to estimate the real value of Soviet military aid to Syria. US military assistance to Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon in 1983 totalled over $3.2 bn.
   Sub-Saharan Africa
   There appears to have been no real increase in defence outlays in the continent since 1981, although reliable information is difficult to obtain for most countries. From the information available, however, it appears that in most smaller countries the largest amounts (possibly as high as 40%) are allocated to internal and border security forces. The greatest expenditures are those of South Africa and Nigeria - although in the latter case the most reliable statistics are available only up to 1980. South Africa increased her defence budget by almost 7% for 1984, but (as in many other countries) much of the cost is hidden in other departmental budgets (this applies especially to research and development). Nigeria's defence budget increased considerably in 1982, mostly due to the purchase of 18 Jaguar aircraft for the Air Force and to the provision of capital for infrastructure expansion. For Mozambique and Angola no reliable statistics are available.
   Asia
   Asia's GDP growth rate was better than that of any other area in the world, reaching about 3% in 1982 and 4.3% in 1983. Even two of the less wealthy countries, India and Pakistan, were able to attain growth rates of 4.5% and 6.5% respectively. Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand, and the Philippines had the lowest growth rates, and they also had very high debt service ratios (as did Thailand and South Korea). Nevertheless, Asian countries had significant increases in defence expenditure (above the GDP growth rate) reaching an average of about 7.1% in 1983. Regional security problems in the Indian subcontinent, in Thailand and on the Chinese Vietnamese border continue unabated. Pakistan is to receive $1.6 bn in military aid from the US over the next few years; India has placed large aircraft orders with the USSR; and Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore are modernizing their naval and air forces. For the region as a whole, however, defence expenditure growth has slowed during the past five years, from about 10% in the mid-1970s to some 5.6% in the early 1980s. Japan (with a GDP growth rate of 3.0% in 1983) is under American pressure to raise her defence outlay above 1% of GNP (it is presently 0.99%). The opposition to the ruling Liberal Democratic Party will fight this strongly; a compromise may be reached by allocating additional funding to other ministries. In mid-1984, the Ministry of Defence was negotiating for a 7% increase in expenditure.
   Latin America
   Calculating military expenditures for many Latin American countries is again particularly difficult. Not only does hyper-inflation in some cases make it virtually impossible to determine the figures in local currency, but frequent devaluations also make dollar comparisons almost meaningless. Despite a very low regional GDP growth rate (0.5% from 1981 to 1982, and -1.6% in 1983) and some of the highest debts in the world relative to GNP/GDP, military spending in the region appears to have increased by over 10% since 1980. Argentina, whose losses during the Falklands war are estimated at over $2 bn, continues to perceive Britain as a threat in the South Atlantic and consequently has restored her losses and maintains a large military establishment. Brazil, with the highest debt in the world (over $90 bn and a debt/service ratio of 155% in 1982), is expanding her military manpower by almost 10%. Peru, with a debt/service ratio of 110% and a GDPreduction of 12% in 1983, continues to import weapons (including 26 Mirage 2000 aircraft) at an estimated cost of some $5 bn. The Central Bank of Colombia has also reported defence expenditure increases of 11% per annum since 1980.
   1. All information based on OECD, IMFand central bank reports.
   2. Excluding Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E.
   3. Statement on Defence Estimates 1984 (1) (London: HMSO, Cmd 9227-1).
  

Экономические тенденции и расходы на оборону

   По сравнению с 1982 годом, когда реальный мировой ВНП/ВВП достиг практически нулевых темпов роста, 1983 год показал признаки довольно сильного восстановления с достижением общемирового чистого роста более 2,1%."Даже в развивающихся странах, не производящих нефть, общий рост составил 1,6% (0,1% в 1982 году). Тем не менее многие отдельные страны Африки и Латинской Америки продолжают страдать, а их экономика сокращается. С другой стороны, арабские страны-экспортеры нефти, все еще демонстрируя отрицательный рост на 1,1% (во главе с Катаром -16%), сделали значительно лучше, чем в 1982 году, когда производство упало в среднем на 4,3%.
   Несмотря на эти обнадеживающие признаки и, возможно, даже лучшие перспективы на 1984 год, существуют и другие долгосрочные проблемы: высокий уровень безработицы, бюджетный дефицит, высокие процентные ставки и высокие темпы инфляции, которые в некоторых случаях составляют гиперинфляцию. Для многих развивающихся стран обслуживание долга стало финансовым кошмаром, и с 1977 по 1983 год (по данным ОЭСР) долг развивающихся стран увеличился на 147% с $329 млрд до $812 млрд.(2) латиноамериканских стран долг вырос на 184% (от $109 млрд до $310 млрд.), что в африканских странах на 133% (с $30 млрд до $70 млрд.), И на Ближнем Востоке задолженности на 154% (с $22 млрд до $56 млрд).2 в 1983 году доля задолженности в экспорте и услугах составляла 44% для Латинской Америки, 25% для Африки (за исключением Южной Африки), 21% для Ближнего Востока и 11% для Азии.
