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The Military Balance 1989

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    Военный баланс в 1989 году от Международного Института Стратегических Исследований. С русским переводом.


THE MILITARY BALANCE 1989

ВОЕННЫЙ БАЛАНС 1989

   The Military Balance 1988
   The Military Balance 1990

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ


Format, layolit, comgblation / Формат, макет, принципы компиляции
USA / США: USA
Soviet Union / Советский Союз: Soviet Union
Warsaw Pact / Варшавский Договор
Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania
NATO / НАТО
Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, FRG, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom.
Europe / Европа
Albania, Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Ireland, Malta, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia.
Middle East / Ближний Восток
Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libia, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somali, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen North, Yemen South.
Africa / Африка
Angola, Benin, Bostwana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, CAR, Chad, Congo, Cot d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesoto, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambiqe, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegambia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zair, Zambia, Zimbabve.
China / Китай: China
Asia & Australia / Азия и Австралия
Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippine, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.
Latin America / Латинская Америка
Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican, Ecuador, Salvador, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua , Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Tables
Analyses
Defence Expenditure
Strategic Nuclear Balance
Strategic Nuclear Developments / Стратегические ядерные разработки
Balance in Europe / Баланс в Европе
Demographic Trends / Демографические тенденции
Reserve Forces / Резервные силы
Designation aircraft and helicopters
Abreviation

FORMAT, LAYOUT AND PRINCIPLES OF COMPILATION

   The Military Balance is updated each year to provide a timely, quantitative assessment of the military forces and defence expenditures of over 140 countries. This volume contains such data as at 1June 1989. This introduction explains how The Military Balance is laid out and the general principles followed. There are no changes from the format used in 1988/89.
   GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
   There are two main sections in The Military Balance. The first comprises national entries grouped by regions; the Index on p. 10 gives the page references of individual national entries. Each group is preceded by a short introduction describing significant changes in the defence postures and economic positions of the countries concerned and in their international treaties, agreements and military aid arrangements. Inclusion of a particular entity or military organization connected to it in no way implies legal recognition for or IISS approval of it.
   The second section contains analytical essays which cover Developments in Strategic Arms Control and the Conventional Forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, in the light of published data and arms-control proposals (both accompanied by tables showing the relative strengths of the Alliances), the implications of demographic change for NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and the utility of reserve forces. Other tables provide information on nuclear delivery means, the capabilities of artillery, multiple rocket launchers and mortars, the vital statistics of the major navies of the world, and comparisons of defence expenditure and military manpower.
   Finally, there is a list showing the type, name/designation, maker and country of origin of all aircraft listed in The Military Balance.
   A map of the Middle East showing the deployment of key land/air equipment and the areas covered by significant SSM is provided as a loose insert.
   ABBREVIATIONS AND DEFINITIONS
   Limitations of space force us to use abbreviations. A list is at the fold-out sheet on pp. 250-51. Punctuation is not used, and the abbreviation may have both singular or plural meanings, e.g., 'elm' = 'element' or 'elements'. The qualification 'some' means 'up to' whilst 'about' means 'the total could be higher than given'. In financial data, the $ sign refers to US dollars unless otherwise stated; the term billion (bn) equals 1,000 million (m).
   NATIONAL ENTRIES
   Information on each country is given in a format as standard as the available information permits: economic and demographic data, and military data including manpower, terms of service, outline organization, number of formations and units, the inventory of major equipments of each service, followed where applicable by a description of their deployment.
   GENERAL MILITARY DATA
   Manpower
   The 'Active' total comprises all servicemen and women on full-time duty, including conscripts and long-term assignments from the Reserves. Unless otherwise indicated, the 'Reserves' entry includes all reservists committed to rejoin the armed forces in emergency. Where national reserve service obligations last almost a lifetime our strength estimates of military effective reservists are based on the numbers available within five years of completing full-time service, unless there is good evidence that obligations are enforced for longer. Some countries have different categories of Reserves, often kept at differing degrees of readiness; where possible we denote these differences using the national descriptive title, but always under the heading of Reserves, so as to differentiate them from full-time active forces.
   Reserves
   In The Military Balance term 'Reserve' is used to describe formations and units not fully manned or operational in peacetime but which can be mobilized by recalling reservists in emergency, except for Warsaw Pact countries where we use the categorization described on pp. 33-4. Reserve stocks of equipment are listed as 'in store'.
   Other Forces
   Many countries maintain para-military forces whose training, organization, equipment and control suggests they may be usable in support, or in lieu, of regular military forces. We list all such known para-military forces, describing their role, after the military forces of each country, but do not normally include their numbers in the Armed Forces totals at the start of each entry. We count Home Guard units as para-military. Where para-military groups are not on full-time active duty we have added the suffix (R) after the title to indicate that they are of reserve status. When internal opposition forces are armed and appear to pose a significant threat to the internal security of a state, their details are shown separately after national para-military forces. In each country we also show any stationed foreign forces, whether allied or peace-keeping.
   Equipment
   Numbers are shown by function and type and represent total holdings including active and reserve operational and training units and 'in store' stocks. Inventory totals for missile systems (e.g. SSM, SAM, ATGW, etc.) relate to launchers and not to missiles.
   GROUND FORCES
   We normally use the national designation for army formations. The term 'regiment' can be misleading. In some cases it is to all intents and purposes a brigade of all arms; in others a grouping of battalions of a single arm; and lastly (the UK and French usage) a battalion-sized unit. We indicate which sense is meant. Where there is no standard organization we show the intermediate levels of command as HQ, and then list the total numbers of units which could be allocated between them. Where a unit's title overstates its real capability we put the title in inverted commas and our estimate of the comparable NATO unit size in parentheses: e.g., 'bde' (coy).
   Military Formation Strengths
   The table below gives the approximate manpower and major equipment strengths of the main military formations of selected countries.
  
    []
   Equipment
   We do not list weapons with calibres of less than 14.5mm or, for major armies, "hand-held ATK weapons or mortars of under 100mm calibre. By AIFV we me an all light armoured wheeled or tracked infantry fighting vehicles with a cannon of not less than 20mm; it is not necessary for an ATGW to be mounted. APC roled as ATGW or other weapons platforms are shown under the relevant weapon heading and not as APC.
   NAVAL FORCES
   Categorization is based partly on operational role, partly on weapon fit and partly on displacement. Ship classes are identified by the name of the first ship of that class. Where the class is based on a foreign design we add the original class name in parentheses.
   Each class of vessel is given an acronym designator based on the NATO system. All designators are included in the abbreviations list on pp. 250-51.
   The term 'ship' is used to refer to vessels of over both 1,000 tonnes full-load displacement and 60 metres overall length; vessels of lesser displacement but of 16 metres or more overall length are termed 'craft'. Vessels of less than 16 metres length overall have not been included.
   Classifications and Definitions
   Naval entries have been sub-divided into the following categories:
   Submarines Submarines with SLBM are listed separately under 'Strategic Nuclear Forces'.
   Principal Surface Combatants All surface ships with both 1,000 tonnes full-load displacement and a weapons system other than for self-protection. They comprise aircraft carriers (with a flight deck extending beyond two-thirds of the vessel's length), battleships (armour-protected, over 30,000 tonnes, and with armour-protected guns of at least 10in./250mm bore); cruisers (over 8,000 tonnes) and destroyers (less than 8,000 tonnes), both of which normally have an anti-air warfare role and may also have an anti-submarine capability; and frigates (less than 8,000 tonnes), which normally have an anti-submarine role.
   Patrol and Coastal Combatants All ships and craft whose primary role relates to the protection of the sea approaches and coastline of a state. Included are: corvettes (600-1,000 tonnes and carrying weapons systems other than for self-protection); missile craft (with permanently fitted missile launcher ramps and control equipment); torpedo craft (with an anti-surface-ship capability). Ships and craft which fall outside these definitions are classified 'patrol'.
   Mine Warfare This category covers surface vessels configured primarily for minelaying or mine countermeasures, which can be minehunters, minesweepers or dual-capable vessels. A further classification divides both coastal and patrol combatants and mine warfare vessels into: offshore (over 600 tonnes), coastal (300-600 tonnes) and inshore (less than 300 tonnes).
   Amphibious Only ships specifically procured and employed to disembark troops and their equipment over unprepared beachheads have been listed. Vessels with an amphibious capability but which are known not to be assigned to amphibious duties are not included. Amphibious craft are listed at the end of each entry.
   Support and Miscellaneous This category of essentially non-military vessels provides some indication of the operational sustainability and outreach of the Navy concerned.
   Weapons Systems We list weapons in the order in which they contribute to the ship's primary operational role. After the word 'plus' we add significant weapons relating to the ship's secondary role. Self-defence weapons are not listed. To merit inclusion, a SAM system must have an anti-missile range of 10 km or more, and guns must be of 100mm bore or greater.
   Organizations Naval groupings such as fleets and squadrons are often temporary and changeable; we show organization only where it is meaningful.
   AIR FORCES
   The following remarks refer to aviation units forming an integral part of Ground Forces, Naval Forces and (where applicable) Marines, as well as to separate Air Forces. The term 'combat aircraft' comprises aircraft normally equipped to deliver ordnance in air-to-air or air-to-ground combat. Combat helicopters are divided into armed helicopters (equipped to deliver ordnance over the battlefield or beachhead) and ASW helicopters, which have a purely maritime role. The 'combat' totals include aircraft in operational conversion units (OCU) whose main role is weapons training and those training aircraft of the same type as those in front-line squadrons and assumed to be available for operations at short notice.
   Air Force operational groupings are shown where known. Squadron aircraft strengths vary; attempts have been made to separate total holdings from reported establishment strength.
   We try to keep the number of categories of aircraft listed to a minimum. 'Fighter' is used to denote aircraft with the capability (weapons, avionics, performance) for aerial combat. An aircraft shown purely as a fighter can do little but attack other aircraft; dual-capable aircraft are shown as FGA, etc. Often different countries use the same basic aircraft in different roles; the key to determining the roles lies mainly in aircrew training. For bombers, long-range means having an unrefueled radius of action of over 5,000 km, medium-range 1,000-5,000 km and short-range less than 1,000 km; light bombers are those with a payload of under 10,000 kg (which is no greater than the payload of many FGA).
   ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
   Economic Data
   We provide GDP figures but use GNP and NMP when necessary (GNP equals GDP plus net income from abroad; NMP equals GNP minus non-earning state services). GDP figures are quoted at current market prices (at factor cost for East European and some other countries). Where available, published sources are used, but we estimate figures when data is incomplete. GDP/GNP growth rates cited are real growth in real terms. Inflation rates are based on available consumer price indices and refer to annual averages. By 'Debt' we mean foreign debt and include all long-, medium- and short-term debt, both publicly and privately owed; no account is taken of similar debt owed to the country in question by others.
   Wherever possible the UN System of National Accounts, based on the latest available International Monetary Fund (IMF) International Financial Statistics (IFS), has been used. For Eastern Europe, data from Economic Survey of Europe in 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 (New York: UN, 1988,1989) and World Economic Outlook (Washington DC: IMF, 1988) is used. Estimates for the USSR's GNP, and those of other Warsaw Pact countries, are based on commercial banking estimates; for Hungary, Poland and Romania GDP is taken from IFS; other East European GDP/GNP figures at factor cost are derived from GNP. China's GDP/GNP is as given by the IMF.
   Defence Expenditure
   We quote the latest defence expenditure or budget data available as at 1 June 1989. Some countries include internal and border security force expenditures in their defence budgets, where separate budgets exist they are indicated in footnotes. Figures may vary from previous years, often because of updates made by the governments themselves.
   NATO countries use a 'standard definition' of defence expenditure which includes all spending on regular military forces, military aid (including equipment and training) to other nations, military pensions, host government expenses for NATO tenant forces, NATO infrastructure and civilian staff costs; but excludes spending on para-military forces.
   We are including Foreign Military Assistance (FMA) figures with other economic data in country entries (except for non-Soviet WP countries). The total of FMA received is shown, together with the providing countries. FMA includes both cash grants and credits; it may also include the cost of military training.
   Currency Conversion Rates
   National currency figures have been converted into US dollars to permit comparisons. The rate is averaged for the national financial year (for 1989-90 figures, the mid-1989 rate is used). Wherever possible, exchange rates are taken from IFS, though they may not be applicable to commercial transactions. For the USSR no adequate conversion ratio of roubles to dollars is available. For those East European countries which are not members of the IMF, and Hungary and Romania (which are), the adjusted conversion rates used are calculated by the method described in T.P. Alton, 'Economic Growth and Resource Allocation in Eastern Europe', Reorientation and Commercial Relations of the Economies of Eastern Europe, Joint Economic Committee, 93rd Congress, 2nd Session (Washington DC: USGPO, 1974).
   Population
   All population data are taken from the latest census data available in World Population Projections 1984 (Washington DC: World Bank, 1984) and 1986 Demographic Yearbook (New York: UN, 1988), latest national statistics where available, as well as calculated trends and projections.
   WARNING
   The Military Balance is a quantitative assessment of the personnel strengths and equipment holdings of the world's armed forces. It is in no way an assessment of their capabilities. It does not evaluate the quality of units or equipment, nor the impact of geography, doctrine, military technology, deployment, training, logistic support, morale, leadership, tactical or strategic initiative, terrain, weather, political will or support from alliance partners.
   Nor is the Institute in any position to evaluate and compare directly the performance of items of equipment. Those who wish to do so can use the data provided to construct their own force comparisons. As essays in many editions of The Military Balance have made clear, however, such comparisons are replete with difficulties, and their validity and utility cannot but be suspect.
   The Military Balance provides the actual numbers of nuclear and conventional forces and weapons as we know or can reasonably confidently estimate them - not the number that would be assumed for verification purposes in arms-control agreements (except in the sole case of the Soviet-American nuclear strategic balance table on p. 212).
   This means that great care must be taken in assembling the data presented here for specific purposes. We provide an up-to-date and detailed catalogue of military forces in as many dimensions as possible and in a way which we hope will be generally useful. We make no judgments on quality, effectiveness or the political purposes underlying the aggregation of power.
   The data presented each year in The Military Balance reflect judgments based on information available to the Director and staff of the Institute at the time the book is compiled. Information in subsequent volumes may differ from previous editions for a variety of reasons, generally as a result of substantive changes in national forces but in some cases as a result of our reassessment of the evidence supporting past entries. Inevitably, over the course of time we come to believe that some information presented in earlier versions was erroneous, or insufficiently supported by reliable evidence. Hence, it is not always possible to construct valid time series comparisons from information given in successive editions.
   CONCLUSION
   The Institute owes no allegiance whatever to any government, group of governments, or any political or other organization. Our assessments are our own, based on the material available to us from a wide variety of sources. The co-operation of all governments has been sought and, in many cases, received. Not all countries have been equally co-operative, and some of the figures have necessarily been estimated. We take pains to ensure that these estimates are as professional and free from bias as possible. The Institute owes a considerable debt to a number of its own members and consultants who have helped in compiling and checking material. The Director and the staff of the Institute assume full responsibility for the facts and judgments contained in this study. We welcome comments and suggestions on the data presented, since we seek to make it as accurate and comprehensive as possible.
   Readers may use items of information from The Military Balance as required, without reference to the Institute, on condition that the Institute and The Military Balance are cited as the source in any published work. However, reproduction of all major portions of the work must be approved in writing by the Institute prior to publication.

ФОРМАТ, МАКЕТ И ПРИНЦИПЫ КОМПИЛЯЦИИ


   Военный баланс обновляется каждый год для обеспечения своевременной количественной оценки вооруженных сил и расходов на оборону более 140 стран. Этот том содержит такие данные по состоянию на 1 июня 1989 года. Это введение объясняет, как устанавливается военный баланс и соблюдаются общие принципы. Формат, используемый в 1988/89 годах, не изменился.
   ОБЩЕЕ РАСПОЛОЖЕНИЕ
   В военном балансе есть два основных раздела. Первый включает национальные позиции, сгруппированные по регионам; индекс на с.10 дает ссылки на страницы отдельных национальных записей. Каждой группе предшествует краткое введение с описанием существенных изменений в оборонных позициях и экономических позициях соответствующих стран, а также в их международных договорах, соглашениях и соглашениях о военной помощи. Включение того или иного субъекта или военной организации, связанной с ним, никоим образом не подразумевает юридического признания или одобрения IISS.
   Второй раздел содержит аналитические эссе, которые охватывают события в области контроля над стратегическими вооружениями и обычными силами НАТО и Варшавского договора в свете опубликованных данных и предложений по контролю над вооружениями (оба сопровождаются таблицами, показывающими относительную силу альянсов), последствия демографических изменений для НАТО и Варшавского договора и полезность резервных сил. В других таблицах представлена информация о средствах доставки ядерного оружия, возможностях артиллерии, реактивных систем залпового огня и минометов, жизненно важных статистических данных основных военно-морских сил мира и сопоставлениях расходов на оборону и численности военного персонала.
   Наконец, существует список, показывающий тип, название/обозначение, производителя и страну происхождения всех воздушных судов, перечисленных в военном балансе.
   В качестве вкладыша приводится карта Ближнего Востока, на которой показано размещение основных наземных/воздушных средств и районы, охваченные значительными ЗСМ.
   СОКРАЩЕНИЯ И ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ
   Ограничения пространства вынуждают нас использовать аббревиатуры. Список находится на раскладном листе на стр. 250-51. Пунктуация не используется, и аббревиатура может иметь как единственное, так и множественное значение, например, 'elm' = 'element' или 'elements'. Квалификация " some " означает "До", в то время как "about"означает" общее может быть выше, чем дано". В финансовых данных знак $ относится к долларам США, если не указано иное; термин billion (bn) равен 1,000 million (m).
   НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЕ СПРАВКИ
   Информация по каждой стране приводится в стандартном формате, насколько это позволяет имеющаяся информация: экономические и демографические данные, а также военные данные, включая численность личного состава, условия службы, общую схему организации, количество соединений и частей, перечень основного имущества каждой службы с последующим, где это применимо, описанием их развертывания.
   ОБЩИЕ ВОЕННЫЕ ДАННЫЕ
   Кадры
   В " Active " контингент входят все военнослужащие и женщины, находящиеся на постоянной службе, в том числе призывники и сверхсрочники назначения из резервов. Если не указано иное, запись " Reserves " включает всех резервистов, обязанных вернуться в Вооруженные силы в чрезвычайной ситуации. Там, где обязательства по Национальной резервной службе длятся почти всю жизнь, наши оценки численности эффективных военных резервистов основаны на цифрах, имеющихся в течение пяти лет после завершения полной службы, если нет убедительных доказательств того, что обязательства выполняются дольше. Некоторые страны имеют различные категории резервов, часто находящихся в разной степени готовности; по возможности мы обозначаем эти различия национальным описательным названием, но всегда под заголовком резервов, с тем чтобы отличить их от действующих на постоянной основе сил.
   Резервы
   В военном балансе термин " Reserve " используется для описания соединений и частей, не полностью укомплектованных или действующих в мирное время, но которые могут быть мобилизованы путем призыва резервистов в чрезвычайных ситуациях, за исключением стран Варшавского договора, где мы используем классификацию, описанную на стр. 33-4. Резервные запасы оборудования перечислены как "in store".
   Остальные силы
   Во многих странах существуют полувоенные силы, подготовка, организация, оснащение и контроль над которыми позволяют предположить, что они могут использоваться для поддержки регулярных вооруженных сил или вместо них. Мы перечисляем все такие известные полувоенные силы, описывая их роль, после вооруженных сил каждой страны, но обычно не включаем их численность в общую численность Вооруженных сил в начале каждой операции. Мы считаем подразделения ополчения полувоенными. В тех случаях, когда полувоенные группы не находятся на постоянной службе, мы добавили суффикс (R) после названия, чтобы указать, что они имеют статус резерва. Когда внутренние оппозиционные силы вооружены и, как представляется, представляют значительную угрозу для внутренней безопасности государства, их подробная информация приводится отдельно после национальных полувоенных сил. В каждой стране мы также показываем любые дислоцированные иностранные силы, будь то союзные или миротворческие.
   Вооружение
   Количество показаны по функциям и типам и представляют собой общие запасы, включая активные и резервные оперативные и учебные подразделения и запасы "на хранении". Итоговые данные инвентаризации для ракетных систем (например, БР, ЗРК, ПТРК и т. д.) относятся к пусковым установкам, а не к ракетам.
   СУХОПУТНЫЕ СИЛЫ
   Мы обычно используем национальное обозначение для армейских формирований. Термин "полк" может ввести в заблуждение. В некоторых случаях это фактически бригада всех родов войск; в других - группа батальонов одного рода войск; и, наконец, (использование Великобритании и Франции) подразделение размером с батальон. Мы указываем, какой смысл имеется в виду. Там, где нет стандартной организации, мы показываем промежуточные уровни командования как HQ, а затем перечисляем общее количество единиц, которые могут быть распределены между ними. Если название подразделения завышает его реальные возможности, мы помещаем название в кавычки и нашу оценку сопоставимого размера подразделения НАТО в скобках: например, " bde " (coy).
   Силы формирований
   В таблице ниже приводятся приблизительные данные о численности и основных видах техники основных воинских формирований отдельных стран.
    []
   Вооружение
   Мы не перечисляем оружие калибром менее 14,5 мм или, для основных армий, " ручное оружие ПТО или минометы калибра менее 100 мм. Под БМП мы перечисляем все легкие бронированные колесные или гусеничные боевые машины пехоты с пушкой не менее 20 мм; нет необходимости в установке ПТРК. БТР в роли ПТРК или другие оружейные платформы показаны под соответствующим заголовком оружия, а не как БТР.
   МОРСКИЕ СИЛЫ
   Классификация основана частично на оперативной роли, частично на пригодности оружия и частично на перемещении. Классы судов определяются по имени первого судна этого класса. Если класс основан на внешнем дизайне, мы добавляем исходное имя класса в скобках.
   Каждому классу судов присваивается аббревиатура, основанная на системе НАТО. Все обозначения включены в список сокращений на стр. 250-51.
   Термин " ship " используется для обозначения судов водоизмещением более 1000 тонн при полной загрузке и общей длиной 60 метров; суда меньшего водоизмещения, но общей длиной 16 метров или более называются " craft ". Суда общей длиной менее 16 метров не были включены.
   Классификации и определения
   Военно-морские силы были подразделены на следующие категории:
   Submarines Подводные лодки, подводные лодки с БРПЛ перечислены отдельно в разделе "стратегические ядерные силы".
   Principal Surface Combatants Основные надводные корабли все надводные корабли водоизмещением 1000 тонн и с системой вооружения, отличной от самозащиты. Они включают авианосцы (с полетной палубой, простирающейся более чем на две трети длины судна), линкоры (бронированные, более 30 000 тонн, и с бронированными пушками по крайней мере 10 дюймов/250 мм); крейсеры (свыше 8000 тонн) и эсминцы (менее 8000 тонн), оба из которых обычно имеют противовоздушную боевую роль, а также могут иметь противолодочный потенциал; и фрегаты (менее 8000 тонн), которые обычно выполняют противолодочную роль.
   Patrol and Coastal Combatants Патрульные и прибрежные комбатанты все суда и суда, основная роль которых связана с защитой морских подходов и береговой линии государства. В их число входят: корветы (600-1000 тонн и несущие системы вооружения,не предназначенные для самозащиты); ракетные катера (с постоянно установленными рампами для ракетных пусковых установок и оборудованием управления); торпедные катера (с противолодочными средствами). Суда и плавсредства, не подпадающие под эти определения, классифицируются как "патрульные".
   Mine Warfare Эта категория охватывает надводные суда, сконфигурированные главным образом для минирования или противоминного противодействия, которые могут быть искателями мин, тральщиками или судами двойного назначения. Еще одна классификация делит как прибрежных, так и патрульных комбатантов и противоминные суда на: морские (свыше 600 тонн), базовые (300-600 тонн) и рейдовые (менее 300 тонн).
   Amphibious В перечень включены только суда-амфибии, специально закупленные и используемые для высадки войск и их оборудования на неподготовленных плацдармах. Суда с амфибийными возможностями, но которые, как известно, не предназначены для выполнения амфибийных функций, не включены. Амфибии перечислены в конце каждой записи.
   Support and Miscellaneous Поддержка и разное эта категория по существу невоенных судов дает некоторое представление об оперативной устойчивости и охвате соответствующего Военно-Морского Флота.
   Weapons Systems Оружейные системы мы перечисляем оружие в том порядке, в котором оно вносит вклад в основную оперативную роль корабля. После слова "плюс" мы добавляем значительное оружие, относящееся к второстепенной роли корабля. Оружие самообороны не перечислено. Чтобы заслуживать включения, система ЗРК должна иметь дальность действия противоракет 10 км или более, а пушки должны быть 100 мм или больше.
   Organizations Организации Военно-морских группировок, таких как флоты и эскадры, часто временны и изменчивы; мы показываем организацию только там, где она имеет смысл.
   ВОЗДУШНЫЕ СИЛЫ
   Нижеследующие замечания относятся к авиационным подразделениям, входящим в состав Сухопутных войск, Военно-Морских Сил и (в соответствующих случаях) морской пехоты, а также к отдельным воздушным силам. Термин "combat aircraft "включает самолет, обычно оснащенный для доставки боеприпасов в воздушном или наземном бою. Боевые вертолеты делятся на вооруженные вертолеты (оборудованные для доставки боеприпасов над полем боя или плацдармом) и противолодочные вертолеты, которые имеют чисто морскую роль. "Боевые" итоги включают самолеты, входящие в состав оперативно-учебных подразделений (OCU), основная роль которых заключается в подготовки, и учебные самолеты того же типа, что и в прифронтовых эскадрильях, и которые, как предполагается, будут доступны для операций в короткие сроки.
   Оперативные группировки ВВС показаны там, где это известно. Численность летательных аппаратов эскадрилий различна; предпринимались попытки отделить общее количество запасов от численного состава, о котором сообщалось.
   Мы стараемся свести количество перечисленных категорий самолетов к минимуму. "Fighter" используется для обозначения летательных аппаратов с возможностями (вооружение, авионика, производительность) для воздушного боя. Самолет, показанный чисто как истребитель, может атаковать другие самолеты; самолеты с двумя возможностями показаны как FGA и т. д. Часто разные страны используют одни и те же базовые воздушные суда в различных ролях; ключ к определению ролей лежит главным образом в подготовке летного состава. Для бомбардировщиков большая дальность означает наличие радиуса действия свыше 5000 км, средняя - 1000-5000 км и ближняя - менее 1000 км; легкие бомбардировщики - это бомбардировщики с полезной нагрузкой менее 10 000 кг (что не превышает полезную нагрузку многих FGA).
   ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ И ДЕМОГРАФИЧЕСКИЕ ДАННЫЕ
   Экономические данные
   Мы приводим данные по ВВП, но при необходимости используем ВНП и НМП (ВНП равен ВВП плюс чистый доход из-за рубежа; НМП равен ВНП минус неработающие государственные услуги). Данные по ВВП приводятся в текущих рыночных ценах (по факторным издержкам для восточноевропейских и некоторых других стран). Там, где это возможно, используются опубликованные источники, но мы оцениваем цифры, когда данные неполны. Приведенные темпы роста ВВП/ВНП являются реальным ростом в реальном выражении. Темпы инфляции основаны на имеющихся индексах потребительских цен и относятся к среднегодовым показателям. Под "долгом" мы подразумеваем внешний долг и включаем все долгосрочные, среднесрочные и краткосрочные долги, как государственные, так и частные; не учитывается аналогичный долг перед соответствующей страной со стороны других стран.
   Везде, где это возможно, используется система национальных счетов ООН, основанная на последней имеющейся международной финансовой статистике (МФС) Международного валютного фонда (МВФ). Для Восточной Европы используются данные экономического обзора Европы в 1987-1988 и 1988-1989 годах (Нью-Йорк: ООН, 1988,1989) и World Economic Outlook (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: МВФ, 1988). Оценки ВНП СССР и других стран Варшавского договора основаны на оценках коммерческих банков; для Венгрии, Польши и Румынии ВВП берется из IFS; другие восточноевропейские показатели ВВП/ВНП по факторным затратам получены из ВНП. ВВП/ВНП Китая соответствует данным МВФ.
   Оборонные расходы
   Мы приводим последние данные о расходах на оборону или бюджете по состоянию на 1 июня 1989 года. Некоторые страны включают расходы на внутренние и пограничные силы безопасности в свои оборонные бюджеты, в тех случаях, когда существуют отдельные бюджеты, они указываются в сносках. Цифры могут отличаться от показателей предыдущих лет, часто из-за обновлений, сделанных самими правительствами.
   Страны НАТО используют "стандартное определение" расходов на оборону, которое включает все расходы на регулярные вооруженные силы, военную помощь (включая оборудование и подготовку) другим странам, военные пенсии, расходы принимающих правительств на арендованные силы НАТО, расходы на инфраструктуру НАТО и расходы на гражданский персонал; но исключает расходы на полувоенные силы.
   Мы включаем данные об иностранной военной помощи (FMA) с другими экономическими данными в страны (за исключением стран, не являющихся советскими ОВД). Показано общее количество полученных FMA вместе с предоставляющими странами. FMA включает как денежные гранты, так и кредиты; он также может включать расходы на военную подготовку.
   Курсы Конвертации Валют
   Данные в национальной валюте были пересчитаны в доллары США для проведения сопоставлений. Ставка усредняется для национального финансового года (для показателей 1989-90 годов используется ставка середины 1989 года). Там, где это возможно, обменные курсы берутся из МФС, хотя они могут быть неприменимы к коммерческим сделкам. Для СССР не существует адекватного коэффициента пересчета рублей в доллары. Для тех восточноевропейских стран, которые не являются членами МВФ, а также Венгрии и Румынии (которые являются), используемые скорректированные коэффициенты пересчета рассчитываются по методике, описанной в т. п. Альтон, "экономический рост и распределение ресурсов в Восточной Европе", переориентация и торговые отношения экономик Восточной Европы, Объединенный экономический комитет, 93-й конгресс, 2-я сессия (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: USGPO, 1974).
   Население
   Все демографические данные взяты из последних данных переписи населения, имеющихся в мировых демографических прогнозах 1984 года (Вашингтон, округ Колумбия: Всемирный банк, 1984 год) и демографическом ежегоднике 1986 года (Нью-Йорк: ООН, 1988 год), последних национальных статистических данных, если таковые имеются, а также рассчитанных тенденций и прогнозов.
   ПРЕДУПРЕЖДЕНИЕ
   Военный баланс-это количественная оценка численности личного состава и запасов техники Вооруженных сил мира. Это никоим образом не оценка их возможностей. Он не оценивает ни качество подразделений или техники, ни влияние географии, доктрины, военной технологии, развертывания, подготовки, материально-технической поддержки, морального духа, руководства, тактической или стратегической инициативы, местности, погоды, политической воли или поддержки со стороны партнеров по Североатлантическому союзу.
   Институт также не в состоянии непосредственно оценивать и сравнивать работу вооружения. Желающие могут использовать полученные данные для построения собственных сопоставлений сил. Однако, как явствует из эссе, опубликованных во многих изданиях "военного баланса", подобные сравнения изобилуют трудностями, и их обоснованность и полезность не могут не вызывать подозрения.
   Военный баланс предусматривает фактическое количество ядерных и обычных сил и вооружений, как мы их знаем или можем достаточно уверенно оценить, а не то количество, которое было бы принято для целей проверки в соглашениях о контроле над вооружениями (за исключением единственного случая советско - американской таблицы ядерного стратегического баланса на стр. 212).
   Это означает, что необходимо проявлять большую осторожность при сборе данных, представленных здесь для конкретных целей. Мы предоставляем обновленный и подробный каталог вооруженных сил в максимально возможном количестве измерений и таким образом, который, как мы надеемся, будет в целом полезен. Мы не выносим суждений о качестве, эффективности или политических целях, лежащих в основе объединения власти.
   Данные, ежегодно представляемые в военном балансе, отражают суждения, основанные на информации, имеющейся у директора и сотрудников института на момент составления книги. Информация в последующих томах может отличаться от информации в предыдущих изданиях по ряду причин, как правило, в результате существенных изменений в национальных силах, но в некоторых случаях в результате нашей переоценки доказательств, подтверждающих прошлые записи. С течением времени мы неизбежно приходим к убеждению, что некоторая информация, представленная в более ранних версиях, была ошибочной или недостаточно подкрепленной надежными доказательствами. Следовательно, не всегда возможно построить допустимые сравнения временных рядов из информации, приведенной в последовательных изданиях.
   ВЫВОД
   Институт не имеет никаких обязательств перед каким-либо правительством, группой правительств или какой-либо политической или иной организацией. Наши оценки являются нашими собственными, основанными на материале, доступном нам из самых разных источников. Сотрудничество всех правительств было запрошено и во многих случаях получено. Не все страны в равной степени сотрудничают друг с другом, и некоторые цифры оцененочные. Мы прилагаем все усилия к тому, чтобы эти оценки были максимально профессиональными и свободными от предвзятости. Институт имеет значительный долг перед рядом своих собственных членов и консультантов, которые помогли в сборе и проверке материалов. Директора и сотрудники Института несут полную ответственность за факты и суждения, содержащиеся в данном исследовании. Мы приветствуем замечания и предложения по представленным данным, поскольку мы стремимся сделать их как можно более точными и всеобъемлющими.
   Читатели могут использовать информацию из военного баланса по мере необходимости, без ссылки на институт, при условии, что институт и военный баланс цитируются в качестве источника в любой опубликованной работе. Однако воспроизведение всех основных частей работы должно быть одобрено институтом в письменной форме до публикации.

COUNTRIES AND PRINCIPAL PACTS


The United States

   United States defence planning for FY 1990 and beyond has been delayed first by the Presidential election process and the subsequent change of Administration, and secondly by the lengthy Senate confirmation hearings which led to the rejection of Senator John Tower as Secretary of Defense. Since the appointment of Congressman Richard Cheney has been confirmed, some of the findings of the policy review ordered by President Bush have been released and are reflected in the revised defence budget requests for FY 1990 and 1991 and in the five-year spending plan for FY 1990-94 which have been submitted to Congress. The budget request for FY 1990 is $299.3 billion which, if it were to survive Congressional scrutiny unscathed, would maintain 1989 funding levels in real terms. Current plans envisage modest increases in defence spending thereafter of approximately 2% growth per year, but there can be little confidence that this will be achievable. Some of the effects of this static defence budget picture may, however, be alleviated by savings and value-for-money measures such as base closures and a tightening of the Department of Defense procurement system.
   Strategic Defense Initiative
   President Bush has confirmed his resolve to continue with research and development for SDI. The original budget request for SDI in FY 1990 was set at $5.6 bn but this has been reduced by $ 1 bn by Secretary Cheney and it is expected that Congress will reduce this further to about $4 bn. The main focus is now on the Brilliant Pebbles concept; this envisages placing in orbit several thousand small rockets equipped with their own sensors which would each track and destroy an incoming ICBM during its boost and post-boost phase, before its MIRVed warheads were released. The defence provided, though only partial, is said by its proponents to cost significantly less than the SDI Office's current Phase I SDI concept which has been put at $69 bn. The US hopes to carry out tests related to Brilliant Pebbles within two years which would be carefully constrained so as not to breach the narrow interpretation of the 1972 ABM Treaty. SDI research has continued throughout the year, and in March 1989 a test in which a Mid Infra-Red Advanced Chemical Laser successfully intercepted an AGM-129A cruise missile flying at supersonic speed was carried out.
   Nuclear Forces
   Strategic Systems
   The full 50 MX Peacemaker ICBM have now been deployed in Minuteman silos, the last eleven having displaced Minuteman III missiles during the past year. After further reviews of the land-based element of the strategic nuclear triad the new Administration has announced plans to mount the 50 Peacemakers, currently sited in silos, in pairs on railway trains. Once this 'rail-garrison' re-deployment is well advanced, production and deployment of the small ICBM Midgetman will commence. No figure for the final number of Midgetman to be produced has yet been given but estimates range from 250 to 500. The first Midgetman test firing took place on 11 May but a fault in the second stage caused the missile to be destroyed 70 seconds after launch. The Administration's ICBM deployment plan met with numerous reservations in the US Congress.
   Although the first Ohio-class SSBN to be armed with Trident D-5 SLBM has been accepted for service, the D-5 SLBM are not yet ready for deployment and the first submerged test firing on 21 March 1989 was unsuccessful. Two Lafayette-class SSBN each with 16 Poseidon C-3 SLBM have been decommissioned. A further Lafayette will be decommissioned when USS Tennessee's Trident D-5 SLBM becomes operational, probably in early 1990.
   The B-2 bomber, incorporating low-observable ('stealth') technology has been unveiled but has not yet been flown. No performance details are available. For budgetary reasons the planned introduction of the B-2 has been both delayed (by at least a year) and extended in time; the production goal of 132 aircraft by mid-1996 is likely to be reduced and/or delayed. The organization of the B-1 bomber force has altered, there are now six operational squadrons with 90 aircraft, leaving seven in store. The programme of modification to equip B-52H aircraft to carry AGM-86B ALCM has been completed with 84 aircraft in squadron service and 12 in store.
   Sub-Strategic Nuclear Forces
   The Navy has added further platforms capable of launching SLCM: one improved and two modified Los Angeles SSGN, a fourth Iowa-class battleship, three Ticonderoga-class cruisers, and six destroyers.
   Withdrawal and elimination of both Pershing II SSM and GLCM under the terms of the INF Treaty have proceeded. To date 34 Pershing II missiles and 28 (out of 165) launchers, and 130 GLCM and 25 (out of 123) launchers have been eliminated. We are unable to give accurate figures for INF weapons still operationally deployed.
   Short-Range Nuclear Systems
   While the replacement of nuclear artillery ammunition and limited initial development of a Tactical Air-to-Surface Missile is taking place with little publicity or fuss, much political attention has been given to NATO's plans with regard to a follow-on weapon to replace Lance SSM. The decision reached at the NATO summit on 29 and 30 May was that: 'The allies concerned recognize the value of the continued funding by the United States of research and development of a follow-on for the existing Lance short range missile', but 'The question concerning the introduction and deployment of a follow-on system for the Lance will be dealt with in 1992 in the light of overall security developments'.
   Against this background, US development efforts are increasingly focusing on a surface-to-surface missile which will be fired from the MLRS launcher vehicle but with an increased range and with a different and easily recognizable configuration from the conventional army tactical missile system (ATACMS) which is also to be fired from MLRS, so as to ease the problems of verification.
   The Navy has announced its intention of withdrawing from service the nuclear element of three weapons systems: the ASROC submarine-launched and SUBROC surface-launched ASW (introduced in 1961 and 1965 respectively) will be withdrawn from all ships by the end of 1989 and 1991 respectively. The 1956 vintage air-defence weapon Terrier (previously thought to have been withdrawn in 1988) is also to be taken out of service. This development will leave the Navy with only Tomahawk SLCM (land attack) and free-fall bombs and depth charges in its nuclear armoury.
   Conventional Forces
   Ground Forces
   Some minor reorganization of the main ground forces structure has taken place. The 9th Motorized Infantry Division deployed in Washington State is being converted to a mechanized division and two Army National Guard (ARNG) armoured cavalry regiments have been reformed as armoured brigades. The number of CONUS-based active divisions whose third brigade is now provided by the National Guard or Army Reserve has risen from five to six. Fresh information has allowed us to revise our holdings of aviation units; there are now six corps aviation brigades, of which two are in West Germany. Each brigade consists of three active attack helicopter battalions, each with 18 AH-64 Apache and 13 OH-58 Kiowa scout helicopters (and with a further three reserve battalions on mobilization), two assaulttransport battalions each with 45 UH-60 Black Hawk, and a medium transport battalion with 64 CH-47 Chinook, as well as command and medical evacuation helicopter assets. All divisions (including ARNG) other than light divisions have aviation brigades which are planned to consist of a cavalry battalion with eight AH-1S Cobra and 12 OH-58 Kiowa, an anti-tank battalion (two for divisions in West Germany) with 18 AH-64 Apache and 12 OH-58, and an assault-transport battalion with 15 UH-60 Black Hawk. Some 70 AH-64A Apache helicopters have been procured during the year, allowing a total of 15 battalions to be equipped with the Apache.
   The programme for prepositioning equipment (POMCUS) in Europe is now virtually complete for six divisions, an armoured cavalry regiment, and appropriate corps combat support and service support units. While a proportion is physically stored in Belgium and the Netherlands, all is intended for formations destined for deployment in West Germany.
   The main re-equipment programmes have continued, and holdings of Abrams M-1 tanks have increased by some 700 and of Bradley M-2/M-3 fighting vehicles by nearly 900; both these are being placed in POMCUS wherever the CONUS-based unit is equipped with them. M-1 production is to continue for five years at a rate of 516 tanks a year. A further 110 MLRS have entered service. Three further Patriot SAM battalions have been formed to make a total of nine, of which eight now comprise three batteries (towards the final planned organization of six) each with eight launchers. Six further batteries will be activated in FY 1990, all for deployment in Europe. Last year we overestimated the number of Patriot launchers deployed; there are now 204 launchers in service.
   The Army has suffered less than the other three services from cuts made to previous spending requests presented by the Reagan Administration - $1.7 bn in FY 1990 and $2.2 bn in FY 1991. Only two weapons programmes have had to be cancelled: the Army Helicopter Improvement Program (for the OH-58) which has already upgraded two thirds of the 375 helicopters originally budgeted for; and the production of AH-64 Apache after 1991. Production of UH-60 Black Hawk has been reduced by eleven helicopters a year. However, funding has been provided for development of the next-generation Light Helicopter Experimental (LHX).
   Naval Forces
   One 'improved' (SSN-751) and two modified (SSN-719) Los Angeles-class SSGN have been commissioned. A further two 'improved' Los Angeles SSN-751 have been launched and three more ordered. A total of six submarines have been retired: three Permit SSN-594, one Skipjack and one Skate SSN and one non-nuclear Barbel.
   The fourth Iowa-class battleship, USS Wisconsin, was re-commissioned in October 1988. An accident on USS Iowa destroyed a 406mm gun turret but the ship continues in operational service for the present without this being repaired. Three Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers all equipped with Aegis command-and-control system and Tomahawk SLCM have been commissioned. Six Spruance-class destroyers have been upgraded by the addition of the Vertical Launch System which has the capability to launch any combination of missile (but for the Spruance is restricted to Tomahawk only since that class has no air defence radar). The early retirement of 14 frigates (eight Garcia-class and 6 Brooke-class) has taken place, but the last of 51 Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates has been commissioned. Finally, the first of a new class of amphibious assault ship, USS Wasp with the capacity to lift 1,900 troops and 60 tanks and to operate six AV-8B Harrier II, 24 helicopters and either 12 LCM or 3 LGAC (which can carry a tank ashore), has been commissioned.
   The Navy's budget requests for FY 1990 and 1991 have been cut by $5.8 bn; to achieve these savings a number of new procurement programmes will be cancelled or extended in time and some early retirements made. Planned cancellations include the V-22 Osprey tilt rotor plane for the Marine Corps, the F-14D new production and two coastal mine-hunters. In a reversal of a previous policy, one of the two Los Angeles SSN-688, previously cut from the procurement budget, has been reinstated. This effectively delays change-over to Sea Wolf SSN-21; the first SSN-21 was ordered in January 1989 but will not enter service before 1995, with two further planned for FY 1991. Other budgetary cuts include early retirement of the USS Coral Sea once the fifth Nimitz-class carrier joins the fleet (implying the dropping of the 15 carrier battle-group target) together with seven destroyers, while ten frigates will be transferred to the Naval Reserve Surface Forces; these moves will save 5,600 posts.
   The Secretary of Defense has testified that, in view of the cuts proposed, the Navy could not reach the Reagan 1980 target of a '600-ship' fleet in the near future.
   Air Forces
   In addition to unveiling the B-2 bomber the US Air Force has also revealed details of the F-117 aircraft which also incorporates low-observable technology, after several years speculation on its introduction into service. A tactical group of 52 F-117 aircraft exists and is based in Nevada. No performance details have been released nor has the plane's role been defined, but it could be well employed in attacking early warning and fire control radars and possibly in carrying out strategic reconnaissance. It has been reported that the dimensions of the F-117 permit it to be carried by a C-5 transport. This would make possible clandestine deployment of F-117 in limited numbers for special missions. New evidence on the primary tasking and pilot training of multirole tactical aircraft squadrons has led us to some re-attribution between the fighter and FGA roles. We now list 71 fighter squadrons and 66 FGA as compared with 53 fighter squadrons and 82 FGA last year (these totals include Air National Guard (ANG) and Air Force Reserve (AFR) units). Aircraft holdings show an increase of some 70 F-15 and 160 F-16.
   The Air Force has managed to absorb its budget cuts of $2.76 bn in FY 1990 and $3.6 bn in FY 1991 by extending programmes rather than cancelling them, but the production of F-15Efighters will be terminated after 1991 and some 78 aircraft will not be built. There is no reduction in funding for the Advanced Tactical Fighter programme nor for the C-17 strategic transport.
   Special Operations Command
   Special Operations Command has further enhanced its independence from the four primary services by being granted, after a long bureaucratic struggle, its own budget. This will come into effect in FY 1992 but until then Special Operations Command will have responsibility for the execution of relevant Major Force programmes. Therefore, this year we have, listed all Special Operations Units together, separately from their parent services. Special Operations equipment is, however, still listed with those of the appropriate service. Two additional Air Force Squadrons with HC-130 aircraft and one with MH-53 helicopters have been formed.
   Defence Spending
   Fiscal constraints during 1988-9 continued to erode the Reagan Administration's defence budget plans for a real increase of 2%over the next two years. After the inauguration of the new President, the defence budget request was twice revised and reduced from an original $305.6 bn to $299.3 bn. Congress will impose further cuts before the FY 1990 defence budget is approved. The scope for further reductions in expenditure without major adjustments to force size, structure, readiness and sustainability appears very limited because, as several observers have noted, when military personnel costs are added to the cost of authorized programmes (Congress has already authorized $266 bn for weapon programmes and services for the period FY 1990- 94) only 15% of the defence budget is left in the hands of the Secretary of Defense.
   These fiscal and political constraints, coupled with the far less threatening image of the Soviet Union, have placed the Administration in an uncomfortable position. (The President's offer to reduce by 20% US combat troops in Europe to about 275,000 in return for a similar Soviet limit in effect is not only an answer to President Gorbachev's initiatives, but also is to assuage his Congressional critics, and to reduce the financial burden of the US contribution to the Alliance.) The public debate over the level of defence outlays has become increasingly complicated, and is no longer just linked to the issues of the fiscal deficit, the need to increase spending on social programmes while avoiding tax increases, and equitable burden-sharing within the Alliance, but also to the nature of the US response to President Gorbachev's force reductions, future investment in strategic forces, and to modernization programmes.
   Explanatory Note:
   Each year the US government presents its Defense Budget to Congress for the next two fiscal years, together with a long-term spending plan covering a further three years. Until approved by Congress the Budget is referred to as the Budget Request, after approval it becomes the Budget Authority (BA). The term 'outlay' refers to moneys expended; each year the government estimates what the outlay will be, the difference between this and the BA providing for contingencies. However, moneys authorized, particularly in the procurement and construction areas are rarely all spent in the year of authorization though contracts are signed which commit the government to payment in future years. On average, carried forward authorities constitute some 40% of each year's outlay, while similarly some 40% of each year's BA will be carried forward to future years.
  
   Table I: Selected Budgets 1979-90 ($ bit)"
    []

a Data is from Historical Tables, Budget of the United States Government Fiscal Year 1990 (Washington DC USGPO, 1989), Budget of the United States Government Fiscal Year 1989 (Washington DC: USGPO, 1989). All categories include off-budget items.
b The National Defense budget function includes DoD Military Activities, Department of Energy Atomic Energy Defense Activities, and smaller support agencies such as the Federal Management Agency, the Selective Service System and the General Services Administration Stockpile of Strategic Materials, National Defense Function. International Security Assistance and Veterans Administration is not included nor is spending by NASA and the Coast Guard.

   Table II: Defense Budget Authorities
   []

Соединенные Штаты Америки

   Планирование обороны Соединенных Штатов на 1990 финансовый год и последующий период было отложено, во-первых, президентскими выборами и последующей сменой администрации, а во-вторых, длительными слушаниями по утверждению Сената, которые привели к отказу сенатора Джона Тауэра от должности министра обороны. После того как было подтверждено назначение конгрессмена Ричарда Чейни, некоторые выводы обзора политики, заказанного президентом Бушем, были опубликованы и отражены в пересмотренных запросах на оборонный бюджет на 1990 и 1991 годы и в пятилетнем плане расходов на 1990-94 годы, которые были представлены Конгрессу. Бюджетный запрос на 1990 финансовый год составляет $ 299,3 млрд., который, если бы он пережил контроль Конгресса невредимым, сохранил бы уровни финансирования 1989 года в реальном выражении. Нынешние планы предусматривают скромное увеличение расходов на оборону после этого примерно на 2% в год, но вряд ли можно быть уверенным в том, что это будет достижимо. Вместе с тем некоторые последствия этой статичной картины оборонного бюджета могут быть смягчены мерами экономии и соотношения цены и качества, такими, как закрытие баз и ужесточение системы закупок Министерства обороны.
   Стратегическая Оборонная Инициатива
   Президент Буш подтвердил свою решимость продолжать исследования и разработки для SDI. Первоначальный бюджетный запрос на SDI в 1990 финансовом году был установлен на уровне $ 5,6 млрд, но он был сокращен на $1 млрд секретарем Чейни, и ожидается, что Конгресс сократит его еще примерно до $ 4 млрд. Сейчас основное внимание уделяется концепции Brilliant Pebbles, которая предусматривает вывод на орбиту нескольких тысяч малых ракет, оснащенных собственными датчиками, которые будут отслеживать и уничтожать входящую МБР во время ее разгонного и постускорительного этапов, до того, как будут выпущены ее мирные боеголовки. Предоставленная защита, хотя и частичная, по словам ее сторонников, стоит значительно меньше, чем нынешняя концепция SDI на этапе I, которая была оценена в $69 млрд. США надеются в течение двух лет провести испытания, связанные с ПРО, которые будут тщательно сдерживаться, чтобы не нарушить узкое толкование договора по ПРО 1972 года. Исследования SDI продолжались в течение всего года, и в марте 1989 года было проведено испытание, в котором средний инфракрасный передовой химический лазер успешно перехватил крылатую ракету AGM-129A, летящую со сверхзвуковой скоростью.
   Ядерные силы
   Стратегические системы
   В настоящее время в шахтах Minuteman развернуты все 50 МБР MX Peacemaker, последние одиннадцать из которых в течение прошлого года заменили ракеты Minuteman III. После дальнейших обзоров наземного элемента стратегической ядерной триады новая администрация объявила о планах разместить 50 Peacemakers, в настоящее время размещенных в шахтах, попарно на железнодорожных поездах. Как только эта передислокация "железнодорожного гарнизона" будет хорошо продвинута, начнется производство и развертывание малой МБР Midgetman. Окончательная численность Midgetman пока не определена, но оценки варьируются от 250 до 500. Первый испытательный пуск Midgetman состоялся 11 мая, но из-за неисправности второй ступени ракета была уничтожена через 70 секунд после старта. План развертывания МБР администрации встретил многочисленные оговорки в Конгрессе США.
   Хотя первая ПЛАРБ класса Огайо, который будет вооружена БРПЛ Trident D-5, была принята на вооружение, БРПЛ D-5 еще не готовы к развертыванию, и первый подводный испытательный запуск 21 марта 1989 года был неудачным. Две ПЛАРБ класса Lafayette каждый с 16 Poseidon C-3 были выведены из эксплуатации. Еще одна Lafayette будет выведена из эксплуатации, когда USS Tennessee с БРПЛ Trident D-5 начнет функционировать, вероятно, в начале 1990 года.
   Бомбардировщик B-2, оснащенный малозаметной технологией ("стелс"), был представлен, но еще не летал. Сведения о производительности отсутствуют. По бюджетным причинам запланированное внедрение B-2 было как отложено (по крайней мере на год), так и продлено по времени; цель производства 132 самолетов к середине 1996 года, вероятно, будет сокращена и/или отложена. Организация бомбардировочной авиации B-1 изменилась, в настоящее время насчитывается шесть оперативных эскадрилий с 90 самолетами, оставив семь в запасе. Программа модификации для оснащения самолетов B-52H для несения AGM-86B ALCM была завершена с 84 самолетами в эскадрилье и 12 в запасе.
   Субстратегические Ядерные Силы
   Флот добавил дополнительные платформы, способные запускать КРМБ: один улучшенный и два модифицированных ПЛАРК Los Angeles, четвертый линкор класса Iowa, три крейсера класса Ticonderoga и шесть эсминцев.
   Вывод и ликвидация как БР Pershing II, так и GLCM в соответствии с условиями договора о РСМД продолжались. На сегодняшний день ликвидировано 34 ракеты Pershing II и 28 (из 165) пусковых установок, а также 130 GLCM и 25 (из 123) пусковых установок. Мы не можем дать точных цифр по все еще оперативно развернутому оружию РСМД.
   Ядерные Системы Малой Дальности
   В то время как замена ядерных артиллерийских боеприпасов и ограниченная первоначальная разработка тактической ракеты класса "воздух-поверхность" проходят без огласки или шума, большое политическое внимание уделяется планам НАТО в отношении последующего оружия для замены БР Lance. Решение, принятое на саммите НАТО 29 и 30 мая, заключалось в следующем: "заинтересованные страны НАТО признают ценность продолжающегося финансирования Соединенными Штатами исследований и разработок последующей системы для существующей ракеты малой дальности Lance", но "вопрос о внедрении и развертывании системы последующей системы для Lance будет рассмотрен в 1992 году в свете общих событий в области безопасности".
   На этом фоне усилия США в области развития все больше сосредотачиваются на ракете класса "земля-земля", которая будет запускаться из пусковой установки РСЗО, но с увеличенной дальностью и с другой и легко узнаваемой конфигурацией от обычной армейской тактической ракетной системы (ATACMS), которая также будет запускаться из РСЗО, с тем чтобы облегчить проблемы проверки.
   Военно-морской флот объявил о своем намерении снять с вооружения ядерный элемент трех систем вооружения: ПЛУР ASROC и SUBROC (введены в 1961 и 1965 годах соответственно) будут сняты со всех кораблей к концу 1989 и 1991 годов соответственно. Устаревшее оружие ПВО Terrier 1956 года (ранее считалось, что оно было отозвано в 1988 году) также будет снято с вооружения. Эта разработка оставит ВМС только Tomahawk SLCM (land attack) и бомбы свободного падения и глубинные бомбы в своем ядерном арсенале.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   Сухопутные силы
   Произошла незначительная реорганизация основной структуры сухопутных войск. 9-я мотострелковая дивизия, дислоцированная в штате Вашингтон, преобразуется в механизированную дивизию, а два бронетанковых кавалерийских полка армии Национальной гвардии (АРНГ) были преобразованы в бронетанковые бригады. Число действующих дивизий, базирующихся в CONUS, третья бригада которых в настоящее время обеспечивается Национальной гвардией или армейским резервом, возросло с пяти до шести. Свежая информация позволила нам пересмотреть наши запасы авиационных частей; в настоящее время имеется шесть корпусных авиационных бригад, из которых две находятся в Западной Германии. Каждая бригада состоит из трех батальонов активных ударных вертолетов, каждый из которых имеет 18 вертолетов AH-64 Apache и 13 вертолетов OH-58 Kiowa (и еще три резервных батальона по мобилизации), два батальона штурмового транспорта с 45 UH-60 Black Hawk и средний транспортный батальон с 64 CH-47 Chinook, а также вертолеты командования и медицинской эвакуации. Все дивизии (включая ARNG), кроме легких дивизий, имеют авиационные бригады, которые планируются состоять из кавалерийского батальона с восемью AH-1S Cobra и 12 OH-58 Kiowa, противотанкового батальона (два для дивизий в Западной Германии) с 18 AH-64 Apache и 12 OH-58 и штурмового транспортного батальона с 15 UH-60 Black Hawk. В течение года было закуплено около 70 вертолетов AH-64A Apache, что позволило оснастить ими в общей сложности 15 батальонов.
   Программа размещения техники (POMCUS) в Европе в настоящее время практически завершена для шести дивизий, броне-кавалерийского полка и соответствующих подразделений боевой поддержки и служебной поддержки Корпуса. Хотя часть физически хранится в Бельгии и Нидерландах, все они предназначены для формирований, предназначенных для развертывания в Западной Германии.
   Основные программы переоснащения продолжаются, и запасы танков Abrams М-1 увеличились примерно на 700 единиц, а боевых машин Bradley M-2/M-3 - почти на 900 единиц; обе эти машины размещаются в POMCUS, где бы они ни были оснащены подразделением CONUS. Производство М-1 должно продолжаться в течение пяти лет по 516 танков в год. Еще 110 РСЗО поступили на вооружение. Были сформированы еще три батальона ЗРК Patriot, в общей сложности девять, из которых восемь в настоящее время включают три батареи (к окончательной планируемой организации шести), каждая из которых имеет восемь пусковых установок. Еще шесть батарей будут активированы в 1990 финансовом году, все для развертывания в Европе. В прошлом году мы переоценили количество развернутых пусковых установок Patriot; сейчас в 204 пусковых услуг.
   Армия пострадала меньше, чем другие три службы от сокращения предыдущих запросов на расходы, представленных администрацией Рейгана - $1,7 млрд в 1990 финансовом году и $2,2 млрд в 1991 финансовом году. Пришлось отменить только две программы вооружений: программу усовершенствования армейских вертолетов (для OH-58), которая уже модернизировала две трети из 375 вертолетов, первоначально предусмотренных в бюджете; и производство AH-64 Apache после 1991 года. Производство UH-60 Black Hawk было сокращено на одиннадцать вертолетов в год. Вместе с тем, предусмотрено финансирование разработки экспериментального легкого вертолета нового поколения (LHX).
   Морские Силы
   Введены в эксплуатацию один "улучшенный" (SSN-751) и два модифицированных (SSN-719) ПЛА типа Los Angeles. Еще два "улучшенных" Los Angeles SSN-751 были запущены и еще три заказаны. Всего было выведено шесть подводных лодок: три SSN-594, одна Skipjack и одна Skate и одна неядерная Barbel.
   Четвертый линкор класса Iowa, USS Wisconsin, был повторно введен в эксплуатацию в октябре 1988 года. Авария на USS Iowa разрушила 406-мм орудийную башню, но корабль продолжает эксплуатироваться в настоящее время без ремонта. Введены в строй три ракетных крейсера класса Ticonderoga, оснащенных системой управления Aegis и КРМБ Tomahawk. Шесть эсминцев класса Spruance были модернизированы путем добавления системы вертикального запуска, которая имеет возможность запускать любую комбинацию ракет (но для Spruance ограничивается Tomahawk только потому, что этот класс не имеет радара ПВО). Досрочный вывод 14 фрегатов (восемь класса Garcia и 6 класса Brooke) состоялся, но последний из 51 фрегата класса Oliver Hazard Perry был введен в эксплуатацию. Наконец, был введен в эксплуатацию первый из нового класса десантных кораблей-амфибий USS Wasp, способный поднять 1900 военнослужащих и 60 танков и управлять шестью AV-8B Harrier II, 24 вертолетами и 12 LCM или 3 LGAC (которые могут перевозить танк на берег).
   Бюджетные запросы Военно-Морского Флота на 1990 и 1991 годы были сокращены на 5,8 млрд. долл.США; для достижения этой экономии ряд новых программ закупок будет отменен или продлен во времени, а некоторые из них будут досрочно прекращены. Запланированные отмены включают в себя конвертопланов V-22 Osprey для Корпуса морской пехоты, F-14D нового производства и двух прибрежных минных охотников. В результате отмены предыдущей политики был восстановлен один из двух Los Angeles SSN-688, ранее урезанных из бюджета закупок. Это эффективно задерживает переход на Sea Wolf SSN-21; первый SSN-21 был заказан в январе 1989 года, но не поступит на вооружение до 1995 года, а еще два запланированы на 1991 год. Другие бюджетные сокращения включают досрочный вывод Coral Sea, как только пятый авианосец класса Nimitz присоединится к флоту (подразумевающий отказ от цели боевой группы 15 авианосцев) вместе с семью эсминцами, в то время как десять фрегатов будут переданы военно-морским резервным надводным силам; эти шаги сэкономят 5600 постов.
   Министр обороны засвидетельствовал, что, ввиду предложенных сокращений, военно-морской флот не мог достигнуть цели Рейгана 1980 года флота "600 кораблей" в ближайшем будущем.
   Воздушные силы
   В дополнение к открытию бомбардировщика B-2 ВВС США также раскрыли детали самолета F-117, который также включает в себя малозаметную технологию, после нескольких лет спекуляций о ее введении в эксплуатацию. Тактическая группа из 52 самолетов F-117 существует и базируется в Неваде. Никаких подробностей о характеристиках самолета не сообщается, равно как и не определена его роль, но он вполне может быть использован для нападения на радары раннего предупреждения и управления огнем и, возможно, для проведения стратегической разведки. Сообщалось, что размеры F-117 позволяют перевозить его на транспортном средстве C-5. Это сделало бы возможным тайное развертывание F-117 в ограниченном количестве для специальных миссий. Новые данные о первичной задаче и подготовке пилотов многоцелевых эскадрилий тактической авиации привели нас к некоторому перераспределению ролей между истребителем и истребителями-бомбардировщиками. Теперь мы перечислили 71 эскадрилью истребителей и 66 истребителей-бомбардировщиков по сравнению с 53 и 82 в прошлом году (эти суммы включают подразделения Национальной гвардии ВВС (ANG) и резерва ВВС (AFR)). Авиационные холдинги показывают рост примерно на 70 F-15 и 160 F-16.
   ВВС удалось поглотить свои бюджетные сокращения на $ 2,76 млрд в 1990 финансовом году и $ 3,6 млрд в 1991 финансовом году за счет расширения программ, а не их отмены, но производство истребителей F-15 будет прекращено после 1991 года, и около 78 самолетов не будут построены. Сокращение финансирования программы перспективных тактических истребителей и стратегических транспортных средств с-17 не предусмотрено.
   Командование Специальных Операций
   Командование специальных операций еще больше укрепило свою независимость от четырех основных служб, получив после долгой бюрократической борьбы собственный бюджет. Он вступит в силу в 1992 финансовом году, но до тех пор Командование специальных операций будет нести ответственность за выполнение соответствующих основных программ сил. Поэтому в этом году мы перечислили все подразделения Специальных Операций вместе, отдельно от их родительских служб. Однако оборудование для специальных операций по-прежнему числится в перечне соответствующей службы. Сформированы две дополнительные эскадрильи ВВС с самолетами HC-130 и одна с вертолетами MH-53.
   Расходы на Оборону
   Бюджетные ограничения в 1988-1989 годах продолжали подрывать планы военного бюджета администрации Рейгана по реальному увеличению на 2% в течение следующих двух лет. После инаугурации нового президента запрос на оборонный бюджет был дважды пересмотрен и сокращен с первоначальных $305,6 млрд до $299,3 млрд. Конгресс введет дополнительные сокращения до утверждения оборонного бюджета на 1990 финансовый год. Возможности для дальнейшего сокращения расходов без существенных корректировок численности, структуры, готовности и устойчивости сил представляются весьма ограниченными, поскольку, как отмечали некоторые наблюдатели, когда расходы на военный персонал добавляются к стоимости утвержденных программ (Конгресс уже выделил 266 млрд. долл.США на программы вооружений и услуги на период 1990-1994 годов), только 15% оборонного бюджета остается в руках министра обороны.
   Эти финансовые и политические ограничения в сочетании с гораздо менее угрожающим имиджем Советского Союза поставили администрацию в неудобное положение. (Предложение президента сократить на 20% боевые силы США в Европе примерно до 275 000 человек в обмен на аналогичный советский лимит по сути является не только ответом на инициативы президента Горбачева, но и призвано успокоить его критиков в Конгрессе и уменьшить финансовое бремя вклада США в Альянс.) Общественная дискуссия об уровне расходов на оборону становится все более сложной и уже не просто связана с вопросами бюджетного дефицита, необходимостью увеличения расходов на социальные программы при одновременном избежании повышения налогов, и справедливое распределение бремени внутри Североатлантического союза, а также характер реакции США на сокращение сил президента Горбачева, будущие инвестиции в стратегические силы и программы модернизации.
   Пояснительная записка:
   Каждый год правительство США представляет Конгрессу свой оборонный бюджет на следующие два финансовых года вместе с долгосрочным планом расходов, охватывающим еще три года. До утверждения Конгрессом бюджет называется бюджетным запросом, после утверждения он становится бюджетным органом (БА). Термин "расходы" относится к затраченным деньгам; каждый год правительство оценивает, каковы будут расходы, разница между этим и БА, предусматривающим непредвиденные расходы. Однако санкционированные денежные средства, особенно в области закупок и строительства, редко расходуются в год выдачи разрешения, хотя подписываются контракты, обязывающие правительство производить платежи в последующие годы. В среднем, перенесенные полномочия составляют около 40% расходов каждого года, в то время как аналогично около 40% БА каждого года будут перенесены на будущие годы.

   THE UNTIED STATES
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 2,124,900 (211,200 women) (excludes Coast Guard).
Terms of Service: voluntary.
RESERVES:
READY RESERVE: 1,655,900. Selected Reserve and Individual Ready Reserve: to augment active units and provide reserve formations and units:
NATIONAL GUARD: 587,000. Army (ARNG) 472,000; Air (ANG) 115,000.
RESERVE: 1,068,900. Army 610,800; Navy 242,600; Marines 86,800; Air Force 128,700.
STANDBY RESERVE: 37,500. Trained individuals for mobilization: Army 400; Navy 11,200; Marines 1,400; Air Force 24,500.
RETIRED RESERVE: 175,500. Trained individuals to augment support and training facilities: Army 87,300; Navy 28,800; Marines 5,200; Air Force 54,200.

STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCES:!
NAVY: 608 SLBM in 35 SSBN.
SSBN (incl 6 in refit):
   9 Ohio (SSBN-726)
   1 to get 24 UGM-133A Trident D-5 (0 msls)
   USS Tennessee, currently testing Trident D-5, is now expected to be operational in early 1990, when a further Lafayette will be decommissioned
   to remain within SALT limits.
   8 with 24 UGM-93A Trident C-4 (192 msls)
   12 Franklin (SSBN-640):
   6 with 16 Trident C-4 (96 msl)
   6 with 16 UGM-73A Poseidon C-3 (96 msl)
   8 Madison (SSBN-627):
   6 with 16 Trident C-4 (96 msl)
   2 with 16 Poseidon C-3 (32 msl)
   6 Lafayette (SSBN-616) with 16 Poseidon C-3 (96 msl)

STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND (SAC):
2 Air Forces. 8 div (1 trg/spt).
ICBM: 1,000. 6 strategic msl wings (20 sqn, each with 5 launch control centres):
   3 wings (9 sqn) with 450 Minuteman II (LGM-30F).
   3 wings (10 sqn) with 500 Minuteman III (LGM-30G).
   1 sqn with 50 Peacekeeper (MX; LGM-118A); in mod Minuteman silos.
AIRCRAFT: 372 cbt ac; plus 50 in store;
21 bbr wings (14 B-52, 4 B-1B, 2 FB-111, 1 trg).
BOMBERS: 372; plus 50 in store.
LONG-RANGE: 324; plus 36 in store.
   4 wings (6 sqn) with 90 B-1B; plus 7 in store.
   4 wings (6 sqn) with 84 B-52H (with AGM-86B ALCM); plus 12 in store.
   10 wings (10 sqn) with 150 B-52G; plus 17 in store:
   6 sqn (89 ac) with ALCM/SRAM; plus 9 in store.
   4 sqn (61 ac) with Harpoon or bombs (conventional role only); plus 8 in store.
MEDIUM-RANGE: 48; plus 14 in store.
   2 wings: 5 sqn with FB-111A (to be modified to 111G and to transfer to TAC in the 1990s).
RECCE: 60; plus 5 trg, 12 in store.
3 wings: 6 sqn:
   1 with 6 SR-71A, 1 SR-71B (trg); 12 in store, 11 T-38A (trg). Withdrawn by 10/89.
   1 with 11 U-2R, 2 U-CT(trg).
   2 with 23 TR-1A, 2 TR-1B (trg).
   2 with 20 RC-135.
COMMAND: 44:
6 sqn:
   1 with 4 E-4A/B.
   5 with 40 EC-135.
TANKER: 706: (plus 48 in store):
6 wings: 54 sqn (51 with ac, incl 1 trg):
   31 USAF with 512 KC-135.
   4 USAF with 60 KC-10A tkr/tpt.
   13 ANG with 110 KC-135.
   3 AFR with 24 KC-135.
   3 KC-10 AFR Associate sqn (no ac).

STRATEGIC RECCE/INTELLIGENCE COLLECTION (SATELLITES)
IMAGERY:KH-8: 80-220-mile orbit, photographic film return. KH-11: 160-400-mile polar orbit, digital imagery. KH-12 (Ikon).
OCEAN SURVEILLANCE (OSUS): 4 satellites to detect ships by infra-red and radar.
NAVIGATIONAL SATELLITE TIMING AND RANGING (NAVSTAR): 7 satellites, components of global positioning system (21 by 1992).
ELINT/COMINT: Chalet, Magnum, Aquacade, 'Ferrets' (radar-monitoring satellites).
NUCLEAR DETONATION DETECTION SYSTEM (NDS): Detects and evaluates nuclear detonations. Sensors to be deployed in NAVSTAR satellites 1989-92.

STRATEGIC DEFENCES:
US Air Force Space Command: (HQ: Peterson AFB, Colorado).
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a combined US-Cdn org (HQ: Peterson AFB, Colorado).

EARLY WARNING:
SATELLITE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM (SEWS): 1 each over Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; infra-red surveillance and warning system.
   Control and tracking stations at Guam and Pine Gap, Nurrungar (Australia).
BALLISTIC MISSILE EARLY WARNING SYSTEM (BMEWS): 3 stations: Clear (Alaska); Thule (Greenland) Fylingdales Moor (UK).
   Radars detect and track satellites, ICBM and IRBM, 4,800-km range.
   Thule has been updated with phased-array radar, Fylingdales is in process of update.
SPACETRACK: USAF radars Pirinclik (Turkey), Shemya (Aleutians), Clear, Thule and Fylingdales; optical tracking systems in New Mexico, at St Margarets (NB), Choejong-San (S.Korea), San Vito (Italy), Maui (Hawaii), Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean).
PACIFIC RADAR BARRIER (PACBAR): detection and tracking radars: at San Miguel, Philippines, Kwajalein Atoll, North Mariannas.
USN SPACE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NAVSPASUR): 3 transmitting, 6 receiving sites field stations in south-east US.
PERIMETER ACQUISITION RADAR ATTACK CHARACTERIZATION SYSTEM (PARCS):
   1 north-facing phased-array system at Grand Forks ND; 2,800-km range.
PAVE PAWS: phased-array radars in Massachusetts, Georgia, Texas, California; 5,500-km range.
MISCELLANEOUS RADARS: US Army: Kwajalein Atoll (Pacific). USAF:
   Ascension Island (Atlantic), Antigua (Caribbean), Kaena Point (Hawaii); MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Westford, MA.
UNDER DEVELOPMENT: Ground-based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance system (GEODSS):
   White Sands NM, Taegu (S. Korea) and Maui (Hawaii), Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean); 1 more planned for Portugal.

AIR DEFENCE:
RADARS:
OVER-THE-HORIZON-BACKSCATTER RADAR (OTH-B): 4 systems planned:
   1 in Maine, 1 in Oregon/N.California, 1 in south central US, 1 in Alaska, east coast system operational;
   construction of the west coast system has started; construction to start in Alaska in FY 89. Range 900 (minimum) to 3,300 km.
NORTH WARNING SYSTEM: to replace DEW line (q.v.). 15 automated long-range radar stations now operational.
   39 short-range (110-150 km) stations due in service by 1992.
DEW LINE: 31 radars in Alaska (7), Canada (20), and Greenland (4) roughly along the 70RN parallel from Point Lay, Alaska to Greenland.
AIRCRAFT:
REGULAR: 84: 1 Air Force, 5 air div:
   2 with 36 F-15A (CONUS).
   2 with 30 F-15C (Alaska).
   1 with 18 F-15C (Iceland).
ANG.216: 12 sqn:
   7 with 126 F-4C/D.
   1 with 18 F-15A (Hawaii).
   4 with 72 F-16A/B.
TAC augmentation: ac on call from Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force.
AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.

ARMY: 766,500 (82,700 women).
7 Army HQ, 6 Corps HQ (1 AB).
4 armd div (3 bde HQ, 6 tk, 4 mech inf, 3 SP arty, 1 MLRS/SP arty, 1 AD bn; 1 avn bde) (incl 1 ARNG bde in 1 div).
7 mech div (3 bde HQ, 5 tk, 5 mech inf, 3 SP arty, 1 MLRS/SP arty, 1 AD bn; 1 avn bde) (incl 1 ARNG/AR bde in 3 div).
1 inf div (3 bde HQ, 8 inf, 1 mech inf, 1 tk, 3 arty, 1 AD bn; 1 avn bde).
4 lt inf div (3 bde HQ, 9 inf, 3 arty, 1 AD bn) (incl 1 ARNG/AR bde in 2 div).
1 air aslt div: (3 bde HQ, 9 air aslt, 3 arty bn, avn bde (8 bn: 4 attack, 2 aslt, 1 comd, 1 tpt)).
1 AB div (3 bde HQ, 9 para, 3 arty, 1 AD bn, 1 ATK coy, 1 air recce sqn; 1 avn bde).
2 indep armd bde (2 tk, 1mech inf, 1 SP arty bn).
1 indep mech bde (1 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty bn).
2 inf (theatre def) bde (3 inf, 1 lt arty bn, 1 tk coy+).
6 corps avn bde (2 attack, 1 avn bn).
2 avn trg bde.
3 armd cav regt.
9 arty bde.
5 AA arty bde.
4 Penning II SSM bn (plus 1 school bty) (being disbanded).
8 Lance SSM bn (each 6 launchers).
9 Patriot SAM bn: 8 with 3 bty (all to form 6 bty as eqpt becomes available).
8 HAWK SAM bn.

READY RESERVE:
ARMY NATIONAL GUARD (ARNG): capable after mob of manning
   10 div (2 armd, 2 mech, 5 inf, 1 lt inf);
   20 indep bde (5 armd, 6 mech, 9 inf (3 lt) (incl 5 'Roundout' (1 armd, 3 mech, 1 lt inf) for Regular Army div));
   2 armd cav regt;
   1 inf gp (Arctic recce: 5 scout bn);
   20 fd arty bde HQ.
   Indep bn: 5 tk, 3 mech, 1 mtn inf, 50 arty, 4 ATK (TOW), 13 AD (1 HAWK, 7 Chaparral, 1 M-42 40mm, 4 Vulcan/Stinger SP AA arty), 62 engr.
ARMY RESERVE (AR):
   12 trg div, 3 trg bde (no cbt role).
   3 indep bde: 1 mech, 1 inf (theatre def), 1 lt inf ('Roundout'); 3 arty bde HQ, 72 indep bn (1 tk, 2 inf, 16 arty, 53 engr).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 15,992: 1,111 M-48A5, 3,487 M-60/M-60A1, 5,400 M-60A3, 5,994 M-1/M-1A1 Abrams.
AIFV: some 4,883 M-2/-3 Bradley.
APC: some 26,480, incl 4,500 M-577, 18,080 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 1,945: 105mm: 300 M-101, 800 M-102, 35 M-119; 155mm: 220 M-114, 590 M-198.
SP ARTY: 3,452: 155mm: 2,423 M-109A1/A2; 203mm: 1,029 M-110A1/A2.
MRL: 227mm: some 416 MLRS.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: 2,670 (incl 920 M-106); 120mm: some.
SSM: 109 Pershing II launchers (to be destroyed); 65 Lance launchers.
ATGW: 7,400 TOW, 3,900 M-901 with TOW, 7,700 Dragon launchers.
RCL: 3,560 90mm and 106mm.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 220 M-167 Vulcan towed, 380 M-163 SP; 40mm: 500 M-42 SP.
SAM: Redeye, FIM-92A Stinger, 39 Avenger (vehicle mounted Stinger), 618 M-54 and M-48 SP Chaparral,
   400 Improved HAWK, 204 Patriot launchers, 8 Rapier, 4 ADATS.
AMPHIBIOUS: 15 ships:
   4 Frank Besson LST: capacity 32 tk.
   1 John Page LST: capacity 16 tk.
   10 Runnymede LSM: capacity 7 tk.
   Plus craft: some 180 LCM, 30 ACV.
AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT: some 520, incl 111 OV-1C/D, 26 RV-1D, 28 RU-21, 2 RG-8A, 6 Short-330, 19 C-7, 134 C-12 (113 C-12D, 21 RC-12D/G/H),
   49 U-8, 6 UV-18A, 115 U-21, 24 T-42.
HELICOPTERS: some 8,376 (2,250 armed hel) incl hel in store; 1,074 AH-1S, 454 AH-64A, 18 AH-6/MH-6,
   3,085 UH-1 (being replaced), 15 EH-1H ECM, 985 UH/MH-60A (40 to be EH-60A, ECM on conversion),
   197 CH-47A/B/C, 271 -D, 71 CH-54,
   335 OH-6A, 1,871 OH-58A/C/D.

NAVY: 583,900 (55,000 women): 4 Fleets; 2nd(Atlantic), 3rd (Pacific), 6th (Mediterranean), 7th (W. Pacific).
SUBMARINES: 133:
STRATEGIC SUBMARINES: 35: (see p. 16).
TACTICAL SUBMARINES: 96: (incl 31 in refit).
SSGN: 10:
   2 improved Los Angeles (SSN-751) with 12 Tomahawk SLCM (VLS), 533mm TT (Mk 48 HWT, Harpoon, Tomahawk).
   8 mod Los Angeles (SSN-719) with 12 Tomahawk SLCM (VLS); plus 533mm TT (Mk 48 HWT, Harpoon, Tomahawk).
SSN: 83:
   31 Los Angeles (SSN-688) with Mk 48 HWT, plus Harpoon; 22 with Tomahawk SLCM.
   37 Sturgeon (SSN-637) with Mk 48 HWT; 5 with SUBROC, plus Harpoon; 13 with Tomahawk SLCM.
   10 Permit (SSN-594) with Mk 48 HWT, SUBROC; plus Harpoon.
   1 Lipscomb(SSN-685) with Mk 48 HWT, SUBROC.
   1 Narwhal (SSN-671) with Mk 48 HWT; plus Harpoon.
   3 Skipjack (SSN-585) with Mk 48 HWT.
SS: 3:
   2 Barbel (SS-580) with Mk 48 HWT.
   1 Darter (SS-576) with Mk 48 HWT.
SUBMARINES. OTHER ROLES: 2:
   2 Houston (SSN-609) (special ops).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 229:
AIRCRAFT CARRIERS: 14 (incl 2 in refit, excl 1 in SLEP).
CVN: 5:
   4 Nimitz (CVN-68) (92,900t).
   1 Enterprise (CVN-65) (91,500t).
CV: 9 (plus 1 Kitty Hawk in SLEP):
   2 Kitty Hawk (CV-63) (81/83,000t).
   1 Kennedy (CV-67) (82,500t).
   4 Forrestal (CV-59) (80,500/82,400t).
   2 Midway (CV-41) (65/66,300t).
AIR WING 13 (average 86 ac, dependent on ship):
   2 ftr sqn with 24 F-14A; or (Midway-class) F/A-18A.
   3 FGA/attack sqn: 2 lt with 24 F/A-18A or A-7E. 1 med with 10 A-6E.
   2 ASW sqn: 1 with 10 S-3A ac; 1 with SH-3H hel.
   1 ECM sqn with 4 EA-6B.
   1 AEW sqn with 4 E-2C; 4 KA-6D tkr.
BATTLESHIPS: 4 Iowa (BB-61) with 3x3 406mm guns, 8x4 Tomahawk SLCM, plus 4x4 Harpoon SSM.
CRUISERS: 41 (incl 6 in refit):
CGN: 9:
   4 Virginia (CGN-38) with 2x2 SM-2MR SAM/ASROC SUGW; plus 2x4 Tomahawk SLCM, 2x4 Harpoon, SH-2F hel (Mk46 LWT), 2x3 ASTT, 2 127mm guns.
   2 California (CGN-36) with 2 SM-2MR; plus 2x4 Harpoon, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 2 127mm guns.
   1 Truxtun (CGN-35) with 1x2 SM-2ER SAM/ASROC; plus 2x3 ASTT, 1 SH-2F hel, 1 127mm guns.
   1 Long Beach (CGN-9) with 2x2 SM-2ER; plus 2x4 Tomahawk, 2x4 Harpoon, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 2 127mm guns.
   1 Bainbridge (CGN-25) with 2x2 SM-2ER plus 2x4 Harpoon, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT.
CG: 32:
   14 Ticonderoga(CG-47 Aegis):
   5 Baseline 1 with 2x2 SM-2MR/ASROC; plus 2x4 Harpoon, 2 127mm guns, 2x3 ASTT, 2 SH-2F or SH-60B hel.
   9 Baseline 2/3, with 2 x VLS Mk 41 (61 tubes each) for combination of SM-2 ER, and Tomahawk. Other weapons as Baseline I.
   9 Belknap (CG-26) with 1x2 SM-2ER/ASROC; plus 2x3 ASTT, 2x4 Harpoon, 1 127mm gun, 1 SH-2F hel.
   9 Leahy (CG-16) with 2x2 SM-2ER/ASROC; plus 2x3 ASTT, 2x4 Harpoon.
DESTROYERS: 68: (incl some 6 in refit).
DDG: 37:
   4 Kidd (DDG-993) with 2x2 SM-2MR/ASROC; plus 2x3 ASTT, 2 SH-2F hel, 2x4 Harpoon, 2 127mm guns.
   10 Coontz (DDG-37) with 1x2 SM-2ER; plus 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1 127mm gun. 8 with 2x4 Harpoon.
   23 Adams (DDG-2) 13 with 1x2 SM-1MR; 10 with 1 SM-1; plus 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 2 127mm gun; 18 with Harpoon.
DD: 31:
   31 Spruance (DD-963) (ASW):
   21 Baseline 1, with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1 SH-2F hel; plus 2x4 Harpoon, 2 127mm gun; 7 with 2x4 Tomahawk.
   10 Baseline 2, with 1 VLS Mk 41 (Tomahawk), 2x3 ASTT, 1 SH-60B hel; plus 2 127mm guns, 2x4 Harpoon.
FRIGATES: 102: (incl some 12 in refit).
FFG: 51:
   51 Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) (15 in NRF), all with 2x3 ASTT; 24 with 2 SH-60B hel; 27 with 2 SH-2F hel; all plus 1 SM-1MR/Harpoon.
FF: 51:
   46 Knox (FF-1052) (7 in NRF) with 1x8 ASROC, 1 SH-2F hel, 4 ASTT; plus Harpoon (from ASROC launcher), 1 127mm gun.
   2 Garcia (FF-1040) with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 127mm guns. Note: To decommission 8/89 and 9/89.
   1 Glover (FF-1098) with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 1 x 127mm gun.
   2 Bronstein (FF-1037) with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 30: Note: Mainly responsibility of Coast Guard.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Pegasus PHM with 2x4 Harpoon.
PATROL, INSHORE: 24<.
MINE WARFARE: 29:
MINELAYERS: None dedicated, but mines can be laid from SS classes and also by B-52 bbr.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 29:
   1 Avenger (MCM-1) MCO.
   21 Aggressive (MSO-422)/Acme (MSO-509) MCO (18 with NRF).
   7 MSB-15 MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 66:
COMMAND: 2 Blue Ridge, capacity 700 tps.
LHA: 6:
   1 Wasp: capacity 1,900 tps, 60 tk; with 6 AV-8B ac, 12 CH-46, 4 CH-53, 4 UH-1N, 4 AH-1T hel; plus 12 LCM-6 or 3 LCAC.
   5 Tarawa: capacity 1,700 tps, 100 tk, 4 LCU, 6 AV-8B ac, 12 CH-46, 4 CH-53, 4 UH-1N, 4 AH-1T hel.
LPH: 7 Iwo Jima: capacity 1,750 tps, 4 AV-8B ac, 2 CH-46, 10 CH-53, 1 UH-1N hel.
LPD: 13: 11 Austin, 2 Raleigh: capacity 930 tps, 4 tk.
LSD: 13:
   5 Whidbey Island with 4 LCAC or 21 LSM: capacity 450 tps, 40 tk.
   5 Anchorage, 3 Thomaston: capacity 350 tps, 38 tk.
   LST: 20 Newport (2 NRF): capacity 400 tps, 10 tk.
   LKA (amph cargo ships): 5 Charleston: capacity 360 tps, 10,000 tonnes stores.
CRAFT: some 75:
   14 LCAC: capacity 1 MBT.
   53 LCU-1610: capacity 3 MBT.
   Numerous LCVP, LCU, LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 152:
(Total includes 66 USN ships, 78 ships of the Military Sealift Command Fleet Auxiliary Force, and 8 AGOR owned by the US Navy,
   but operated by civil research institutes.)
UNDERWAY SUPPORT: 59:
   AO: 31: 5 Cimarron, 7 Wichita, 6 Henry Kaiser, 6 Neosho, 5 Mispillion, 2 Caloosahatchee.
   AOE: 4 Sacramento.
   AE: 13: 8 Kilauea, 2 Suribachi, 3 Nitro.
   AF: 11: 7 Mars, 1 Rigel, 3 Sirius.
MAINTENANCE AND LOGISTICS: 50: 9 AD, 12 AS, 3 AR, 7 AT, 14 AOT, 3 AK, 2 AH.
SPECIAL PURPOSES: 22: 2 comd, 14 AGOS (towed array), 5 technical spt, 1 avn trg.
SURVEY AND RESEARCH: 21: 12 AGOR, 9 AGHS.

NAVAL AVIATION: incl 13 attack carrier air wings.
AIRCRAFT:
FIGHTER: 26 sqn with F-14A.
FGA/ATTACK: 42 sqn:
   16 med with A-6E, KA-6D (tanker).
   12 lt with A-7E.
   14 with F/A-18A.
ELINT: 2 sqn with EA-3, EP-3.
EW: 11 sqn with EA-6B.
MR: 24 land-based sqn with P-3B, P-3C, P-3CIII.
ASW: 12 sqn with S-3A.
AEW: 15 sqn with E-2C.
COMD: 2 sqn with EC-130Q (TACAMO) (E-6A to replace).
OTHER: 14 spt sqn with C-130F, LC-130F/R, EC-130G/Q, C-2A, CT-39, C-131, UC-12B ac; and hel (see below).
OCU: 17:
   4 ftr/strike (2 with F-14, 2 with F-18).
   4 attack with TA-7C, A-7E, A-6.
   3 EW with EA-6B, EA-3.
   2 MR with P-3B/C.
   2 AEW with E-2B/C.
   2 ASW with S-3A.
TRAINING:
   5 'Aggressor' sqn with F-5E/F, T-38, A-4, F-16N.
   18 trg sqn: 2 with F/A-18B, 16 with T-2B/C, T-34C, T-39, T-44 ac; and hel (see below).
HELICOPTERS:
ASW: 25 sqn:
   5 with SH-60B (LAMPS Mk III).
   6 with SH-2F (LAMPS Mk I).
   14 with SH-3H (SH-60F to replace).
MCM: 2 sqn with RH-53D, MH-53E.
MISC: 6 spt sqn with SH-3, 4 with CH-46, 1 with CH-53E.
OCU: 9 with SH-2/-3/-60B, UH-1, CH-46, CH-53.
TRG: 2 sqn with TH-57A/B/C.
EQUIPMENT: 1,579 (incl 247 NR) cbt ac; plus 568 in store; some 376 (incl 46 NR) armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   F-14: 398. -A: 372 (312 ftr, 60 OCU); -A plus: 26 (ftr); plus 210 in store.
   F/A-18: 246. -A: 213 (168 FGA, 45 OCU); -B: 33 (trg); plus 118 in store.
   F-5E/F/T-38: 21.
   F-16: 26. -N: 22 (trg); TF-16N: 4 (trg).
   A-4: 426 (trg). -F: 177 (trg); TA-4J: 249 (trg).
   A-6: 340. -E: 212 (160 FGA, 52 OCU); -F: 12 (trials); EA-6B: 64 (EW); KA-6D: 52 (tkr); plus 125 in store.
   A-7E: 210 (FGA); TA-7C (OCU).
   E-2C: 86. 72 (AEW, incl 12 NR): -B/C: 14 (OCU).
   A-3: 18. EA-3: 14 (ELINT); KA-3: 4 (tkr).
   P-3: 385: -A/-B/-C/-CIII: 333 (MR, incl 117 NR); 40 (OCU); EP-3: 12 (ELINT); plus 115 in store.
   S-3A: 140 (110 ASW, 30 OCU).
   C-130: 28. -Q: 15 (comd); -F/LC-130F/R: 13 (misc).
   CT-39: 9 (misc). C-117 (C-47): 4 (misc). C-9B: 27 (tpt). UC-12A: 38 (misc).
   T-2B/C: 178 (trg). US-3: 6 (tpt). T-34C: 334 (trg). T-44: 46 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   RH-53D: 31 (MCM); MH-53E: 16 (MCM).
   SH-60B: 97 (ASW); -F: 12 (ASW). HH-60: 16 (cbt spt, NR).
   SH-2F: 147 (ASW, OCU; to be mod to -2G).
   SH-3D/H: 104 (ASW, OCU; remaining 26 -D being converted to -H standard).
   CH-46: 88 (tpt, OCU) being updated.
MISSILES:
   AAM: AIM-120 AMRAAM being delivered. AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-54A/C Phoenix, AIM-9 Sidewinder.
   ASM: AGM-78D Standard ARM, AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-88A HARM (anti-radiation); AGM-84 Harpoon.

RESERVES:
NAVAL RESERVE SURFACE FORCES (NRF): 45 ships: 15 FFG, 7 FF, 18 MCMV, 2 amph and 3 spt/misc vessels. Incl in main Navy entry.
   Crewed by about 70% active USN and 30% NR.
AVIATION: 247 cbt ac; 46 armed hel.
2 attack carrier wings: 16 sqn:
   6 attack (4 with 48 A-7E; 2 with 24 F/A-18).
   1 med attack with 10 A-6E.
   4 ftr with 48 F-14.
   2 AEW with 12 E-2C.
   2 ECM with EA-6A/B.
   1 tkr with KA-3B.
2 MR wings: 13 sqn with 117 P-3A/B/C.
1 tac spt wing: 13 sqn:
   2 composite with TA-4J.
   11 spt with C-9B.
1 hel wing: 11 sqn:
   4 ASW (1 with 6 SH-3D, 3 with 24 SH-2F).
   2 lt attack with 16 AH-1J.
   2 MCM with 24 RH-53D.
   1 SAR with HH-3.
   2 cbt spt special sqn with 16 HH-60.
(To form: aircrew associate units).
COMBAT SUPPORT FORCES (provision of units for MCM, underwater ops, ashore contraction, cargo handling).
AUGMENT FORCES (provision of additional manpower to regular org).