   Восточная Европа, особенно Польша и Венгрия, также имели серьезные долговые проблемы; вместе они задолжали около 85,0 млрд. долл. США, что эквивалентно примерно 15% их совокупного ВВП 1983 года. Коэффициент внешнего долга/обслуживания Польши является самым высоким в Европе и составляет 177% (за ним следует Португалия - 130%). Темпы роста NMP в Восточной Европе также не соответствовали запланированным показателям, но, как и в Западной Европе и США, показали признаки восстановления.
   Несмотря на огромные долговые проблемы и дефицит бюджета, военные расходы в реальном выражении существенно не сократились. Действительно, во многих случаях расходы возросли в результате либо проблем региональной безопасности - например, в случае Центральной Америки и Ирана-Ирака (и, следовательно, соседних государств Залива) - либо роста напряженности в отношениях между Востоком и Западом. Еще одним и потенциально значимым фактором является высокая стоимость новой технологии. Особенно это касается резко растущих расходов на исследования и разработки, которые должны покрываться правительством или промышленностью в странах-производителях или экспортными покупателями.
   Соединенные Штаты и НАТО
   После сокращения реальных расходов на оборону в пост-вьетнамский период как администрация Картера, так и впоследствии (и особенно) администрация Рейгана приступили к увеличению расходов на оборону в среднем на 9% в год с 1980 года (для 1985 финансового года планируется увеличение на 13% в реальном выражении).
   Будет ли Конгресс США продолжать поддерживать администрацию в этом, можно усомниться, и можно ожидать выравнивания темпов роста. Тем не менее, деньги, выделенные вперед (Total Obligational Authority, или TOA) по долгосрочным статьям, значительны, и кажется довольно уверенным, что бюджет США не уменьшится в реальном выражении.
   Европейские экономические и социальные проблемы и растущее сопротивление общественности увеличению расходов на оборону - ввиду сокращения расходов в других секторах - затруднят правительствам, независимо от их политической ориентации, убедить свои законодательные органы голосовать за больший объем средств. (Бельгия, Нидерланды, Дания и Португалия имеют здесь особые проблемы.) Даже Западная Германия не сможет обеспечить 3% - ное ежегодное увеличение в реальном выражении, которое было согласовано министрами НАТО в 1978 году. Она взяла на себя обязательство лишь номинально увеличить этот показатель на 3,8% в год в течение следующих нескольких лет, и если инфляция приблизится к этому показателю, то реальный рост будет близок к нулю. Британское правительство также привержено 3-процентному ежегодному реальному увеличению "в дополнение к Фолклендским расходам" в среднем до 1986 года, но после этого практически никакого реального роста не наблюдается.(3) Франция приступила к осуществлению пятилетнего плана обороны, который составляет 830 000 млн. франков, однако реальный ежегодный прирост составит менее 2,1%, и в любом случае почти треть средств выделяется на ядерную программу. Остальная часть Европы НАТО не достигла 3% - ного увеличения, согласованного в 1978 году, и, безусловно, не достигнет целей сил НАТО 1983-1988 годов, согласованных в 1982 году.
   Варшавский договор
   Хотя трудно рассчитать реальную стоимость расходов на оборону в рамках несоветского Варшавского договора, наличие румынских, венгерских и польских индексов потребительских цен позволяет в целом оценить реальные тенденции в области оборонных расходов. На основе этих данных представляется, что в период с 1975 по 1982 год оборонные расходы Варшавского договора увеличивались в среднем на 3,6% в год в ценах 1975 года. Польша, по-видимому, предприняла значительное увеличение военных расходов в течение двух лет с 1982 по 1984 год (около 36%, исходя из цен 1979 года), в то время как Восточная Германия в среднем увеличила расходы на 6% в год (цены 1975 года). Румыния, которая заморозила свой оборонный бюджет на уровне 1982 года, показала снижение примерно на 1,1%.
   Ближний Восток
   Страны Ближнего Востока потратили около $72 млрд на военный сектор в 1983 году, из которых 39% было потрачено государствами, входящими в Совет сотрудничества стран Персидского залива (ССАГПЗ), 18% - Египтом, Израилем, Ливаном и Сирией, а 38% - Ираном и Ираком. Нет признаков того, что расходы на оборону сократились в 1984 году. Продолжающаяся война в заливе (расходы на которую можно только оценить) и опасения ее эскалации вынудили окружающие государства продолжать закупать оружие в значительных количествах, несмотря на сокращение поступлений и крупный дефицит по текущим счетам. Строительство Саудовской Аравией сложной системы противовоздушной обороны, оценочная стоимость которой составляет 16 млрд. долл. США, и разработка аналогичных систем в других государствах залива вынудили эти правительства поддерживать высокие расходы на оборону. Кроме того, страны ССЗ продолжают оказывать финансовую поддержку Ираку, объем которой с 1980 года оценивается примерно в 40 млрд. долл. Только эта помощь, а также крупные кредиты Франции (оцениваемые в $5 млрд) и СССР (оценка невозможна) позволяют Ираку продолжать войну.