MARINE CORPS: 195,300 (10,500 women).
3 div (2 bde HQ, 3 inf (with 9 inf, 1 armd inf with LAV-25 bn), 1 arty regt, 1 recce, 1 tk, 1 cbt engr, 1 aslt amph, 1 AD bn).
2 bn Marine Corps Cbt Security Force (deployed 1 each in Atlantic and Pacific).
RESERVES (MCR):
1 div: (3 inf, 1 arty regt; 2 tk, 1 armd inf (with LAV-25), 1 aslt amph, 1 recce, 1 cbt engr bn).
1 SAM bn with HAWK
UTILITY: 2 sqn with 24 UH-1N.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 716 M-60A1.
AIFV: 422 LAV-25 (25mm gun)
APC: 805 AAV-7A1/LVT-7A1 (all roles) incl 50 LAV-M (mor), 94 LAV-L (logistic)
SP ARTILLERY: 155mm: 143M-109A3; 203mm: 108 M-110A2.
TOWED ARTILLERY: 105mm: 282 M-101A1; 155mm: 422 M-198, 90 M-114
MORTAR: 81mm: E400.
ATGW: 1,117 TOW, 1,054 Dragon, 96 LAV-AT (TOW).
RCL: 83mm: ~700.
SAM: Redeye, Stinger.

AVIATION: 3 active air wings.
AIR WING: (no standard org but an optimal option is shown below): 174 fixed-wing aircraft, 156 hel:
48 F/A-18, 20 A-6, 60 AV-8B, 9 T/OA-4, 7 RF-4B, 6 EA-6B, 12 OV-10, 12 KC-130, 60 CH-46, 48 CH-53, 24 AH-1, 24 UH-1
AIRCRAFT:
FIGHTER: 12 sqn with F/A-18.
FGA: 13 sqn:
   8 lt: 6 with AV-8B, 2 with A-4M.
   5 med with A-6E.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 21 RF-4B.
EW: 1 sqn with 18 EA-6B.
FAC: 2 sqn with OV-10.
COMD: 5 sqn with OA-4/TA-4.
TANKER: 3 sqn with KC-130.
TRAINING: 7 sqn.
HELICOPTERS: 30 sqn:
ARMED: 6 lt attack/utility sqn with AH-1/UH-1N.
TRANSPORT: 15 med with CH-46E, 9 hy with CH-53 (5 with -A/-D, 4 with -E).
SAM:
   3 bn with Improved HAWK.
   3 bn with Stinger (forming).

RESERVES (MCR):
AVIATION: 1 air wing: 96 cbt ac, 8 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 24 F-4S; 1 with 12 F/A-18A.
FGA: 5 sqn with 60 A-4M.
EW: 1 sqn with 4 EA-6A.
FAC: 1 sqn with 18 OV-10A.
TANKER: 2 tkr/tpt sqn with 18 KC-130F/T.
HELICOPTERS:
ARMED: 1 sqn with 8 AH-1J.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn (2 med with 24 CH-46E, 1 hy with 18CH-53A).

EQUIPMENT: 488 cbt ac (incl 96 MCR); plus 5 in store; 84 armed hel (incl 8 MCR).
AIRCRAFT:
   F/A-18: 186. -A: 120 (ftr, 12 MCR); -B: 20 (trg); -C: 36 (FGA); -D: 10 (trg).
   AV-BB: 141.134 (FGA);TAV-8B: 7 (trg); plus 5 in store.
   RF-4B: 21 (recce).
   A-4: 122. -M: 98 (60 MCR); OA-4M: 15 (comd); TA-4F: 9 (trg).
   A-6: 76. -E: 54 (attack); EA-6A: 4 (ECM, MCR);-B: 18 (ECM).
   OV-10A/D: 36 (FAC).
   F-21: 13 (trg).
   KC-130F/T: 42: 36 (tkr), 6 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   AH-1J/T/W1: 84: 72 (armed), 12 (trg).
   UH-1N: 80: 72 (tpt), 8 (trg).
   CH-4BE: 206 (186 aslt, 20 trg).
   CH-53: 170: -A/D: 94 (84 aslt, 10 trg); -E: 76 (66 aslt, 10 trg).
   VH-60A: 9 (VIP tpt).
   VH-3D: 11 (VIP tpt).
MISSILES:
   SAM: Improved HAWK, Stinger.
   AAM:Sparrow, Sidewinder.
   ASM: Maverick.

COAST GUARD (By law a branch of the Armed Forces; in peacetime operate under and are funded by the Department of Transportation.
   Budgets are not incl in the figures at p. 15): Budget 1987: BA $2,595 bn, outlay $2,581 bn. 1988: BA $2,534 bn, outlay $2,785 bn.
   Strength: 38,100 (2,700 women).
PATROL AND SURFACE COMBATANTS: 158:
PATROL, OFFSHORE: 49:
   12 Hamilton high endurance with hel deck, 2x3 ASTT, 1 127mm gun (5 in refit).
   11 Bear med endurance with HH-52A hel.
   16 Reliance med endurance with hel deck.
   10 other med endurance cutters.
PATROL, INSHORE: 99:
   30 Farallon PCI, 13 Cape Higgon, 3 Sea Hawk SES, 53 Point Hope<.
SUPPORT AND OTHER: 13.
   3 icebreakers, 9 icebreaking tugs, 1 trg.
AVIATION: 74 ac, 125 hel.
FIXED WING: 2 E-2C, 41 HU-25A, 29 HC-130H, 1 VC-4A, 1 VC-11 A.
HELICOPTERS: 58 HH-65A, 36 HH-3F, 2 CH-3E, 29 HH-52A.
COAST GUARD RESERVE: 18,350. Selected: 12,100; Ready 5,700; Standby 550.

STRATEGIC SEALIFT
:
Military Sealift Command, in addition to the Fleet Auxiliary Force, operates and administers strategic sealift resources.
TOTAL SEALIFT SHIPS: 311:
ACTIVE: 69:
STRATEGIC MOBILITY: 44: 2 ro-ro veh ships, 4 ro-ro container, 5 AK, 1 AK (container), 22 tankers, 8 fast veh/cargo, 2 hospital.
AFLOAT PREPOSITIONING: 25: 7 AK, 4 barge lift, 13 Maritime Prepositioning (to support MEB), 1 semi-submersible heavy lift ship.
RESERVE: 242: (in preservation in CONUS ports).
READY RESERVE FORCE (RRF): 93 (5 to 20 days reactivation notice): 48 AK (incl 18 veh carriers), 9 gasoline tkr, 1 pax, 8 crane ships, 20 ro-ro, 7 barge lift.
NATIONAL DEFENCE RESERVE FLEET (NDRF): 149 (60 to 90 days reactivation notice, but many ships very old and of doubtful serviceability):
   45 dry cargo, 27 tkr, 77 'Victory' WWII cargo.
AUXILIARY STRATEGIC SEALIFT. A further 318 US-flag and effectively US-controlled ships potentially available to augment these holdings.

AIR FORCE: 579,200 (69,000 women); 3,577 cbt ac (incl ANG, AFR); plus 1,000+ in store.
STRATEGIC: (organization: see p. 16).
TACTICAL: 25 active cbt wings, comprising 82 sqn (sqn may be 18 or 24 ac). 2 active wings to be disbanded by 1991.
FIGHTER: 45 sqn (also have FGA commitment):
   18 with F-15.
   27 with F-16.
FGA: 37 sqn, 1 gp:
   7 with F-4.
   10 with F-111.
   14 with A-10.
   6 Wild Weasel (1 trg) with F-4.
   1 tac gp with F-117.
SUPPORT:
RECCE: 6 sqn (1 trg) with RF-4C.
AEW: 1 Airborne Warning and Control wing; 4 sqn (incl 1 trg) with E-3.
EW: 4 sqn with EC-130, EC-135, EF-111.
FAC: 7 tac air control sqn:
   6 with OA-10/OV-10/OA-37.
   1 with CH-3 hel.
SPECIAL OPERATIONS (4,100): 3 wing, 10 sqn: (seep. 23)
OCU: 14: 2 with F-111; 3 with F-16; 2 with F-4; 1 with F-5; 2 with F-15; 3 with A-10; 1 with RF-4.
TRAINING:
   2 'Aggressor' sqn with F-16.
   30 trg sqn with F-16, T-37, T-38, T-39, T-41, T-43, UV-18, Schweizer 2-37, C-5, C-12, C-130, C-141 ac and UH-60, HH-3, HH-53, U/TH-1 hel.
TRANSPORT: 32 sqn:
   19 strategic: 4 with C-5; 15 with C-141.
   13 tac airlift with C-130.
   Units with KC-10, C-135, C-137, C-140, C-9, C-12, C-20, C-21, C-23, CT-39.
SAR: 6 sqn (incl SAC msl spt) with HC-130 ac, HH-3, UH-1, UH-60 hel.
MEDICAL 3 medical evacuation sqn with C-9.
WEATHER RECCE: 2 sqn with WC-130, WC-135. WC-130 to be withdrawn.
TRIALS/weapons trg units with F-4, F-5, F-15, F-16, T-38, C-141 ac, UH-1 hel.
GLCM: 3 wings with BGM-109G (being disbanded).

EQUIPMENT:
STRATEGIC: 372 cbt ac (plus 50 in store).
   B-52: 234: -G: 150, plus 17 in store (98 with ALCM, 69 with Harpoon); -H: 84 strike (with ALCM) plus 12 in store.
   B-1B: 90 (strike trg); plus 7 in store.
   FB-111A: 48 (strike, trg); plus 14 in store.
   SR-71: 7: -A: 6 (recce; 12 in store); -B: 1 (trg). Are being withdrawn.
   U-2CT/R: 13 (11 recce, 2 trg).
   TR-1: 25: -A: 23 (recce); -B: 2 (trg).
   E-4: 4 (comd/control): -A: 1; -B: 3.
   C-135: 706: RC-135: 20 (surveillance, comd/control);
   EC-135: 40 (comd/control); KC-135: 646 (tankers; 512 USAF, 110 ANG, 24 AFR).
   KC-10A: 60 tkr/tpt.
TACTICAL: 3,205 cbt ac; (incl 818 ANG, 241 AFR); plus 1,150+ in store, no armed hel.
   F-4: 677. 348 (FGA; incl 188 ANG, 60 AFR); 77 (OCU); -G: 72 (Wild Weasel); RF-4C: 180; plus 350+ in store.
   F-15: 642 (incl 450 ftr, 120 OCU, 54 ANG; -E: 18 (FGA); plus ~250 in store.
   F-16: 1,083. 822 (ftr; incl 168 ANG, 84 AFR); 196 (OCU); 65 (trials); plus some 367 in store.
   F-111: 219. -D/E/F: 140 (FGA); -A: 43 (OCU); EF-111A: 36 (ECM).
   F-117: 52 (FGA).
   A-7: 270 (ANG); plus 96 in store.
   A-10A: 538. 447 (FGA; incl 72 ANG, 87 AFR); 91 (OCU); plus some 100 in store.
   E-3: 34 (AEW).
   EC-135K: 2 (AEW).
   EC-18B: 4 (Advanced Range Instrumentation).
   E-8A: 2 (J-STARS ac).
   WC-135B: 5 (weather recce).
   AC-130: -A: 10 (special ops, AFR); -H: 10 (special ops, USAF); EC-130/E/H: 15 (ECM); HC-130H/N/P: 53 (31 spec ops; 22 SAR with AFR);
   MC-130E/H: 14 (special); WC-130E/H: 10 (weather recce: 6 USAF, 4 AFR).
   OA-37B: 36 (FAC).
   OA-10: 48 (FAC).
   OV-10: 53 (FAC).
TRANSPORT:
   C-5: 97. -A: 70 (strategic tpt; 36 with Reserves); -B: 27 (incl 6 trg).
   C-141B: 249 (217 strategic tpt, 16 trg, 8 ANG, 8AFR).
   C-130: 534 (incl 296 ANG/AFR). 490 (tac tpt, incl 279 ANG/AFR); 44 (OCU, incl 17 ANG/AFR).
   C-135: 7.
   C-137: 7: -B: 3 (VIP tpt); -C: 4 (VIP tpt).
   C-9A/C: 20. -A: 17 (medical); -C: 3 (VIP).
   C-12: 86 (liaison). C-20A/B/C: 13 (tpt). C-21A: 82.
   C-22A/B: 5 (tpt). C-23A: 16 (tpt). CT-39: 2 (tpt). C-140B: 4.
TRAINING: MiG-21: 24. MiG-23: 4. T-37B: 608. T-38: 812. T-39: 4. T-41A/C: 100. T-43A: 19. UV-18A: 2. Schweizer 2-37: 8.
HELICOPTERS:
   CH/HH-3: 58 (SAR, trg).
   MH-53-J: 24 Pave Low (special ops).
   UH-1H/N: 68.
   MH-60G: 10 (special ops).
MISSILES:
AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.
ASM: 1,100 AGM-69A SRAM, 1,500 AGM-86B ALCM; 15,000 Maverick, 5,000 Shrike; 5,000 HARM.
GLCM: 98 BGM-109G launchers (to be destroyed).

RESERVES:
AIR NATIONAL GUARD (ANG): 24 wings, 96 sqn; 818 cbt ac.
FIGHTER 26 sqn; 476 ac.
   12 AD sqn (see p. 12),
   4 sqn with 72 F-16A/B,
   10 sqn with 188 F-4C/D/E.
FGA: 17 sqn; 342 ac.
   13 with 270 A-7D/K; 4 with 72 A-10. 96 more A-7 in store.
RECCE: 5 sqn (TAC) with 90 RF-4C.
ECM: 1 sqn (MAC) with 6 EC-130.
FAC: 3 sqn (TAC): 2 with 36 OA-37B, 1 with 18 OA-10.
TRANSPORT: 21 sqn (MAC):
   19 tactical with 168 C-130A/B/E/H.
   2 strategic: 1 with 11 C-5; 1 with 8 C-141B.
TANKER: 13 sqn (SAC) with 110 KC-135E.
SAR: 2 sqn (MAC) with 8 HC-130 ac, 9 HH-3E, 1 CH-3 hel.
TRAINING: 7 sqn with 142 ac, incl 40 T-33, 4 T-43A.

AIR FORCE RESERVE (AFR): 20 wings, 58 sqn (37 with ac); 241 cbt ac.
FGA: 12 sqn (TAC):
   4 with 84 F-16; 3 with 60 F-4D/E; 5 (incl 1 trg) with 87 A-10.
TRANSPORT: 17 sqn (MAC):
   14 tactical with 124 C-130B/E/H (incl 1 with C-130/WC-130).
   3 strategic: 2 with 25 C-5A, 1 with 8 C-141B.
TANKER: 3 sqn (SAC) with 24 KC-135E.
SPECIAL OPERATIONS: 2 sqn (MAC):
   1 with 10AC-130A.
   1 with 5 H/CH-3 hel.
SAR: 3 sqn (MAC) with 13 HC-130H ac, 11 H/CH-3, 5 HH-1H hel.
ASSOCIATE: 21 sqn (personnel only):
MAC: 4 sqn for C-5, 13 for C-141, 1 aeromedical for C-9.
SAC: 3 sqn for KC-10.
CIVIL RESERVE AIR FLEET (CRAF): 367 commercial ac (numbers fluctuate):
LONG-RANGE: 320
   246 passenger (Boeing 747, L-1011, DC-8/-10),
   74 cargo (Boeing 707, 747, DC-8/-10).
SHORT-RANGE: 47 (Boeing 727, DC-9).

SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES: Units only listed - manpower and eqpt shown in relevant single service section.
ARMY: (3,000):
   4 SF gp (each 3 bn).
   1 Ranger inf regt (3 bn).
   1 avn gp.
   1 Psychological Operations gp (4 bn).
   1 Civil Affairs bn.
RESERVES:
   2 ARNG SF gp (6 bn).
   2ARSFgp(6 bn).
NAVY: (3,360):
   2 Navy Special Warfare Gps.
   3 Naval Special Warfare units.
   6 Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) teams.
   2 SEAL delivery veh teams.
   3 Special Boat units.
   2 amph tpt submarines (2 SSN-608).
   3 Drydeck shelters (DDS).
RESERVES: (1,400):
   5 Naval Special Warfare gp det.
   3 Naval Special Warfare unit det.
   3 SEAL team det.
   2 Special Boat sqn.
   4 Special Boat unit.
   1 engr spt unit.
   2 cbt spt special hel sqn.
AIR FORCE: (4,100)
   3 wings, 10 sqn:
   3 withMC-130.
   1 with AC-130.
   3 with HC-130.
   2 with MH-53 hel.
   1 with MH-60 hel.
RESERVES: 2 sqn (MAC):
   1 with 11 AC-130A ac,
   1 with 4 HH-3, 1 CH-3 hel.

DEPLOYMENT:
Commander's NATO appointments also shown. (e.g. COMEUCOM is also SACEUR)

EUROPEAN COMMAND (EUCOM): 326,400: HQ Stuttgart-Vaihingen (Commander is SACEUR).
ARMY: HQ US Army Europe (USAREUR), Heidelberg (Commander is COMCENTAG).
NAVY: HQ US Navy Europe (USNAVEUR), London (Commander is also CINCAFSOUTH).
AIR FORCE: HQ US Air Force Europe (USAFE), Ramstein (Commander is COMAAFCE).
FRG:
ARMY: 202,500 (assigned to CENTAG unless shown otherwise).
   V Corps with 1 armd, 1 mech inf div, 1 armd cav regt, 2 arty (incl 3 bn Lance), 1 engr, 1 corps avn bde.
   VII Corps with 1 armd, 1 mech inf div, 1 mech inf bde (elm of CONUS div), 1 armd cav regt, 3 arty (incl 3 bn Lance), 1 engr, 1 corps avn bde.
   1 armd bde (elm of CONUS div) (assigned to NORTHAG).
   1 inf bde: (Berlin).
   1 arty bde with 3 bn Pershing II (being withdrawn).
   Army AD Comd with 5 bn (30 bty) HAWK, 7 bn Patriot.
   1 engr bde.
   Prepositioned equipment (POMCUS) for 2 armd, 3 mech, 1 lt inf div, 1 armd cav regt.
   Approx 70% stored in FRG.
EQUIPMENT (incl POMCUS in FRG, Be and Nl):
   Some 5,000 MBT, 940 AIFV, 1,600 arty/MRL/mor, up to 120 SSM.
AIR FORCE: 40,300, 264 cbt ac (assigned to 4 ATAF).
   1 air force HQ: 2 air div.
   4 tac ftr wings: 11 sqn (5 with 156 F-16C/D, 3 with 36 F-4G, 3 with 72 F-15C/D).
   1 tac recce wing, 1 sqn with 18 RF-4C.
   1 tac msl wing; GLCM being withdrawn.
   1 electronic cbt, 2 cbt spt, 1 tac air control wings and 1 gp of 3 sqn (2 with 42 OV-10A ac, 1 with 7 CH-53C hel).
   1 tpt wing (MAC): 4 sqn (incl 18 C-23A Sherpa, 16 C-130E).
   1 special ops sqn (MAC) with 4 MC-130E, 2 air base gp.
BELGIUM:
ARMY: 1,500. Approx 15% of POMCUS stored in Be.
AIR FORCE: 1,600.
GREECE:
ARMY: 500.
NAVY: 500. Base facilities Suda Bay (Crete).
AIR FORCE: 2,300, 2 air base gp. Facilities at Hellenikon (Athens) and Iraklion (Crete).
ITALY:
ARMY: 3,900. 1 AB bn gp.
NAVY: 4,900. HQ Gaeta, bases at Naples, La Maddalena, 1 MR sqn with 9 P-3C Sigonella.
MARINES: 300.
AIR FORCE: 5,800: 1 tac, 1 air base gp, 1 tac msl wing; GLCM being withdrawn.
MEDITERRANEAN:
NAVY: 20,100.
   Sixth Fleet: typically 4 SSN, 1 CVBG (1 CV, 6-8 surface combatants, 2 fast support ships),
   1 URG (4-6 support ships, 2 or 3 escorts), 1 amph ready gp (3-5 amph ships with 1 MEUї embarked), 1 MPS, 4 depot ships.
NETHERLANDS:
ARMY: 800. Approx 15% of total POMCUS is stored in Nl.
AIR FORCE: 2,000: 24 cbt ac.
   1 tac ftr sqn with 24 F-15C/D.
NORWAY: Prepositioning for 1 MEBї to be complete late 1989.
PORTUGAL: (for Azores, see Atlantic Command).
NAVY: 400.
AIR FORCE: 1,200.
SPAIN:
NAVY: 3,700, base at Rota.
   1 MR sqn with 9 P-3C.
AIR FORCE: 4,900: 1 air force HQ, 72 cbt ac.
   1 tac ftr wing of 3 sqn with 72 F-16A/B (planned redeployment to Italy).
   1 ftr trg wing (no ac assigned).
   1 air base gp.
   1 SAR det (MAC) with 3 UH-1N hel.
TURKEY:
ARMY: 1,300.
NAVY: spt facilities at Iskenderun and Yumurtalik
AIR FORCE: 3,600, facilities at Incirlik.
   Installations for SIGINT, space tracking and seismic monitoring.
UNITED KINGDOM:
NAVY: 2,500. HQ London, SSBN base Holy Loch. 1 AS, 1 floating dock. To spt about 8 SSBN.
   Comms facilities, Thurso.
AIR FORCE: 25,400: 279 cbt ac.
   1 air force HQ: 5 tac ftr wings: 16 sqn (7 with 140 F-111E/F, 1 with 12 EF-111,6 with 108 A-10, 1 with 19 F-16, 1 with 13 TR-1A).
   1 special ops sqn with 5 MH-53 J.
   1 tac tpt wing with 16 C-130 (MAC): 4 EC-135H(SAC).
   1 SAR sqn with 5 HC-130, 5 HH-53.
   1 tac msl wing, GLCM being withdrawn.
   2 air base gp.
NATO REINFORCEMENTS: Committed US-NATO goal to provide from CONUS further 6 div, 37 tac ac sqn, 1 MEB (Norway)ї within 10 days of mob.
    []
  
PACIFIC COMMAND
(USPACOM):
HQ: Hawaii. Controls two subordinate unified commands; US Forces, Korea, and US Forces, Japan.
HAWAII:
ARMY: 19,000. HQ US Army Pacific (USARPAC).
1 lt inf div.
l ARNG inf bde.
AIR FORCE: 5,800. HQ Pacific Air Forces (PACAF).
   1 air div, 1 airlift div (MAC), 1 air base wing, 1 AWACS sqn, 1 tac tpt sqn (ANG), 1 AD sqn with F-15 (ANG).
NAVY: 12,500. HQ US Pacific Fleet, HQ US Third Fleet. Homeport for some 19 submarines, 9 PSC and 10 spt and misc ships.
MARINES: 9,400. 1 MEB (from MEF in Okinawa).ї
PHILIPPINES:
ARMY: 600.
AIR FORCE: 9,200. 1 air force HQ, 1 air div, 48 cbt ac.
   1 wing: 2 ftr sqn (1 with F-4E, 1 with F-4E/G).
   1 special ops sqn (MAC) with 3 MC-130E.
   1 tac tpt wing (MAC) with 16 C-130.
   1 SAR sqn (MAC) with 3 H/CH-3.
NAVY: 5,500. Subic Bay base. Maintenance and logistic facilities. Naval air station.
MARINES: 2,000; 1 MEU (SOC)ї may be deployed.
JAPAN:
ARMY: 2,000. 1 corps HQ, base and spt units.
AIR FORCE: 16,500: 1 air force HQ; 1 air div: 120 cbt ac.
   3 wings (6 sqn) with 72 F-15C/D, 48 F-16, 16 RF-4C; 6 C-12F, 3 C-21A ac, UH-1E/F/N hel.
   1 sqn (TAC) with 3 E-3 AWACS.
   1 tac tpt gp with 16 C-130.
   1 strategic det with KC-135 tkr.
   1 SAR sqn (MAC) with 6 HC-130 ac, 3 HH-3 hel.
NAVY: 8,300: Bases: Yokosuka (HQ 7th Fleet).
   Homeport for 1 CV, 8 surface combatants.
   Sasebo. Homeport for 3 submarines, 3 amph ships.
MARINES: 23,700: 1 MEFї (Okinawa with elm in Hawaii).
SOUTH KOREA:
ARMY: 31,600.
   1 Army HQ (UN command).
   1 inf div, 1 Lance SSM bty.
AIR FORCE: 11,600: 1 air div: 2 wings, 84 cbt ac.
   4 sqn (3 with 72 F-16, 1 with 12 A-10).
   1 det with 8 RF-4C.
   1 tac control gp with 12 OA-10.
   1 SAR sqn (MAC) with 6 H/CH-3 hel.
GUAM:
AIR FORCE: 4,200: 1 air div HQ (SAC): 14 cbt ac.
   1 bbr wing (SAC) with 1 sqn B-52 (non-nuclear role).
   1 wing (SAC) with KC-135 tkr.
NAVY: 4,000. Naval air station, comms and spt facilities.
AUSTRALIA:
AIR FORCE: 290.
NAVY: 450: comms facility at NW Cape, SEWS/SIGINT station at Pine Gap, and SEWS station at Nurrungar.
DIEGO GARCIA:
NAVY: 1,400, 5 MPS (equipment for 1 MEBї).
   Naval air station, spt facilities.
US WEST COAST:
MARINES: 1 MEF.ї
AT SEA:
PACIFIC FLEET: (HQ Pearl Harbor).
   Submarines: 8 Ohio SSBN, 3 SSGN, 37 SSN, 3 SS.
   Surface Combatants: 7 CV/CVN, 2 BB, 22 CG/CGN, 14 DDG, 15 DD, 21 FFG, 26 FF.
   Amphibious: 1 comd, 3 LHA, 3 LPH, 7 LPD, 7 LSD, 10 1ST, 3 LKA.
   Surface Combatants divided among two fleets:
Third Fleet (HQ Pearl Harbor): covers Eastern and Central Pacific, Aleutians, Bering Sea, etc.
   Typically 5 CVBG, 1-2 Battleship Surface Attack Gp, 4 URG. Amph Gp.
Seventh Fleet (HQ Yokosuka, Japan): covers Western Pacific, Japan, Philippines, ANZUS responsibilities, Indian Ocean.
   Typically 2 CVBG, 0-1 Battleship Surface Attack Gp, 1 URG, Amph Gp (1 MEU embarked).
INDIAN OCEAN: (det from Seventh/Second Fleets).

CENTRAL COMMAND (USCENTCOM): Takes command of deployed forces in its region. HQ USCENTCOM. MacDill AFB, Florida.
AT SEA:
Joint Task Force Middle East.
   1 comd ship, 1 LPD, 6 principal surface combatants, 3 MCO.
   1 CVBG in N. Arabian Sea. (Maritime forces are provided from both Atlantic and Pacific fleets.)
EGYPT:
ARMY: 1,350 (MFO Sinai).

SOUTHERN COMMAND (USSOCOM): HQ USSOCOM: Quarry Heights, Panama.
HQ US Southern Air Force (12th Air Force): Bergstrom, Texas.
PANAMA:
ARMY: HQ US Army South, Fort Clayton Panama: 6,800.
   1 inf bde (2 inf, 1 avn bn, 1 bty 105mm).
NAVY: HQ US Naval Forces Southern Command, Fort Amador, Panama: 500.
   Special boat unit, fleet support.
MARINES: 600.
AIR FORCE: 2,800.
   1 air div: A-7, OA-37, C-130 ac.
HONDURAS:
ARMY: 1,500.
Reserve: ARNG: 2 armd, 2 mech, 5 inf, 1 lt inf div; 19 indep bde, 2 armd cav regt. AR: 3 indep bde.

ATLANTIC COMMAND (USLANTCOM): HQ: Norfolk, Virginia (Commander is SACLANT).
US EAST COAST:
MARINES:
   1 MEF.ї
   1 Reserve div.
BERMUDA:
NAVY: 1,700.
CUBA:
NAVY: 1,900 (Guantanamo).
MARINES: 500 (Guantanamo).
ICELAND:
NAVY: 1,800 1 MR sqn with 9 P-3.
AIR FORCE: 1,300.
   1 ftr sqn withF-15.
PORTUGAL (AZORES):
NAVY: 400.
   Facilities at Lajes.
   1 MR ac det with 3 P-3C(from Rota).
AIR FORCE: 1,800.
   1 AD sqn with 18 F-15, 1-3 E-3AWACS.
   1 SAR det (MAC).
AT SEA:
ATLANTIC FLEET: (HQ Norfolk, Virginia).
   Submarines: 1 Ohio, 26 other SSBN, 7 SSGN, 46SSN.
   Surface Combatants: 7 CV/CVN, 2 BB, 19 CG/CGN, 23 DDG, 16 DD, 30 FFG, 25 FF.
   Amphibious: 1 LCC, 3 LHA, 4 LPH, 6 LPD, 6 LSD, 10 LST, 2 LKA.
   Surface Forces divided into two Fleets:
Second Fleet (HQ Norfolk): covers Atlantic, both north and south. Typically 6-7 CVBG, 1-2 Battleship Surface Attack Gps, Amph Gp, 4 URG.
Sixth Fleet (HQ Gaeta, Italy): Mediterranean.
Under op comd of EUCOM. See EUCOM entry for typical force levels.

CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES (CONUS): Major units/formations only listed.
FORCES COMMAND: (FORSCOM): (Army) provides general reserve of cbt-ready ground forces for other comd.
Active: 6 Army HQ, 3 Corps HQ, 2 armd, 5 mech, 3 lt inf (1 in Alaska), 1 AB, 1 air aslt div; 1 armd, 1 mech, 1 inf, 3 arty bde; 1 armd cav regt.
STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND (SAC): See entry on p. 16.
TACTICAL AIR COMMAND (TAC): Responsible for provision of strategic Air Defence units and of cbt-ready Air Force units for rapid deployment.
AIR DEFENCE: 2 USAF sqn, 12 ANG sqn
FIGHTER/FGA: 34 USAF sqn, 31 ANG sqn, 12 AFR sqn.
ALASKAN AIR COMMAND: 2 USAF sqn F-15; 1 USAF sqn A-10.
US SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND (USSOCOM):
   Has under command all active, reserve and National Guard special operations forces of all services based in CONUS. See p. 23.
US TRANSPORTATION COMMAND (US TRANSCOM):
   Responsible for providing all common-user airlift, sealift and land transportation to deploy and maintain US forces on a global basis.
MILITARY AIRLIFT COMMAND (MAC):
   Responsible for providing strategic, tactical and special operations airlift, aero medical evacuation, SAR and weather recce.
MILITARY SEALIFT COMMAND. See entry for Strategic Sealift, p.22.
MILITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMAND

PARA-MILITARY
:
CIVIL AIR PATROL (CAP): 68,000 (27,500 cadets); HQ, 8 geographical regions, 52 wings, 1,881 units, 579 CAP ac plus 8,465 private ac.

* Figures are for Total Obligational Authority. This includes Budget Authority (BA), obligations from previous fiscal years and other receipts (such as earned income, interest, etc.).
t Manpower incl in Army, Navy and Air Force totals.
ї An MEF is normally based on a marine div supported by an air wing with logistic support. Typically 55,000 men with 70 tk, 200APC, 120 arty pieces, 156 cbt ac, 24 armed hel. An MEB has approximately one-third the ground combat element and half the aviation element of an MEF. An MEU (SOC) is a reinforced battalion landing team that has been specially configured, trained and certified as special operations capable for 18 distinct missions.

The Soviet Union

   The last twelve months have seen very significant developments in Soviet policy, which hold the promise of transition to a much less threatening and confrontational approach - at least in the conventional field - to what are now described as issues of common security.
   Since President Gorbachev's impressive speech at the United Nations General Assembly on 7 December 1988, when he announced a wide range of unilateral conventional force reductions, there have been a series of statements amplifying and detailing both unilateral reductions and force withdrawals from allied countries to be made by Soviet Armed Forces. In January 1989 Warsaw Pact Defence Ministers also made an unprecedented statement giving details of the strength of non-Soviet Warsaw Pact armed forces and of Soviet forces west of the Urals. Details of the Soviet defence budget have begun to emerge, together with statements of intent concerning its reduction. The WP has adopted a defensive doctrine, and the policy of'reasonable sufficiency' has been enunciated, although not elaborated with any clarity. Detailed initial proposals have been made at both the negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) and on Confidence-Building and Security Measures (CBSM), and a response to the Western proposals at CFE has been tabled. Although there are many issues, including verification measures, counting rules and definitions, still to be settled, there are good grounds for optimism that the gaps between the two sides on key matters such as overall force ceilings, numbers of forces permitted to be stationed outside national borders, and national force limits can be bridged. In all these areas the USSR appears to be willing to make very large asymmetrical cuts to its forces. Once the unilateral cuts are implemented, and if the negotiations on CFE lead to results on the basis of the existing negotiating positions, the Soviet Union's military capabilities will have been fundamentally altered. During the first six months of 1989, however, these changes were still only in their opening stages.
   Nuclear Forces
   Strategic Systems
   While 20 SS-11 ICBM have been withdrawn, the numbers of both mobile ICBM systems have increased substantially. The number of rail-mobile ten-warhead SS-24 Scalpel has risen from ten to over 30, and there are now over 165 mobile single-warhead SS-25 Sickle, as opposed to last year's count of some 100 in service.
   A fifth Delta-IV SSBN with 16 SS-N-23 Skiff SLBM has been commissioned while one Yankee-I with 16 SS-N-6 Serb has been retired. Six Golf SSB, each with three SS-N-5 Sark (non-SALT accountable) SLBM have also been decommissioned.
   The Tu-160 Blackjack bomber, shown to US Secretary of Defense Carlucci in 1988, is now operational with a regiment of some 20 aircraft in service. The medium-range Tu-16 Badger force has been reduced from 272 to 140 aircraft, and the Mya-4 Bison finally retired as a bomber. We no longer believe any short-range nuclear-capable bombers to be held with the Strategic Aviation force; we now show all Su-24 Fencer as being under Theatre (TVD) command. These aircraft are dual capable but most probably, as with comparable NATO aircraft, only a percentage of pilots are trained in the nuclear delivery role.
   Intermediate Nuclear Forces
   By 1 June 1989, the Soviet Union had eliminated 945, or 51%of the missiles covered by the terms of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty. The numbers of missiles and launchers which have been destroyed and, in parentheses, remaining are: SS-20 192 missiles (462) and 169 launchers (340); SS-12 600 missiles (128) and all launchers; SS-23 none of the 239 missiles and 30 (76) launchers; SS-4 72 missiles (77) and 29 launchers (43), and all 80 SSC-X-4 GLCM and six launchers. We are unable to give accurate figures for INF weapons still operationally deployed.
   Short-Range Nuclear Forces
   The Soviet Union has offered to remove all nuclear warheads from the territories of its allies if the US would do the same and has also proposed negotiations on the elimination of all short-range nuclear weapons (i.e., not solely short-range missiles). It has announced a unilateral reduction of 500 short-range nuclear warheads in Europe, of which 284 would be SSM warheads, 50 artillery projectiles and 166 air-delivered warheads. We are not in a position to estimate the total Soviet holding of SNF warheads from which these reductions will be taken, but figures of some 5,000 have appeared in Western journals.
   The Warsaw Pact has also given details of its SSM launcher holdings which revealed a much larger holding of SS-21 than previously estimated. The Western Group of Forces (WGF) (formerly the Group of Soviet Forces Germany (GSFG)), is now fully equipped with SS-21 in place of FROG, and has withdrawn SS-21 battalions from divisions and concentrated them in brigades at Army level. A similar reorganization can be expected elsewhere and may be underway. It is possible that the reorganization reflects the increased range of SS-21 over FROG (120 vice 70 km) and the scope this provides for enhancing flexibility of employment by more centralized control.
   Conventional Forces - General
   Unilateral Reductions
   In his UN speech President Gorbachev pledged to reduce Soviet armed forces by 500,000 men and to eliminate a total of 10,000 tanks, 8,500 artillery pieces and 800 combat aircraft from forces now located in Eastern Europe, including European Russia, by 1991. Of the 500,000 men to be reduced 200,000 would come from the Far East, including Mongolia, 240,000 from west of the Urals, and 60,000 from the Southern borders. Fifty thousand men and 5,300 tanks will come from forces now stationed in the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact countries. Four tank divisions (328 tanks each) and three tank training regiments (94 tanks each) in the GDR, one tank division in Czechoslovakia, and one tank division and one tank training regiment in Hungary will be withdrawn and disbanded. Divisions remaining in Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary and Poland will be reorganized. Tank and motor rifle divisions will all lose one tank regiment (94 tanks) and motor rifle divisions will also lose their independent tank battalions (51 tanks); the divisions will receive additional anti-tank and air defence assets. Air Assault (airborne) units (of which there are currently one brigade and five battalions in the GDR, one battalion each in Czechoslovakia and Hungary) and Assault Crossing (engineer) units (currently six battalions in the GDR and one each in Czechoslovakia and Hungary) will be withdrawn to the Soviet Union. It is not clear, however, whether all such units are to be withdrawn nor whether they will then be disbanded. The Northern Group of Forces in Poland is to lose one SAM regiment and one helicopter regiment (as well as one tank regiment from each division). Withdrawals from all four countries have already begun; Tass claimed on 1 June 1989 that nearly 9,000 men had been withdrawn from the GDR, Poland and Hungary, together with 2,100 tanks and 300 artillery pieces. As no complete divisions had been withdrawn by 1June 1989 nor, we believe, had any tanks been destroyed, we have not altered our entries to take account of these partial withdrawals. Listings therefore reflect the position immediately before the first unilateral withdrawal.
   East of the Urals two tank and one motor rifle division (leaving one motor rifle division) and two air force divisions are being withdrawn from Mongolia and some units will be disbanded. The first moves back to the Soviet Union took place on 15 May 1989. By 1 June 1989 some 2,800 men with 200 tanks and 170 artillery pieces had reportedly been withdrawn, and by the end of 1989 it is expected that one quarter of the planned withdrawals will have been effected.
   During his visit to China in May 1989, President Gorbachev announced that forces along the Far East borders would be reduced by 120,000 men, and that 12 army divisions and 11 air force regiments would be disbanded. Sixteen warships would be withdrawn from the Pacific Fleet. He proposed a reorganization of remaining forces and said that some divisions would become defensive 'machine gun' divisions. On 2 June 1989 it was announced that the Central Asian Military District (MD) had been disbanded; some of its units are to be reduced or disbanded, meanwhile troops and territory have been transferred to the Turkestan MD. This move alters somewhat the split of forces between the Far Eastern and Southern TVD as the Central Asian MD had been held as part of the Far Eastern TVD since 1969.
   Afghanistan
   The Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan was completed, on schedule, on 15 February 1989. We believe that the formations withdrawn have returned to their original military districts, with the airborne division going to the Belorussia MD, and the remainder to the now enlarged Turkestan MD where they are likely to be reduced to a lower state of readiness and manning than Category A. The USSR admits to having lost some 15,000 men killed during the occupation; equipment losses are impossible to estimate.
   Negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE)
   The Warsaw Pact has tabled several proposals at the CFE talks in Vienna. For 'stationed forces' (i.e. Soviet forces outside Soviet borders), The limits proposed are 350,000 men, 4,500 (4,630) tanks, 4,000 (4,780) artillery and mortar pieces, 7,500 (10,000) APC, 350 strike aircraft (there is no agreed definition for strike aircraft) and 600 combat helicopters. The figures in parentheses show IISS estimates (as no WP figures have been released) of Soviet equipment holdings after the announced unilateral reductions have taken place. The WP has also tabled figuresfor national limits which, if agreed to, would require the USSR to reduce its forces west -of the Urals to 920,000 men, 14,000 (31,280) tanks, 17,000 artillery and mortar pieces, 18,000 (45,000) APC, 1,200 strike aircraft and 1,350 combat helicopters. In this case, the figuresgiven in parentheses represent Soviet equipment strengths after announced unilateral reductions have been effected and are based on Soviet data, and hence also on Soviet definitions and counting rules (see pp. 226-31).
   Manpower
   There have been various WP statements concerning the breakdown of the unilateral reduction of 500,000 men between and within the armed forces. The cuts will include 100,000 officers and 50,000 warrant officers, the remainder being conscripts. Air Defence forces will lose 50,000 men, 60,000 will be cut from southern Russia, mainly from units withdrawn from Afghanistan and 20,000 from the Leningrad MD and Northern Fleet.
   Speaking at the Guildhall in London, on 8 April 1989 President Gorbachev gave figures for the strength of the Soviet Armed Forces - 4,258,000 overall, of which 1,596,000 were in the ground forces and 437,000 in the Navy. The WP data release gave manpower figures in the Atlantic to Urals area, including overall conventional force manpower of 2,458,000, of which 1,187,000 were Army and 289,000 Navy personnel. In the light of a subsequent assertion by Defence Minister Yazov that Soviet construction and railway troops do not undergo military training, we assume that this manpower (estimated at up to 490,000) was excluded from the Gorbachev figures and from the WP data document. We also assume that these figures, like those tabled by the WP in Vienna, exclude para-military forces such as the KGB and MVD (some 570,000). While analysis reveals some anomalies, we have no reason to challenge published Soviet manpower figures. We have also decided to follow the WP practice of separating centrally controlled staffs (Ministry of Defence, reconnaissance, electronic warfare, training and logistics) from the five branches of the armed forces and this is reflected in the figures given on p. 32 and subsequently throughout the Soviet entry.
   Some changes have been made to the conditions for conscript service for those graduating from higher education. The length of service for all services has been reduced to one year. Deferment of call-up will now be granted until students complete their studies (or until they reach the age of 27). After their conscript service and special training these men become reserve officers.
   Ground Forces
   One of the two unified Corps established, we believe, on an experimental basis, has been disbanded and its units reformed into divisions. The remaining Corps, now called 'independent', may also be disbanded. The number of divisions has been revised to show an increase of one tank division and three motor rifle divisions and a decrease of two mobilization divisions. The overall total (counting the Corps as two division equivalents) has not therefore changed.
   We have always had difficulty in estimating Soviet stockpile equipment holdings. Analysis of President Gorbachev's 8 April 1989 assertion of WP global holdings of 80,000 tanks and of the Wp published data for holdings West of the Urals, together with the counting rules and conventions these reveal, suggest the existence of some 6,700 tanks above those held by units - some 2,700 west of the Urals and 4,000 to the east. Such a holding, which would imply reserves of about 13%of the number held in units, is wholly plausible. However, we cannot identify either the type or location of the tanks concerned. We have therefore included them with the equipment holdings listed on p. 34 and in the NATO and Warsaw Pact Conventional Force data in Table A at pp. 232-3 but cannot attribute them to specific Strategic Directions in our analysis of the deployment of Soviet forces at pp. 37 to 41; these deployment figures only include equipments held by units.
   Production of modern equipment has continued, with the Army receiving some 1,000 T-72L/-M and 500 T-80 tanks with some older models being withdrawn. Artillery holdings have hardly altered, but holdings of modern SAM including SA-11, SA-12A and SA-13 have increased. No new equipment type has been introduced into service.
   For the first time our listings specifically identify the nuclear-capable heavy artillery brigades of which we believe there are 12, probably held at front level. The brigades are equipped with the 203mm SP gun 2S7 and some also have the 240mm SP mortar 2S4. It is not clear whether the brigade in GSFG is independent or subordinate to the artillery division.
   Naval Forces
   The Soviet Aircraft Carrier programme continues, albeit slowly. We now show the Baku as a separate class from the Kiev, because of her different weapon and sensor fit. The Tbilisi, the first of a new class of two 65,000-tonne carriers is expected to start trials this year, while the second was launched in November 1988. A third, rather larger ship, was laid down in the same yard at the same time. There is still no firm information regarding the aircraft destined to operate from these large V/STOL platforms.
   The tactical submarine force shows a slight overall increase - possibly due to a lack of information on retirements - with four new units: an Oscar SSGN, a Sierra and a Victor-III and a Kilo-class SS entering the force against the loss of the experimental Mike-class, Komsomolets, in the Norwegian Sea on 7 April 1989. The slight reduction in surface forces conceals a substantial increase in quality. In addition to the third units of both Kirov and Slava classes, new Sovremennyy and Udaloy destroyers have joined the operational fleet. The number of frigates has increased by five, largely since the new smaller classesjoining the fleet displace more than 1,000 tonnes and hence qualify for this category, while those they are replacing fell below this tonnage. It should be noted in this context that our figures include 113 frigates between 1,000 and 1,200 tonnes full load displacement which are not counted by the WP in its data category of large surface ships.
   This shift in emphasis from quantity to quality is underlined by the decommissioning of a Sverdlov-class cruiser and 12 old destroyers, and the sale to Western commercial interests of one Sverdlov, a number of old destroyers and over 20 submarines for scrapping.
   Air Defence Troops
   The programme to install 100 ABM around Moscow has been completed, the missiles being a mix of ABM-1B Galosh, SH-11 modified Galosh, and SH-08 Gazelle.
   The total number of SAM deployed is slightly reduced with some SA-1, SA-2 and SA-3 having been withdrawn and replaced by smaller numbers of SA-5 and SA-10. Air defence fighter holdings show only marginal changes.
   Air Forces
   Overall aircraft numbers (including strategic base defence aircraft, Air Defence Troops and Air Force) have only altered slightly with numbers of the newer models increasing marginally faster than older models are retired. No new models have been introduced in the last twelve months.
   Defence Spending
   The Military Balance 1988/89 argued that the most significant savings in the defence budget could be made only by reducing manpower strengths; in December 1988 President Gorbachev announced cuts of 500,000 men over the next two years, and the forthcoming Soviet attitude at the CFE negotiations offers the prospect of more. The conversion of defence production plants to the civilian economy, especially for consumer goods, has also got under way, some with Western technical and financial assistance. The Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, Igor Belousov, claimed that 345 plants had already been converted, and that, by 1995, 60% of military industry would be available for civilian use. In addition, not only are INF missile launcher vehicles and some of the unilaterally reduced tanks being converted for civilian use, but other equipments such as heavy trucks and petrol bowsers, as well as vacated buildings and real estate are to be handed over by the military.
   At the end of May 1989, the Soviet leadership revealed some details of its revised defence budget; that for the current year is given as 77.3 bn roubles (around $120 bn at prevailing exchange rates). It also claimed that the defence budget had been frozen for the last two years and that savings of 10 bn roubles will be made in 1990 and 1991.This budget represents about 12% of national income or roughly twice what the US spends on defence, but comes at the lower end of Western estimates. While the government claims that the figure includes the costs of personnel, research and development, procurement and construction, some Western observers argue that expenditure on military space (officially stated to be 3.9 bn roubles) and nuclear programmes are still excluded. It is doubtful whether the full costs of the Afghanistan operation, revealed by the USSR as having amounted to some 45 bn roubles, was included in past budgets, or whether existing military assistance programmes are included in the present budget. Uncertainty about the true level of Soviet defence expenditure appears likely to continue for some time, and, in the absence of any detailed disaggregated data, Soviet figures for defence spending should be treated with caution.

Советский Союз

   За последние двенадцать месяцев в советской политике произошли очень значительные изменения, которые обещают переход к гораздо менее угрожающему и конфронтационному подходу - по крайней мере, в традиционной области - к тому, что сейчас описывается как вопросы общей безопасности.
   После впечатляющей речи президента Горбачева на Генеральной Ассамблее Организации Объединенных Наций 7 декабря 1988 года, когда он объявил о широком спектре односторонних сокращений обычных вооруженных сил, был сделан ряд заявлений, усиливающих и детализирующих как односторонние сокращения, так и вывод войск из союзных стран советскими вооруженными силами. В январе 1989 года министры обороны стран Варшавского договора также сделали беспрецедентное заявление, в котором подробно рассказали о численности несоветских Вооруженных сил Варшавского договора и советских войск к западу от Урала. Стали появляться подробности советского оборонного бюджета и заявления о намерениях его сокращения. ОВД приняла оборонительную доктрину, и политика "разумной достаточности" была провозглашена, хотя и не была разработана с какой-либо ясностью. Подробные первоначальные предложения были сделаны как на переговорах по обычным силам в Европе (ДОВСЕ), так и по мерам укрепления доверия и безопасности (СГБМ), и был представлен ответ на западные предложения на ДОВСЕ. Хотя многие вопросы, включая меры контроля, правила подсчета и определения, еще предстоит решить, есть все основания для оптимизма в отношении того, что разрывы между двумя сторонами по таким ключевым вопросам, как общие предельные значения численности сил, число сил, которым разрешено дислоцироваться за пределами национальных границ, и пределы национальных сил могут быть преодолены. Во всех этих областях СССР, по-видимому, готов сделать очень большие асимметричные сокращения своих сил. Как только односторонние сокращения будут осуществлены, и если переговоры по ДОВСЕ приведут к результатам на основе существующих переговорных позиций, военный потенциал Советского Союза будет коренным образом изменен. Однако в течение первых шести месяцев 1989 года эти изменения все еще находились на начальной стадии.
   Ядерные силы
   Стратегические системы
   Хотя было изъято 20 МБР SS-11, количество обеих мобильных систем МБР существенно возросло. Количество железнодорожных мобильных десяти боеголовок SS-24 Scalpel, увеличилось с десяти до более чем 30, и сейчас насчитывается более 165 мобильных моноблочных МБР SS-25 Sickle, в отличие от прошлого года число около 100 на вооружении.
   Пятая ПЛАРБ Delta-IV с 16 БРПЛ SS-N-23 Skiff была введена в эксплуатацию, а одна Yankee-I с 16 SS-N-6 Serb была выведена. Шесть ПЛРБ Golf, каждая с тремя БРПЛ SS-N-5 Sark (не учитываются в ОСВ) также были выведены из эксплуатации.
   Бомбардировщик Ту-160 Blackjack, показанный министру обороны США Карлуччи в 1988 году, в настоящее время эксплуатируется с полком около 20 самолетов. Силы средней дальности Ту-16 были сокращены с 272 до 140 самолетов, а М-4 Bison окончательно снят в качестве бомбардировщика. Мы больше не считаем, что какие-либо бомбардировщики малой дальности, способные нести ядерную боеголовку, будут удерживаться силами стратегической авиации; теперь мы показываем, что все Су-24 Fencer находятся под командованием театра (ТВД). Эти самолеты имеют двойную боеспособность, но, скорее всего, как и сопоставимые самолеты НАТО, только процент пилотов обучен роли доставки ядерного оружия.
   Промежуточные Ядерные Силы
   К 1 июня 1989 года Советский Союз ликвидировал 945, или 51%, ракет, подпадающих под действие Договора о ядерных силах средней дальности (РСМД). Число ракет и пусковых установок, которые были разрушены и, в скобках, остальные: SS-20 192 ракетами (462) и 169 пусковых установок (340); SS-12 600 ракет (128) и все пусковые установки; SS-23 никто из 239 ракет и 30 (76) пусковые установки; SS-4 72 ракет (77) и 29 пусковых установок (43), и все 80 КРНБ SSC-X-4 и шесть пусковых установок. Мы не можем дать точной цифры для РСМД до сих пор находится в состоянии оперативного развертывания.
   Ядерные Силы Малой Дальности
   Советский Союз предложил убрать все ядерные боеголовки с территорий своих союзников, если США сделают то же самое, а также предложил переговоры о ликвидации всего ядерного оружия малой дальности (т. е. не только ракет малой дальности). Он объявил об одностороннем сокращении 500 ядерных боеголовок малой дальности в Европе, из которых 284 будут боеголовками БР, 50 артиллерийскими снарядами и 166 боеголовками с воздушной доставкой. Мы не в состоянии оценить общее количество советских боеголовок с ОЯТ, из которых будут взяты эти сокращения, но цифры около 5000 появились в западных журналах.
   Варшавский договор также дал подробную информацию о своих ПУ ракет, которые показали гораздо большее число SS-21, чем предполагалось ранее. Западная группа войск (ЗГВ) (ранее группа советских войск Германии (ГСВГ)), теперь полностью оснащена SS-21 вместо FROG, и вывела батальоны SS-21 из дивизий и сосредоточила их в бригадах на армейском уровне. Аналогичную реорганизацию можно ожидать и в других местах, и она может проводиться. Не исключено, что реорганизация отражает увеличение дальности полета SS-21 на 120-70 км и расширение сферы применения за счет более централизованного управления.
   Обычные Силы
   Одностороннее сокращение
   В своей речи в ООН президент Горбачев пообещал сократить Советские вооруженные силы на 500 000 человек и ликвидировать в общей сложности 10 000 танков, 8500 артиллерийских орудий и 800 боевых самолетов из сил, расположенных в настоящее время в Восточной Европе, включая Европейскую Россию, к 1991 году. Из 500 000 человек, подлежащих сокращению, 200 000 будут с Дальнего Востока, включая Монголию, 240 000 - с запада от Урала и 60 000 - с южных границ. Пятьдесят тысяч человек и 5300 танков прибудут из сил, дислоцированных в странах Варшавского договора, не являющихся советскими. Четыре танковые дивизии (328 танков каждая) и три танковых учебных полка (94 танка каждый) в ГДР, одна танковая дивизия в Чехословакии и одна танковая дивизия и один танковый учебный полк в Венгрии будут выведены и расформированы. Дивизии, оставшиеся в Чехословакии, ГДР, Венгрии и Польше, будут реорганизованы. Танковые и мотострелковые дивизии потеряют по одному танковому полку (94 танка), мотострелковые дивизии также потеряют свои самостоятельные танковые батальоны (51 танк), дивизии получат дополнительные средства противотанковой и противовоздушной обороны. В Советский Союз будут выведены Десантно-штурмовые (воздушно-десантные) части (из которых в настоящее время в ГДР одна бригада и пять батальонов, по одному батальону в Чехословакии и Венгрии) и штурмовые (инженерные) части (в настоящее время шесть батальонов в ГДР и по одному батальону в Чехословакии и Венгрии). Однако неясно, следует ли выводить все такие подразделения и будут ли они затем расформированы. Северная группа войск в Польше потеряет один полк ЗРК и один вертолетный полк (а также по одному танковому полку от каждой дивизии). 1 июня 1989 года ТАСС утверждал, что из ГДР, Польши и Венгрии было выведено почти 9 000 человек, а также 2100 танков и 300 артиллерийских орудий. Поскольку к 1 июня 1989 года не было выведено ни одной полной дивизии и, как мы полагаем, не было уничтожено ни одного танка, мы не изменили наши позиции с учетом этих частичных отводов. Поэтому в перечнях отражена позиция непосредственно перед первым односторонним снятием.
   К востоку от Урала из Монголии выводятся две танковые и одна мотострелковая дивизии (оставляя одну мотострелковую дивизию) и две дивизии ВВС, а некоторые подразделения будут расформированы. Первые шаги назад в Советский Союз имели место 15 мая 1989 года. По сообщениям, к 1 июня 1989 года было выведено около 2800 человек с 200 танками и 170 артиллерийскими орудиями, а к концу 1989 года ожидается, что будет осуществлена четверть запланированного вывода.
   Во время своего визита в Китай в мае 1989 года президент Горбачев объявил, что силы вдоль Дальневосточных границ будут сокращены на 120 000 человек и что 12 армейских дивизий и 11 полков ВВС будут расформированы. Шестнадцать военных кораблей будут выведены из состава Тихоокеанского флота. Он предложил реорганизацию оставшихся сил и сказал, что некоторые дивизии станут оборонительными "пулеметными" дивизиями. 2 июня 1989 года было объявлено о расформировании Средне-Азиатского военного округа (САВО).; часть его подразделений будет сокращена или расформирована, а войска и территория переведены в Туркестанский ВО. Этот шаг несколько меняет разграничение сил между Дальневосточным и Южным ТВД, поскольку Средне-Азиатский ВО проводился в составе Дальневосточного ТВД с 1969 года.
   Афганистан
   Советский вывод войск из Афганистана был завершен в соответствии с графиком 15 февраля 1989 года. Мы считаем, что выведенные соединения вернулись в свои первоначальные военные округа, а воздушно-десантная дивизия отправилась в белорусский МД, а остальная часть - в ныне расширенный Туркестанский ВО, где они, вероятно, будут приведены в более низкое состояние готовности и укомплектованности, чем категория А. СССР признает, что потерял около 15 000 человек убитыми во время оккупации; потери техники невозможно оценить.
   Переговоры по обычным силам в Европе (ДОВСЕ)
   Варшавский договор представил несколько предложений на переговорах ДОВСЕ в Вене. Для " дислоцированных сил "(т.e. советские войска за пределами советских границ), предлагаемые пределы составляют 350 000 человек, 4500 (4630) танков, 4000 (4780) артиллерийских орудий и минометов, 7500 (10 000) БТР, 350 ударных самолетов (нет согласованного определения ударной авиации) и 600 боевых вертолетов. Цифры в скобках показывают оценки IISS (поскольку никаких сведений от ОВД не было выпущено) советских запасов вооружения после того, как объявленные односторонние сокращения имели место. ОВД также представила цифры для национальных пределов, которые, если они будут согласованы, потребуют от СССР сократить свои силы к западу от Урала до 920 000 человек, 14 000 (31 280) танков, 17 000 артиллерийских орудий и минометов, 18 000 (45 000) БТР, 1200 ударных самолетов и 1350 боевых вертолетов. В этом случае цифры, приведенные в скобках, представляют силы советского вооружения после объявленных односторонних сокращений и основаны на советских данных, а следовательно, и на советских определениях и правилах подсчета (см. стр. 226-31).
   Кадры
   Были различные заявления о срыве одностороннего сокращения численности вооруженных сил на 500 000 человек между Вооруженными силами и внутри вооруженных сил. Сокращения коснутся 100 000 офицеров и 50 000 прапорщиков, остальные - призывники. Силы ПВО потеряют 50 тысяч человек, 60 тысяч будут сокращены с юга России, в основном из частей, выведенных из Афганистана, и 20 тысяч-из Ленинградской области и Северного флота.
   Выступая 8 апреля 1989 года в лондонской ратуше, президент Горбачев привел цифры численности советских Вооруженных сил - 4 258 000 человек, из которых 1 596 000 были в сухопутных войсках и 437 000-в Военно-Морском Флоте. Релиз данных ОВД дал цифры от Атлантики до Урала, включая все виды живой силы силы 2,458,000, из которых 1,187,000 были Армии и Военно-Морского Флота 289,000. В свете последующего утверждения министра обороны Язова о том, что советские строительные и железнодорожные войска не проходят военной подготовки, мы предполагаем, что этот персонал (по оценкам, до 490 000 человек) был исключен из данных Горбачева и из документа ОВД. Мы также предполагаем, что эти цифры, как и те, которые были представлены ОВД в Вене, исключают полувоенные силы, такие как КГБ и МВД (около 570 000). Хотя анализ показывает некоторые аномалии, у нас нет оснований оспаривать опубликованные советские данные о живой силе. Мы также приняли решение следовать практике ОВД по отделению централизованно контролируемых штабов (Министерства обороны, разведки, радиоэлектронной борьбы, подготовки и материально-технического обеспечения) от пяти родов Вооруженных сил, и это отражено в цифрах, приведенных на стр. 32 и впоследствии на протяжении всего Советского вступления.
   Внесены некоторые изменения в условия прохождения срочной службы для лиц, окончивших высшие учебные заведения. Стаж службы по всем видам сокращен до одного года. Отсрочка от призыва теперь будет предоставляться до окончания обучения (или до достижения 27 лет). После срочной службы и специальной подготовки эти люди становятся офицерами запаса.
   Наземные силы
   Один из двух объединенных корпусов, созданных, как мы полагаем, на экспериментальной основе, был расформирован, а его части преобразованы в дивизии. Остальные корпуса, называемые теперь "независимыми", также могут быть расформированы. Численность дивизий была пересмотрена с целью увеличения на одну танковую дивизию и три мотострелковые дивизии и сокращения на две мобилизационные дивизии. Таким образом, общая сумма (считая корпус эквивалентом двух дивизий) не изменилась.
   Мы всегда испытывали трудности с оценкой запасов советской техники. Анализ утверждений президента Горбачева от 8 апреля 1989 года о наличии у ОВД общих запасов в 80 000 танков и опубликованных ОВД данных по запасам к западу от Урала, а также правил подсчета и конвенций, которые они раскрывают, позволяют предположить существование около 6700 танков выше тех, которые находятся в распоряжении подразделений - около 2700 к западу от Урала и 4000 к востоку. Такой холдинг, который подразумевал бы резервы в размере около 13% от числа единиц, вполне вероятен. Однако мы не можем определить ни тип, ни местонахождение соответствующих танков. Поэтому мы включили их в состав холдингов оборудования, перечисленных на стр. 34 и в данных по обычным силам НАТО и Варшавского договора в таблице а на стр. 232-3, но не можем отнести их к конкретным стратегическим направлениям в нашем анализе развертывания советских сил на стр. 37-41; эти цифры развертывания включают только вооружение, имеющееся у подразделений.
   Продолжалось производство современной техники, армия получила около 1000 танков Т-72Л/м и 500 танков Т-80, причем некоторые старые модели были сняты. Артиллерийские запасы практически не изменились, но запасы современных ЗРК, включая SA-11, SA-12A и SA-13, увеличились. Ни один новый тип вооружения не был введен в эксплуатацию.
   Впервые в наших списках конкретно указаны обладающие ядерным потенциалом бригады тяжелой артиллерии, которых, по нашему мнению, насчитывается 12, вероятно, на уровне фронта. Бригады оснащены самоходными 203 мм пушками 2С7 и некоторые из них также имеют самоходные 240мм минометы 2С4. Неясно, является ли бригада в ГСВГ независимой или подчиненной артиллерийской дивизии.
   Морские Силы
   Советская авианосная программа продолжается, хотя и медленно. Мы сейчас показываем Баку как отдельный тип от Киева, потому что у них разное оружие и РЛС. Ожидается, что испытания первого из двух 65-тонных авианосцев нового типа Тбилиси начнутся в этом году, а второго - в ноябре 1988 года. В то же время на той же верфи был заложен третий, более крупный корабль. До сих пор нет твердой информации относительно самолетов, предназначенных для эксплуатации с этих больших платформ V/STOL.
   Тактические подводные силы показывают небольшое общее увеличение - возможно, из - за отсутствия информации о выводе - с четырьмя новыми единицами: ПЛАРК Oscar, ПЛА Sierra и Victor-III и ПЛ типа Kilo, входящими в состав сил против потери экспериментального Mike-класса, Комсомолец, в Норвежском море 7 апреля 1989. Небольшое уменьшение надводных сил скрывает существенное повышение качества. Помимо третьих кораблей типов Киров и Слава в оперативный парк вошли новые эсминцы Современный и Удалой. Количество фрегатов увеличилось на пять, в основном за счет того, что новые более мелкие классы, входящие в состав флота, вытесняют более 1000 тонн и, Следовательно, подпадают под эту категорию, в то время как те, которые они заменяют, ниже этого тоннажа. В этой связи следует отметить, что наши данные включают 113 фрегатов водоизмещением от 1 000 до 1 200 тонн, которые не учитываются ОВД в ее категории данных крупных надводных кораблей.
   Это смещение акцента с количества на качество подчеркивается выводом из эксплуатации крейсера типа Свердлов и 12 старых эсминцев, а также продажей на слом западным коммерческим фирмам одного Свердлова, ряда старых эсминцев и более 20 подводных лодок.
   Войска Противовоздушной Обороны
   Завершена программа по установке 100 противоракет вокруг Москвы, ракеты представляют собой смесь противоракет ABM-1B Galosh, модифицированных SH-11 Galosh и SH-08 Gazelle.
   Общее число развернутых ЗРК несколько сократилось, при этом некоторые SA-1, SA-2 и SA-3 были отозваны и заменены меньшими количествами SA-5 и SA-10. Силы истребителей ПВО показывают лишь незначительные изменения.
   Воздушные Силы
   Общее количество самолетов (включая стратегические базовые самолеты обороны, войска противовоздушной обороны и Военно-Воздушные Силы) изменилось лишь незначительно, причем число новых моделей увеличивается незначительно быстрее, чем старые модели выводятся. За последние двенадцать месяцев не было представлено ни одной новой модели.
   Расходы На Оборону
   Военный баланс 1988/89 утверждал, что наиболее существенная экономия в оборонном бюджете может быть достигнута только за счет сокращения численности личного состава; в декабре 1988 года президент Горбачев объявил о сокращении 500 000 человек в течение следующих двух лет, и предстоящее советское отношение на переговорах по ДОВСЕ предлагает перспективу большего. Кроме того, началось преобразование оборонных предприятий в гражданскую экономику, особенно для производства потребительских товаров, причем некоторые из них получили техническую и финансовую помощь со стороны Запада. Заместитель председателя Совета министров Игорь Белоусов заявил, что 345 заводов уже переоборудованы и что к 1995 году 60% военной промышленности будет доступно для гражданского использования. Кроме того, военные должны не только переоборудовать ракетные установки РСМД и некоторые из сокращенных в одностороннем порядке танков для гражданского использования, но и передать другое оборудование, такое, как тяжелые грузовики и бензовозы, а также освободившиеся здания и недвижимость.
   В конце мая 1989 года советское руководство обнародовало некоторые детали своего пересмотренного оборонного бюджета, который на текущий год составляет 77,3 млрд рублей (около 120 млрд долларов по текущему курсу). Он также утверждал, что оборонный бюджет был заморожен в течение последних двух лет и что экономия в размере 10 млрд. рублей будет достигнута в 1990 и 1991 годах.Этот бюджет составляет около 12% национального дохода или примерно в два раза больше, чем США тратят на оборону, но находится в нижней части западных оценок. Хотя правительство утверждает, что эта цифра включает расходы на персонал, исследования и разработки, закупки и строительство, некоторые западные наблюдатели утверждают, что расходы на военный космос (официально заявленные в размере 3,9 млрд рублей) и ядерные программы по-прежнему исключены. Сомнительно, чтобы все расходы на афганскую операцию, которые, по данным СССР, составили около 45 млрд. рублей, были включены в прошлые бюджеты, или же существующие программы военной помощи включены в нынешний бюджет. Неопределенность в отношении истинного уровня советских расходов на оборону, по-видимому, сохранится в течение некоторого времени, и в отсутствие каких-либо подробных дезагрегированных данных к советским цифрам расходов на оборону следует относиться с осторожностью.

   THE SOVIET UNION
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 4,258,000 (perhaps 2,700,000 conscripts)
   (incl some 988,000 Ministry of Defence staff, centrally controlled units for EW, trg, log and civil (territorial) defence.
   Tps not listed below, but excl some 490,000 railway and construction tps and 570,000 KGB and MVD).
Terms of Service: 2 years (3 years for sea-going naval personnel, about 50% of Naval conscripts, 1 year deferred for higher education graduates).
   Women with medical and other special skills may volunteer.
RESERVES: some 5,560,000 with service within last 5 years:
   Strategic Rocket Forces ~537,000; Army 3,000,000; AD 750,000; Air Force 775,000; Navy 540,000.
   Reserve obligation to age 50; total: some 55,000,000. (Regular retirees could add to the above totals.)

STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCES: 287,000 (plus 123,500 assigned from Air and Navy).
   (70-75% conscripts ~215,000); under direct op comd of the Supreme High Command (VGK).
NAVY: (15,500). 960 msl in 69 submarines (942 msl in 62 SSBN count under SALT rules; 18 theatre SLBM, 1 SSBN and 6 SSB do not count).
SSBN: 63:
   5 Typhoon with 20 SS-N-20 Sturgeon (100 msl).
   5 Delta-IV with 16 SS-N-23 Skiff (80 msl).
   14 Delta-IIIwith 16 SS-N-18 Stingray (224 msl).
   4 Delta-II with 16 SS-N-8 Sawfly (64 msl).
   18 Delta-I with 12 SS-N-8 (216 msl).
   1 Yankee-II with 12 SS-N-17 Snipe (12 msl).
   15 Yankee-I with 16 SS-N-6 Serb (240 msl).
   1 Hotel-III with 6 SS-N-8 Sawfly (msl, but not submarine, under SALT) (6 msl).
SSB: 6:
   6 Golf-II with 3 SS-N-5 Sark (18 non-SALT accountable theatre msl).

STRATEGIC ROCKET FORCES: (287,000): 6 rocket armies, org in div, regt, bn and bty of 1 msl launcher, 28 'fields', 300 launch control HQ,
   3 msl test centres.
ICBM: 1,451+.
   SS-11 Sego: 400 mod 2/3 (at some 8 fields; SS-25 is replacing).
   SS-13 Savage. 60 (at 1 field, SS-25 may replace).
   SS-17 Spanker (RS-16): 138 (at 2 fields; mod 3/4 MIRV).
   SS-18 Satan (RS-20): 308 (at 6 fields; mostly mod 4/10 MIRV).
   SS-19 Stiletto (RS-18): 350 (at 4 fields; mostly mod 3, 6 MIRV).
   SS-24 Scalpel: some 30+ (deployment in progress; rail-mobile, 10 MIRV).
   SS-25 Sickle (RS-12M): some 165+ (mobile, single-warhead msl replacing SS-11 and may replace SS-13;
   has been reported in gp of 9 on former SS-7 sites, 20+ bases, each for 9 msl, reported under conversion).
IRBM/MRBM: 383 launchers still to be eliminated in accordance with INF Treaty.
   SS-20 Saber (RSD-10): 340 mobile IRBM (3 MIRV).
   SS-4 Sandal (R-12): 43.

STRATEGIC AVIATION: (108,000) 5 Armies; about 890 cbt ac.
   Moscow: 1 army (for intercontinental roles).
   Western TVD: 1 army (Smolensk).
   Far East TVD: 1 army (Irkutsk).
BOMBERS: 630.
LONG-RANGE: 195.
   175 Tu-95 (some 60 B/G have AS-3/-4 ASM, some 75 H have up to 8 AS-15 ALCM);
   20 Tu-160 Blackjack (ALCM capable).
MEDIUM-RANGE: 435.
   175 Tu-26 (AS-4 ASM).
   140 Tu-16 (AS-6 ASM).
   120 Tu-22.
RECCE: 130.
   STRATEGIC: 20 Tu-16, 20 Tu-22.
   TACTICAL 40 MiG-25, 50 Su-24.
FIGHTER (base defence): 260: 45 MiG-21, 135 MiG-23, 80 Su-27.
ECM: 170: 100 Tu-16, 30 Il-20/-22, 40 Yak-28.
TANKERS: 74: 40 Mya-4, 20 Tu-16, 14 Il-78.
ASM/ALCM: AS-3 Kangaroo, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt, AS-6 Kingftsh, AS-15 Kent, AS-16 Kickback.

GROUND FORCES: 1,596,000 (perhaps 1,200,000 conscripts).
15 Military Districts (MD), 4 Groups of Forces.
1 indep Army Corps (equivalent to about 2 div).
53 TD (Type: 3 tk, 1 motor rifle, 1 arty, 1 SAM regt; 1 SSM, 1 MRL bn; spt units).
153 MRD (Type: 3 motor rifle, 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 SAM regt; 1 SSM, 1 ATK, 1 MRL bn; spt units).
7 ABD (each 3 para, 1 arty regt; 1 AA bn).
~3 mob div (type, location n.k.).
18 arty div, Front: (No standard org: perhaps 4 bde (12 bn): 152mm SP, 152mm towed and MRL: some will have older eqpt).
Arty bde, Army: No standard org: perhaps 4 bn: 2 each of 24 152mm towed guns, 2 each of 24 152mm SP guns.
Some 12 indep hy arty bde (up to 4 bn of 12 203mm SP guns some with 240mm SP mor).
Some 10 air aslt bde, Front (each 4 inf bn (1 with BMD); arty, SAM, ATK; spt tps). Most armies have indep air aslt bn.
Front and Army tps:
Tk, arty, SSM, ATK, AD (SAM and arty), engr bde; sigs, EW, hy tk tpt regt; CW def bn; spt services.
Special forces (Spetsnaz): 27-30,000: 16 bde (each 3-4 para bn), 3 regt (org in 6-8-man teams).
Avn: regt and bn assigned to div and above; some 20 attack regt with 24 Mi-8 and 40 Mi-24 armed hel.
NATO defines 4 categories of combat readiness, which parallel to some extent the Soviet system:
Category A: 75% to full strength, eqpt complete, combat ready. Incl both Soviet units at wartime establishment and at reduced wartime establishment;
Category B: 50-75% strength, eqpt normally complete, full manning planned to take 3 days. Soviet units at peacetime establishment.
   NATO considers combat ready;
Category C: some 20-50% strength, eqpt possibly complete with older models, planned to be fully manned in 7 days and retrained in less than 60 days.
   Soviet units at reduced peacetime establishment.
Category D/E or mob div, with max of 5% manning and stockpile of much older eqpt.
   Soviet 'invisible' (shadow) div. Will take some months to become combat ready. Over past years have progressively been upgraded to Cat C.
To bring all these divisions up to war establishment could require up to 2,000,000 men.
For a broad assessment of the 213 Cat A/B/C div by categories see pp. 37-8 below. J
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 53,350: some 350 T-10/-10M, some 19,000 T-54/-55, 11,300 T-62, some 9,700 T-64A/-B, 10,000 T-72L/M and 3,000 T-80.
LIGHT TANKS: 1,200 PT-76.
OTHER TANKS: Some 6,700 types unknown in store.
RECCE: 8,000: incl some 3,500 BRDM-2.
AIFV: some 28,500: some 26,000 BMP-1 (73mm gun/AT-3 ATGW), BMP-2 (30mm gun/AT-5 ATGW); some 2,500 BMD (AB).
APC: some 30,000: some 26,000 BTR-50P/-60P/-70/-80/-152; 4,000 MT-LB.
TOWED ARTY: 22,500: 122mm: D-74, M-1938, D-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: 500 M-1937, 2,000 D-20 (M-1955), E 1,000 M-1976; 180mm: ~180 S23;
SP ARTY: some 9,000: 120mm: 2S9 (BMD chassis); 122mm: ~3,200 2S1; 152mm: 3,500+ 2S3, ~2,100 2S5; 203mm: ~200 2S7.
MRL: 7,100: 122mm: BM-21, RM-70 40-tube; M-1975 12-tube; M-1976 36-tube; 140mm: BM-14-16, RPU-14 16 tube; 220mm: BM-22 16-tube;
   240mm: BM-24 12-tube.
MORTARS: 120mm: 10,500+; 240mm 400 2S4.
SSM (nuclear-capable): some 1,636 launchers, incl some 630 FROG (Luna), 300 SS-21 Scarab (Tochka), 630 Scud B (R-17),
   76 SS-23 (OTR-23) Spider, SS-23 being eliminated in accordance with INF Treaty.
ATGW: AT-2 Swatter, AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-6 Spiral, BRDM AT-5, AT-7 Saxhorn.
ATK GUNS: 8,000: 57mm: ASU-57 SP; 76mm; 85mm: D-44/SD-44, ASU-85 SP; 100mm: T-12/-12A/M-55 towed.
AD GUNS: some 12,000; 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 30mm: ZSU-30-2 SP with 4 SAM; 37mm; 57mm: S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP; 85mm: M-1939;
   100mm: KS-19; 130mm: KS-30.
SAM: about 4,700+ crew-served field mobile systems; (some 440 units):
   SA-4 A/B Ganef (twin): 1,350 (Army/Front weapon, being replaced by SA-11 and SA-12A).
   SA-6 Gainful (triple): 800 (at div).
   SA-7 Grail (man-portable): perhaps 18,500 (unit weapon, being replaced by SA-14 and SA-16).
   SA-8 Gecko (2 twin or 2 triple): some 900 (at div).
   SA-9 Gaskin (2 twin): 425 (at regt).
   SA-11 Gadfly (quad): 250 (replacing SA-4/-6).
   SA-12A Gladiator: 45+ (replacing SA-4).
   SA-X-12B Giant: under development (possible ATBM role).
   SA-13 Gopher (2 twin): 930 (replacing SA-9).
   SA-14 Gremlin: 2,500 (replacing SA-7).
   SA-16: 3,500 (replacing SA-7 and some SA-14).
HELICOPTERS: some 4,500:
   ARMED: some 2,050 incl 340 Mi-8, 290 Mi-17, 1,420 Mi-24; Mi-28 under development.
   TRANSPORT: some 1,510 incl 1,010 Mi-8, 435 Mi-6, 55 Mi-26 (hy), 10 Mi-10 (hy).
   EW/ECM: 200 Mi-8.
   GENERAL-PURPOSE: 680: incl 600 Mi-2, 80 Mi-8 (comms).

AIR DEFENCE TROOPS (VPVO): 502,000 (~300,000 conscripts).
5 Air Defence Armies: air regt and indep sqn; AD regt; 14 specialist schools.
ABM: 100: ABM-1B Galosh, SH-11 (mod Galosh), SH-08 Gazelle.
AIRCRAFT: (Aviation of Air Defence - APVO):
FIGHTER: some 2,225: incl 45 MiG-21 (4 AAM), 900 MiG-23 (6 AAM); 350 MiG-25 (4 AAM); 250 MiG-31 (4 AA-9); 500 Su-15 (2 AAM);
   160 Su-27 (up to 10 AAM); 20 Yak-28 (2 AA-5).
AEW AND CONTROL: ~17: ~3 Tu-126; 14 Il-76 (replacing Tu-126).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-3 Anab, AA-5 Ash, AA-6 Acrid, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, AA-9 Amos, AA-10 Alamo, AA-11 Archer.
SAM.' strategic role; some 8,500 launchers in some 1,200 sites:
   SA-1 Guild: 1,600 (being replaced by SA-10).
   SA-2 Guideline. 2,400 (being replaced by SA-10).
   SA-3 Goa: 1,000 (2 or 4 launcher rails, over 300 sites, low- to med-altitude intercept).
   SA-5 Gammon: 2,000 launchers (130 complexes, long-range intercept).
   SA-10 Grumble, some 1,500 quad (theatre/strategic role).
WARNING SYSTEMS:
SATELLITES: 9 with ICBM/SLBM launch detection capability. Others incl 9 warning, 6 ELINT, 2-4 recce, 1 launch detection.
RADARS:
0VER-THE-H0R1Z0N (backscatter) OTH(B): 3:
   2 near Kiev and Komsomolsk (Ukraine), covering US and polar areas; 1 near NikoIayev-na-Amur, covering China.
LONG-RANGE EARLY-WARNING:
ABM-ASSOCIATED:
   9 long-range phased-array systems at Baranovichi, Skrunda (Belorussia), Mukachevo (Ukraine), Olnegorsk (Kola),
   Krasnoyarsk (construction suspended), Lyaki (Caucasus), Sary-shagan (Kazakhstan), Pechora (Urals), Mishelevka (Irkutsk).
   11 Hen House-series; range 6,000 km, 6 locations covering approaches from the west and south-west, north-east and south-east and (partially) south.
   Linked to intermediate-range Dog House (range 2,800 km), Cat House and Try Add msl control radar.
   Engagement, guidance, battle management: 1 Pillbox phased-array at Pushkino (Moscow).

AIR FORCE: 448,000 (some 310,000 conscripts) incl 108,000 with Strategic Aviation.
AIR FORCES OF THE SOVIET UNION: 16 MD and Groups of Forces Air Forces.
   Some 4,595 cbt ac. Forces' strengths vary, mostly org in div of 3 regt of 3 sqn, total 135ac.
   Regt roles incl AD, interdiction, recce, tac air spt; div roles may be mixed.
FGA: some 2,900: incl 180 MiG-21, 855 MiG-27, 810 Su-17, 830 Su-24 (incl 480 dual-capable under TVD control), 225 Su-25.
FIGHTER: some 1,695: incl 260 MiG-21, 800 MiG-23, 25 MiG-25, 500 MiG-29, 110 Su-27.
RECCE: some 505: incl 50 MiG-21, 120 MiG-25, 135 Su-17, 100 Su-24, 100 Yak-28.
ECM: some 30 Yak-28.
TRAINING: some 2,000 ac (none counted as cbt ac).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, AA-9 Amos, AA-10 Alamo, AA-11 Archer.
ASM: AS-7Kerry, AS-10 Karen.
MILITARY TRANSPORT AVIATION (VTA): 40,000; 5 div, each 3 regt, each 30 ac; some indep regt.
EQUIPMENT: some 577 ac: 125 An-12, 385 Il-76M/MD Candid B (replacing An-12), 55 An-22, 12 An-124.
Additional ac (VTA augmentation force): Tpt ac in comd other than VTA: org in indep regt and sqn:
   1,200+:Tu-134, Tu-154, An-12, An-24, An-26, II-14.
Civilian Aeroflot fleet: 1,700 med-and long-range passenger ac, incl some 220 An-12 and Il-76.

NAVY: 437,000, (~260,000 conscripts) A shore and Afloat Forces: 344,500.
SUBMARINES: 368:
STRATEGIC SUBMARINES: 69 (see p. 33).
TACTICAL SUBMARINES: 280:
SSGN: 53:
   5 Oscar with 24 SS-N-19 Shipwreck USGW (VLS); plus T-65 HWT.
   1 Papa with 10 SS-N-9 Siren USGW; plus T-53HWT.
   6 Charlie-II with 8 SS-N-9; plus T-53 HWT.
   10 Charlie-I with 8 SS-N-7 Starbright USGW; plus T-53 HWT.
   28 Echo-II E 16 with 8 SS-N-3A Shaddock, ~12 with SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM; plus T-53 HWT.
   2 Yankee 'Notch" with 20+ SS-N-21 Sampson SLCM.
   1 Yankee (trials) with SS-NX-24 SLCM.
SSN: 94:
   4 Akula with T-65 HWT; plus SS-N-21.
   3 Sierra with T-65 HWT; plus SS-N-21.
   5 Alfa with T-53 HWT; plus SS-N-15 Starfish or SS-N-16 Stallion UUGW.
   23 Victor-Ill with T-65 HWT; plus SS-N-15 or-16.
   7 Victor-II with T-53 HWT; plus SS-N-15 or-16.
   16 Victor-I with T-53 HWT.
   5 Echo-I with T-53 HWT.
   12 November with T-53 HWT.
   About 5 Hotel and Yankee ex-SSBN converted to SSN.
   12 Yankee-I, 2 Hotel-II converting from SSBN.
SSG: 16 Juliet with 4 x SS-N-3A Shaddock SSM.
SS: 117 (all with T-53 HWT):
   12 Kilo, 18 Tango, 39 Foxtrot, 3 Romeo, 45 Whiskey.
OTHER ROLES: 19:
   SSN: 4: 1 Uniform, 1 X-Ray experimental/trials, 1 Hotel-II comms, 1 Echo-II auxiliary.
   SS: 15: 1 Beluga, 4 Bravo wpn targets, 3 Golf-I research, 3 Golf-II comms, 1 Lima, 1 Golf-V (SLBM trials), 2 India rescue.
IN STORE: 55: 10 Foxtrot, 2 Zulu, 43 Whiskey (not counted in totals).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 264.(See also 'additional in store' and KGB (Para-Military).)
CARRIERS: 4:
   1 Baku (CVV) (38,000 tonnes) with 13 Yak-38 V/STOL ac, 16 Ka-25/-27 hel (ASW with E-45-75 LWT/AEW/OTHT/SAR);
   plus 6x2 SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 4x8 SA-N-6 Grumble SAM. 2 100mm guns.
   3 Kiev (CVV) (38,000 tonnes) with 13 Yak-38 V/STOL ac, 16 Ka-25/-27 hel; plus 4x2 SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 2x2 SA-N-3 SAM, 1x2 SUW-N-1.
CRUISERS: 37:
CGN: 3 Kirov (AAW/ASUW) with 1 2x8 SA-N-6 Grumble, 20 SS-N-19 Shipwreck SSM, 3 Ka-25/-27 hel for OTHT/AEW/ASW;
   plus 1 with 1x2 130mm guns, 1 with 1x 2 SS-N-14 Silex SUGW (LWT or nuc payload), 10 533mm TT.
CG: 30:
   2 Moskva (CGH) (ASW) with 18 Ka-25 hel (E45-75 LWT), 1x2 SUW-N-1; plus 2x2 SA-N-3 SAM.
   3 Slava (AAW/ASUW) with 8x8 SA-N-6 Grumble, 8x2 SS-N-12 Sandbox SSM, 1 Ka-25/-27 hel; (AEW/ASW); plus 8 533mm TT, 1x2 130mm guns.
   7 Nikolayev (Kara) (ASW) with 2x4 SS-N-14 Silex SUGW, 10 533mm TT, 1 Ka-25 hel; plus 2x2 SA-N-3 Goblet;
   (1 (Azov) with 3x8 SA-N-6, only 1x2 SA-N-3 and other differences).
   10 Kronshtadt (Kresta-II) (ASW) with 2x4 SS-N-14 SUGW, 1 Ka-25 hel, 10 533mm TT; plus 2x2 SA-N-3 SAM.
   4 Admiral Zozulya (Kresta-I) (ASUW/ASW) with 2x2 SS-N-3b Shaddock SSM, 1 Ka-25 hel (OTHT), 10 533mm TT.
   4 Grozny (Kynda) (ASUW) with 2x4 SS-N-3b plus 1x2 SA-N-1 Goa SAM 6 x 533mm TT.
CC: 4 Sverdlov with 4x3 152mm guns (2 converted to comd role with hel pad and hangar replacing 1/2 152mm mounts.
DESTROYERS: 52:
DDG: 31:
AAW/ASUW: 15:
   10 Sovremennyy with 2x4 SS-N-22 Sunburn SSM, 2 SA-N-7 Gadfly SAM, 2x2 130mm guns, 1 Ka-25 (B) hel (OTHT); plus 4x533mm TT.
   5 Sderzhannyy (mod Kashin) with 4 SS-N-2C Styx SSM, 2x2 SA-N-1 SAM; plus 5 533mm TT.
ASW: 16:
   12 Komsomolets Ukrainyy (Kashin) with 2x12 ASW RL, 5 533mm TT; plus 2x2 SA-N-1 SAM,(1 with trials fit 1 SA-N-7).
   4 Skromnyy (SAM Kotlin) with 2x12 ASW RL, 5 533mm TT; plus 1x2 SA-N-1, 1x2 130mm guns.
DD: 21:
   10 Udaloy (ASW) with 2x4 SS-N-14 SUGW, 2x12 ASW RL, 8 533mm TT, 2 Ka-27 hel; plus 2 100mm guns.
   3 Bedovyy (mod Kildin) (ASUW) with 4 Styx SSM; plus 4 533mm TT.
   4 Svedushchiy (Kotlin, mod Kotlin) (ASUW) with 2x16 ASW RL, 10 533mm TT, 2x2 130mm guns.
   4 Skorywith 10 533mmTT, 4 130mm guns.
FRIGATES: 171:
   11 Rezvyy (Krivak-II) with 1x4 SS-N-14 Silex SUGW, 8 x 533mm TT, 2x12 ASW RL; plus 2 x 100mm guns.
   21 Bditelnyy (Krivak-I) (weapons as Rezvyy minus guns).
   1 Ulyantsev (Koni) with 2x12 ASW RL.
   25 Riga with 2x16 ASW RL, 2 or 3 533mm TT, 3 x 100mm guns.
   Note: Frigates listed below lie between 1,000 and 1,200 tonnes full load displacement and are not counted in WP official releases.
   59 Grisha-I, -III, -V, with 2x1 2 ASW RL, 4 533mm TT.
   8 'Parchim-II (ASW) with 2 x ASW RL, 4 406mm ASTT.
   18 Mirka-I, -II, with 4x12 ASW RL, 5 or 10 406mm ASTT.
   28 Petya with ASW RL, 5 or 10 x 406mm ASTT.
ADDITIONAL IN STORE: 4 Sverdlov CC; 2 Skromnyy DDG; 17 Svedushchiy, 5 Skory DD; 15 Riga FF; 8 Petya FF.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 400:
CORVETTES: 64:
   34 Tarantul (ASUW), 22 -I, -II, with 2x2 SS-N-2C Styx; 12 -III with 2x2 SS-N-22 Sunburn.
   30 Nanuchka (ASUW) -I and -III, with 2x3 SS-N-9 Siren.
MISSILE CRAFT: 86:
   70 Osa PFM (40 -I, 30 -II) with 4 SS-N-2C.
   1 Sarancha PHM with 2x2 SS-N-9.
   15 Matka PHM with 2 SS-N-2C.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 30:
   25 Turya PHT with 4 533mm TT.
   5 Shershen PFT with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL CRAFT: 220:
   OFFSHORE: 15 T-58.
   COASTAL: 83:
   32 Pauk (ASW) with 2 ASW RL, 4 ASTT.
   50 Poti (ASW) with 2 ASW RL, 4 ASTT.
   1 Babochka PH (ASW) with 8 ASTT.
   INSHORE: 11: 10 SO-1 with 2 ASTT. 1 Slepen PFI.
   RIVERINE AND CASPIAN: 111: 20 Yaz with 2 115mm gun. 10 Piyavka, 8 Vosh, 73 misc<.
MINE WARFARE: About 374:
MINELAYERS: 3 Pripyat (Alesha), capacity 300 mines.
Note: All Soviet submarines and many surface combatants are equipped for minelaying.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: About 370:
   OFFSHORE: 70:
   35 Natya-I and -II MSO.
   35 T-43 MSO.
   COASTAL: About 110: 45 Yurka MSC. 3 Andyusha MSC (trials). About 60 Sonya MSC. 3 Zhenya MSC.
   INSHORE: About 190: 65 Vanya, 10 Sasha, about 115 MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 76:
LPD: 2 Ivan Rogov with 4-5 Ka-27 hel: capacity 520 tps, 20 tk;
LST: 38:
   24 Ropucha: capacity 225 tps, 9 tk.
   14 Alligator, capacity 300 tps, 20 tk.
LSM: 36 Polnocny (3 types): capacity 180 tps, 6 tk: (some adapted for mine warfare but retain amph primary role).
Plus CRAFT: about 140:
   LCU: 15: 10 Vydra, 5 SMB-1.
   LCM: 40 Ondatra.
   LCAC and SES: about 85, incl 3 Pomomik, 20 Aist, 5 Tsaplya, 20 Lebed, 2 Utenok, 31 Gus.
   1 Orlan 'wing-in-ground-effect' (WIG) experimental.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: about 698:
UNDERWAY SUPPORT: 44: I Berezina, 6 Chilikin, 23 other AO, 14 AOS.
MAINTENANCE AND LOGISTICS: about 260: 18 AS, 38 AR, 12 general maint/spt, 27 AOT, 18 missile spt/resupply, 70 tugs, 14 special liquid carriers,
   13 water carriers, 50 AK.
SPECIAL PURPOSES: about 143: 67 AGI (some armed), 7 msl range instrumentation, 12 trg, about 55 icebreakers (civil manned), 2 AH.
SURVEY/RESEARCH: about 251:
   40 naval, 60 civil AGOR.
   100 naval, 40 civil AGHS.
   11 space-associated ships (civil manned).
MERCHANT FLEET (auxiliary/augmentation): 2,500 ocean-going vessels (17 in Arctic service), incl
   90 ramp-fitted and roll-on/roll-off (ro-ro), some with rails for rolling stock, 3 roll-on/float-off,
   7 barge carriers, 78 passenger liners, 500 coastal and river ships.