   В 1983 году палестинский конфликт потребил по меньшей мере 13 млрд. долл. Гиперинфляция Израиля (400%+ в середине 1984 года) делает невозможным подсчет реальных расходов на оборону, равно как и оценку реальной стоимости советской военной помощи Сирии. Военная помощь США Египту, Израилю, Иордании и Ливану в 1983 году составила более $3,2 млрд.
   Африка к югу от Сахары
   Как представляется, с 1981 года на континенте не наблюдалось никакого реального увеличения расходов на оборону, хотя по большинству стран трудно получить достоверную информацию. Однако из имеющейся информации следует, что в большинстве малых стран наибольшие суммы (возможно, до 40%) выделяются внутренним и пограничным силам безопасности. Наибольшие расходы приходится на Южную Африку и Нигерию , хотя в последнем случае наиболее достоверные статистические данные имеются лишь до 1980 года. Южная Африка увеличила свой оборонный бюджет почти на 7% в 1984 году, но (как и во многих других странах) большая часть расходов скрыта в бюджетах других департаментов (особенно это касается исследований и разработок). В 1982 году оборонный бюджет Нигерии значительно увеличился, главным образом за счет приобретения 18 самолетов Jaguar для Военно-Воздушных сил и выделения средств на расширение инфраструктуры. По Мозамбику и Анголе надежных статистических данных не имеется.
   Азия
   Темпы роста ВВП Азии были выше, чем в любой другой области мира, достигнув примерно 3% в 1982 году и 4,3% в 1983 году. Даже две менее богатые страны, Индия и Пакистан, смогли достичь темпов роста в 4,5% и 6,5% соответственно. Австралия, Индонезия, Новая Зеландия и Филиппины имели самые низкие темпы роста, а также очень высокие коэффициенты обслуживания долга (как и Таиланд и Южная Корея). Тем не менее в азиатских странах наблюдался значительный рост расходов на оборону (выше темпов роста ВВП), который в 1983 году составил в среднем около 7,1%. Региональные проблемы безопасности в Индии, в Таиланде и на границе Китая и Вьетнама продолжаются. В ближайшие годы Пакистан получит от США военную помощь в размере $1,6 млрд, Индия разместила крупные заказы на самолеты с СССР, а Индонезия, Малайзия и Сингапур модернизируют свои военно-морские и воздушные силы. Однако в целом по региону за последние пять лет темпы роста расходов на оборону замедлились: с примерно 10% в середине 1970-х годов до примерно 5,6% в начале 1980-х годов. Япония (с темпом роста ВВП 3,0% в 1983 году) находится под давлением США, чтобы поднять свои расходы на оборону выше 1% ВНП (в настоящее время 0,99%). С этим будет решительно бороться оппозиция правящей Либерально-демократической партии, компромисс может быть достигнут путем выделения дополнительного финансирования другим министерствам. В середине 1984 года Министерство обороны вело переговоры об увеличении расходов на 7%.
   Латинская Америка
   Подсчет военных расходов для многих латиноамериканских стран также является особенно трудным. Гиперинфляция в некоторых случаях не только делает практически невозможным определение показателей в местной валюте, но и частые девальвации также делают сравнение доллара почти бессмысленным. Несмотря на очень низкие темпы роста регионального ВВП (0,5% с 1981 по 1982 год и -1,6% в 1983 году) и некоторые из самых высоких долгов в мире по отношению к ВНП/ВВП, военные расходы в регионе, как представляется, выросли более чем на 10% с 1980 года. Аргентина, потери которой во время Фолклендской войны оцениваются более чем в $2 млрд, продолжает воспринимать Великобританию как угрозу в Южной Атлантике и, следовательно, восстановила свои потери и поддерживает крупный военный истеблишмент. Бразилия, имеющая самый высокий долг в мире (более 90 млрд. долл. США и соотношение долга к обслуживанию 155% в 1982 году), увеличивает свою военную силу почти на 10%. Перу, где соотношение долга к обслуживанию составляло 110%, а ВВП-12% в 1983 году, продолжает импортировать оружие (включая 26 самолетов Mirage 2000) на сумму около 5 млрд. долл. США. Центральный банк Колумбии также сообщил об увеличении расходов на оборону на 11% в год с 1980 года.
  

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