NAVAL AVIATION: (68,000). 739 cbt ac; 300 cbt hel.
Four Fleet Air Forces; org in air div, each with 2-3 regt of HQ elm and 2 bn of 9-10 ac each; recce, ASW, tpt/utility org in indep regt or sqn.
BOMBERS: 355:
   6 regt with some 180 Tu-26 (AS-4 ASM).
   6 regt with some 135 Tu-16 (AS-5/-6 ASM).
   2 bn with 40 Tu-22.
FGA: 189:
   104 Yak-38 V/STOL (in carriers).
   75 Su-17.
   10 MiG-23.
ASW: 195 ac, 270 hel:
   AIRCRAFT: 60 Tu-142, 45 Il-38, 90 Be-12.
   HELICOPTERS: 95 Mi-14, 100 Ka-25, 75 Ka-27.
MR/EW: some 185 ac, 30 hel:
   AIRCRAFT: incl 40 Tu-95, 40 Tu-16 (MR), 55 Tu-16 (ECM), 20 Tu-22, 10 Su-24, 20 An-12.
   HELICOPTERS: 30 Ka-25 hel.
MCM: 25 Mi-14 hel.
CBT ASLT: 25 Ka-27 hel.
TANKERS: 46 Tu-16.
TRANSPORT/TRAINING: 445 ac and hel.
   AIRCRAFT: An-12, An-24, An-26, Il-14.
   HELICOPTERS:Mi-6/-8.
ASM: AS-2 Kipper, AS-4 Kitchen, AS-5 Kelt, AS-6 Kingfish, AS-7 Kerry.

NAVAL INFANTRY (Marines): (some 17,000).
1 div (7,000: 3 inf, 1 tk, 1 arty regt).
3 indep bde (type: 3,000: 3 inf, 1 tk (1 med, 3 lt tk coy), arty, MRL, AD, ATK bn;
   with 10 MBT, 31 lt tk, ~90 APC, 18 SP how, 18 MRL, 6 SP ATK, 4 AA guns, 4 SP SAM.)
4 fleet Special Forces (Spetsnaz) bde: 2-3 underwater, 1 para bn, spt elm.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 230 T-54/-55.
LIGHT TANKS: 150 PT-76.
RECCE: 30 ERDM-2/Sagger ATGW.
AIFV: some BMP-1/-2.
APC: 1,045: BTR-60P/PA/PB/-70/-80, some MT-LB.
SP ARTY: 122mm: 90 2S1; 152mm: 2S3.
MRL: 122mm: 150BM-21.
MORTARS: 120mm: 125 .
ATGW: 50 AT-3/-5.
AD GUNS: 23mm: 60 ZSU-23-4 SP.
SAM: 250 SA-7, 10 SA-8, 35 SA-9/-13.

COASTAL ARTILLERY AND ROCKET TROOPS: (7,500).
1 coastal arty div (role: protects approaches to naval bases and major ports).
EQUIPMENT:
ARTILLERY: incl SM-4-1130mm.
SSM: 40 SS-C-1b Sepal (similar to SS-N-3), SS-C-3, Styx, SS-C-4 reported.

DEPLOYMENT (all Services):
Soviet strategic planning divides the world into a number of continental and maritime TVD (Teatr Voennykh Deistvii) for which the latest Soviet title appears to be Strategic Direction (Napravlenie). These do not necessarily have any operational command function but are for staff-planning and intelligence purposes. In peacetime all forces are located in Military Districts (MD) or Fleets (some of which have a wartime command role) or in non-Soviet Warsaw Pact countries. We have listed forces geographically and, where possible, grouped them as they might be commanded in war. We have listed elements of Strategic Nuclear Forces, Air Defence Troops and the ABD according to their physical location, although they are directly controlled by the Supreme High Command (VGK). Levels of command between the VGK and fronts can be established and are known as High Commands (GK).
Determining the manning category of Soviet div is difficult The following assessment is based on a number of recent statements.
Category A. (Above 75%) Incl all div in the Groups of Forces, 6 of the 7 ABD, all air aslt bde, div withdrawn from Afghanistan, div in Mongolia.
   Possibly amounting to 24 TD, 6 ABD and 24 MRD and the Indep Corps.
Category B. (50-75%) Most TD in Western Military Districts, about 50% of MRD in Southern and Far East TVD. Possibly 20 TD, 1 ABD and 32 MRD.
Category C. (20-50%) Most MRD other than in Groups of Forces. Possibly 9 TD and 97 MRD.
   Советское стратегическое планирование делит мир на ряд континентальных и морских ТВД (театр военных действий), для которых последним советским названием оказывается стратегическое направление (направление). Они не обязательно выполняют какую-либо функцию оперативного командования, но предназначены для целей планирования персонала и разведки. В мирное время все силы расположены в военных округах (ВО) или флотах (некоторые из которых имеют командную роль в военное время) или в странах Варшавского договора, не являющихся советскими. Мы перечислили силы географически и, где это возможно, сгруппировали их так, как ими можно было бы командовать на войне. Мы перечислили элементы стратегических ядерных сил, войск противовоздушной обороны и ВДВ по их физическому расположению, хотя они непосредственно контролируются Верховным Главнокомандованием (ВГК). Уровни командования между ВГК и фронтами могут быть установлены и известны как высокие команды (ГК).
   Определение категории Советских дивизий затруднено следующая оценка основана на ряде недавних заявлений.
   Категория А. (свыше 75%), включая все дивизии в группах войск, 6 из 7 ВДД, все воздушно-штурмовые бригады, дивизии, выведенные из Афганистана, дивизии в Монголии.
   Возможно, 24 ТД, 6 ВДД и 24 МСД и отдельный корпус.
   Категория В. (50-75%) больше всего ТД В Западном военном округе, около 50% МСД в Южном и Дальневосточном ТВД. Возможно 20 TД, 1 ВДД и 32 МСД.
   Категория С. (20-50%) большинство МСД не в группах войск. Возможно 9 ТД и 97 МСД.
    []

   NORTHERN FLEET: (Arctic and Atlantic) (HQ Severomorsk): (126,000).
   BASES: Kola Inlet, Motovskiy Gulf, Gremikha, Polyarny, Litsa Gulf.
   SUBMARINES: 171: strategic: 39 SSBN; tactical: 116: 29 SSGN, 49 SSN, 7 SSG, 31 SS. (4-5 normally deployed to Mediterranean) 16 other roles.
   PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 70: 2 CW, 13 cruisers, 13 destroyers, 42 frigates; det to Mediterranean sqn.
   (See Mediterranean Squadron on p. 39.)
   OTHER SURFACE SHIPS: 40 patrol and coastal combatants, 64 mine warfare, 15 amph, some 190 spt and misc.
NAVAL AVIATION: 175 cbt ac; 75 cbt hel.
   BOMBERS: 65: 40 Tu-26, 25 Tu-16.
   FIGHTER/FGA: 30 Yak-38.
   ASW: AIRCRAFT: 80: 30 Tu-142, 20 Il-38, 30 Be-12; HELICOPTERS: 65: (afloat): Ka-25; Ka-27; (ashore): Mi-14.
   MR/EW: AIRCRAFT: 68: 25 Tu-95, 33 Tu-16, 10 An-12; HELICOPTERS: 5 Ka-25.
   MCM: 8 Mi-14 hel.
   CBT ASLT HEL: 10 Ka-27.
   COMMUNICATIONS: Tu-142.
   TANKERS: 18 Tu-16.
NAVAL INFANTRY: 1 bde: 4 bn: 3,000.

NORTHERN FRONT (indep HQ with Leningrad MD).
STRATEGIC FORCES (under central comd):
   SLBM: 594: Northern Fleet: 39 SSBN (SLBM numbers in parentheses): 5 Typhoon (100); 9 D-I (108); 4 D-II (64); 6 D-III (96); 5 D-IV (80);
   8 Y-I (128); 1 Y-II (12); 1 H-III (6).
   ICBM: Plesetsk test centre.
AIR DEFENCE TROOPS (under VPVO comd):
   EARLY WARNING: major site near Kovdov, W. Kola, detailed deployments unknown.
   FIGHTER: 350: 12 regt with MiG-23, MiG-25, MiG-31, Su-15, Su-27.
   ELINT: 5 Il-20.
   AEW: ~17: ~3 Tu-126, 14 Il-76 (replacing Tu-126).
   SAM: over 100 complexes: SA-2/-3/-5/-10.
LENINGRAD MD (HQ Leningrad):
   1 Army, 2 Corps HQ, 11 MRD, 1 ABD; plus 1 arty div, 4 Scud and 1 air aslt bde.
   FGA: 135: 3 regt MiG-21, MiG-27, Su-17.
   RECCE: 25: MiG-25, Su-17.
   Mob could field some 2 armies.
   EQUIPMENT: up to 1,200 MBT; 2,900 arty/MRL/mor, 44 FROG/SS-21, 42 Scud SSM; 40 armed hel.
   TACTICAL AVIATION: 135 cbt ac.

WESTERN STRATEGIC DIRECTION (TVD): (HQ Legnica)
   3 Groups of Soviet Forces, Baltic, Belorussian, Carpathian MD, 1 Indep Corps, 64 div (31 TD, 30 MRD, 3 AB), plus 6 arty div, 4 air aslt bde.
STRATEGIC FORCES (under central comd):
   SLBM: 12: Baltic Fleet: 4 G-II SSB.
   ICBM:* 90: SS-19 (1 field).
   IRBM:SS-20 (number deployed n.k., being withdrawn).
   MRBM:SS-4 (number deployed n.t, being withdrawn).
   ELINT: 5 Il-20/-22.
AIR DEFENCE TROOPS (under VPVO comd):
   EARLY WARNING: 2 OTH(B) near Minsk, 1 major complex near Tallinn; details unknown.
   FIGHTER: 325: Su-15, MiG-23, MiG-25.
   SAM: SA-2/-3/-5/-10; 200+ complexes and sites.
UNDER TVD CONTROL: STRIKE/FGA: 1 air army (HQ Legnica), 300 Su-24.
FRONTAL FORCES:
WESTERN GROUP OF FORCES (GDR) (HQ Zossen-Wunsdorf): (380,000):
   1 Gp, 5 Army HQ; 11 TD, 8 MRD plus 1 arty div; 5 indep tk regt, 3 tk trg regt; 1 air aslt, 5 SS-21, 7 Scud, 5 arty bde;
   6 attack hel regt: some 100 Mi-8; some 250 Mi-24; 25 Mi-8 ECM, some 20 tpt.
   FGA: 400: 12 regt: Su-17, Su-24, Su-25, MiG-27.
   FIGHTER: 305: 8 regt: MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-25, MiG-29.
   RECCE: 65 Su-17, Su-24, MiG-25.
   ECM: 15 Yak-28.
NORTHERN GROUP OF FORCES (Poland) (HQ Legnica): (40,000):
   1 Gp HQ; 1 TD, 1 MRD; 1 Scurf bde; 1 SAM, 1 tk trg, 1 attack hel r.egt: 80 Mi-8/-24 hel.
CENTRAL GROUP OF FORCES (Czechoslovakia) (HQ Milovice): (70,000):
   1 Gp, 1 Corps HQ; 2 TD, 3 MRD; 1 air aslt bn; 2 Scud, 1 arty bde; 2 attack hel regt: 180 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FGA: 45: 1 regt MiG-27.
   FIGHTER: 45: 1 regt MiG-23.
   RECCE: 15 Su-17.
BALTIC MD (HQ Kaliningrad):
   1 Army HQ; 3 TD, 7 MRD, 2 ABD plus 2 arty div, 1 air aslt bde: 120 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FIGHTER: 45: 1 regt MiG-29.
   RECCE: 35: Su-17, Su-24, MiG-25.
   ECM: 15 Yak-28.
BELORUSSIAN MD (HQ Minsk):
   1 Indep Army Corps, 10 TD, 2 MRD, 1 ABD, plus 1 arty div, 1 air aslt, 4 Scud, 150 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FGA: 165: 3 regt MiG-27, 1 regt Su-25.
   FIGHTER: 120: 2 regt MiG-23, 1 regt MiG-29.
   RECCE: 40: MiG-21 Fishbed H, MiG-25.
CARPATHIAN MD (HQ Lvov):
   3 Army HQ; 4 TD, 9 MRD, plus 2 arty div, 1 air aslt, 3 Scud bde; 150 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FGA: 165: 4 regt: MiG-27, Su-17, Su-25.
   FIGHTER: 115: 3 regt: MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-29.
   RECCE: 25: 10 MiG-25, 15 Su-17.
On mob TVD could produce five Fronts, with a total of 103 div (incl non-Soviet WP).
EQUIPMENT (Soviet): up to 18,800 MBT; 16,000 arty/MRL/mor, 252 FROG/SS-21, 300 Scud, SSM; some 1,850 hel, perhaps 700 armed.
TACTICAL AVIATION: some 1,885 cbt ac.

BALTIC FLEET (HQ Kaliningrad): 87,000.
   BASES: Kronshtadt, Liepaya, Baltiysk, Talinn.
   SUBMARINES: 47; strategic: 4 SSB; tactical: 3 SSG, 35 SS; other roles: 5 SS.
   PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 47: 3 cruisers, 13 destroyers, 31 frigates.
   OTHER SURFACE SHIPS: 155 patrol and coastal combatants, 119 mine warfare, 20 amph, some 120 spt and misc.
NAVAL AVIATION: 150 cbt ac, 35 cbt hel.
   BOMBERS: 100: 3 regt with 60 Tu-26; 1 with 25 Tu-16; 1 with 15Tu-22.
   FGA: 35: 1 regt Su-17.
   ASW: AIRCRAFT: 15: 5 Il-38, 10 Be-12; HELICOPTERS: 30: Ka-25, Ka-27, Mi-14.
   MR/EW: AIRCRAFT42: 20 Tu-16, 10 Tu-22, 10 Su-24, 2 An-12. HELICOPTERS: 5 Ka-25.
   MCM: 5 Mi-14 hel.
   CBT ASLT HEL 5 Ka-27.
   TANKER: 10 Tu-16.
NAVAL INFANTRY: 1 bde: 5 bn; 3,000.
COAST DEFENCE: SSM: 1 regt: some 8 SS-C-1b Sepal. ARTY: 11 bn: some 72 130mm guns.

SOUTH-WESTERN STRATEGIC DIRECTION (TVD) (HQ Beltsy, Ukraine).
   1 Group of Forces, Kiev, Odessa MD. 29 div (10 TD, 18 MRD, 1 ABD), plus 3 arty div, 2 air aslt bde.
STRATEGIC FORCES: (under central comd)
   ICBM*: 90 SS-19 (1 field).
   ELINT: 5 Il-20/-22.
   FIGHTER: 75: 3 regt: MiG-25, Su-27.
   SAM: 120 SA-2/-3/-5/-10 sites.
UNDER TVD CONTROL:
   STRIKE/FGA: 1 air army (HQ Vinnitsa): 180 Su-24.
FRONTAL FORCES:
SOUTHERN GROUP OF FORCES (Hungary) (HQ Budapest): (65,000):
   2 TD, 2 MRD, 1 air aslt bde; 50 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FGA: 210: 5 regt: MiG-21, Su-17, Su-24.
   FIGHTER: 135: 3 regt: MiG-23, MiG-29.
   RECCE 20 Su-17, Yak-28.
   ECM: 5 ac.
KIEV MD (HQ Kiev):
   8 TD, 7 MRD plus 2 arty div; 180 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FGA: 30 Su-24.
   FIGHTER: 45 MiG-23.
ODESSA MD (HQ Odessa):
   1 Army HQ, 1 corps HQ, 9 MRD, 1 ABD, plus 1 arty div, 1 air aslt bde: 170 Mi-8/-24 armed hel; some Mi-2, Mi-6 tpt hel.
   FGA: 90: 3 regt: MiG-27, Su-25.
   FIGHTER: 135: 3 regt: MiG-21, MiG-23.
   RECCE: 10 Su-17 Fitter H.
Mob of these forces (with 3 corps from Hungary plus the 3 tk and 16 motor rifle div of Bulgaria and Romania) could produce 4 Fronts,
   each of some 5 all-arms Armies.
EQUIPMENT (Soviet): some 8,200 MBT; 7,200 arty/MRL/mor, 112 F.R0G/SS-21, 114 Scud SSM; 190 armed, perhaps 160 other hel.
TACTICAL AVIATION: 645 cbt ac.

BLACK SEA FLEET: (HQ Sevastopol): (97,000).
   BASES: Sevastopol, Balaclava, Poti, Odessa.
   SUBMARINES: 28: tactical 26: 2 SSG, 24 SS; other roles: 2.
   PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 65: 10 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 37 frigates.
   OTHER SURFACE SHIPS: 80 patrol and coastal combatants, 63 mine warfare, 15 amph, some 150 spt and misc.
NAVAL AVIATION: 105 cbt ac; 80 cbt hel.
   BOMBERS: 80: 2 regt with 40 Tu-26; 1 with 25 Tu-16; 1 with 15 Tu-22.
   ASW: AIRCRAFT: 25 Be-12. HELICOPTERS: 80: Ka-25, Ka-27, Mi-14.
   MR/EW: AIRCRAFT: 40: 25 Tu-16, 10 Tu-22, 5 An-12; HELICOPTERS: 5 Ka-25.
   MCM: 5 Mi-14 hel.
   TANKERS: 5 Tu-16.
NAVAL INFANTRY: 1 bde: 5 bn: 3,000.
MEDITERRANEAN SQUADRON (HQ afloat): elm of North, Baltic and Black Sea Fleets.
   Average composition:
   SUBMARINES (from Northern Fleet): 4-5.
   PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS (from all European Fleets): 3-6: 1 cruiser, 2-3 destroyers, 1-2 frigates and periodically, CW or CGH.
   AMPHIBIOUS: 1
   MCMV: 2.
   SUPPORT AND MISC: some 20-24, incl 2+ AGI.

SOUTHERN STRATEGIC DIRECTION (TVD) (HQ Baku).
   North Caucasus, Trans-Caucasus, Turkestan MD, 39 div (2 TD, 36 MRD, 1 AB) plus 3 arty div; 2 indep motor rifle, 2 air aslt bde.
AIR DEFENCE TROOPS: (under VPVO comd)
   EARLYWARNING: phased-array radar system: 1 site: Lyaki (Trans-Caucasus).
   FIGHTER: 265: 7 regt with MiG-23, MiG-25, Su-15, Su-27, Yak-28.
   ELINT: 5 Il-20/-22.
FRONTAL FORCES: 3 MD:
NORTH CAUCASUS MD (HQ Rostov):
   1 TD, 8 MRD, 1 arty div; 1 Scud bde; 100 Mi-8/-24 hel.
TRANS-CAUCASUS MD (HQ Tbilisi):
   12 MRD, 1 ABD, 1 arty div, 620 hel incl 150 Mi-8/-24, 20 Mi-6, Mi-2.
   FGA: 240: 6 regt: Su-17, MiG-27, Su-24, Su-25.
   FIGHTER: 80: 2 regt: MiG-23, MiG-29.
   RECCE: 30: Su-17, MiG-25.
TURKESTAN MD (HQ Tashkent):
   1 Army HQ, 1 TD, 16 MRD, 1 arty div; 2 motor rifle, 2 air aslt, 1 arty, 1 Scud bde, 170 Mi-8/-24 hel.
   FGA: 240: 2 regt: MiG-27, Su-24, 4 regt with Su-17, Su-24, Su-25.
   FIGHTER: 180: 4 regt with MiG-21, MiG-23.
   RECCE: 80: MiG-25, Su-17, MiG-21, Yak-28.
On mob the TVD could put 2-3 Fronts, perhaps 9 all-arms armies, in the field.
EQUIPMENT: perhaps 8,600 MBT; 10,000 arty/MRL/mor, 152 FROG, 66 Scud, some 400 cbt hel.
TACTICAL AVIATION: 560 cbt ac.
NAVY: (Caspian Flotilla) (HQ Baku): (4,000).
   5 frigates, 25 patrol and coastal combatants, 26 mine warfare, 15 amph, 10 spt.

CENTRAL STRATEGIC REGION (HQ Moscow):
   Moscow, Volga, Urals MD; 20 div (3 TD, 16 MRD, 1 ABD) plus 1 arty div.
STRATEGIC FORCES (under central comd):
   ICBM*: some 668:
   SS-11 (150 msl), SS-13 (converting to SS-25; 1 field, 60 msl), SS-17 (1 field, ~100 msl), SS-18 (2 fields, 6 188 msl), SS-19 (2 fields, 170 msl).
   BOMBERS: 415: 1 Air Army (HQ Smolensk): 130 Tu-95, 20 Tu-160 Blackjack, 115 Tu-26, 90 Tu-16, 60 Tu-22.
   RECCE/ECM: 130: 110 Tu-16, 20 Tu-22.
   ELINT: 5 Il-20/-22.
   TANKER: 65: 40 Mya-4, 11 Tu-16, 14 Il-78.
AIR DEFENCE TROOPS (under VPVO comd):
   FIGHTER: 475: 12 regt MiG-23,MiG-25, MiG-31, Su-15.
   ABM: Moscow complexes: 9 with Galosh, SH-11 mod Galosh, Gazelle.
   SAM: 135 SA-1/-2/-3/-5, 40 SA-10 complexes and sites.
FRONTAL FORCES:
MOSCOW MD (HQ Moscow):
   2 TD, 7 MRD, 1 ABD, plus 1 arty div; 130 Mi-8/-24 hel (50 armed).
   FGA: 45: 1 regt Su-17.
   FIGHTER: 90: 2 regt: MiG-23, MiG-29.
URAL MD (HQ Sverdlovsk):
   1 TD, 5 MRD.
VOLGA MD (HQ Kuybyshev):
   4 MRD.
On mob could possibly field up to 4 armies.
EQUIPMENT: 4,500 MBT; 4,700 arty/MRL/mor; 76 FROG, 18 Scud SSM; 900 SAM; 225 hel.
TACTICAL AVIATION: 135 cbt ac.

FAR EASTERN STRATEGIC DIRECTION (TVD): (HQ Transbaykal MD).
   Transbaykal, Siberian, Far Eastern MD, Forces in Mongolia: 50 div (7 TD, 42 MRD, 1 coastal defence) plus 4 arty div; 1 air aslt bde.
STRATEGIC FORCES (under central comd):
   SLBM: 354: Pacific Fleet: 26 submarines (msl in parentheses): 9 D-I (108), 8 D-III (128), 7 Y-I (112), 2 G-II (6).
   ICBM*: 408: SS-11 (4 fields, 8 250 msl, could have theatre role), SS-17 (~38 msl), SS-18 (4 fields, ~120 msl).
   IRBM:SS-20 (number deployed n.k., to be withdrawn).
   BOMBERS: 215: 1 Air Army (HQ Irkutsk): 45 Tu-95, 60 Tu-26, 50 Tu-16, 60 Tu-22.
   RECCE/ECM: ~60 Tu-16.
   ELINT: 5 Il-20/-22.
   TANKERS:some 9 Tu-16.
AIR DEFENCE TROOPS (under VPVO comd):
   FIGHTER: 590: 15 regt with MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-25, Su-15, Su-27.
SAM: 215 SA-2/-3/-5, 10 SA-10 complexes and sites.
FRONTAL FORCES:
SIBERIAN MD (HQ Novosibirsk):
   8 MRD, 1 arty div.
TRANSBAYKAL MD (HQ Chita):
   2 TD, 11 MRD, 1 arty div; 225 hel incl Mi-8/-24.
   FGA: 240: 6 regt: MiG-27, Su-17, Su-24.
   FIGHTER: 135: 3 regt: MiG-21, MiG-23.
   RECCE: 75: Su-17, Su-24, MiG-25.
FAR EASTERN MD (HQ Khabarovsk):
   3 TD, 21 MRD, 1 coastal defence, 2 arty div; 1 air aslt bde, some 670 hel.
   FGA: 390: 10 regt: MiG-27, Su-17, Su-24, Su-25.
   FIGHTER: 125: 3 regt MiG-23, Su-27.
   RECCE: 65: Yak-28, Su-17, MiG-25.
   ECM: 10 Yak-28.
MONGOLIA (HQ Ulan Bator):
   1 Army HQ, 2 TD, 2 MRD div. All are at Cat A. (See also Forces Abroad, below.)
On mob could put 4 Fronts, perhaps 12 Armies, into the field.
EQUIPMENT: perhaps 11,500 MBT; 12,500 arty/MRL/mor; ~149 FROG, 90 Scud, some 1,100 hel.
TACTICAL AVIATION: 890 cbt ac.

PACIFIC FLEET (Pacific and Indian Ocean) (HQ Vladivostok): (160,000).
   BASES: Vladivostok, Petropavlovsk, Sovyetskaya Gavan; abroad: Cam Ranh Bay (Vietnam), Aden (South Yemen).
   SUBMARINES: 120: strategic: 24 SSBN, 2 SSB; tactical: 84: 22 SSGN, 31 SSN, 4 SSG, 27 SS; other roles: 10 SS.
   PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 77: 2 carriers, 11 cruisers, 8 destroyers, 56 frigates.
   OTHER SURFACE SHIPS: 100 patrol and coastal combatants, 102 mine warfare, 21 amph, some 230 spt and misc.
Regular deployments:
To the Indian Ocean and South Yemen (Aden, Socotra, Persian Gulf) and Ethiopia (Dahlak Is, Mits'iwa):
   average 1-2 submarines, 2-3 principal surface combatants, 1-3 mine warfare, 1 amph, 8-10 spt ships.
To Vietnam (Cam Ranh Bay) and the South China Sea:
   average 1-2 submarines, principal surface combatants, 1 patrol, 2 mine warfare, 0-1 amph, 9-12 spt vessels.
NAVAL AIR (Pacific Fleet Air Force) (HQ Vladivostok): 245 cbt ac, 100 hel.
   BOMBERS: 65: 2 regt with 40 Tu-26, 1 with 25 Tu-16 Badger A/C/G.
   FGA: 105: afloat: 4 fit Yak-38; (ashore): 1 regt Su-17, 1 sqnMiG-23MF.
   ASW: AIRCRAFT 75: 30 Tu-142, 20 Il-38; 25 Be-12. HELICOPTERS: 90: (afloat): Ka-25, Ka-27; (ashore): Mi-14.
   MR/EW: AIRCRAFT: 74: 20Tu-95, 50Tu-16, 4 An-12 Cub B; HELICOPTERS: 10 Ka-25.
   MCM: 5 Mi-14 hel.
   CBT ASLT HEL: 10 Ka-27.
   COMMUNICATION: Tu-142.
   TANKERS: 20 Tu-16.
NAVAL INFANTRY: 1 div HQ, 3 inf, 1 tk and 1 arty regt: 7,000.

FORCES ABROAD:
MONGOLIA: ~60,000 (50,000 to be withdrawn).
VIETNAM: (2,800); naval base (as above); composite air unit (drawn from Far East TVD/Pacific Fleet Air Forces):
   6 Tu-95/-142, 16 Tu-16 Badger A/C/E/J MR or ASW, 1 sqn MiG-23 ftr ac, AA, SAM, electronic monitoring station.
OTHER: Afghanistan, some advisers; Algeria 700; Angola 1,000, plus 4-8 ships, MR ac; Congo 75; Cuba some 7,700 (1 bde (2,800), advisers (~2,800) plus some 2,100 SIGINT and other technicians); Ethiopia 1,600 (plus, dry-dock, naval inf det); India 500; Iraq 1,000; Kampuchea 500; Laos 500; Libya 1,500; Mali 75; Mozambique 700; Nicaragua 100; Peru 50; Syria 2,000; South Yemen 1,000; Africa (remainder) 600.

PARA-MILITARY: 570,000.
KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti): 230,000 (70-75% conscripts: ~167,000):
   border tps (incl Maritime Border Guards, 23,000), Kremlin Guard; Special Guard.
EQUIPMENT: tk, SP guns, AFV, ac and ships.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: About 213:
OFFSHORE PATROL 23:
   4 Krivak-III with 1 Ka-27 hel, 1 100mm gun.
   12 Grisha-II, 1 Purgawith 4 100mm gun, 6 T-58.
COASTAL PATROL 25: 15 Pauk, 10 T-43
INSHORE PATROL: About 165: 120 Stenka, 10 Murayev, 30 Zhuk, some SO-1.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: About 20: 10 river patrol, 8 icebreakers, some tugs.

MVD (Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del): 340,000: internal security tps; some 30 div with tk and AFV.
   By law part of armed forces of USSR and operationally capable at least of rear area security tasks.

* Mobile ICBM, SS-24 and SS-25 have not been incl in deployment.

The Alliances and Europe


THE WARSAW PACT


   Military Developments
   Following President Gorbachev's announcement of unilateral Soviet force reductions, all members of the Warsaw Pact (WP), except Romania, have announced measures to reduce the size of their armed forces. These are described below. The publication of force data by both NATO and the WP has allowed us to reassess WP force structure and equipment holding; not all changes therefore reflect reorganization or procurement in the last 12 months.
   The Bulgarian armed forces strengths have been reassessed, and we show a drop in manpower of some 40,000, mainly from the army. Further reductions announced by the Bulgarian Defence Minister include a motor rifle division, a tank brigade and an air force regiment and would reduce strengths by 10,000 men, 200 tanks, 200 artillery pieces and 20 aircraft. The Navy is to dispose of five unspecified units. The length of military service is not being altered but the opportunity will be taken to retire older officers and NCO.
   While we now show the Bulgarian Army with fewer tanks and artillery than previously assessed, they have received additional BMP and 122mm 2S1 SP guns. We had previously overestimated the holding of SSM. The air force no longer operates MiG-17 or MiG-23 in the FGA role; combat aircraft holdings are therefore down by some 60 aircraft. Naval strength has been increased by three Soviet Poti-class corvettes.
   Fresh information has now established that the Czechoslovak Army contains five mobilization divisions; one tank and four motor rifle, in addition to its active divisions. Announced Czech force reductions include 12,000 men from combat units (but some 20,000 more will be conscripted into construction units), 850 tanks and 51 combat aircraft. Restructuring will reduce the number of both tank and air force regiments. The Czech Army will also place three divisions on a mobilization basis with sufficient manpower only for security and equipment maintenance; no details of which divisions are affected have been given.
   We now assess Czech tank holdings at some 4,580; holdings of this size would be needed to maintain an army of 16divisions and allow for some reserve pool. We have substantially reduced our estimate of Czech 122mm 2S1 SP gun holdings, and now believe only 230 to be held.
   The Czech Air Force has retired its 45 Su-7 Fitter FGA from service. We had expected these to be replaced by Su-22 but none have been received, and we now believe the Su-25, first brought into service in 1987, to be their replacement. Overall combat aircraft holdings are down by some 70 aircraft.
   Further information indicates that the GDR holds five mobilization divisions, rather than the four we listed last year. All are motor rifle divisions and are largely based on the principal NCO schools.
   Unilateral reductions announced for the National People's Army (NVA) will amount to 10,000 men, the scrapping or conversion to industrial use of 600 tanks and the decommissioning of 50 fighter aircraft. These reductions are to be achieved by disbanding six tank regiments, one in each of the six divisions, and one air force regiment. Implementation started on 28 April 1989.
   We have reassessed our listing of tanks to 3,140, an increase of 290, sufficient to equip an army of 12 divisions. The number will decline as unilaterally reduced tanks are destroyed or converted. Equipment holdings show modest increases in T-72 tanks, BMP-1, and 122mm 2S1 SP guns. A second SSM battalion has received SS-21 in place of FROG.
   The air force have formed two air defence squadrons with 20 MiG-29 Fulcrum, the first non-Soviet WP force to receive these. The East German Navy has commissioned a new missile craft tentatively classified 'S-1' which mounts 4 SSM. We have reclassified the 18 Kondor I-class minesweepers as naval rather than Frontier Troops.
   Further information on the Hungarian Army reorganization shows that the three corps have a standard organization of one tank, four motor rifle and one artillery brigade and an SA-6 regiment. The remaining tank brigade is held at Army level, with a further artillery brigade and the Scud SSM brigade.
   Hungarian unilateral reductions in 1989-90 will amount to 9,300 men (of which 2,000 are to be career soldiers and some, we assume, will be Border Guards), 251 tanks, 430 artillery and mortar pieces, six SSM launchers and nine air defence aircraft. In a further reorganization one tank brigade and an air force 'division' will be disbanded and other streamlining measures taken. The length of conscript service is to be reduced from 18 months to one year.
   We had previously overestimated the holding of FROG SSM of which only 18 are held; the announced reduction of six launchers suggests that each corps will have a battalion of four launchers. Holdings of T-72 tanks, BMP-1 and 122mm 2S1 SP guns have all been increased, the last by 64 guns.
   The Hungarian Air Force has reduced its air defence force by two squadrons with 34 MiG-23MF.
   In an interview in January 1989 the Polish Defence Minister claimed that during 1987-88 Polish armed forces had disbanded two divisions, cut strength by 15,000 men and destroyed many older equipments. It is now known that the two divisions were two Category C motor rifle divisions in the Warsaw Military District (MD). Polish Army manpower has dropped by 13,000 men. In 1989-90 two further motor rifle divisions (one each in the Pomeranian and Silesian MD)will be disbanded, and the manning level of two Category A tank divisions (again one each in the Pomeranian and Silesian MD) will be 'substantially reduced' probably to Category C status. The remaining divisions are to be reorganized to a standard pattern. These moves will reduce armed forces strength by 40,000 men, 850 tanks, 900 artillery and mortar pieces, 700 APC and 80 aircraft. Internal Defence Troops (WOW) and Border Troops (WOP) are also to be reduced in strength, and a number of units including construction, engineering, road and railway units, and other military projects will be handed over to civil ministries. The first reductions were claimed to have taken place on 3-4 March 1989, with two tank units and an SSM brigade being disbanded, but we have received no confirmation of this.
   We now believe the Polish Army to include two mobilization divisions, one tank and one motor rifle, but we do not know their location nor how long they have been in existence. Polish Army equipment holdings, particularly of tanks and artillery, have been considerably reduced with the destruction of older, stored equipments. However, modern SP artillery holdings have increased to reach 425 122mm 2S1 and 40 152mm Dana SP guns. T-72 tank holdings have increased slightly and some 350 more BMP-1 are now in service.
   The Polish Navy received a second Soviet Foxtrot-class submarine and retired a Whiskey-class. A fourth Gornik (Soviet Tamntul I) corvette has joined the fleet. Polish Air Force aircraft holdings have been reduced with the retirement of 25 LIM-6 FGA and 35 MiG-21 fighters. Polish Naval Aviation now only operates helicopters; the MiG-17 regiment has been disbanded.
   Romania is the only Warsaw Pact member not to have announced unilateral force reductions but President Ceausescu has claimed that forces were cut in 1987 by some 10,000 men, 250 tanks, 130 artillery pieces and 26 combat aircraft. We have seen nothing to support this claim. Indeed, in the light of the WP data document we have reassessed tank and artillery holdings which now show a considerable increase over last year's estimates. In particular, we now credit Romania with holding some 250 122mm SP guns; ATGW, anti-tank gun and SAM holdings have also been increased.
   The Romanian Air Force, like all WP members, has reduced the numbers of its older aircraft, with some 55 MiG-17 FGA retired from service.
   Defence Spending
   In addition to announcing cuts to their armed forces, non-Soviet WP members have announced cuts in defence spending. Bulgaria claims it has cut the 1989 defence budget by 12%, Czechoslovakia proposes 15%reductions over 1989 and 1990, while the GDR will have cut defence expenditure by 10%by the end of 1990. In Hungary a 17%cut in defence spending in real terms has been approved by Parliament (but new budget accounting procedures make precise interpretation a matter for debate), Polish budget cuts will amount to approximately 4% in real terms. Finally Romania has announced no new cuts in defence spending but claims to have cut spending by 5% between 1985 and 1988.
   These announcements of reduced spending were made after details of the 1989 defence budgets had been released. Bulgarian, GDR and Romanian defence budgets show modest increases but certainly no more, and possibly somewhat less, than would be needed to cover inflation. Czechoslovakia and Hungary reduced their defence budgets in real terms which will probably translate into significant decreases when inflation is taken into account, and this before unilateral cuts are made. Only the Polish defence budget shows a large increase, probably sufficient to offset 1988's inflation but perhaps not all of the anticipated 1989 inflation.
   As Hungary, Poland and Romania report on their economies to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) we have decided to use IMF data when reporting details of NMP, GNP/GDP, local currency and dollar equivalents for these countries. The effect will be to lower dollar values, as fixed official exchange rates may have overvalued domestic currency.

ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР

  
   Военные события
   После заявления президента Горбачева об одностороннем сокращении Советских Вооруженных сил все члены Варшавского договора, за исключением Румынии, объявили о мерах по сокращению численности своих вооруженных сил. Они описаны ниже. Публикация данных о силах как НАТО, так и ОВД позволила нам провести переоценку структуры сил ОВД и холдинга оборудования; поэтому не все изменения отражают реорганизацию или закупки за последние 12 месяцев.
   Силы болгарских вооруженных сил были переоценены, и мы показываем сокращение численности примерно на 40 000 человек, главным образом из армии. Дальнейшие сокращения, объявленные министром обороны Болгарии, включают мотострелковую дивизию, танковую бригаду и полк ВВС и сократят численность на 10 000 человек, 200 танков, 200 артиллерийских орудий и 20 самолетов. Флот должен избавиться от пяти неуказанных единиц. Продолжительность военной службы не изменяется, но будет использована возможность выхода на пенсию старших офицеров и НКО.
   В то время как мы сейчас показываем болгарскую армию с меньшим количеством танков и артиллерии, чем оценивалось ранее, они получили дополнительные БМП и 122-мм самоходные орудия 2S1. Ранее мы переоценивали холдинг БР. Военно-воздушные силы больше не эксплуатируют МиГ-17 или МиГ-23 в ударной роли; поэтому запасы боевых самолетов сократились примерно на 60 самолетов. Военно-морская мощь была увеличена на три советских корвета типа Poti.
   По свежим сведениям, в чехословацкой армии имеется пять мобилизационных дивизий, одна танковая и четыре мотострелковые, в дополнение к действующим дивизиям. Объявленные сокращения чешских сил включают 12 000 человек из боевых частей (но еще около 20 000 будут призваны в строительные части), 850 танков и 51 боевой самолет. Реструктуризация позволит сократить численность как танковых, так и военно-воздушных полков. Чешская армия также разместит три дивизии на мобилизационной основе с достаточным количеством живой силы только для обеспечения безопасности и технического обслуживания оборудования; какие именно подразделения пострадали, не сообщается.
   Сейчас мы оцениваем чешские танковые запасы примерно в 4580 единиц; запасы такого размера понадобились бы для поддержания армии из 16 дивизий и обеспечения некоторого резерва. Мы существенно сократили нашу оценку чешских 122-мм 2S1 самоходных орудий, и теперь считаем, что только 230.
   ВВС Чехии сняли с вооружения 45 истребителей-бомбардировщиков Су-7. Мы ожидали, что они будут заменены на Су-22, но они не были получены, и теперь мы считаем, что Су-25, впервые введенный в эксплуатацию в 1987 году, будет их заменой. Общее количество боевых самолетов сократилось примерно на 70 единиц.
   Дальнейшая информация указывает на то, что ГДР имеет пять мобилизационных дивизий, а не четыре, которые мы перечислили в прошлом году. Все они являются мотострелковыми дивизиями и в значительной степени базируются на основных школах НКО.
   Односторонние сокращения, объявленные для Национальной народной армии (ННА), составят 10 000 человек, утилизация или переход на промышленное использование 600 танков и вывод из эксплуатации 50 истребителей. Эти сокращения должны быть достигнуты путем расформирования шести танковых полков, по одному в каждой из шести дивизий, и одного полка ВВС. Осуществление началось 28 апреля 1989 года.
   Мы пересмотрели наш список танков до 3 140, увеличив его на 290, что достаточно для оснащения армии из 12 дивизий. Это число будет уменьшаться по мере уничтожения или переоборудования танков, сокращенных в одностороннем порядке. Запасы оборудования показывают скромный рост танков Т-72, БМП-1 и 122-мм орудий 2С1. Второй батальон ТБР получил SS-21 вместо FROG.
   ВВС сформировали две эскадрильи ПВО С 20 истребителями МиГ-29, первыми получившими эти самолеты. ВМС Восточной Германии ввели в эксплуатацию новый ракетный корабль, предварительно классифицированный как "С-1", на котором установлены 4 ПКР. Мы переклассифицировали 18 тральщиков типа Kondor I как военно-морские, а не пограничные войска.
   Дополнительная информация о реорганизации венгерской армии показывает, что три корпуса имеют стандартную организацию из одной танковой, четырех мотострелковых и одной артиллерийской бригады и полка SA-6. Оставшаяся танковая бригада удерживается на армейском уровне, с еще одной артиллерийской бригадой и бригадой ОТБР Scud.
   Венгерские односторонние сокращения в 1989-90 годах составят 9300 человек (из них 2000 будут кадровыми солдатами, а некоторые, как мы предполагаем, будут пограничниками), 251 танк, 430 артиллерийских орудий и минометов, шесть ПУ ТБР и девять самолетов ПВО. В ходе дальнейшей реорганизации будут расформированы одна танковая бригада и одна "дивизия" ВВС и приняты другие меры по оптимизации. Срок службы по призыву сокращается с 18 месяцев до одного года.
   Ранее мы переоценивали проведение ТБР FROG, которых всего 18; объявленное сокращение шести пусковых установок предполагает, что каждый корпус будет иметь батальон из четырех пусковых установок. Запасы танков Т-72, БМП-1 и 122-мм орудий 2С1 были увеличены, последнее на 64 орудия.
   ВВС Венгрии сократили свои силы ПВО до двух эскадрильи с 34 МиГ-23МФ.
   В интервью в январе 1989 года польский министр обороны утверждал, что в течение 1987-88 годов польские вооруженные силы расформировали две дивизии, сократили численность на 15 000 человек и уничтожили много старой техники. В настоящее время известно, что эти две дивизии были двумя мотострелковыми дивизиями категории С в Варшавском военном округе (ВО). Численность польской армии сократилась на 13 000 человек. В 1989-90 годах будут расформированы еще две мотострелковые дивизии (по одной в Поморском и Силезском ВО), а укомплектованность двух танковых дивизий категории А (опять по одной в Поморском и Силезском ВО) будет "существенно снижена", вероятно, до статуса категории С. Остальные подразделения должны быть реорганизованы по стандартной схеме. Эти шаги позволят сократить численность Вооруженных сил на 40 000 человек, 850 танков, 900 артиллерийских орудий и минометов, 700 БТР и 80 самолетов. Войска внутренней обороны (WOW) и пограничные войска (WOP) также будут сокращены, а ряд подразделений, включая строительные, инженерные, автомобильные и железнодорожные подразделения, и другие военные будут переданы гражданским министерствам. Первые сокращения, как утверждалось, имели место 3-4 марта 1989 года, когда были расформированы две танковые части и бригада ТБР, но мы не получили подтверждения этого.
   Сейчас мы считаем, что польская армия включает в себя две мобилизационные дивизии, одну танковую и одну мотострелковую, но мы не знаем, где они находятся и как долго они существуют. Запасы техники польской армии, особенно танков и артиллерии, были значительно сокращены с уничтожением старой, хранимой техники. Тем не менее, современные запасы самоходной артиллерии увеличились до 425 122-мм 2S1 и 40 152-мм орудий Dana. Запасы танков Т-72 немного увеличились, и в настоящее время на вооружении находится еще 350 БМП-1.Польский флот получил вторую советскую подводную лодку класса Foxtrot и вывел тип Whiskey. Четвертый корвет Gornik (Советский Tarantul I) вошел в состав флота. Авиационные силы ВВС Польши были сокращены с выводом 25 ИБ Lim-6 и 35 истребителей МиГ-21. Польская военно-морская авиация сейчас эксплуатирует только вертолеты; полк МиГ-17 расформирован.
   Румыния является единственным членом Варшавского договора, который не объявил об одностороннем сокращении сил, но президент Чаушеску заявил, что силы были сокращены в 1987 году примерно на 10 000 человек, 250 танков, 130 артиллерийских орудий и 26 боевых самолетов. Мы не видели ничего, что могло бы подтвердить это утверждение. Действительно, в свете документа ОВД мы пересмотрели запасы танков и артиллерии, которые в настоящее время значительно увеличились по сравнению с прошлогодними оценками. В частности, в настоящее время Румыния располагает 250 122-мм самоходными орудиями; также увеличены запасы ПТРК, противотанковых пушек и ЗРК.
   Румынские ВВС, как и все члены ОВД, сократили количество своих старых самолетов, причем около 55 МиГ-17 выведены из эксплуатации.
   Расходы На Оборону
   В дополнение к объявлению о сокращении своих вооруженных сил, несоветские члены ОВД объявили о сокращении расходов на оборону. Болгария утверждает, что она сократила оборонный бюджет 1989 года на 12%, Чехословакия предлагает 15% сокращения за 1989 и 1990 годы, в то время как ГДР сократит расходы на оборону на 10% к концу 1990 года. В Венгрии 17% сокращение расходов на оборону в реальном выражении было одобрено парламентом (но новые процедуры бюджетного учета делают точную интерпретацию предметом обсуждения), в Польше сокращение бюджета составит примерно 4% в реальном выражении. Наконец, Румыния не объявила о новых сокращениях расходов на оборону, но утверждает, что сократила расходы на 5% между 1985 и 1988 годами.
   Эти заявления о сокращении расходов были сделаны после того, как были обнародованы детали оборонных бюджетов 1989 года. Оборонные бюджеты Болгарии, ГДР и Румынии демонстрируют скромный рост, но, конечно, не больше, а возможно, и несколько меньше, чем потребуется для покрытия инфляции. Чехословакия и Венгрия сократили свои оборонные бюджеты в реальном выражении, что, вероятно, приведет к значительному сокращению с учетом инфляции, и это до одностороннего сокращения. Только польский оборонный бюджет показывает значительное увеличение, вероятно, достаточное, чтобы компенсировать инфляцию 1988 года, но, возможно, не всю ожидаемую инфляцию 1989 года.
   Поскольку Венгрия, Польша и Румыния отчитываются о своих экономиках перед Международным валютным фондом (МВФ), мы решили использовать данные МВФ при представлении подробной информации о НМП, ВНП/ВВП, эквивалентах в местной валюте и долларах для этих стран. Эффект будет заключаться в снижении стоимости доллара, так как фиксированные официальные курсы могут привести к завышению курса национальной валюты.

   BULGARIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 117,500 (91,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 2 years (3 years for sea-going naval conscripts).
RESERVES: 472,500. Army 420,000; Navy (to age 55, officers 60 or 65) 7,500; Air (to age 60) 45,000.

ARMY: 81,900 (70,000 conscripts).
3 Military Districts/Army HQ:
   1 with 2 MRD, 1 tk bde;
   2 with 3 MRD, 2 tk bde;
(Cat A/B: 5 MRD, 5 tk bde; Cat C: 3 MRD).
Army tps: 4 Scud, 1 SAM bde, 3 arty, 3 AD arty regt, 1 cdo coy.
1 AB regt (manned by Air Force).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 2,200: 1,200 T-54/-55, 125 T-62, some 200 T-72; (some 675 T-34 in store).
RECCE: 420 BRDM-1/-2.
A1FV: some 280 BMP-1.
APC: 1,100 BTR-50/-60, 35 OT-62, 500 MT-LB.
ARTY: ~830:
   TOWED: 100mm: 80+ M-1944; 122mm: 400+ M-1938 (M-30), D-30; 130mm: 40 M-46; 152mm: 170 M-1937, D-20.
   SP: 122mm: 120 2S1; 152mm: ~20 2S3.
MRL: 122mm: 130 BM-21; 130mm: 120 M-51.
MORTARS: 120mm: 450.
SSM: launchers: 36 FROG-7, 36 Scud.
ATGW: 360 AT-3 Sagger.
ATK GUNS: 76mm: 150 M-1942; 100mm: 150 T-12.
AD GUNS: 400: 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: S-60; 85mm: KS-12; 100mm: KS-19.
SAM: 50 SA-4/-6/-13.

NAVY: 8,800 (3,000 conscripts).
BASES: coastal: Varna (HQ), Atiya, Sozopol, Balchik. Danube: Vidin (HQ).
SUBMARINES: 4 Pobeda (Sov Romeo) class with 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 3 Druzki (Sov Riga) with 4x5 ASW RL, plus 3 x 533mm TT, 3 100mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 21:
CORVETTES: 6 Poti ASW with 2 ASW RL, 4 ASTT.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Osa PFM with 4 SS-N-2A/B Styx SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 6 Shershen PFT with 4x533mm TT.
PATROL INSHORE: 3 Sov SO-1.
MINE WARFARE: 33:
MINELAYERS: None but SS and FF have capability.
MCMV: 33:
   1 Sov T-43 MSC.
   4 Sonya MSC.
   28 MSI: 6 Vanya, 4 Yevgenya, 18<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2:
   2 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 150 tps, 6 tk;
   Plus 23 craft: 19 Vydra LCM, 4 LCU.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 6: 2 AOT, 2 AGOR, 1 AGI, 1 trg.

NAVAL AVIATION: ~3 armed hel.
HELICOPTERS: 1 SAR/ASW sqn with 9 Mi-14, Mi-8, Mi-4.

COASTAL ARTY:
   2 regt, 20 bty:
GUNS: 100mm: ~150; 130mm: SM-4-1.
SSM: SS-C-1b Sepal, SSC-3 Styx.

NAVAL GUARD: 3 coy.

AIR FORCE: 26,800 (18,000 conscripts), incl AB regt listed under Army; 193 cbt ac, 65 armed hel.
2 air div: 7 cbt regt:
FGA: 1 regt with 45 Su-25.
FIGHTER: 4 regt with some 40 MiG-23MFFlogger B/G; 108 MiG-21PFM.
RECCE: 1 regt with 35 MiG-17/-21/-25, Su-22.
TRANSPORT: 1 regt with 5 An-12, 5 Il-14, 4 An-24, 4 An-2.
HELICOPTERS: 1 regt with 10 Mi-2, 10 Mi-4, 20 Mi-8, 45 Mi-24 (attack).
TRAINING: 170+ incl 18 L-39, 80 L-29, Yak-11/-18.
AAM:AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex.
ASM: AS-7 Kerry.
AD: 1 div: 30 SAM sites; some 280 SA-2/-3/-4.

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER GUARDS (Ministry of Interior): 15,000; 16 regt.
SECURITY POLICE: 7,500.
PEOPLE'S TERRITORIAL MILITIA (R): 150,000.

* Incl police and internal security budget. Defence expenditures estimated, since budgets have not been available for over ten years.

   CZECHOSLOVAKIA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 199,700 (118,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 2 years
RESERVES: 295,000. Army 250,000 (295,000 more with liability to age 50 (men) or 60 (officers)); Air Force 45,000.

ARMY: 148,600 (100,000 conscripts).
2 Military Districts (MD):
Western MD with 2 Army HQ:
   1 with 1 TD, 3 MRD; 1 arty, 1 Scud, 1 engr bde; 1 ATK regt.
   1 with 2 TD, 2 MRD; 1 arty, 1 Scud, 1 engr bde; 1 ATK regt.
   1 arty div.
Eastern MD with 1 Corps HQ, 2 TD (trg role)
(Cat A: 1 TD, 3 MRD. Cat B: 2 TD, 1 MRD. Cat C: 2 TD, 1 MRD.)
1 Scud bde,
1 AB recce bde,
4 engr (2 bridge, 2 road construction) bde.
RESERVES: 5 mob div: 1 TD, 2 MRD (West); 2 TD (East).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 4,585: T-54/-55, T-72.
RECCE: 1,250: 280 OT-65A, 970 BRDM.
AIFV: 1,150: 1,100 BVP-1 (BMP-1), 50 BMP-2.
APC: 2,500: OT-62A/B, OT-64A/C, OT-810.
ARTY: some 2,100
   TOWED: 1,600: incl 122mm: 840 M-1931/37, D-30/M-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: M-1937.
   SP: 500: incl 122mm: 230 2S1; 152mm: 260 Dana (M-77, Tatra 815 chassis); 203mm: 12 2S7.
MRL: 500: incl 122mm: 200 RM-70; 130mm: 120 M-51 (being replaced).
MORTARS: 120mm: 60; 240mm: 12 2S4.
SSM: launchers: 36 FROG, 8 SS-21, 30 Scud.
ATGW: 540: AT-3 Sagger (220 on BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot, 80 AT-5 Spandrel.
ATK GUNS: 100mm: 250 M-53.
AD GUNS: 575: 30mm: M-53/-59 SP; 57mm: S-60.
SAM: SA-7, 210: SA-4/-6/-8/-9/-13.

AIR FORCE: 51,100 (18,000 conscripts); 377 cbt ac, 50 armed hel.
2 air armies: 4 air div: 12 cbt regt.
FGA: 3 regt:
   1 with 40 MiG-23BN/UM;
   1 with 20 MiG-21SMT/U;
   1 with 40 Su-25.
   1 with 32 Su-22.
FIGHTER: 6 regt:
   5 with 200 MiG-21/-21U;
   1 with 45 MiG-23MF.
RECCE: 1regt with 16 MiG-21RF, 10 Su-22, 15 L-29.
TRANSPORT: 2 regt with 2 An-12, 16 An-24, 5 Il-14, 1 Tu-134, 30 L-410M.
HELICOPTERS: 3 regt:
ATTACK: 50 Mi-24.
ASSAULT TPT: (med) 75 Mi-8; (lt): 60 Mi-2.
TRAINING: L-29, 24 L-39, Z-42.
LIAISON: ac incl Z-43.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid.
AD: 3 div: 6 SAM regt: some 40 sites; 250 SA-2/-3.

FORCES ABROAD:
ADVISERS: Iraq 40, Libya 500, Mozambique 50, Syria 110.
UNITED NATIONS: Angola (UNAVM) 7.

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER TROOPS: (Ministry of Interior) 11,000; 7 bde (each 3 bn); BVP-1, OT-62/-64 AFV, ATK weapons.
NATIONAL SECURITY CORPS: (SNB) (Ministry of Interior): 12,500.
PEOPLE'S MILITIA (R): 120,000; OT-64/-65 AFV, mor, ATK, AA weapons.
CIVIL DEFENCE TROOPS: 7,000. 5 regt.

FOREIGN FORCES:
USSR: Central Group of Forces: Army: 1 Gp, 1 corps HQ; 2 TD, 3 MRD; Air. 1 Gp HQ; 1 FGA, 1 ftr regt, 1 recce sqn.

* Incl police and security budget.

   GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 173,100 (92,500 conscripts).
Terms of service: 18 months (3 years for sea-going naval conscripts).
RESERVES: 323,500. Army 250,000, up to 6 months call-up per year to total 24 months
   (250,000 more have Reserve commitment to 50 (men) or 60 (officers)); Navy 21,000; Air 52,500.

ARMY: 120,000 (71,500 conscripts).
2 Military Districts each 1 Army HQ, 2 MRD, 1 TD (5 with SA-6, 1 with SA-8 regt). (All divs Cat A.)
MOD tps: 1 arty bde, 1 AB bn.
Army tps: 2 Scud, 2 arty, 2 SA-4, 1 AD arty, 5 engr (incl 2 pontoon bridge) regt. 2 ATK bn.
RESERVES:
5 mob div: MRD (based on NCO trg schools).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 3,140: ~2,100 T-54/-55, 400 T-72, ~640 T-34 (in store).
RECCE: 1,050 BRDM-1/-2.
AIFV: 1,000 BMP-1/-2.
APC: 4,350: 2,500 BTR-60P, 1,000 BTR-70, 150 MT-LB, 700 BTR-50P/-152 (in store).
ARTY: 1,260.
   TOWED: 870: 122mm: 400 D-30, 200 M-1938 (M-30); 130mm: 90 M-46; 152mm: 180 D-20.
   SP: 390: 122mm: 300 2S1; 152mm: 90 2S3.
MRL: 220: 122mm: 200: Cz RM-70; 240mm: 20 BM-24.
MORTARS: 82mm: ~100; 120mm: 550.
SSM: launchers: 44 FROG-7, 8 SS-21, 28 Scud B.
ATGW: 620: AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel.
ATK GUNS: 300: 85mm: 100 D-48; 100mm: 200 T-12.
AD GUNS: 300: 23mm: ZU-23, 96 ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: ZSU-57-2.
SAM: SA-7, 300: SA-4/-6/-8/-9.

NAVY: 16,000 (6,000 conscripts).
BASES: Peenemiinde, Warnemunde, Dranske-Bug, Sassnitz, Wolgast.
FRIGATES: 19:
   3 Rostock (Sov Koni) with 2x12 ASW RL.
   16 Biitzow (Parchim I) with 2x12 ASW RL, 4 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 38:
CORVETTES: 5 Albin Koebis (Sov Tarantul I) with 4 SS-N-2C Styx SSM.
MISSILE CRAFT: 13:
   1 S-1 BALCOM I with 2x4 SSM.
   12 Sov Osa -I PFM with 4 x SS-N-2A Styx.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 20 PFT:
   6 Sov Shershen with 4 533mm TT.
   14 Libelle with 2 533mm TT.
MINE WARFARE: 42.
   24 Kondor II MSC.
   18 Kondor I MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 12 Hoyerswerda (Frosch) LSM, capacity 180 tps, 10 tk, (some with 2x40 122mm MRL).
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 15: 3 AOT,3 AGI,2 Frosch combat spt, 6 log spt, 1 training.

NAVAL AVIATION: (1,000); 25 cbt ac, 12 armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 25 Su-22.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 12 Mi-14 ASW.
COASTAL ARTILLERY: 3 bty SS-C-3 Styx.

AIR FORCE: 37,100 (15,000 conscripts); 335 cbt ac, 100 armed hel.
2 air div:
FGA: 2 regt: 5 sqn:
   2 with 25 MiG-23BN;
   3 with 35 Su-22.
TRANSPORT: 1 regt: 3 sqn: An-2/-14, 18 An-26, 15 Tu-134, L-410.
HELICOPTERS: 3 regt:
ATTACK: 2 with 65 Mi-24, 35 Mi-8 (armed);
ASSAULT TPT: 1 with 40 Mi-8.
AD COMMAND:
FIGHTER: 6 regt:
   14 sqn with 210 MiG-21F/MF/PF/U;
   3 sqn with 45 MiG-23.
   2 sqn with 20 MiG-29.
SAM: 7 regt: some 30 sites with 205 SA-2/-3/-5.
RADAR: 2 regt.
TRAINING: incl Yak-18, 16 L-29, L-39, Z-226, MiG-15UTI, MiG-21U, MiG-23U, Su-22U.
LIAISON: incl Z-43 ac, Mi-4 hel.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA -8 Aphid.
ASM: AT-3 Sagger ATGW.

FORCES ABROAD:
ADVISERS: Algeria 250, Angola 500, Ethiopia 550, Guinea 125, Iraq 160, Libya 400, Mozambique 100, S. Yemen 75, Syria 210,Zambia (some reported).

PARA-MILITARY: 89,500 Regulars, perhaps 1 million in an emergency.
FRONTIER TROOPS: Ministry of Defence (47,000):
   6 sectors incl coast, 2 'commandos' (Polish, Czech borders), 1 coast bde, 1 arty regt, 18 border, 4 indep coast, 2 boat bn, 1 MRL unit, 6 trg regt;
   Arty: 85mm: 50 D-44; 122mm: 36 M-1938; 130mm: 18 M-46.MRL: 122mm.
PATROL CRAFT: 15 inshore and riverine<.
BERLIN GUARD REGIMENT: (Ministry for State Security) 7,000: 6 motor rifle, 1 arty, 1 trg bn;
   PSZH-IV APC, 120mm mor, 85mm, 100mm ATK, ZU-23 AA guns, hel.
PEOPLE'S POLICE ALERT UNITS: (Ministry of Interior) 12,000; 21 bn; BTR-40/-152 APC, 82mm mor.
TRANSPORT POLICE: 8,500: 16 coy; small arms, RPG-7 RL.
WORKERS' MILITIA (R):(Ministry of Defence) ~500,000 incl 3,000 active; 15,000 cbt gp.
CIVIL DEFENCE: 15,000; 14 bn; light weapons.

FOREIGN FORCES:
USSR: Western Group of Forces: Army: 1 Gp, 5 Army HQ; 11 TD, 8 MRD. Air: 1 Gp HQ; 12 FGA, 8 ftr regt.

* Incl. DMO 6.0 bn (1988) and DMO 5.9 bn (1989) for internal and border security.

   HUNGARY
    []

ARMY: 68,000 (40,000 conscripts) incl Danube Flotilla.
1 Army, 3 Corps HQ: each Corps with 1 tk, 4 MR, 1 arty bde, 1 SA-6 regt.
Army tps: 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 Scud, 1 SA-4, bde; 1 ATK, 1 AD arty, 1 AB bn.
(Cat of bde not known, but 2corps at Cat B or above.)
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 1,435: some 1,300 T-54/-55, 135 T-72.
RECCE: 750: some 410 BRDM-2, 340 FUG-65 (OT-65).
AIFV: 490 BMP-1.
APC: 1,070 PSZH-IV (FUG-70).
ARTY: 866:
   TOWED: 590: 122mm: 225 M-1938; 152mm: 50 M-1943 (D-1), 315 D-20.
   SP: 276: 76mm: 104 SU-76; 122mm: 154 2S1; 152mm: 18 2S3.
MRL: 122mm: 60 BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm: 560; 120mm: 260.
SSM: launchers: 18 FROG-7, 9 Scud.
ATGW: 270: 180 AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), 90 AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel reported.
ATK GUNS: 85mm: 110 D-44; 100mm: 60 T-12.
AD GUNS: 23mm: 14 ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: 189 S-60.
SAM: 25 SA-4, 50 SA-6, 150 SA-7, 50 SA-9, SA-13 reported.
DANUBE FLOTILLA:
   MCMV: 10 Nestin MSI (riverine); boats.

AIR FORCE: 23,000 (8,000 conscripts); 101 cbt ac, 40 armed hel.
1 air div:
FIGHTER:
   2 regt with 90 MiG-21bis.
   1 sqn with 11 MiG-23MF.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 11 Su-22.
TRANSPORT: 1 regt: 2 sqn:
   1 with 12 An-26;
   1 with 4 An-24 ac; 4 Mi-8, 4 Ka-26 hel.
HELICOPTERS: 2 regt.
1 ATK/tpt:
   2 sqn with 40 Mi-24;
   3 sqn with 25Mi-8/-17;
1 liaison: 3 sqn with 10 Ka-26, 3 Mi-2.
TRAINING: incl Yak-11/-18, L-29, MiG-15UTI.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
AD: 1 div: 3 SAM regt, some 20 sites: 120 SA-2/-3.

FORCES ABROAD:
ADVISERS: Mozambique 75, Syria 55, S. Yemen 60.

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER GUARDS: (Ministry of Interior) 16,000 (11,000 conscripts); 11 districts.
WORKERS' GUARDS (R):(Ministry of Interior) 60,000.

FOREIGN FORCES:
USSR: Southern Group of Forces: Army: 2 TD, 2 MRD. Air 5 FGA, 3 ftr regt.

* Incl. internal police and security budget.

   POLAND
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 412,000 (231,000 conscripts) incl Internal Defence troops (see Para-Military).
Terms of service: 2 years (3 years, for sea-going naval conscripts).
RESERVES: 505,000. Army 420,000; Navy 10,000 (to age 50); Air Force 75,000 (to age 60).

ARMY: 217,000 (168,000 conscripts).
3 Military Districts/Army HQ:
   1 with 3 TD, 2 MRD;
   1 with 2 TD, 3 MRD;
   1 with 1 MRD.
(Cat A: 5 TD (2 to be Cat C:), 3 MRD. Cat C: 3 MRD (2 to be disbanded)).
Army tps:
1 AB bde ((Cat A) 4 AB, 1 arty bn).
1 amph aslt bde ((Cat A) 3 amph regt, 1 lt tk, 1 MRL, 1 FROG, 1 engr bn).
5 arty bde (each 4 bn).
4 Scud bde.
1 SA-4 bde.
1 SA-8, 2 SA-6 regt.
3 ATK regt.
Div tps: 3 SA-6, 2 SA-8 regt.
RESERVES: 2 mob div: 1 MRD, 1 TD.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 3,300: 270 T-34, 2,700 T-54/-55, 360 T-72.
LIGHT TANKS: 100PT-76.
RECCE: 900 FUG/BRDM-2.
AIFV: 1,250 BMP-1.
APC: 2,700 OT-64A (SKOT), OT-64B (SKOT-2), OT-64C( 1 )(SKOT-2A), OT-64C(2)(SKOT-2AP), 200 OT-62A (TOPAS), OT-62C (TOPAS-2AP).
ARTY: 2,090:
   TOWED: 1,625: 122mm: some 400 M-1931/37, 850 M-1938; 152mm: 230 M-1937, 145 D-1.
   SP: 465: 122mm: 425 2S1; 152mm: 40 Dana ((M-77) Tatra 815 chassis).
MRL: 260: 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14, ~30 WP-8.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm: 8 550.
SSM: launchers: 52 FROG, 30 Scud B.
ATGW: 435: AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-7 Saxhorn.
ATK GUNS: 85mm: 380 D-44; 100mm: some 15 T-12.
AD GUNS: 1,000: 23mm: ZU-23, 150 ZSU-23-4 SP; 57mm: S-60.
SAM: SA-7, 400 SA-4/-6/-8/-9/-13.

NAVY: 25,000 incl coast defence. (6,000 conscripts).
BASES: Gdynia, Hel, Swinoujscie, Gdansk; Kolobrzeg (border/coast guard).
SUBMARINES: 4:
   1 Orzel SS (Sov Kilo) with 533mm.
   2 Sov Foxtrot with 533mm TT.
   1 Sokol SS (Sov Whiskey) with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 2:
DESTROYERS: 1 Warszawa DDG (Sov mod Kashin) with 2x2 SA-N-1 Goa SAM, 4 SS-N-2C Styx SSM, 5 533mm TT, 2 ASW RL.
FRIGATES: 1 Kaszub with 2 ASW RL, 4 533mm TT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 25:
CORVETTES: 4 Gomik (Sov Tarantul I) with 2x2 SS-N-2C Styx SSM.
MISSILE CRAFT: 12 Sov Osa-I PFM with 4 SS-N-2A SSM.
PATROL 9: 8 Obluze PCI, 1 T-43 PQ (radar).
MINE WARFARE: 32:
MINELAYERS: None, but submarines and Krogulec MSC have capability.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 32:
   12 Krogulec MSC.
   9 Tur (Sov T.43) MSC.
   9 Notec MSI.
   2 Leniwka MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 23 Sov Polnocny: capacity 180 tps, 6 tk, some with 2x 140mm MRL.
   Plus craft: 1 LCU, 15 LCP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 10. 2 AGI, 3 spt tankers, 3 survey, 2 trg.

NAVAL AVIATION: 1 div (2,300); 11 armed hel.
ASW: hel: 11 Mi-14.
HELICOPTERS: 1 regt: 3 sqn with 10 Mi-2, 10 Mi-4, 5 Mi-8.

COAST DEFENCE:
   6 arty bn with M-1937 152mm.
   3 SSM bn with SS-C-2B.

AIR FORCE: 105,000 (30,000 conscripts); 565 cbt ac, ~80 armed hel.
6 air div:
FGA: 200: 3 div: 5 regt:
   1 with some 30 Su-7B/-7U;
   3 with some 50 Su-20, 75 Su-22;
   1 with 45 LIM-6.
FIGHTER: 4 div: 11 regt: 33 sqn with 325 MiG-21/U; 40 MiG-23MF.
RECCE: 3 sqn with 35 MiG-21RF.
TRANSPORT: 2 regt with 9 An-2, 20 An-12, 12 An-26, 12 Il-14.
VIP: 1 VIP tpt sqn with 2 Tu-134A, 12 Yak-40, 1 Il-18; 25 PZL-130.
HELICOPTERS: 3 regt with 130 Mi-2, 50 Mi-8 (may be armed), 8 Ka-26, 30 Mi-24 (attack).
TRAINING: 300 ac: TS-8/-11, LIM-1, MiG-21UTI, Su-7U, PZL-130.
AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll.
ASM: AS-7 Kerry.
SAM: 10 regt with 300 SA-2/-3/-5.

FORCES ABROAD:
UNITED NATIONS: SYRIA (UNDOF): 50
ADVISERS: Libya 200.

PARA-MILITARY:
INTERNAL DEFENCE TROOPS: (WOW) (Ministry of Defence), 65,000 (27,000 conscripts); (incl construction tps) tk, APC, ATK guns.
BORDER TROOPS AND COAST GUARD (WOP) (Ministry of Interior): 22,000: 3 Provincial Comd: 8 bde (incl 1 mtn); 18 PO: 5 Obluze, 2 Gdansk, 11 Pilica.
VOLUNTARY MILITIA RESERVE: (ORMO): 350,000
RIOT POLICE: (ZOMO): 28,000.

FOREIGN FORCES:
USSR: Northern Group of Forces: Army: 1 Gp HQ; 1 TD, 1 MRD, Air Force; 1 air army 300 Su-24.

   RUMANIA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 171,000 (107,500 conscripts).
Terms of service: Army, Air Force 16 months; Navy 24 months.
RESERVES: 203,000: Army 178,000; Navy 6,000; Air 19,000.

ARMY: 128,000 (95,000 conscripts).
4 Army Areas:
   1 with 1 TD, 2 MRD;
   1 with 1 TD, 1 MRD;
   1 with 3 MRD;
   1 with 2 MRD.
(Cat A: 1 TD, 1 MRD. Cat B: 1 TD, 3 MRD. Cat C: 4 MRD.)
Army tps:
   4 mtn bde/regt.
   4 arty bde/regt.
   1 ATK bde (5 regt).
   4 AA bde; 2 AA, 3 SA-6 regt.
   2 Scud bde.
   4 AB regt.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 3,200 incl T-34, T-54/-55, M-77, T-72.
ASSAULT GUN: 270 SU-76/-100 SP.
RECCE: 650 BRDM-1/-2.
APC: 3,500 BTR-50/-60 and TAB-72, TAB-77.
ARTY: 1,130.
   TOWED: 880: 100mm: 55 M-1944; 122mm: 525 M-1938; 152mm: 300: M-1937, D-20, M-1938.
   SP: 250: 122mm.
MRL: 325: 122mm: 175 BM-21/RO; 130mm: 150 M-51 (ZIL).
MORTARS: 82mm: 140; 120mm: 225.
SSM: launchers: 32 FROG-3, 18 Scud.
ATGW: 400: AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP).
ATK GUNS: 300: 57mm: M-1943; 85mm: D-44; 100mm: T-12.
AD GUNS: 400: 30mm; 37mm; 57mm; 85mm; 100mm.
SAM:SA-7, 160 SA-6.

NAVY: 9,000 (2,500 conscripts). Black Sea Fleet, Danube Sqn, Coastal Defence.
BASES: coastal: Mangalia, Constanta; Danube: Braila, Giurgiu, Sulina, Tulcea.
SUBMARINE: 1 Sov Kilo SS with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 5:
DESTROYER: 1 Muntenia DDG with SA-N-7 Gadfly SAM, plus 4x2 SS-N-2C Styx SSM, 2 Alouette III hel, 2x3 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 4 Tetal with 2 ASW RL, 4 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 83:
CORVETTES: 3 Sov Poti ASW with 2 ASW RL, 4 533mm TT.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Sov Osa PFM with 4 SS-N-2A Styx.
TORPEDO: 42:
   12 Epitrop PFT with 4 533mm TT.
   26 Ch Huchuan PHT with 2 533mm TT.
   4 Ch P-4 PFT<, with 2 457mm TT.
PATROL 32:
   OFFSHORE: 4 Democratia (GDR M-40) PCO.
   COASTAL: 3 Sov Kronshtadt PCC.
   INSHORE: 4 Ch Shanghai PFI.
   RIVERINE: 21: 3 'Bruta? with 1x 100mm gun, 18<.
MINE WARFARE: 42:
MINELAYERS: 2 'Cosar', capacity 200 mines.
MCM: 40:
   2 Musca MSC.
   12 T.301 MSI.
   26 VD 141 MSI<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 10:
2 'Croitor" log spt/tenders (hel deck), 3 spt tankers, 2 AGOR, 1 trg, 2 tugs.

COASTAL DEFENCE (2,000): HQ Constanta.
4 sectors:
10 coastal arty bty with some 100 130mm, 150mm and 152mm guns.
Some 8 bty of AA arty reported; eqpt unknown.
Would get 1 regt of naval inf on mob.

AIR FORCE: 34,000 (10,000 conscripts); 295 cbt ac, no armed hel.
3 air div: 7 cbt regt:
FGA: 6 sqn with 30 MiG-17, 35 Orao.
FIGHTER: 15 sqn:
   3 with 45 MiG-23;
   12 with 185 MiG-21F/PF/U.
RECCE/ECM: 1 sqn with 15 Il-28.
TRANSPORT: 1 regt with 10 An-2, 3 Il-14, 2 Il-18, 1 Tu-154, 11 An-24, 8 An-26, 4 Li-2, 2 Boeing 707.
HELICOPTERS: 2 regt; plus 3 sqn with 10 Mi-4, 15 Mi-8, 55 IAR-316B, 40 IAR-330.
TRAINING: 10 MiG-15UTI, 40 L-29, 20 L-39; 40 IAR-823, 10 IAR-28MA lt.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
AD: 1 div: 20 SAM sites with 135 SA-2.

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER GUARDS: ~20,000; 12 bde; 26 Ch Shanghai II PH.
SECURITY TROOPS (Ministry of Defence): ~20,000; AFV, ATK guns.
PATRIOTIC GUARD (R): some 250,000 (perhaps 12,000 active).

THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY


   Nuclear Forces
   In the nuclear field much political attention has focused on the future of the Theatre Nuclear Force (TNF) arsenal (currently comprising artillery fired atomic projectiles (AFAP), Lance SSM and air-delivered gravity bombs). While it has been agreed that the force is to be kept up to date, both its qualitative and quantitative make-up have been under debate and review, and the May 1989 NATO summit agreed that the partial reduction of land-based missile forces could become the subject of arms-control negotiations once the implementation of conventional reductions agreed at the negotiations on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was under way. Meanwhile, in the context of keeping the force up to date, US production and delivery to Europe of M-753 AFAP (which incorporate a rocket motor to increase range) for the 203mm M-110 SP howitzer continues; the US Congress is expected to authorize funds for the early research and development for a follow-on to Lance (FOTL) - although the question of introduction and deployment will not be decided until 1992; and development of new tactical air to surface missiles (TASM) to replace gravity bombs continues in the US. On the question of quantities, SACEUR has completed a nuclear weapons requirement study, understood to confirm a continued requirement for all three elements of the arsenal (artillery, missile and air delivered) but to judge a substantial reduction in AFAP to be possible, given the introduction of FOTL with a range substantially greater than that of Lance.
   France has re-commissioned the second SSBN to be modified for the M-4 SLBM. We have revised our listing of SSBN to show more accurately the composition of the force. There is one SSBN, L'Inflexible, built especially for M-4. Two of the Le Redoutable-dass have now been modified to take M-4 and of the remaining three, one is now in refit being modified, one more will be modified starting in 1991 but it is not currently planned to modify the final submarine as this should be replaced by the first of the new generation SSBN, Le Triomphant. This is to be armed with M-45 SLBM but will not enter service until 1994 at the earliest. There have been, as yet, no other changes to French nuclear forces. It has been announced that, for budgetary reasons, two of the five 'sub-strategic' strike squadrons (which were to have been re-equipped with Mirage 2000N mounting ASMP), will be eliminated. Other nuclear modernization projects have not been affected by the defence spending cuts although there is increasing uncertainty about the future of the S-4 IRBM. The development of the replacement SSM, Hades, is on schedule for introduction in 1992 and successful test firings took place in November 1988 and February 1989.
   The United Kingdom Trident SLBM programme continues to make progress but there are some concerns with the warhead production programme. The construction of the first two Vanguard-class SSBN is on schedule despite a shipyard strike, and it is planned to order the third (of four) submarines before the end of 1989. British interest in procurement of a standoff air-to-surface missile armed with a UK-manufactured warhead continues, and a memorandum of understanding has been signed with the US for the acquisition of a new TASM.
   Conventional Forces
   In Belgium, parliament has accepted broad plans for restructuring the armed forces, designed to achieve savings of 2% in the national defence budget. Which detailed recommendations will be implemented is not yet clear but a number of units now stationed in the FRG, including an armoured and an artillery battalion and three aviation squadrons will be withdrawn to Belgium. However, an order has been placed for 46 Agusta A-109 helicopters for delivery between the end of 1990 and mid-1993. Twenty-eight will be in the ATGW role, armed with TOW-2 (Belgium's first armed helicopters) and the remaining 18 will be for reconnaissance and will have a night capability. During the year two FGA squadrons have been re-equipped with F-16A/B in place of their Mirage aircraft which have been put in store.
   The bold provisions of the Canadian 1987 Defence White Paper have been severely blunted by the 1989 defence budget which looks to save $C 2,740 m over the next five years. The main casualty has been the nuclear-powered submarine project. Other programmes to be cancelled or modified include the cancellation of six additional CP-140 long-range maritime patrol aircraft and further procurement of CF-18 fighters. The procurement of a replacement for Leopard I MBT has been deferred and only the replacement of the 77 tanks stationed in the FRG is being considered. Plans to reinforce Canadian troops in the FRG in the event of war to a full division of some 16,500 men have been modified to a strength of 11-12,000. During the year some improvements to the Air Force have been achieved with all squadrons for the air division now having CF-18 and the CF-116 being retired. Helicopters holdings have increased, with eight more CH-135 and 27 more CH-136 coming into service.
   All Denmark's 155mm M-109 SP howitzers have now been upgraded to A3 standard. The Navy has retired two Delfinen submarines and has taken into service the first of three Tumleren submarines which are modified Norwegian Kobben-class.
   A number of French conventional weapon procurement plans will be stretched over time and some may be cancelled. While construction of the hull of the Charles de Gaulle nuclearpowered aircraft carrier was started in April 1989 it is now unlikely to enter service before 1998. A study on the restructuring of the three services, Armees 2000 provides for the reduction of the number of military regions and greater inter-service co-operation, as well as the elimination of one of the corps in the 1st Army while maintaining and resubordinating its divisions. Developments in the past 12 months include the continuation of the upgrading AMX-30 tanks to B2 standard with a further 75 modified (it has been decided to stop this programme pending the deployment of the Leclerc MBT from 1992). Some 160 additional AMX-10 variants and 13 155mm AU-F-1 SP guns were brought into service. The first of some 30 Super Puma AS-322M to be used by the Force d'action rapide (FAR) for logistics and surveillance have been delivered. The Navy has commissioned a sixth Georges Leygues frigate.
   There have been few developments in the FRG where the ground forces are planning the implementation of the restructuring required by the plan Heeresstruktur 2000. Four brigades are now testing the new organization which involves brigades comprising two active and two equipment holding, reservist manned, battalions as opposed to the current organization of three active battalions each with one equipment holding company. The Navy has retired two Koln-class frigates which have been transferred to the Turkish Navy. The Air Force has formed a fifth Tornado FGA wing and the first Patriot air defence systems (of a total procurement of 192 by 1994) have been delivered.
   In the Greek Army we have been listing one infantry division too many, due to a misunderstanding of an earlier reorganization. A lengthy reorganization of the Territorial Army has now been completed barring some redeployment of equipment from the Field Army. Our listing reflects the revised order of battle. The Air Force has taken delivery of its first F-16 FGA; no squadrons are yet operational, but delivery of 40 aircraft should be complete by the end of the year. Mirage 2000 E/D are also being delivered and the first fighter squadron is already operational; no older aircraft have yet been retired from squadron service other than the RF-84F, which is being withdrawn piecemeal as aircraft reach the end of their service lives. The length of conscript service for all services has been reduced by one month.
   The Italian armed forces are to reduce the conscript entry by 20,000 in 1989 for budgetary reasons, but without reducing the length of conscript service. Army APC holdings have risen by some 350 with more M-113 and VCC1/-2 in service. Although the law was changed in January 1989 to allow the Navy aircraft for its carrier, no orders for v/STOL aircraft have yet been placed. The Navy has commissioned one new Pelosi-class submarine, which is an improved version of the Sauro (last year we incorrectly listed an earlier Pelosi as a Sauro). The Romeo Romei has been decommissioned.
   The Netherlands Navy has commissioned the first of four Zeeleuw submarines, which are armed with Mark 48 torpedoes and Harpoon underwater-to-surface guided weapons.
   During the year both Portugal and Spain have joined the Western European Union (WEU). The Spanish Navy's new 16,200-tonne aircraft carrier Principe de Asturias has been accepted into service, having completed its sea-trials and work-up. The Dedalo has now been decommissioned, as have three destroyers. Naval Aviation has received ten additional AV-8 aircraft to form a second carrier capable squadron, and six SH-60B (with LAMPS-III fit) to form a fourth ASW helicopter squadron. The Spanish Air Force's holding of EF-18 A/B FGA has increased by nine.
   Fresh information has allowed us to revise our listing for the Turkish Army; there are now one armoured, two mechanized and 12 infantry divisions. Four of the infantry divisions contain an armoured brigade, the remainder have only one armoured battalion. With the exception of one of the four infantry divisions with an armoured brigade, all the heavy divisions are deployed in the 1st Army which has responsibility for the defence of north-west Turkey. In the last 12 months the Army has taken delivery of a further 150 Leopard I tanks. The Navy has completed the fourth Yiavwz-class frigate and two more Dogan missile craft and, additionally, has received two further Gelibolu (ex T-120 Koln-class) from the FRG. The Air Force has received its first F-16 FGA; two squadrons have been formed with a third still forming. F-100D/-F and F-104D FGA have now all been retired.
   In the United Kingdom two further armoured regiments have re-equipped with Challenger tanks and, while a decision on whether to replace the remaining Chieftain tanks with a UK tank or a purchase of M-1A1 Abrams has been deferred, a contract has, been placed with Vickers for nine prototype Challenger 2 for comparative trials. A third battalion is being equipped with Warrior AIFV and two more battalions have received Saxon wheeled APC. An order has been placed for 155mm AS90 SP guns to replace 105mm Abbot. A decision has been taken to retain the Brigade of Gurkhas after the withdrawal from Hong Kong in 1997 but the final strength of the force will depend on circumstances then.
   Naval active carrier strength has been reduced to two, with Illustrious having recently been placed in store following completion of the refit of HMS Invincible. Two Type 22 Cornwall frigates have been commissioned and last of the this type is nearing completion. The second and third Type 23 frigates have been launched and four more are on order, the first of this class is starting sea-trials. Two Leander-class frigates have been decommissioned. Two mine countermeasures ships have been commissioned - the last Brecon-class and HMS Sandown, the first of a new class of minehunter. Four more Sandown have been ordered by the RN and six by Saudi Arabia.
   In the Royal Air Force a third air defence squadron has converted to Tornado (from Phantom), and the first Tornado recce variant (GR-1A) squadron has formed and deployed to the FRG.
   Defence Spending
   During the past year NATO's overall defence expenditure showed only a marginal growth of less than 1%. Only two of the poorest NATO members achieved significant increases in real terms: Greece (10%) and Portugal (4%). Of the industrialized nations only Canada (1%) and Denmark (3%) increased their expenditure; all others either remained at around last year's level or recorded significant reductions, such as Turkey where defence spending dropped by over 10%, and US (4.5%) and Norway (4.5%). In France the long-term defence spending plan has been radically reduced, bringing the phased rate of increase in defence investment (R&D, procurement and infrastructure) down to 1.8% in 1990 and to 4% for each of the following two years. Despite this trend NATO declared at the June Defence Planning Council meeting that it would continue to adhere to the principle of 3% annual increases.
   The conflict between the 3% goal and actual levels of national defence investment within NATO appears likely to become more acute given the unilateral force reductions announced by the Warsaw Pact, Soviet plans for sizeable defence budget reductions, hopeful prospects for a satisfactory outcome to the CFE negotiations - the whole leading to a public perception of an improving East-West relationship and a much reduced military threat to Europe.
   The debate over NATO burden-sharing intensified in 1988/9 and appears likely to persist, although the Bush Administration, like its predecessor, can be expected strongly to resist consequential domestic pressures for US troop withdrawals beyond those required by arms control measures. A NATO study, Enhancing Alliance Collective Security: Shared Roles, Risks and Responsibilities by the Alliance, brought some perspective to the debate by broadening it beyond a focus on purely monetary inputs to embrace measures of output and consideration of the less easily quantifiable elements of 'burden', such as conscription and the ecological and quality-of-life penalties resulting from the concentrated troop presence in Europe. Some inequalities of burden-sharing undoubtedly persist, however, and are unlikely to be rectified by greater investment of resources on the part of the European nations concerned. A satisfactory CFE agreement could considerably ameliorate the problem, provided a suitable arrangement for apportionment of any reductions can be devised.

ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ СЕВЕРОАТЛАНТИЧЕСКОГО ДОГОВОРА


   Ядерные силы
   В ядерной области большое политическое внимание было сосредоточено на будущем арсенала ядерных сил театра военных действий (TNF) (в настоящее время состоящего из артиллерийских атомных снарядов (AFAP), ракет Lance и авиационных гравитационных бомб). Хотя была достигнута договоренность о том, что силы будут постоянно обновляться, как их качественный, так и количественный состав обсуждался и пересматривался, и на саммите НАТО в мае 1989 года было решено, что частичное сокращение наземных ракетных сил может стать предметом переговоров по контролю над вооружениями, как только начнется осуществление обычных сокращений, согласованных на переговорах по обычным вооруженным силам в Европе (ДОВСЕ). Между тем, в контексте поддержания сил в актуальном состоянии продолжается производство и поставка США в Европу M-753 AFAP (которые включают ракетный двигатель для увеличения дальности) для 203-мм гаубицы M-110; ожидается, что Конгресс США санкционирует выделение средств на ранние исследования и разработки для последующей разработки Lance (FOTL), хотя вопрос о введении и развертывании не будет решен до 1992 года; и разработка новых тактических ракет класса "воздух-поверхность" (TASM) для замены гравитационных бомб продолжается и в США. По вопросу о количествах SACEUR завершила исследование потребностей в ядерном оружии, понимаемое как подтверждение сохраняющейся потребности во всех трех элементах Арсенала (артиллерия, ракеты и воздуное), но для того, чтобы судить о возможности существенного сокращения AFAP, учитывая введение FOTL с дальностью значительно большей, чем у Lance.
   Франция повторно ввела в эксплуатацию вторую ПЛАРБ, которая будет модифицирована для БРПЛ M-4. Мы пересмотрели наш список ПЛАРБ, чтобы более точно показать состав сил. Одна ПЛАРБ, L'Inflexible, построена специально для M-4. Два из Le Redoutable-class теперь были изменены, чтобы взять M-4, а из оставшихся трех, одна сейчас находится в ремонте, еще одна будет изменена, начиная с 1991 года, но в настоящее время не планируется модифицировать окончательную подводную лодку, поскольку ее следует заменить первым из нового поколения ПЛАРБ, Le Triomphant. Они должны быть вооружены БРПЛ M-45, но они не будут поступать на вооружение до 1994 года в ближайшее время. Других изменений во французских ядерных силах пока не произошло. Было объявлено, что по бюджетным причинам две из пяти "подстратегических" ударных эскадрилий (которые должны были быть переоснащены установкой ASMP Mirage 2000N) будут ликвидированы. Другие проекты ядерной модернизации не были затронуты сокращением расходов на оборону, хотя растет неопределенность в отношении будущего БРСД S-4. Разработка заменяющей БР, Hades, запланирована на 1992 год, а успешные испытательные стрельбы состоялись в ноябре 1988 года и феврале 1989 года.
   Программа БРПЛ Соединенного Королевства Trident продолжает продвигаться вперед, но есть некоторые проблемы с программой производства боеголовок. Строительство первых двух подводных лодок типа Vanguard идет по графику, несмотря на забастовку верфи, а третью (из четырех) планируется заказать до конца 1989 года. Интерес Великобритании к закупке ударной ракеты класса "воздух-поверхность" с боеголовкой британского производства продолжается, и с США подписан меморандум о взаимопонимании по приобретению новой ТАСМ.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   В Бельгии парламент принял широкие планы реструктуризации вооруженных сил, направленные на достижение экономии в размере 2% в бюджете национальной обороны. Какие именно подробные рекомендации будут выполнены, пока не ясно, но ряд подразделений, которые сейчас дислоцируются в ФРГ, включая бронетанковый и артиллерийский батальоны и три авиационные эскадрильи, будут выведены в Бельгию. Однако в период с конца 1990 года по середину 1993 года был размещен заказ на поставку 46 вертолетов Agusta A-109. Двадцать восемь будут выполнять роль ПТРК, вооруженные TOW-2 (первые вооруженные вертолеты Бельгии), а остальные 18 будут использоваться для разведки и будут иметь ночной потенциал. В течение года две эскадрильи FGA были переоснащены F-16A/B вместо самолетов Mirage, которые были поставлены на хранение.
   Смелые положения канадской оборонной Белой книги 1987 года были сильно притуплены оборонным бюджетом 1989 года, который, как представляется, сэкономит $C 2,740 млн. в течение следующих пяти лет. Главной жертвой стал проект атомной подводной лодки. Другие программы, подлежащие отмене или изменению, включают отмену шести дополнительных дальних морских патрульных самолетов CP-140 и дальнейшую закупку истребителей CF-18. Закупка замены для ОБТ Leopard I была отложена, и рассматривается только замена 77 танков, дислоцированных в ФРГ. Планы усиления канадских войск в ФРГ в случае войны до полной дивизии численностью около 16 500 человек были изменены до численности 11-12 000 человек. В течение года были достигнуты некоторые улучшения в Военно-Воздушных Силах, когда все эскадрильи для авиационной дивизии теперь имеют CF-18 и CF-116 выведены. Вертолетные завасы увеличились, еще восемь СН-135 и 27 СН-136 поступили на вооружение.
   Все 155-мм гаубицы M-109 SP Дании теперь были модернизированы до стандарта A3. ВМФ вывел две подводные лодки Delfinen и принял на вооружение первую из трех подводных лодок Tumleren, в которые были модифицированы норвежские типа Kobben.
   Ряд французских планов закупок обычных вооружений будет растянут во времени, а некоторые могут быть отменены. Хотя строительство корпуса атомного авианосца Charles de Gaulle было начато в апреле 1989 года, теперь он вряд ли поступит на вооружение раньше 1998 года. Исследование, посвященное реорганизации трех служб, Armees 2000 предусматривает сокращение числа военных округов и расширение межведомственного сотрудничества, а также ликвидацию одного из корпусов в 1-й армии при сохранении и переподчинении его дивизий. События последних 12 месяцев включают продолжение модернизации танков AMX-30 до стандарта B2 с дальнейшим изменением 75 (было решено прекратить эту программу до развертывания ОBT Leclerc с 1992 года). На вооружение было поставлено 160 дополнительных вариантов AMX-10 и 13 155-мм пушек AU-F-1. Были доставлены первые из примерно 30 Super Puma AS-322M, которые будут использоваться Force d'action rapide (FAR) для логистики и наблюдения. Военно-Морской Флот ввел в строй шестой фрегат Georges Leygues.
   В ФРГ, где сухопутные войска планируют осуществить реструктуризацию, требуемую планом Heeresstruktur 2000, произошло мало событий. В настоящее время четыре бригады тестируют новую организацию, которая включает бригады, состоящие из двух действующих и двух батальонов, укомплектованных резервистами, в отличие от нынешней организации трех действующих батальонов, каждый из которых имеет одну холдинговую компанию. Военно-морской флот вывел два фрегата типа Koln, которые были переданы турецкому флоту. ВВС сформировали пятое крыло ИБ Tornado FGA и были поставлены первые системы ПВО Patriot (из общего объема закупок 192 к 1994 году).
   В греческой армии мы перечислили слишком много пехотных дивизий из-за непонимания более ранней реорганизации. В настоящее время завершена длительная реорганизация Территориальной армии, что не позволяет осуществить некоторую передислокацию техники из состава полевой армии. Наш список отражает пересмотренный боевой порядок. ВВС приняли поставку своих первых ИБ F-16; эскадрильи еще не действуют, но поставка 40 самолетов должна быть завершена к концу года. Mirage 2000E/D также поставляются, и первая эскадрилья истребителей уже работает; ни один старый самолет еще не был уволен из эскадрильи, кроме RF-84F, который снимается по частям, поскольку самолеты достигают конца срока службы. Стаж срочной службы по всем видам службы сокращен на один месяц.
   Итальянские вооруженные силы должны сократить призыв на военную службу на 20 000 человек в 1989 году по бюджетным причинам, но без сокращения срока службы по призыву. Армейские запасы БТР выросли примерно на 350 с более M-113 и VCC1/-2 на вооружении. Хотя закон был изменен в январе 1989 года, чтобы разрешить Военно-Морскому Флоту использовать самолеты для своего авианосца, заказы на самолеты ВВП еще не были размещены. Военно-морской флот заказал одну новую подводную лодку типа Pelosi, которая является улучшенной версией Sauro (в прошлом году мы неправильно перечислили более раннюю Pelosi как Sauro). Romeo Romei списана.
   Нидерландский Военно-Морского Флота ввел в эксплуатацию первую из четырех подводных лодок Zeeleuw, которые находятся на вооружении с торпедами Мk 48 и ПКР Harpoon.
   В течение года Португалия и Испания присоединились к западноевропейскому Союзу (WEU). Новый 16 200-тонный авианосец ВМС Испании Principe de Asturias принят на вооружение после завершения ходовых испытаний и доработки. Dedalo выведен из эксплуатации, как и три эсминца. Морская авиация получила десять дополнительных самолетов AV-8 для формирования второй авианосной эскадрильи и шесть SH-60B (LAMPS-III) для формирования четвертой вертолетной эскадрильи ПЛО. Количество самолетов EF-18 A/B FGA ВВС Испании увеличилось на девять.
   Свежая информация позволила нам пересмотреть наш список для турецкой армии; теперь есть одна бронетанковая, две механизированные и 12 пехотных дивизий. В четырех пехотных дивизиях имеется бронетанковая бригада, в остальных - только один бронетанковый батальон. За исключением одной из четырех пехотных дивизий с бронетанковой бригадой, все тяжелые дивизии дислоцируются в 1-й армии, которая отвечает за оборону северо-запада Турции. За последние 12 месяцев армия приняла поставку еще 150 танков Leopard I. Военно-морской флот завершил четвертый фрегат класса Yiavwz и еще два ракетных корабля Dogan и, кроме того, получил еще два Gelibolu (бывший T-120 Koln) от ФРГ. ВВС получили свои первые F-16 FGA; две эскадрильи были сформированы с третьим все еще формированием. F-100D / -F и F-104D FGA теперь все были удалены.
   В Соединенном Королевстве еще два бронетанковых полка были переоборудованы танками Challenger, и, хотя решение о замене оставшихся танков Chieftain танком Великобритании или покупке M-1A1 Abrams было отложено, контракт был заключен с Vickers на девять прототипов Challenger 2 для сравнительных испытаний. Третий батальон оснащается БМП Warrior, еще два батальона получили БТР Saxon. Заказ был размещен на 155мм САУ АС90 заменить 105мм Abbot. Было принято решение сохранить бригаду Гурков после вывода войск из Гонконга в 1997 году, однако окончательный состав сил будет зависеть от обстоятельств.
   Военно-морская активная авианосная сила была уменьшена до двух, причем знаменитый недавно HMS Invincible был помещен в хранилище после завершения ремонта. Введены в эксплуатацию два фрегата типа 22 Cornwall, последний из которых близок к завершению. Спущены на воду второй и третий фрегаты типа 23 и заказаны еще четыре, первый из этого класса приступает к ходовым испытаниям. Два фрегата типа Leander выведены из эксплуатации. Введены в строй два противоминных корабля - последний класса Brecon и HMS Sandown, первый нового класса охотник за минами. Еще четыре Sandown были заказаны RN и шесть Саудовской Аравией.
   В Королевских ВВС третья эскадрилья ПВО преобразована в Tornado (от Phantom), а первая эскадрилья Tornado разведывательного варианта (GR-1A) сформирована и развернута в FRG.
   Расходы На Оборону
   В прошлом году общие расходы НАТО на оборону показали лишь незначительный рост - менее 1%. Только два самых бедных члена НАТО добились значительного роста в реальном выражении: Греция (10%) и Португалия (4%). Из промышленно развитых стран только Канада (1%) и Дания (3%) увеличили свои расходы; все остальные либо остались на уровне прошлого года, либо зафиксировали значительные сокращения, такие как Турция, где расходы на оборону снизились более чем на 10%, и США (4,5%) и Норвегия (4,5%). Во Франции был радикально сокращен долгосрочный план расходов на оборону, в результате чего поэтапные темпы роста оборонных инвестиций (НИОКР, закупки и инфраструктура) снизились до 1,8% в 1990 году и до 4% в течение каждого из последующих двух лет. Несмотря на эту тенденцию, НАТО объявила на июньском заседании Совета по оборонному планированию, что продолжит придерживаться принципа 3% ежегодного увеличения.
   Конфликт между целью в 3% и фактическим уровнем инвестиций в национальную оборону в рамках НАТО, вероятно, станет более острым, учитывая односторонние сокращения сил, объявленные Варшавским договором, советские планы по значительному сокращению оборонного бюджета, обнадеживающие перспективы удовлетворительного исхода переговоров ДОВСЕ - все это приводит к общественному восприятию улучшения отношений между Востоком и Западом и значительно уменьшенной военной угрозы для Европы.
   Дебаты по поводу распределения бремени НАТО активизировались в 1988/9 годах и, по всей видимости, будут продолжаться, хотя можно ожидать, что администрация Буша, как и ее предшественник, будет решительно противостоять соответствующему внутреннему давлению на вывод американских войск сверх тех, которые требуются в рамках мер по контролю над вооружениями. Исследование НАТО "укрепление коллективной безопасности Североатлантического союза: общие роли, риски и ответственность Североатлантического союза" внесло определенную перспективу в дискуссию, расширив ее за счет сосредоточения внимания не только на чисто денежных вкладах, но и на показателях производства и рассмотрения менее поддающихся количественной оценке элементов "бремени", таких как призыв на военную службу и экологические и качественные последствия, обусловленные концентрированным присутствием войск в Европе. Вместе с тем некоторые неравенства в распределении бремени, несомненно, сохраняются и вряд ли будут устранены за счет увеличения объема инвестиций соответствующих европейских стран. Удовлетворительное ДОВСЕ может значительно облегчить эту проблему при условии, что может быть разработан подходящий механизм распределения любых сокращений.

   BELGIUM
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 92,400 (3,500 women, 36,700 conscripts).
Terms of service: 10 months in FRG or 12 months in Belgium.
RESERVES: Total Reserve Status: 411,500. With service in past 5 years: ~146,500 (Army 109,000; Medical Service 16,500; Navy 4,500; Air Force 16,500).

ARMY: 67,800 (30,100 conscripts). Both figures incl Medical Service.
1 Corps HQ, 2 Div HQ.
1 armd bde (2 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty bn, 1 ATK coy).
3 mech inf bde (each 1 tk, 2 mech inf, 1 SP arty bn, 1ATKcoy).
1 para-cdo regt (3 para-cdo bn, armd recce sqn, ATK coy, arty bty).
Recce Comd (2 recce, 1 tk bn).
1 indep tk bn.
3 SP arty bn.
1 SSM bn: 2 bty, each with 2 Lance.
4 AD bn: 2 HAWK, 2 Gepard AA.
4 engr bn (2 fd, 1 bridge, 1 eqpt).
3 lt avn sqn.
RESERVES: some on immediate recall status; 2 mech inf bde; 2 inf, 1 SP arty bn, cbt spt, log spt tp. Territorial defence: 11 mot inf regt, 4 inf bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 334 Leopard 1 (14 in store).
LIGHT TANKS: 133 Scorpion (23 in store).
RECCE: 153 Scimitar (20 in store).
AIFV: 520 AIFV-B (46 in store).
APC: 1,267 (209 in store): incl 535 M-113 (68 in store), 266 Spartan(29 in store), AMX-VCI (to Reserves).
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 22 (14 in store).
SP ARTY: 176: 155mm; 41 M-109A3 (1 in store), 124 M-109A2 (4 in store); 203mm: 11 M-110A2 (3 in store).
MORTARS: 81mm: 296 (113 in store); 107mm: 133 (61 in store).
SSM: 5 Lance launchers (1 in store).
ATGW: 420 Milan (320 veh-mounted) (10 in store),
43 Striker AFV with Swingftre (7 in store).
ATK GUNS: 80 JPK-90mm SP (8 in store).
AD GUNS: 20mm: 36 HS-804 (12 in store), 100 M-167 Vulcan (21 in store); 35mm: 54 Gepard SP.
SAM: 39 Improved HAWK(3 in store).
AIRCRAFT: 10 BN-2A Islander.
HELICOPTERS: 59 SA-313/-318.

NAVY: 4,700 (1,550 conscripts).
BASES: Ostend, Zeebrugge, Kallo.
FRIGATES: 4 Wielingen with 2 ASTT (Fr L-5 LWT), 1x6 ASW mor; plus 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM, 1 100mm gun.
MINE WARFARE: 27 MCMV:
   6 Van Haverbeke (US Aggressive MSO).
   7 Aster (tripartite) MHC.
   4 Stavelot (US Adjutant) MSC.
   10 Herstal MSI.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 3: 2 log spt/comd, 1 research/survey vessels.
HELICOPTERS: 2 SA-318.

AIR FORCE: 19,900 (5,100 conscripts).
FGA: 5 sqn: 1 with Mirage 5BA/BD; 4 (1 converting) withF-16A/B.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with F-16A/B.
SAM: 4 sqn with Nike Hercules (modernized). To be withdrawn, 1989-90.
RECCE: 1 sqn with Mirage 5BR.
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn: 1 with 12 C-130H; 1 with 2 Boeing 727QC, 3 HS-748, 5 Merlin IIIA, 2 Mystere-Falcon 20.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with CM-170.
TRAINING: 3 sqn: 2 with Alpha Jet, 1 with SF-260.
SAR: 1 sqn with Sea King Mk 48.
EQUIPMENT: 126 cot ac (plus 43 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Mirage: 36: 5BA/BD: 18 (FGA). 5BR: 18 (recce); plus 29 in store.
   F-16: 108: A/B: 72 (FGA), 36 (FTR); plus 14 in store.
   C-130: 12 (tpt).
   Boeing 727: 2 (tpt). HS-748: 3 (tpt). Merlin IIIA: 5 (tpt). Mystere-Falcon 20: 2 (tpt). CM-170: 18 (liaison). SF-260: 30 (trg). Alpha Jet 31 (trg).
HELICOPTERS: Sea King: 5 (SAR).
MISSILES:
SAM: 36 Nike Hercules.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.

FORCES ABROAD:
FRG: 26,600 (to reduce by 1,400 1989-94);
   1 corps HQ, 1 div HQ, 1 armd, 1 mech inf bde;
   COMRECCE; 1 indep tk, 3 arty, 1 SSM, 2 Gepard AA, 2 SAM, 3 engr bn, 200 MBT; 3 hel sqn; 4 Nike SAM sqn (to be withdrawn 1989-90).

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE 15,900; 62 FN, 4 RM/62F armd cars, 5 Alouette II, 3 Puma hel.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO:
HQ NATO Brussels.
HQ SHAPE Mons.
US: 3,100.

   CANADA
    []
    []

Canadian Armed Forces are unified and are organized in functional commands (Mobile, Maritime, Air, Communications and Training).
This entry is set out in the traditional single service manner, f

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 89,000 (planned 90,000 by end 1989; 7,700 women; of the total strength some 24,200 are not identified by service).
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: Primary 26,100. Army (Militia) 18,800; Navy 4,000; Air 1,300. Comms 2,000; Supplementary 28,500.

ARMY (Land Forces): 23,500.t
1 div HQ:
   1 mech bde gp with 1 armd regt, 2 mech inf bn, 1 arty, 1 engr regt.
   2 bde gp each with 1 armd regt, 3 mech inf bn, 1 arty (2 close spt, 1 AD bty), 1 engr regt.
1 AD regt (4 bty).
1 special service force (4,000): 1 armd regt, 1 inf bn, 1 AB, 1 arty, 1 engr regt.
RESERVES: Militia: 8 armd, 18 arty, 52 inf, 11 engr, 20 spt bn level units, 11 med coy.
   Canadian Rangers: Northern region: 750: 37 patrols (to increase). Newfoundland: 900.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 114 Leopard C-1.
RECCE: 174 Lynx, 195 Cougar.
APC: 881 M-113 (136 in store), 55 M-577, 269 Grizzly.
TOWED ARTY: 248: 105mm: 12 Model 44 (L-5) pack, 179 C1 (M-101); 155mm: 57 M-114 (in store).
SP ARTY: 155mm: 76 M-109.
MOR: 81mm: 150.
ATGW: 215 TOW(incl 64 M-113 SP).
AD GUNS: 35mm: 20 GDF-005; 40mm: 57 L-40/60.
SAM: some ADATS, 111 Blowpipe.

NAVY (Maritime Forces): 17,100.|
SUBMARINES: 3 Ojibwa (UK Oberon) SS with Mk 48 HWT; plus Harpoon USGW.
FRIGATES: 19:
FFH: 11:
   4 Iroquois (incl 2 in conversion refit to DDG) with 2 CH-124 Sea King ASW hel (Mk46 LWT), 2x3 ASTT, 1x3 ASW mor, plus 1 127mm gun.
   2 Annapolis, 5 St Laurent with 1 Sea King hel, 2x3 ASTT, 1x3 ASW mor.
FF: 8:
   4 Improved Restigouche with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1x3 ASW mor.
   4 Mackenzie with 2x3 ASTT, 2x3 ASW mor.
   Plus 1 FFH in store.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 12:
   6 Fuhdy (ex MSC) PCC (trg).
   5 Porte St Jean PCC, 1 PCI< (reserve trg).
MINE WARFARE: 2 Anticosti MSO (converted offshore spt vessels) (reserve trg).
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 7: 2 Protecteur AO with 3 Sea King, 1 Provider AO with 2 Sea King, 3 AGOR, 1 diver spt
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES:
ATLANTIC: Halifax (HQ)(Maritime Commander is also COMCANLANT): 3 SS, 10 FFH, 1 FF, 2 AGOR.
   2 MR sqn each with 7 CP-140, 1 MR sqn with 12 CP-121, 3 ASW hel sqn with 32 CH-124 hel.
PACIFIC: Esquimalt (HQ): 1 FFH, 7 FF, 1 AGOR, 6 PCC. 1 MR sqn with 4 CP-140, 1 MR sqn with 3 CP-121.
RESERVES: 4,000 in 24 divisions: Patrol craft, MCM, Naval Control of Shipping, augmentation of regular units.

AIR FORCE: 24,200.t
CANADIAN AIR DIVISION (Lahr AB, FRG):
   3 sqn with CF-18; plus 2 NATO-assigned sqn with CF-18 based in Canada.
FIGHTER GROUP:
FGA: 3 sqn (2 NATO-assigned) with CF-18.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with CF-18 (trg sqn to augment).
EW: 1 trg sqn with CC-144 (CI^601), CT-133.
EARLYWARNING: 13 North Warning System sites, supplemented by 39 short-range radar sites; Region Operational Control Centre (ROCC).
   1 space tracking and identification site.
MARITIME AIRGROUP:
MR: 6 sqn:
   4 (1 trg) with CP-140 (P-3 mod);
   2 (1 with twinned reserve sqn)with CP-121.
ASW: 3 hel sqn (1 trg) with CH-124, some afloat.
LIAISON: 2 utility sqn with T-33, CP-121 ac; CH-135 (Bell 212) hel.
TACTICAL AIR GROUP (TAG):
HELICOPTERS: 10 sqn: 4 with CH-135, CH-136; 2 with CH-47; 4 reserve sqn with CH-136.
AIR TRANSPORT GROUP:
TRANSPORT: 6 sqn:
   4 (1 trg) with CC-130E/H Hercules.
   1 with CC-137 (Boeing707).
   1 with CC-109, CC-144, CC-142.
SAR: 4 tpt/SAR sqn (1 with twinned reserve sqn) with CC-115, CC-138 ac; CH-113/-113A hel.
LIAISON: 3 base hel fit with CH-118, CH-135.
TRAINING GROUP:
TRAINING: 3 flying schools with CF-116, CT-133, CT-134, CT-114, CC-142 ac; CH-139 hel.
   1 demonstration unit with CT-114.
EQUIPMENT: 151 cbt ac (plus 26 in store); 131 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   CF-18: 118.-A: 98 (78 FGA, 20 ftr); -B: 20 (trg); plus 15 in store.
   CP-140: 18 (MR).
   CP-121: 18 (15 MR, 3 liaison); plus 15 in store.
   CC-130E/H: 27 (tpt).
   CC-137: 5 (3 tpt, 2 tkr/ tpt).
   CC-109: 7 (tpt). CC/E-144: 16 (7 EW trg, 1 trials, 4 VIP, 4 tpt). CC-132: 1 (tpt). CC-138: 8 (SAR/tpt). CC-115: 14 (SAR/tpt).
   T-33: 9 (liaison). CT-133: 50 (trg, liaison). CT-114: 108 (trg). CT-134: 20(trg). CC/T-142: 8 (2 tpt, 6 trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   CH-124: 35 (32 ASW afloat, 3 reserve). CH-135: 46 (36 tac, 6 SAR, 4 liaison). CH-136: 63 (tac).
   CH-147: 7 (tac). CH-113: 14 (SAR/tpt). CH-118: 9 (liaison). CH-139: 13 (trg).

FORCES ABROAD:
FRG:
   1 mech bde gp (4,400) (assigned to CENTAG); 77 Leopard 1 MBT, 26 M-109 155mm SP how, 48 TOW ATGW, 1 tac hel sqn with 13 CH-136.
   1 air div: (2,700). 3 FGA sqn with 51 CF-18, plus 3 in store. 1 det; 1 CC-132 and 4 CT-133 liaison ac.
UN AND PEACE-KEEPING:
CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 575: 1 inf bn.
EGYPT (MFO): 136.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): observers.
SYRIA/ISRAEL (UNDOF): 226 (log).
OTHER MIDDLE EAST (UNTSO): 22.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 262 (log).

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD: 6,600 (civilian-manned); 1 arctic, 7 large, 5 med, 2 lt icebreakers, 44 SAR vessels, 27 tenders, 2 DHC-7R ac, 37 hel, 5 hovercraft.

* Canadian fiscal year is 1April-31 March. NATO data refer to calendar year. t Mobile Command commands land combat forces, and Maritime Command all naval forces. Air Command commands all air forces, but Maritime Command has operational control of maritime air forces. Mobile Command has operational control of TAG. HQ 4 ATAF in Europe has operational control of 1 Canadian Air Division.

   DENMARK
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 31,600 (9,215 conscripts, 800 women).
Terms of service: 9-12 months (up to 27 months in certain ranks).
RESERVES: 74,700: Army 55,000; Navy 7,600; Air Force 12,100.
   Home Guard (Hjemmevaernet) (volunteers to age 50): Army 58,400; Naval 4,900; Air Force, 11,700.

ARMY: some 17,000 (7,600 conscripts):
Covering Force (peacetime units requiring some reinforcement to be combat ready and mob of some reserve units):
   2 geographical comd, 2 div HQ.
   5 mech inf bde, each with 1 tk, 2 mech (incl 1 Reserve), 1 arty bn, spt units.
   1 inf bde(-).
   2 recce bn.
   1 avn unit, some 8 pi.
Regional Defence (cadre basis until mob):
   7 Regional HQ.
   1 inf bde
   4 regt cbt teams (each 2-3 inf bn, 1 arty bn, 1 tk coy).
   9 inf bn.
   1 inf bn (UN).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 210: 120 Leopard 1A3, 90 Centurion.
LIGHT TANKS: 52 M-41DK-1.
APC: 530 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 314: 105mm: 182 M-101; 155mm: 24 M-59, 96 M-114 (being upgraded); 203mm: 12 M-115.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 76 M-109A3.
MORTARS: 81mm: 300 (incl 56 M-106), 120mm: 152.
ATGW: 140 TOW (incl 56 SP).
RCL: 106mm: 144.
ATK GUNS: 84mm/105mm: 126 KVGKN (ex-Centurion tk).
AD GUNS: 40mm: 36 1760.
SAM: Hamlet (Redeye).
AIRCRAFT: 8 SAAB T-17.
HELICOPTERS: 14 Hughes 500M.

NAVY: 7,700 (900 conscripts).
BASES: Copenhagen, Korsor, Frederikshavn.
SUBMARINES: 3:
   1 Tumleren (mod No Kobberi) SSC with Sw FFV Type 61 HWT.
   2 Narhvalen, SSC with FFV Type 61 and 41 HWT
FRIGATES: 3:
   3 Niels Juel with 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 40:
MISSILE CRAFT: 10 Willemoes PFM with 2x4 Harpoon.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 6 Seleven PFT with 4 x 533mm
PATROL: 24:
   OFFSHORE: 5:
   1 Thetis with 1 Lynx hel.
   1 Beskytteren, 3 Hvidbjernen PCO with 1 Lynx hel.
   COASTAL 4: 1 Flyvefisken (Stanflex 300) PFC. 3 Agdlek PCC.
   INSHORE: 15: 4 Daphni, 2 Magen, 9 Barse.
MINE WARFARE: 9:
MINELAYERS: 6: 4 Falster (400 mines), 2 Lindormen (50 mines).
MCMV: 3 Alssund (US MSC-128) MSC.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 7: 2 AOT (small), 4 icebreakers (civilian-manned), 1 Royal Yacht.
IN STORE: 2 Peder Skram FF.
HELICOPTERS: 8 Lynx (up to 4 embarked).
COAST DEFENCE: 2 coastal fortresses; 150mm guns; 40mm AA guns. Coastal radar.
RESERVES (Home Guard): 37 inshore patrol craft.

AIR FORCE: 6,900 (700conscripts).
TACTICAL AIR COMMAND:
FGA/FIGHTER: 5 sqn: 4 with F-16A/B;
   1 with F-35 Draken.
FGA/RECCE: 1 sqn with RF-35 Draken.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn,3 comms fit with C-130H, Gulfstream III, SAAB T-17.
SAR: 1 sqn with S-61A hel.
TRAINING: 1 flying school withT-17.
AIR DEFENCE GROUP:
AD: 2 SAM bn: 8 bty with Improved HAWK.
CONTROL/REPORTING GROUP: 5 radar stations.
EQUIPMENT: 89 cbt ac, no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   F-16A/B: 57 (FGA/ftr).
   F-35: 41. 16 (FGA/ftr); RF-35: 16 (FGA/recce); TF-35: 9 (trg).
   C-130H: 3 (tpt). Gulfstream III: 3 (tpt). SAAB T-17: 22 (6 tpt, 16 trg).
HELICOPTERS: S-61: 8 (SAR).
MISSILES:
   AAM: Sidewinder.
   SAM: 36 Improved HAWK.

FORCES ABROAD:
CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 1 bn: 320.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 1 logcoy: 132.

   FRANCE
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: some 466,300 (13,300 women, 240,100 conscripts) incl 3,600 Central Staff, 8,700 (2,000 conscripts)
   Service de sante, 2,000 Service des essences not listed below.
Terms of service: 12 months (can be voluntarily extended to 16-24 months).
RESERVES: Earmarked for mob: 353,000; Army 267,000, Navy 28,000, Air 58,000.
   Potential: 1,190,500, Army 915,000, Navy 96,000, Air 179,500.

STRATEGIC NUCLEAR FORCES: (18,700; some 2,800 Army, 5, Army, 5,000 Navy, 10,200 Air Force, 700 Gendarmerie).

NAVY: 96 SLBM in 6 SSBN.
SSBN: 6:
   1 L'lnflexible with 16 M-4/TN-70 or -71; plus SM-39 Exocet USGW.
   2 modernized Le Redoutable with 16 M-4; plus SM-39.
   3 Le Redoutablewith 16 M-20/TN-60 msl (1 in long refit and conversion to M-4).

AIR FORCE:
IRBM: 18 SSBS S-3D/TN-61 msl in 2 sqn. (Test centre: 4 silos.)
BOMBERS: 2 sqn with 16 Mirage IVP (ASMP. Air-Sol, Moyenne-Portei nuclear ASM); plus 2 in store.
TRAINING: 7 Mirage IIIB, 1 Mystere-Falcon 20P.
TANKERS: 1 wing: 3 sqn with 11 KC-135F/FR.
COMMUNICATIONS: 2 C-160 ASTARTE airborne comms centres.
RECCE: 6 Mirage IVA (in store).

'PRESTRATEGIC NUCLEAR
FORCES:(8,450).
ARMY (6,100): 32 Pluton SSM launchers.
NAVY (150): 40 Super Etendard strike ac (to get ASMP nuc ASM); plus 24 in store.
AIR (2,200): 6 sqn:
   3 with 43 Jaguar (AN-52 bombs); 1 with 15 Mirage IIIE; 2 with 30 Mirage 2000N (with ASMP).
   Eqpt also listed with Service sections.

ARMY: 292,500, (6,000 women, 183,000 conscripts).
Note: regiments are normally of bn size.
1 army (continentalops).
   3 corps (1 of 2 armd, 1of 3 armd and 1 inf, 1 of 1 armd and 1 inf div).
   (Armd div with 2 or 3 armd, 2 mech, 1 APC inf, 2 arty, 1 engr regt; inf div with 3 inf, 1 armd cavalry, 1 arty regt).
Army/corps units: 3 armd recce, 1 special ops, 1 para, 2 inf, 1 hy arty, 5 SSM with Pluton (each of 3 bty, 2 launchers each), 5 Roland SAM (each of 4 bty),
   3 HAWK SAM regt, 3 cbt hel (each 10 SA-330, 24 SA-341/-342 ATK, 10 SA-341 gunships), 5 engr regt.
Rapid Action Force (FAR: 47,000).
   1 para div: 6 para inf, 1 armd cavalry, 1 arty, 1 engr regt.
   1 air portable marine div: 2 inf, 2 lt armd, 1 arty, 1 engr regt.
   1 lt armd div: 2 armd cavalry, 2 APC inf, 1 arty, 1 engr regt.
   1 mtn div: 6 mtn inf, 1 lt armd, 1 arty regt; 1 engr bn.
   1 air-mobile div: 1 inf regt, 3 cbt, 1 comd, 1 spt hel regt. (Total 241 hel: 84 SA-330, 90 SA-342/HOT, 67 SA-341 (30 gun, 27 recce, 10 liaison).)
1 Franco/German bde (still forming).
Indep: 1 para, 6 arty, 4 engr, 1 EW regt.
Foreign Legion (8,500): 1 armd, 1 para, 4 inf, 2 engr regt.
12 Marine inf regt (overseas).
RESERVES::
2 lt armd div (based on Inf and Armd schools).
1 territorial div (Rhine) (active: 1 engr regt; reserve: 5 engr, 1 AD regt, 3 inf bn).
Individual reinforcements for 1st Army and FAR.
Territorial Defence Army: 6 Military Regions each with 1 (1 with 2) Defence Zone bde (normally 2 inf, 1 armd regt: AML-90, Milan, 120mm mor);
   22 Military Territorial Div (geographical), each 1 (2 in Corsica) combined-arms territorial regt (900-1,300).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,340 AMX-30 (475 -B2);
LIGHT TANKS: some 230 AMX-13 (140 in store).
RECCE: 284 AMX-10RC, 147 ERC-90F4 Sagaie, 640 AML-60/90 (perhaps 300 in store), 36 VBL M-11.
AIFV: 960 AMX-10P/PC.
APC: 150 AMX-13 VTT, 3,125 VAB.
TOWED ARTY: 556: 105mm: 159 HM-2, 50 AU-50 (140 in store); 155mm: 130 BF-50, some 12 TR-F-1, 205 (80 in store) F-3.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 208 AU-F-1.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 630 incl 370 RT-F1, some 260 M-51 (in store).
SSM: 32 Pluton launchers.
ATGW: 113 AMX-13/SS-11, 1,440 Milan, HOT (incl 135 VAB SP).
RL: 89mm: 11,575; 112mm: APILAS.
AD GUNS: 1,305: 20mm: 140 53T1, 706 53T2; 30mm: 390 towed, 69 AMX-13 DCA twin SP.
SAM: 272: 69 HAWK, 183 Roland Ml, 20 Mistral.
HELICOPTERS 610: 135 SA-313/-318, 59 SA-316/-319, 113 SA-330, 143 SA-341F/M (12 with HOT, 65 gun-armed, 27 recce, 39 utility),
   160 SA-342M (144 with HOT; more being delivered).
AIRCRAFT: 2 L-19,10 MH-1521,2 Reims-Cessna 406.

NAVY: 65,500 incl 11,000 Naval Air, 2,600 Marines (1,400 women; 19,200 conscripts).
COMMANDS: 1 strategic sub (ALFOST), 2 home (CECLANT, CECMED), 2 overseas: Indian Ocean (ALINDIEN), Pacific Ocean (ALPACI).
BASES: France: Cherbourg, Brest (HQ), Lorient, Toulon (HQ). Overseas: Papeete (HQ), La Reunion, Noumea, Fort de France (Martinique).
SUBMARINES: 21.
STRATEGIC SUBMARINES: 6 SSBN (see p. 59).
TACTICAL SUBMARINES: 14:
SSN: 4 Rubis ASW/ASUW with F-17 HWT, SM-39 Exocet USGW.
SS: 10:
   4 Agosta with F-17 HWT; plus Exocet USGW.
   6 Daphne, with E-15 HWT; (plus 2 in store).
OTHER ROLES: 1 Narval (trials).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 43.
CARRIERS: 2 Clemenceau CVS, (33,300 tonnes) capacity 40 ac
   (typically 2 fit with 16 Super Etendard, 1 with 7 F-8E Crusader, 1 with 6 Alize, 1 det with 2 Etendard IVP, 2 Super Frelon, 2 Lynx hel).
CRUISERS: 2:
   1 Colbert CG with 1x2 Masurca SAM, 4 MM-38 Exocet, 2 100mm guns.
   1 Jeanne d'Arc CCH (trg/ASW) with 6 MM-38 Exocet SSM, 4 x 100mm guns, capacity 8 Lynx hel.
DESTROYERS: 4 DDG:
   1 Cassard with 1 Standard SM-1MR; plus 8 MM-40 Exocet, 1 100mm gun, 2 ASTT, 1 SA-365 hel (ASW/OTHT).
   2 Suffien with 1x2 Masurca SAM; plus 1 Malafon SUGW, 4 ASTT, 4 MM-38 Exocet, 2 100mm guns.
   1 Du Chayla with 1 Standard SM-1MR SAM; plus 2x3 ASTT.
FRIGATES: 36:
   6 Georges Leygues with 2 Lynx hel (Mk46 LWT), 2 ASTT; plus 4 with 8 MM-40, 2 with 4 MM-38 Exocet, all with 1 100mm gun.
   3 Tourville with 2 Lynx hel, 1 Malafon SUGW, 2 ASTT; plus 6 MM-38 Exocet, 2 100mm guns.
   2 T-56/T-53 weapons varied.
   1 Aconit with Malafon, 2 ASTT; plus 4 MM-38 Exocet, 2 100mm guns.
   7 Commandant Riviere with 2x3 ASTT , 1x12 ASW mor, plus 6 with 4 MM-38 Exocet, all with 2 100mm guns.
   17 D'Estienne d'Orves with 4 ASTT, 1x6 ASW mor; plus 3 with 2 MM-38, 6 with 4 MM-40 Exocet, all with 1 100mm gun.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 24:
PATROL OFFSHORE:
   1 Albatros PCO (Public Service Force)
COASTAL 21:
   10 L'Audacieuse.
   8 Leopard PCC (trg).
   2 Sterne PCC (Public Service Force).
   1 Mercure PCC.
INSHORE: 2 Athos PCI.
MINE WARFARE: 24:
MINELAYERS: Nil, but submarines have capability.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 24:
   10 Eridan tripartite MHC.
   5 Cird MHC.
   4 Ouistreham (US Aggressive) MSO.
   1 Cantho (US Aggressive) MCO.
   4 Vulcain MCM diver spt.
AMPHIBIOUS: 8:
   2 Ouragan LPD: capacity 350 tps, 25 tk, 3 Super Frelon hel.
   1 Bougainville LSD: capacity 500 men, 6 tk, 2 AS-332 hel: (assigned to spt DIRCEN nuclear test centre South Pacific).
   5 Champlain LSM (BATRAL): capacity 140 tps, 7tk.
   Plus craft: 8 LCT, 20 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 38:
UNDERWAY SUPPORT: 7: 5 Durance AOR, 2 AO.
MAINTENANCE/LOGISTIC: 19: 1 AOT, 2 AOT (small), 1 Jules Verne, 5 Rhin maint/spt, 3 tpt, 7 tugs (4 civil charter).
SPECIAL PURPOSES: 5: 2 msl trials, 1 sonar trials, 1 mine warfare trials, 1 underwater trials.
SURVEY/RESEARCH: 5 AGHS, 2 AGOR

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (11,000).
NUCLEAR STRIKE: 3 fit with Super Etendard (AN-52 nuclear weapons).
FIGHTER: 1 fit with F-8E (FN) Crusader.
ASW: 2 fit with Alize (mod).
MR: 6 fit, 4 with Atlantic, 2 with Gardian.
RECCE: 1 fit with Etendard IVP.
OCU: Etendard IVM; Alize, Ziphir.
TRAINING: 5 units with N-262 Frigate, Piper Navajo, EMB-121 Xingu, MS-760 Paris, Mystere-Falcon
MISCELLANEOUS: 3 comms/liaison units (1 VIP) with Falcon 10MER, Alize, N-262, Xingu, Navajo.
   1 trial unit with N-2504.
   2 lt ac units with 12 Rallye 880, 6 CAP-10.
ASW: 3 sqn with Lynx.
COMMANDO: 2 aslt sqn with SA-321.
TRAINING: Alouette II/III.
MISCELLANEOUS: 2 comms/SAR units with Alouette II/III, 1 trials unit with Alouette II/III, Lynx SA-321.
EQUIPMENT: 104 cbt ac (plus 40 in store); 24 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Super Etendard: 40 (strike); 24 in store. Total of 53 to be mod for ASMP.
   Etendard: 20. IVP: 8 (recce); IVM: 12 (trg). 12 in store (3 -P, 9 -M).
   Crusader: 8 (ftr). 3 in store
   Allze: 28 (20 ASW, 8 trg). 6 in store.
   Atlantic: 28 (MR); 2 -NG on trials.
   Gardian: 5 (MR).
   Ziphir: 12 (trg). Nord 262: 22 (12 trg, 10 misc).
   Navajo: 12 (2 trg, 10 misc). Xingu: 18 (13 trg, 5 misc). Rallye 880: 16 (4 trg, 12 misc). CAP-10: 10 (misc).
   MS-760: 8 (trg). Falcon 10MER: 8 (misc, trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   Lynx: 38 (24 ASW, 14 SAR).
   SA-321: 16 (13 cdo, 3 misc).
   SA-313: 10 (2 trg, 8 misc).
   SA-316/-319: 38 (10 trg, 28 misc).
   ASM: AS-12/-20/-30, Martel AS-37, AM-39 Exocet.
   AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, Sidewinder.

MARINES: 2,600 (Fusiliers-Marins).
COMMANDO UNITS:(600).
   4 Assault gp.
   1 Attack Swimmer unit.
   1 HQ section.
NAVAL BASE PROTECTION: 2,000.

PUBLIC SERVICE FORCE: Naval personnel, performing general coast guard, fishery, SAR and traffic surveillance duties;
   2 Sterne, 1 Mercure patrol craft, 1 Albatros PCO, 3 N-262 ac, 1 SA-360 hel (ships included in naval patrol and coastal totals).
   Command exercised through 'Maritime Prefectures': No.1 at Cherbourg, No.2 at Brest, No.3 at Toulon.

AIR FORCE: 94,100 (5,600 women, 35,900 conscripts), incl strategic and prestrategic forces.
AIR DEFENCE COMMAND (CAFDA): (7,150).
FIGHTER: 13 sqn:
   8 with Mirage F-1C;
   1 (OCU) with Mirage F-1C/B;
   3 with Mirage 2000C.
   1 (OCU) with Mirage 2000C/B.
TRAINING: 4 fit with CM-170,
CONTROL automatic STRIDA II, 10 radar stations.
SAM: 12 sqn (1 trg) with 24 Crotale bty (48 fire, 24 radar units).
AA GUNS: 300 bty (20mm).
TACTICAL AIR FORCE (FATAC): (19,200).
FGA: 9 sqn plus 2 fit:
   3 with Mirage IIIE;
   2 fit with Mirage IIIE/B/BE.
   2 with Mirage 5F;
   4 with Jaguar A.
RECCE: 3 sqn with Mirage F-1CR.
TRAINING: 1 OCU sqn with Jaguar A/E; 6 trg fit with CM-170.
(Attached to Air Transport Command - see below):
EW: 2 sqn: 1 with C-160 ELINT/ESM ac, AS-330 hel;
   1 with DC-8 ELINT.
LIAISON: 3 sqn with CM-170.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with Alouette II/III.
AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND (COTAM): (4,000).
TRANSPORT: 19 sqn:
   1 hy with DC-8F;
   5 tac with C-160/-160NG/C-130H;
   13 lt tpt/trg/SAR with C-160, N-262, Falcon 20, Falcon 50, Falcon 900, MS-760, DH-6, EMB-121.
TRAINING: 1 OCU with N-262, C-160.
MISCELLANEOUS: 4 sqn with DC-8, C-160, Falcon 20.
HELICOPTERS: 5 sqn with Alouette II/III, SA-330, AS-332, SA-365, AS-350.
TRAINING: 1 OCU with Alouette II/III, SA-330, AS-350.
TRAINING COMMAND (CEAA): (5,000).
TRAINING: Alpha Jet, CM-170, EMB-121, TB-30, CAP-10B/-20.
TRIALS (trials units): 1 sqn with Mirage F-1, Mirage 2000, Jaguar; 1 sqn with N-262.
EQUIPMENT: 598 cbt ac, (plus 30 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Mirage: 413: F-1B: 14 (OCU); F-1C: 121 (ftr); F-1CR: 45 (recce); IIIE: 60 (45FGA); IIIB/BE: 15 (trg); -5F: 30 (FGA); IVA: 5; IVP: 18 (bbr);
   -2000B/C: 75 (60 -C, 15 -B); -2000N: 30.
   Jaguar: 122: -A: 102(43 strike, 57 FGA, 2 trg); -E: 20 (trg).
   Alpha Jet: 106 (trg).
   DC-8: 6 (5 tpt, 1 EW).
   C-130: 8. -H: 3 (tpt); -H-30: 5 (tpt).
   C-135F/FR: 11 (tkr).
   C-160: 68 (4 Gabriel ELINT/ESM, 2 ASTARTE comms, 35 tac tpt, 8 OCU, 22 -NG tac tpt).
   N-262: 23 (20 lt tpt, 2 trg, 1 trials).
   C-212: 5 (FitTest Centrespt).
   Falcon: 17.-20: 15 (misc), -50: 2 (misc). MS-760: 25 (misc). DHC-6: 10. EMB-121: 8 (6 tpt, 2 misc). EMB-312: 25 (6 lt tpt, 17 trg, 2 misc).
   CM-170: 188 (liaison, trg). TB-30: 98 (trg): CAP-10B/20: 55 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   SA-313: 29 (incl 9 OCU).
   SA-316: 33 (incl 9 OCU).
   SA-330: 23 (20tpt, 3 OCU).
   AS-332: 5 (tpt).
   SA-365: 3 (tpt). AS-350: 19 (tpt).
AAM: R-530, Super 530F, R-550 Magic 1/11, Sidewinder.
ASM: AS-30/-30L, Martel AS-37.

DEPLOYMENT:
NAVY:
Atlantic Fleet: (HQ, Brest): 6 SSBN, 7 SS, 1 CCH, 18 DD/FF, 10 MCM, 3 amph.
Channel Flotilla: (HQ, Cherbourg): 3 FF,6 MCMV.
Mediterranean Fleet: (HQ, Toulon): 4 SSN, 4 SS, 2 carriers, 1 CG,13 DD/FF, 8 MCMV.

FORCES ABROAD:
FRG: 52,700; 3 armd div (570MBT, 150 155mm SP, 180ATGW). Berlin: (2,700); 1 armd regt, 1 inf regt.
ANTILLES-GUYANA (HQ Gayenne): 8,200; 3 marine inf, 1 Foreign Legion regt, 3 ships (incl 1 amph), 1 Atlantic ac (Dakar, Senegal),
   1 airtpt unit (C-160 ac, SA-330, SA-316/318, AS-350 hel).
INDIAN OCEAN (Mayotte, La Reunion): 3,300; incl 3 marine inf regt, 1 Foreign Legion coy, 1 airtpt unit (C-160 ac, Alouette III, SA-330 hel).
NAVY: Indian Ocean Squadron, Comd ALINDIEN (HQ afloat): (1,500); 3 FF,4 patrol combatants, 1 amph, 3 spt(l comd).
NEW CALEDONIA (HQ Noumea): 9,500; 1 marine inf regt, 2 inf gp, 3 inf coy, 1 air tpt unit (C-160 ac, Alouette III hel). Gendarmerie (3,200)
POLYNESIA (HQPapeete): 5,400 (incl ALPACI); 1 marine, 1 Foreign Legion regt, 1 air tpt unit
   (Caravelle, Gardian ac; AS-332, Alouette III hel), Gendarmerie.
PACIFIC NAVAL SQUADRON (comd, ALPACI, HQ Noumea) (1,300); 3 FF,4 patrol and coastal, 3 amph, some 6 spt, 4 Gardian MR ac.
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: 1,200:
GARRISON
: 1 bn gp incl 1 motor coy; 1pi AML armd cars (6); spt coywith O-1E lt ac, 120mm mor, Milan ATGW.
FROM FRANCE: 1 AML armd car sqn and 1 tp, 2 inf coy, 1 arty bty (105mm), 1 avn det (3 med tpt hel); air elm with cbt and tpt ac and hel;
CHAD: 1,700; 3 inf coy; AAarty units; cbt and tpt ac and hel.
DJIBOUTI: 3,650; 1 marine inf, 1 Foreign Legion, 1 arty regt; 1 ALAT det (5 medtpt hel); 1 sqn with 11 Mirage IIIC, 1 C-160 ac,
   2 Alouette II, 1 Alouette III hel.
GABON: 550; 1 marine inf regt; Jaguar, 1 C-160, Atlantic ac, 1Alouette III hel.
COTE D'lVOIRE: 920; 1marine inf regt; 1AS-350 hel.
SENEGAL: 1,150; 1 marine inf regt; Atlantic MR ac; 1 airtpt unit (C-160 tpt ac; Alouette II/III hel).
UN AND PEACE-KEEPING:
LEBANON (UNIFIL): 530; 1 log bn.
EGYPT (MFO): 40; incl 2 DHC-6, 1 C-160 tpt ac.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 87,200 (incl 1,400women, 10,100 conscripts, 1,000 civilians);
   Territorial (52,800); Mobile (17,500), Schools (7,000); Special Duties (5,000), Overseas (3,200+); Maritime (1,200); Air (1,100). Reserves (130,000).
EQUIPMENT: 121 AML, 28 VBC-90 armd cars; 33 AMX-VTT, 155 VBRG-170 APC; 288 81mm mor, 15 PCI; 6 Cessna 206C ac;
   8 Alouette II, 12 Alouette III, 22 AS-350 hel.

* A 5-year military development plan for 1988-92, totalling fr 850bn, is being implemented.

   GERMANY: FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 494,300 (222,300 conscripts; 7,000 active Reserve trg posts, all Services) incl 11,600 inter-service staff, not listed below.
Terms of service: 15 months.
RESERVES: 852,000 (men to age 45, officers/NCO to 60): Army 717,000, Navy 26,000, Air 106,000, others 4,000.
ARMY: 340,700 (175,900 conscripts).
FIELD ARMY: 3 Corps, 12 div.
I Corps (NORTHAG): 3 armd, 1 armd inf div.
II Corps (CENTAG): 1 armd, 1 armd inf, 1 AB, 1 mtn div.
III Corps (CENTAG): 2 armd, 1 armd inf div.
1 armd inf div (LANDJUT).
(Armd div with 2 armd and 1 armd inf bde; armd inf div with 2 armd inf and 1 armd bde; mtn div with 1 armd, 1 armd inf and 1 mtn bde;
   all with 1 armd recce bn, 1 arty regt (1 bn each: 18 FH-70, 18 203mm, 16 110mm MRL),
   1 AD regt (with 35mm Gepard), 1 avn sqn; AB div with 3 AB bde.)
Corps Tps: 4 SSM bn each with 6 Lance, 3 AD comd (each 1 regt with 36 Roland and 2 eqpt holding bn 40mm L/70).
1 Roland SAM bn.
1 AD arty bn with Gepard 35mm.
3 avn bde each 1 lt (48 UH-1D), 1 med tpt (32 CH-539), 1 ATGW hel (56 Bo-105 HOT) regt.
TERRITORIAL ARMY (cadre): 41,700 in peacetime;
Command Structure: 3 Territorial Comd (linked with NATO cmd) 5 Military Districts, 29 Military Regions, 80 Sub-regions:
   Units (eqpt holding only unless stated).
6 Home Defence bde with 2 armd, 2 armd inf, 1 arty bn plus full log spt (at 50-60% in peacetime) (two assigned to field army div).
6 Home Defence bde with 1 armd, 2 armd inf,
1 arty bn.
1 German/French bde (still forming).
15 Home Defence regt with 3 mot inf bn, 18 120mm mor.
150 Home Defence coy, 300 Security pi.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 5,005: 650 M-48A2G (Territorial bn), 225 M-48 (in store), 2,130 Leopard 1A1 (1,339 to be upgraded to A5), 2,000 Leopard 2.
RECCE: 410 SPz-2 Luchs, 140 TPz-1 Fuchs (NBC).
AIFV: 2,136 Marder A1 (2,100 to upgrade to A3).
APC: 856 TPz-1 Fuchs, 2,560 M-113, 220 M-577.
TOWED ARTY: 460: 105mm: 244 M-101; 155mm: 216 FH-70.
SP ARTY: 812: 155mm: 586 M-109A3; 203mm: 226M-110A2.
MRL: 110mm: 209 LARS; 227mm: 6 MLRS (trg).
MORTARS: 120mm: 406 Brandt, 600 Tampella on M-113.
SSM: 26 Lance launchers (incl 2 in store).
ATGW: 1,975 Milan, 205 TOW, 316 RJPz-(HOT) Jaguar 1, 162 RJPz-(TOW) SP.
RCL: 106mm: 99 (in store).
ATK GUNS: 90mm: 120 JPz-4-5 SP.
AD GUNS: 2,396: 20mm: 1,762 Rh 202 towed; 35mm: 432 Gepard SP; 40mm: 202 L/70.
SAM: 658 Fliegerfaust 1 (Redeye), 143 Roland SP.
HELICOPTERS: 210 PAH-1 (Bo-105 with HOT), 87 UH-1D, 108 CH-53G, 97 Bo-105M, 138 SA-313.
MARINE:(River Engineers): 36 LCM, 12 PCI (river)<.

NAVY: 36,000 incl naval air (9,900 conscripts).
BASES: Glucksburg (Maritime HQ). Baltic: Eckernfbrde, Flensburg, Kiel, Olpenitz, Neustadt.
   North Sea: Borkum, Bremerhaven, Cuxhaven, Emden, Wilhelmshaven.
SUBMARINES: 24:
   18 Type 206/206A SSC with Seal DM2 533mm HWT (2 conversions to T-206A complete).
   6 Type 205 SSC with DM3 HWT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 14:
DESTROYERS: 7:
DDG: 3 Lutjens (mod US Adams) with 1 SM-1MR SAM/Harpoon SSM launcher, 2 127mm guns; plus 1x8ASROC (Mk46 LWT), 2x3 ASTT.
DD: 4 Hamburg (ASUW) with 2x2 MM-38 Exocet, 4 533mm TT (SUT), 3 100mm guns.
FRIGATES: 7:
   6 Bremen with 2 Lynx hel (ASW/OTHT), 2x2 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon.
   1 Deutschland (trg) with 4 533mm TT, 2x4 ASW mor, 4 100mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 45:
CORVETTES: 5 Thetis (ASW) with 1x4 ASW RL, 4 533mm TT.
MISSILE CRAFT: 40:
   20 Albatros/Gepard (Type 143/143A) PFM with 2x2 Exocet, 10 (T-143) with 2 533mm TT.
   20 Tiger (Type 148) PFM with 2x2 MM-38 Exocet.
MINE WARFARE: 56:
MINELAYERS 2 Sachsenwald (600+ mines).
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 54:
   2 Hameln (T-343) comb ML/MCC.
   6 Lindau 'Troika' MSC control and guidance, each with 3 unmanned sweep craft.
   12 converted Lindau (T-331) MHC.
   14 Schutze (T-340/-341) comb ML/MSC.
   18 Ariadne/Frauenlob MSI.
   2 MCM diver spt ships.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; some 20 LCU.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 51:
UNDERWAY SUPPORT: 4: 2 Spessart, 2 Eifel AO.
MAINTENANCE/LOGISTIC: 35: 2 AR, 9 Rhein SS/MCMV spt, 5 small (2,000-tonne) AOT, 8 Luneburg logistic spt, 2 AE, 8 tugs, 1 icebreaker (civil).
SPECIAL PURPOSE: 9: 3 AGI, 2 trials, 3 multi-purpose (T-748), 1 trg.
RESEARCH AND SURVEY: 3: 1 AGOR, 2 AGHS (civil-manned for Ministry of Transport).

NAVAL AIR ARM:
4 wings, 9 sqn:
   2 wings with Tornado.
   1 MR/ASW wing with Atlantic, Lynx.
   1 SAR/liaison wing with Do-28, Sea King.
FGA: 3 sqn with Tornado.
FGA/RECCE: 1 sqn with Tornado.
MR/ELINT: 2 sqn with Atlantic.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with Do-28-D2.
ASW: 1 sqn with Sea Lynx Mk 88 hel.
SAR: 1 sqn with Sea King Mk 41 hel.
EQUIPMENT: 109 cbt ac, 19 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Tornado: 95 (69 FGA, 18 FGA/recce, 8 trg).
   Atlantic: 19 (14 MR, 5 ELINT).
   Do-28: 19 (17 SAR, liaison; 2 environmental protection).
HELICOPTERS:
   Sea Lynx: 19 (ASW).
   Sea King: 22 (SAR).
ASM: Kormoran.

AIR FORCE: 106,000 (36,500 conscripts).
TACTICAL COMMAND (GAFTAC).
   4 air div: 2 tac, 2 AD.
FGA: 11 wings, 21 sqn:
   5 wings with Tornado.
   2 with F-4F.
   4 with Alpha Jet.
FIGHTER: 2 wings with F-4F.
RECCE: 2 wings with RF-4E.
EW: 1 trg sqn with HFB-320 Hansa Jet.
SSM: 8 sqn with Pershing 1A.
SAM: 4 wing (each 6 sqn) Patriot, being deployed; 9 wing (each 4 sqn) HAWK; 11 sqn Roland being deployed.
RADAR: 2 tac Air Control Commands: 10 sites; 3 remote radars.
AAM: Sidewinder.
ASM: AS-20.
TRANSPORT COMMAND (GAFTC).
TRANSPORT: 3 wings: 6 sqn with Transall C-160, incl 1 (OCU) with C-160, Do-28.
1 special air mission wing with Boeing 707-320C, VFW-614, CL.601, Do-28 ac; UH-1D hel (VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 1 wing: 3 sqn;plus 1 det with UH-1D (liaison/SAR).
TRAINING COMMAND:
FGA: 1 det (Cottesmore, UK) with Tornado;
   1 OCU (Beja, Portugal) with Alpha Jet.
FIGHTER: OCU (George AFB, US) with F-4E.
TRAINING: NATO joint pilot trg (Sheppard AFB, US) with T-37B, T-38A; primary trg sqn with P-149D.
LIAISON: base fit with Do-28D.
EQUIPMENT: 507 cbt ac (plus 8 trg (overseas), 21 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   F-4: 224. -F: 144(FGA, ftr); -E: 8 (OCU, in US); RF-4E: 72 (recce).
   Tornado: 198 (176 FGA, 22 in tri-national trg sqn, (in UK)); plus 18 in store.
   Alpha Jet: 165 (147 FGA, 18 wpntrg (in Portugal)); plus 3 in store.
   Transall C-160: 84 (tpt, trg).
   Boeing 707: 4 (VIP). VFW-614: 3 (VIP). CL-601: 7 (VIP). Do-28-D2: 60 (6 VIP, 54 tpt, liaison).
   T-37B: 35. T-38A: 41. P-149D: 31 (trg).
HELICOPTERS: UH-1D: 110 (106 SAR, tpt, liaison; 4 VIP).
MISSILES:
   SSM: 72 Pershing 1A.
   ASM: Maverick.
   SAM: 216 HAWK launchers; ~34 Roland (68 by 1991).

FORCES ABROAD:
NAVY: 1 DDG, 1 FF, 1 AO in Mediterranean on 3-month roulement with some gaps (about 70% cover).

PARA-MILITARY:
FEDERAL BORDER GUARD (Ministry of Interior): 20,000; 5 cmd (constitutionally has no combat status).
   Eqpt: MOWAG SW-1/-2 APC; 2 P-149D, 1 Do-27 ac; Bo-105M, 32 Alouette II, 13 UH-1D, 10 Bell 212, 22 Puma hel.
COASTGUARD: 1,000; 1 inshore tug, 8 PCI.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO:
   HQ Northern Army Gp (NORTHAG).
   HQ Central Army Gp (CENTAG).
   HQ Allied Air Forces Central Europe.
   HQ 2 Allied Tactical Air Force (2 ATAF).
   HQ 4 Allied Tactical Air Force (4 ATAF).
BELGIUM: 26,600; 1 corps HQ, 1 div HQ; 1 armd, 1 mech inf bde (NORTHAG).
CANADA: 7,100; 1 mech bde gp. 1 tac hel sqn.
   1 Air Group with 3 FGA sqn (CENTAG/4 ATAF).
FRANCE: 52,700; 1 corps HQ, 3 armd div.
   Berlin: (2,700), 1 armd, 1 inf regt.
NETHERLANDS: 5,700; 1 armd bde (NORTHAG)
UNITED KINGDOM: 69,700; 1 corps HQ, 3 armd div, 13 ac sqn (NORTHAG/2 ATAF).
   Berlin: (3,000), 1 inf bde.
US: 239,200. 1 army HQ, 2 corps HQ; 2 armd, 2 mech div; 1 armd, 1 mech bde. 1 Air Force HQ; 2 air div (CENTAG/4 ATAF).
   Berlin: 4,300, 1 inf bde.

* Excl Berlin support costs, which amounted to DM 16.7 bn in 1988, and an ~DM 17.2 bn in 1989.

  GREECE
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 208,500 (143,500 conscripts, 1,800 women).
Terms of service: Army 20, Navy 24, Air Force 22 months.
RESERVES: some 406,000 (to age 50).
   Army some 350,000 (Field Army 230,000, Territorial Army/National Guard 120,000); Navy about 24,000; Air about 32,000.

ARMY: 160,000 (115,000 conscripts, 1,400 women).
FIELD ARMY 135,500: 3 Military Regions.
4 corps HQ.
1 armd div (3 armd bde, 1 SP arty regt) Cat A.
1 mech div (2 mech, 1 armd bde, 1 SP arty regt) Cat A.
10 inf div (3 inf bde, 1 arty regt, 1 armd bn) 2 Cat A, 3 Cat B, 5 Cat C.
1 para-cdo div (1 para (2 bn), 2 cdo regt (6 bn), 1 raider bn) Cat A.
4 indep armd bde (each 2 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 SP arty bn, 1 armd recce sqn) Cat A.
1 indep mech bde (2 mech, 1 armd, 1 SP arty bn, 1 armd recce sqn) Cat A.
1 marine bde (3 inf, 1 lt arty bn, 1 armd sqn) Cat A.
4 armd bn.
15 fd arty bn (12 corps, 3 indep).
8 AD arty bn.
2 SAM bn with Improved HAWK.
3 army avn bn.
1 indep avn coy.
Units are manned at 3 different levels: Cat A 85% fully ready, Cat B 60% ready in 24 hours, Cat C 20% ready in 48 hours.
TERRITORIAL ARMY: 24,500 (incl 13,250 National Guard cadre, plus 5,000 reservists on refresher trg). 2 Territorial, 17 Sub-Commands.
ACTIVE: 1 lt inf bde (3 inf, 1 mtn arty bn) Cat A.
   5 lt inf regt (each 2 inf, 1 mtn arty bn) 1 Cat A, 4 Cat B.
RESERVES (National Guard): 120,000. Role: coastal and island def. All Cat C.
   28 inf bde (each 3 inf, 1 lt arty bn).
   5 lt inf bde (each 3 inf, 1 mtn arty bn).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,941: 108 M-26, 359 M-47, 1,175 M-48 (300 -A2, 600 -A3, 275 -A5), 190 AMX-30, 109 Leopard 1A3.
LIGHT TANKS: 278: 170 M-24, 108 M-41A3.
RECCE: 210: 180 M-8, 30 M-20.
AIFV: 180 AMX-10P.
APC: 2,283: 300 Leonidas, 114 M-2, 403 M-3 half-track, 432 M-59, 1,034 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 1,050: 105mm: 150 M-56 pack, 306 M-101, 180 M-102; 155mm: 72 M-59, 240 M-114, 58 M-198; 203mm: 44 M-115 (4 in store).
SP ARTY: 334: 105mm: 108 M-52; 155mm: 36 M-44, 90 M-109, 36 M-53; 175mm: 36 M-107; 203mm: 24 M-110, 4 M-55.
MORTARS: 81mm, 107mm: M-2, M-30, M-84 SP (M-59 APC), M-106A1 SP; 120mm: EBO Type E-56, Leonidas Gr W.2 SP.
ATGW: 82 M-113A2 SP TOW, 54 M-901 SP Improved TOW, SS-11, Cobra, TOW, 84 Milan (incl 12 AMX-10SP).
RCL: 57mm: 900 M-18; 75mm: 400 M-20; 90mm: 1,080 EM-67; 106mm: 672 M-40A1; 112mm: some EBO ARIS-4.
AD GUNS: 995: 20mm: 100 Rh-202 twin; 30mm: 24 Artemis 30 twin; 40mm: 400 M-1, 150 L/70, 101 M-42A twin SP; 75mm: 110 M-51;
   90mm: 110 M-117/-118.
SAM: 42 Improved HAWK, 37 M-48 Chaparral, Redeye.
AIRCRAFT: 2 Super King Air, 2 Aero Commander, 1 DHC-2, 50 U-17A.
HELICOPTERS: 10 AH-1 with TOW, 5 Bell 47G, 64 UH-1 (14 -D, 50 -H), 3 AB-204B, 43 AB-205A, 15 AB-206A, 1 AB-212, 1 A-109,
   8 CH-47C, 20 NH-300.

NAVY: 20,500 (12,000 conscripts, 200 women);
BASES: Salamis, Patras, Soudha Bay.
SUBMARINES: 10:
   8 Glavkos (FRG T-209/1100) with 533mm TT.
   2 Katsonis (US Guppy) with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 21:
DESTROYERS: 14:
   7 Themistocles (US Gearing) with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1 with AB-212 hel; plus 3x2 127mm guns (2 being refitted to incl 2x4 Harpoon SSM).
   1 Miaoulis (US Sumner) with AB-212 hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 3x2 127mm guns.
   6 Aspis (US Fletcher) with 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 127mm guns.
FRIGATES: 7:
   2 Elli (Nl Kortenaer) with 2 AB-212 hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon
   4 Aetos (US Cannon) with 2x3 ASTT.
   1 Aegeon (FRG Rhein AD) with 2x3 ASTT, 2 100mm gun.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 35:
MISSILE CRAFT: 16:
   14 Laskos (Fr Combattante) PFM, 8 with 4 MM-38 Exocet, 6 with 6 Penguin 2 SSM, all with 2 533mm TT.
   2 Stamou<, with 4 SS-12 SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 9:
   5 Hesperos (FRG Jaguar) PFT with 4 533mm TT.
   4 No Nasty PFT< with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 10 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 16:
MINELAYERS: 2 Aktion (US LSM-1) (100-130 mines).
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 14:
   9 Alkyon (US MSC-294) MSC.
   5 Atalanti (US Adjutant) MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 13:
   1 Nafkratoussa (US Cabildo) LSD: capacity 200 tps, 18 tk, 1 hel.
   2 Inouse (US County) LST: capacity 400 tps, 18 tk.
   5 Ikaria (US LST-510): capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   5 Ipopliarhos Grigoropoulos (US LSM-1) LSM, capacity 50 tps, 4 tk.
   Plus about 70 craft: 2 LCT, 6 LCU, 13 LCM, some 50 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 5: 2 AOT, 1 watercarrier, 1 trg, 1 AE.
NAVAL AIR: 15 armed hel.
ASW: 1 hel div: 3 sqn:
   2 with 14 AB-212 (11 ASW, 3 ECM);
   1 with 4 SA-319 (with ASM).

AIR FORCE: 28,000 (16,000 conscripts, 200 women).
TACTICAL AIR FORCE: 7 cbt wings, 1 tpt wing.
FGA: 10 sqn:
   3 with A-7H.
   3 with F-104G.
   2 with F-5A/B (to convert to F-16C/D).
   2 with F-4E.
   Deliveries of 40 F-16 to be complete by end 1989.
FIGHTER: 5 sqn:
   1 with F-4E.
   1 with F-5A/B.
   2 with Mirage F-1CG.
   1 with Mirage 2000E/D.
   Deliveries of Mirage 2000 continue.
RECCE: 3 sqn:
   1 with RF-84F, RF-4E.
1 with RF-5A.
   1 with RF-104G/F-104G/TF-104G.
   MR: 1 sqn with HU-16B.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn with C-130H, YS-11, N-2501, C-47, Do-28, Gulfstream.
LIAISON: T-33A.
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn with AB-205A, AB-206A, Bell 47G, UH-1D, AB-212, CH-47C.
AD: 1 bn with Nike Hercules SAM (36 launchers). 20 bty with SkyguardlSparrow SAM, twin 35mm guns.
AIR TRAINING COMMAND:
TRAINING: 4 sqn: 1 with T-41A; 1 with T-37B/C; 2 with T-2E.
HELICOPTERS: 2 NH-300.
EQUIPMENT: 330 cbt ac (plus 35 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   A-7H: 54. 49 (FGA); plus 4 in store; TA-7H: 5 (FGA).
   F-104: 80. F-104G: 60 (FGA); plus 6 in store; TF-104G: 8 (FGA); RF-104G: 12 (recce).
   F-5: 68; plus 13 in store: -A: 60 (36 FGA, 24 ftr); -B: 8 (4 FGA, 4 ftr); plus 13 (10 -A, 3 -B) in store.
   F-4: 57, -E: 45 (30 FGA, 15 ftr; plus 4 in store); RF-4E 12 (recce).
   F-16: some, delivery started Nov 1988.
   Mirage F-1GC: 33 (ftr); plus 4 in store.
   Mirage 2000 E/D: some.
   RF-84: 8 (recce).
   HU-16B: 12 (8 MR; 4 being updated). C-130H: 14 (tpt). YS-11-200: 5 (tpt). C-47: 16 (tpt). CL-215: 14 (tpt, fire-fighting). Do-28: 11 (lt tpt).
   Gulfstream I: 1 (VIP tpt). T-33A: 58 (liaison).
   T-41: 20 (trg). T-37: 25 (trg). T-2: 36 (trg).
HELICOPTERS: AB-205A: 11 (tpt). AB-206A: 2 (tpt). Bell 47G: 15 (tpt). AB-212: 4 (tpt). CH-47C: 8 (tpt). NH-300: 2 (trg).
MISSILES:
   AAM: AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.
   ASM: AGM-65 Maverick.
   SAM: 36 Nike Hercules; 40 Sparrow.

FORCES ABROAD:
CYPRUS: 3,950. 1 inf bn, 1 cdo bn, spt elm; officers/NCO seconded to Greek-Cypriot forces.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 26,500; MOWAG Roland, 15 UR-416APC.
COAST GUARD AND CUSTOMS: 4,000; some 100 patrol craft, 2 Cessna Cutlass, 2 TB-20 Trinidad ac.

FOREIGN FORCES: US: 3,300 incl 2 air base gp.

   ICELAND
    []

ARMED FORCES: None.

PARA-MILITARY: 150
COASTGUARD: 150:
BASE: Reykjavik
PATROL CRAFT: 4: 2 Gyr, 1 Odinn PCO with hel deck, 1 Arvakur PCO.
AVIATION: 1 F-27 ac, 1 SA-360.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO: Island Commander Iceland (ISCOMICE).
US:
NAVY: 1,800
MR: 1 sqn with 9 P-3C.
Comms facilities
AIR FORCE: 1,300
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 18 F-15
NETHERLANDS:
NAVY: 30, 1 P-3C.

   ITALY
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 390,000 (272,500 conscripts).
Terms of service: All services 12 months
RESERVES: 584,000. Army 520,000 (obligation to age 45), immediate mob 240,000. Navy 36,000 (to age 39 for men, variable for officers to 73).
   Air 28,000 (to age 25 or 45 (specialists)).

ARMY: 265,000 (215,000 conscripts).
   7 Military Regions.
FIELD ARMY:
3 Corps HQ (1 mtn):
   1 with 4 mech, 3 armd bde, 1 hy corps spt bde (1 Lance SSM, 1 hy arty bn).
   1 with 4 mech, 1 armd, 1 mot bde, 1 arty bn.
   1 with 5 mtn bde, 1 arty bn.
1 armd cav bn.
1 AD gp: 6 AD arty (1 trg), 4 HAWK SAM bn.
Avn: 4 wings org in sqn and fit (fit usually has 6 ac/hel):
   9 lt ac fit with SM-1019/Cessna O-1E.
   12 hel sqn, 14 fit with AB-206.
   Multi-role: 15 hel sqn: 1 with AB-204B; 12 with AB-205; 2 with AB-212B.
   Med tpt: 4 hel sqn with CH-47.
TERRITORIAL DEFENCE:
2 indep mech bde (each 3 mech, 1 tk bn).
2 indep mot bde.
Rapid Intervention Force (FIR):
   1 AB bde (incl 1 SF bn), 1 mot bde, 1 Marine bn (see Navy), 1 hel unit (Army), 1 air tpt unit (Air Force).
   1 amph regt (2 Lagunari bn).
   1 armd bn.
   3 inf bn.
   3 engr bn.
   29 inf trg bn.
RESERVES: Immediate recall, formed from schools; 1 mtn, 1 mech, 1 armd bde.
   On mob: 1 inf bde, 1 armd, 3 inf, 7 arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,720: 500 M-47 (incl 200 in reserve), 300 M-60A1, 920 Leopard.
APC: 4,786: 421 M-106, 2,486 M-113, 211 M-548, 199 M-577, 1,469 VCC1/-2.
TOWED ARTY: 970: 105mm: 360 Model 56 pack; 155mm: 164 FH-70, 423 M-114; 203mm: 23 M-115.
SP ARTY: 278: 155mm: 260 M-109G/-L; 203mm: 18 M-110A2.
MRL: 122mm: 7 FIROS-30; 227mm: 2 MLRS.
MORTARS: 81mm: 1,205; 120mm: 1,950 M-20.
SSM: 6 Lance launchers.
ATGW: 432 TOW, 270 M-113 with TOW, 1,000 Milan.
RL: 500 APILAS.
RCL: 80mm: 800 Folgore.
AD GUNS: 25mm: 35 SP (M-113); 40mm: 252.
SAM: 126 HAWK, 150 Stinger.
AIRCRAFT: 91: 59 SM-1019, 32 O-1E (target acquisition/utility).
HELICOPTERS: 326: 22 A-47G/J, 21 A-109, 92 AB-205A, 136 AB-206 (observation), 14 AB-212, 11 AB-412, 30 CH-47C.

NAVY: 52,000 incl 1,500 air arm, 600 special forces and 800 marines; (27,500 conscripts).
BASES: La Spezia (HQ), Taranto (HQ), Ancona, Brindisi, Augusta, Messina, La Maddalena, Cagliari, Naples, Venice.
SUBMARINES: 10:
   2 Pelosi (imp Sauro) with Type 184 HWT.
   4 Sauro with Type 184 HWT.
   4 Toti SSC with Type 184 HWT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 30:
CARRIER: 1:
   1 G. Garibaldi C W with 16 SH-3 Sea King hel, 4 Teseo SSM, 2x3 ASTT (has capability to operate V/STOL ac not yet acquired).
CRUISERS: 3:
   1 Vittorio Veneto CGH with 1x2 SM-1MR SAM, 6 AB-212 ASWhel (Mk46 LWT); plus 4 Teseo SSM, 2x3 ASTT.
   2 Andrea Doria CGH,with 1x2 SM-1MR SAM, 3 AB-212 hel; plus 2x3 ASTT.
DESTROYERS: 4:
   2 Audace DDGH, with 1 SM-1MR SAM, 4 Teseo SSM, plus 2 AB-212 hel, 1 127mm gun, 2x3 ASTT.
   2 Impavido DDG with 1 SM-1MR SAM; plus 1x2 127mm guns, 2x3 ASTT.
FRIGATES: 22:
   8 Maestrale FFH with 2 AB-212 hel, 2 533mm DP TT; plus 4 Teseo SSM, 1 127mm gun.
   4 Lupo FF with 1 AB-212 hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 8 Teseo SSM, 1 127mm gun.
   2 Alpino with 1 AB-212 hel, 2x3 ASTT, 1 ASW mor.
   4 Minerva with 2x3 ASTT.
   4 De Cristofaro with 2x3 ASTT, 1 ASW mor.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 13:
CORVETTES: 3:
   3 Albatros with 2x3 ASTT.
MISSILE CRAFT: 7 Sparviero PHM with 2 Teseo SSM.
PATROL OFFSHORE: 3 Cassiopea with 1 AB-212 hel.
MINE WARFARE: 15.
MCMV: 15:
   4 Storione (US Aggressive) MSO.
   4 Lerici MHC.
   2 Castagno (US Adjutant) MHC.
   5 Agave MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2:
   2 San Giorgio LPD: capacity 500 tps, 10 tk, 5 CH-47 hel.
   Plus 33 craft: 4 LCU, 21 LCVP, 8 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 24: 2 Stromboli AOR, 9 tugs, 5 water tankers, 3 trials, 2 trg, 3 AGOR.
SPECIAL FORCES (600) (Comando Subacquei Incursori - COMSUBIN):
   6 gp; 2 assigned aslt swimmer craft; 2 raiding ops; 1 underwater ops; 1 SF; 1 school; 1 research.
MARINES (San Marco gp) (800):
   1 bn gp.
   1 trg gp.
   1 log gp.
EQUIPMENT: 30 VCC-1, 10 LVTP-7 APC, 16 81mm mor, 8 106mm RCL, 6 Milan ATGW.

NAVAL AIR ARM (1,500); 98 armed hel.
ASW: 5 hel sqn with 36 SH-3D, 62 AB-212.
ASM: Marte Mk 2.

AIR FORCE: 73,000 (30,000 conscripts).
FGA: 7 FGA/recce sqn:
   3 with Tornado;
   2 with F-104S (being modernized);
   2 with G-91Y.
CAS: 3 sqn:
   1 lt attack with MB-339;
   2 lt attack/recce with G-91R/R1/R1A (to be replaced).
FIGHTER: 7 sqn with F-104S.
RECCE: 2 sqn with F/RF-104G.
MR: 2 sqn with Atlantic (Navy-assigned; to be modernized).
EW: 1 ECM/recce sqn with G-222VS, PD-808.
CALIBRATION: 1 navigation-aid calibration sqn with G-222RM, PD-808, MB-339.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn: 2 with G-222; 1 with C-130H.
COMMUNICATIONS: 1 sqn with Gulfstream III, Falcon 50, P-166M, SIAI-208M, PD-808, MB-326, DC-9 ac; SH-3D hel.
TRAINING: 1 OCU withTF-104G; 1 det (Cottesmore, UK) with Tornado;
   6 sqn with G-91, MB-339A, SF-260M ac; AB-47 hel.
SAR: 1 sqn and 3 det with HH-3F.
   6 det with AB-212.
AD: 8 SAM gp with Nike Hercules; 5 SAM bty with Spada,
EQUIPMENT: 390 cbt ac (plus 78 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Tornado: 64 (54 FGA, 10 in tri-national trg sqn); plus 34 in store.
   F-104: 156. -S: 102 (18 FGA, 84 ftr); RF-104G: 30 (recce); TF-104G: 24 (OCU); plus 19 in store.
   G-91: 116. -Y: 35 (FGA); -R: 36 (It attack/recce); -T: 45 (trg); plus 25 in store.
   MB-339: 85 (15 tac, 65 trg, 5 calibration).
   Atlantic: 18 (MR).
   MB-326: 30 (liaison).
   C-130: 10 (tpt);
   G-222: 38 (34 tpt, 4 calibration); -VS: 2 (ECM);
   DC-9: 2 VIP; Gulfstream III: 2 (VIP); Falcon 50: 2 (VIP);
   P-166: 42: -M: 36 (liaison, trg); -DL3: 6 (survey);
   PD-808: 22 (8 ECM, 6 calibration, 8 VIP tpt);
   SF-260: 30 (trg).
   SIAI-208: 36 (liaison).
HELICOPTERS: HH-3F: 30 (SAR). SH-3D: 2 (liaison). AB-212: 35 (SAR). AB-412: 4. AB-47: 20 (trg).
MISSILES:
   AAM:AIM-7E Sparrow, AIM-9B/L Sidewinder.
   ASM:AS-20, Kormoran, AGM-65 Maverick.
   SAM: 96 Nike Hercules, Spada.

FORCES ABROAD:
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): (90); 3 minesweepers.
LEBANON (UNIFIL): (51).
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): (94).

PARA-MILITARY:
CARABINIERI 105,000: Territorial: 9 bde, 24 legions, 100 gp. Mobile def: 1 mech bde, 13 bn, 1 AB bn, 2 cav sqn, avn and naval units.
EQUIPMENT: 37 M-47 MBT; Fiat 6616, 80 M-6, M-8 armd cars; 470 Fiat 242/18AD, 240 M-113 APC; 23 AB-47, 2 A-109, 5 AB-205, 23 AB-206 hel.
PUBLIC SECURITY GUARD (Ministry of Interior): 80,400: 11 mobile units;
   40 Fiat 6614 APC, 3 P-64B, 5 P-68 ac; 1 AB-47, 12 A-109, 20 AB-206, 9 AB-212 hel.
FINANCE GUARDS (Treasury Department): 53,000; 11 Zones, 20 Legions, 120 Gps;
   10 A-109, 68 Nardi-Hughes (40 NH-500C, 16 -D, 12 -M) hel; 3 PCI, 65<; plus about 300 boats.
HARBOUR CONTROL (Capitanerie di Porto) (Subordinated to Navy in emergencies): Some 25 PCI<, 100 + boats.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO:
HQ Allied Forces Southern Europe, Naples.
US: 15,000. Army (3,900); 1 AB bn gp; Navy (5,200); Air (5,800); 1 tac, 1 air base gp.

* Excl budget for Carabinieri.

   LUXEMBOURG
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 800.
Terms of service: voluntary, minimum 3 years.

ARMY: 800.
1 lt inf bn.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: 5 Commando.
ATGW: TOW some 6 SP (Hummer).
RL: LAW.

AIR FORCE: (None, but for legal purposes NATO's E-3A AEW ac have Luxembourg registration.)
1 sqn with 18 E-3A Sentry (NATO Standard), 2 Boeing 707 (trg).

PARA-MILITARY: GENDARMERIE: 500.
   NETHERLANDS
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 103,600 (incl 3,700 Royal Military Constabulary, 1,100 Inter-Service Organization); 1,700 women; 49,600 conscripts.
Terms of service: Army 14-16, Navy and Air Force 14-17 months.
RESERVES: 158,400 (mento age 35, NCO to 40, officers to 45).
   Army 143,000 (some - at the end of their conscription period - on short leave, immediate recall), Navy some 9,400 (7,000 on immediate recall);
   Air Force 6,000 (immediate recall).

ARMY: 63,700 (43,000 conscripts).
   1 Corps HQ, 3 mech div HQ.
   3 armd bde (incl 1 cadre).
   6 mech inf bde (incl 2 cadre).
   1 indep inf bn (cadre).
   1 SSM bn with Lance.
   3 AD bn.
   3 hel sqn (Air Force-manned).
RESERVES: cadre bde and corps tps completed by call-up of reservists; 2 inf bde could be mobilized for territorial defence.
   Home Guard: 3 sectors; inf weapons.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 913 (incl 163 in store): 468 Leopard 1A4, 445 Leopard 2.
AIFV: 973 (incl 142 in store): 708 YPR-765, 265 M-113C/-R all with 25mm.
APC: 1,916: 484 M-113, 1,432 YPR-765.
TOWED ARTY: 182: 105mm: 42 M-101; 155mm: 140 M-114.
SP ARTY: 298: 155mm: 222 M-109A2; 203mm: 76 M-110A2.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: 194; 120mm: 145 (incl 10 in store).
SSM: 7 Lance launchers, (incl 1 in store).
ATGW: 753(incl 207 in store): 427 Dragon, 326 TOW.
RCL: 106mm: 185.
AD GUNS: 35mm: 95 Gepard SP; 40mm: 131 L/70 towed.
SAM: 479 Stinger.
HELICOPTERS: 64 Alouette III (to be replaced), 29 Bo-105. (Air Force-manned).
MARINE: 1 tk tpt, 3 coastal, 15 river patrol boats.

NAVY: 16,900, incl naval air arm and marines (1,400 conscripts).
BASES: Netherlands: Den Helder (HQ); Vlissingen.
Overseas: Willemstad (Curacao), Oranjestad (Aruba).
SUBMARINES: 6:
   1 Zeeleuw with Mk48 HWT; plus Harpoon USGW.
   2 Zwaardvis with Mk 37 HWT; plus Harpoon USGW.
   3 Dolfijn with Mk 37 HWT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 15:
DESTROYERS: 4 DDG:
   2 Tromp with 1 SM-1MR SAM; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1x2 120mm guns, 1 Lynx hel (ASW/OTHT), 2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT).
   2 Van Heemskerck with 1 SM-1MR SAM; plus 2x4 Harpoon, 2x2 ASTT.
FRIGATES: 11:
   10 Kortenaer with 2 Lynx (ASW/OTHT) hel, 2x2 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon.
   1 Van Speijk with 1 Lynx hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon.
MINE WARFARE: 26:
MINELAYERS: none, but Mercuur, listed under spt and misc, has capability.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 26:
   15 Alkmaar (tripartite) MHC.
   11 Dokkum MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; LCA/LCVP: 12<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 8: 2 Poolster AOR (1-3 Lynx hel), 3 survey, 1 Mercuur torpedo tender, 2 trg.
IN STORE: 1 Van Speijk FF awaiting transfer to Indonesia late 1989.

NAVAL AIR ARM: (1,400);
MR: 1 sqn with F-27M (see Air Force).
MR/ASW: 3 sqn (1 trg) with P-3C.
ASW: 1 sqn with Lynx SH-14B/C.
SAR: 1 (SAR/trg) sqn with Lynx UH-14A.
EQUIPMENT: 13 cbt ac, 17 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT: P-3: 13(MR).
HELICOPTERS: Lynx: 22: UH-14A: 5 (SAR/trg); SH-14B: 9 (ASW); SH-14C: 8 (ASW).

MARINES: (2,800).
   2 cdo gp.
   1 mtn/arctic warfare coy.
RESERVE: 1 cdo gp.

AIR FORCE: 18,200(4,800 conscripts).
FGA: 4 sqn:
   2 with F-16A/B;
   2 with NF-5A (converting to F-16).
FIGHTER: 4 sqn with F-16A/B (3 ftr/FGA, 1 ftr).
RECCE: 1 sqn with RF-16A.
MR: 2 F-27M (assigned to Navy).
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with F-27.
OCU: 1 sqn with F-16B (temporarily integrated with 1 F-16A ftr sqn).
SAR: 1 flt with SA-319.
AD: 9 bty with HAWK SAM (5 in FRG).
   3 bty with Patriot SAM (op 1989, in FRG).
EQUIPMENT: 189 cbt ac, no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   NF-5: 46. -A: 31 (FGA); -B: 15 (OCU).
   F-16: 161. -A: 109 (36 FGA, 73 ftr); -B: 32 (trg); RF-16A: 20.
   F-27: 14 (12 tpt, 2 MR).
HELICOPTERS: SA-319: 4 (SAR).
AAM: AIM-9J/L/M/N Sidewinder.
SAM: 54 HAWK, 15 Patriot, 100 Stinger.
AD: GUNS: 25 VL 4/41 Flycatcher radar, 75 L/70 40mm systems.

FORCES ABROAD:
FRG: 5,700. 1 armd bde, 1 recce sqn, 1 engr bn, spt elm (122 MBT, 18 155mm SP, 30 ATGW).
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: 1 frigate, 1 amph cbt det, 1 MR det with 2 F-27MPA ac.
ICELAND: 30: 1 P-3C (at Keflavik).
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): 105: 1 sigs det.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 33 (Royal Military Constabulary).

PARA-MILITARY:
ROYAL MILITARY CONSTABULARY: (Koninklijke Marechaussee): 3,700 (400 conscripts); 3 'div' comprising 10 districts with 72 'bde'.
CIVIL DEFENCE:(Corps Mobiele Colonnes): 4,750: 22,000 on mob; disaster relief under Army comd.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO: HQ Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT).
US: 2,800. Army 800; Air 2,000
   1 tac ftr sqn.

   NORWAY
    []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: some 34,100 (21,800 conscripts) incl 400 Joint Services org, 300 Home Guard permanent staff.
Terms of service: Army, Navy coast arty, Air Force AD elm, 12 months plus 4 to 5 refresher trg periods; Navy, Air Force 15 months.
RESERVES: 285,000 mobilizable in 24-72 hours; obligation to 44 (conscripts remain with fd army units to age 35); (officers to age 55; regulars: 60).
   Army: 146,000; Navy: 26,000; Air 28,000. Home Guard: War some 85,000. Second-line reserves: 60,000 (all services).

ARMY: 19,000 (13,000 conscripts).
   4 Land, 4 Regional, 16 subordinate comd.
STANDING FORCES:
North Norway:
   1 reinforced mech bde: 2 inf, 1 tk, 1 SP fd arty, 1 engr bn, 1 AD bty, spt units.
   1 border garrison bn.
   1 reinforced inf bn task force: inf, tk coy, fd arty, AD bty.
South Norway:
   1 inf bn (Royal Guard).
   Indep units.
RESERVES: cadre units for mob: 3 div HQ, 3 armd, 4 mech, 6 lt inf bde, 5 mech, 23 inf, 7 arty bn; 55 indep inf coy, tk sqn, arty bty, engr coy, sigs units, spt.
LAND HOME GUARD 75,000
   18 districts each divided into 2-6 sub-districts and some 470 sub-units (pi). Carl Gustav 84mm, L-18 57mm RCL.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 80 Leopard 1, 37 M-48A5.
LIGHT TANKS: 70 NM-116 (M-24/90).
AIFV: ~100 NM-135 (M-113/20mm).
APC: 150 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 120 M-101; 155mm: 155 M-114.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 130 M-109G SP (to be upgraded to A3GN).
MORTARS: 81mm, 107mm: ~117 M-30F1, M-106A1 SP.
ATGW: TOW-1/-2, some NM-142 (M-113/TOW-2).
RCL: 106mm: M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 20mm: Rh-202; 40mm: L/60 and L/70.
SAM: 108 RBS-70.
AIRCRAFT: 17 O-1A (Air Force ac, Army crews).

NAVY: 5,300, incl 2,000 coast artillery (3,500 conscripts).
8 Naval/Coast defence cmd (9 on mob).
BASES: Horten, Haakonsvern (Bergen), Ramsund, Olavsvern (Tromso).
SUBMARINES: 12:
   1 Via with FRG Seeal DM2A3 HWT.
   11 Kobben SSC (1 modernized with Swe T-61) others US Mk 37 HWT.
FRIGATES: 5 Oslo with 2x3 ASTT, 1x6 Terne ASW RL; plus 6 Penguin 2 SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 38:
CORVETTES: 2 Sleipner with 2x3 ASTT, 1x6 Terne.
MISSILE CRAFT: 36:
   14 Hauk PFM with 6 Penguin 2, 2 533mm TT.
   16 Storm PFM with 6 Penguin 2.
   6 Snegg PFM with 4 Penguin 2, 4 533mm TT.
MINE WARFARE: 10:
MINELAYERS: 2 Vidar, coastal (300-400 mines).
   Note: Amph craft also fitted for minelaying.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 8: 5 Sauda MSC, 1 Tana MHC. 2 diver spt.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 5 LCT
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 2: 1 MCM/PF depot ship. 1 Royal Yacht.
NAVAL HOME GUARD: 7,000. On mob assigned to the 9 naval/coast defence comd.
   2 LCT, some 400 fishing craft.
COAST DEFENCE: 32 fortresses: 34 arty bty: 75mm; 105mm; 120mm; 127mm; 150mm guns.
   Some cable mine and torpedo bty.

AIR FORCE: 9,100 (5,300 conscripts).
FGA: 4 sqn with F-16 (incl 1 OCU).
FIGHTER: 1 trg sqn with F-5A/B (has AD role).
MR: 1 sqn with P-3C Orion (2 assigned to coast guard).
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn: 1 with C-130; 1 with DHC-6 ac, UH-1B hel.
TRAINING: MFI-15.
SAR: 1 sqn with Sea King Mk 43.
COAST GUARD: 1 sqn with Lynx Mk 86.
TAC HEL: 2 utility sqn with Bell 412 SP.
AD: 22 lt AA arty bty; 1 SAM bn (3 bty Nike Hercules).
(Being delivered: 6 bty NOAH SAM (Norwegianadapted HAWK)).
EQUIPMENT: 83 cbt ac (plus 14 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   F-5A/B: 16 (trg); plus 14 in store.
   F-16: 63. -A: 53 (FGA), -B: 10 (FGA).
   P-3: -C: 4 (MR); -B: 2 (coast guard).
   C-130H: 6 (tpt).
   Falcon 20C: 3 (EW/tpt).
   DHC-6: 4 (tpt); MFI-15: 16 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   Sea King: 8 (SAR).
  Lynx Mk86: 5 (coast guard).
   Bell: 412 SP: 18 (tpt).
MISSILES:
   AAM: AIM-9L/N Sidewinder.
   ASM: CVR (AGM-12B Bullpup).
AD:
GUNS: 40mm: 32 L/60, 64 L/70.
SAM: 128 Nike Hercules; NOAH (Norwegian-adapted HAWK).
ANTI-AIRCRAFT HOME GUARD (on mob under comd of Air Force): 3,000;
   2 bn (9 bty) lt AA; some Rh-202 20mm, 72 L-60 40mm guns (being replaced by Rh-202).

FORCES ABROAD:
LEBANON: (UNIFIL): 887; 1 inf bn, 1 service coy, plus HQ personnel.

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD: 680:
PATROL OFFSHORE: 13:
   3 Nordkapp with 1 Lynx hel (SAR/recce), 2x3 ASTT, fitted for 6 Penguin Mk 2 SSM.
   1 Nornen, 2 Farm, 7 chartered.
AIRCRAFT: 2 P-3B Orion ac, 6 Lynx hel (Air Force-manned).

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO:
HQ Allied Forces Northern Europe (HQ AFNORTH).
US: Prepositioned eqpt for 1 MEB.

   PORTUGAL
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 75,300 (47,200 conscripts).
Terms of service: Army 16, Navy 24, Air Force 21-24 months.
RESERVES: 190,000 (all services) (obligation: men to age 45; officers to 70).

ARMY: 44,000 (35,000 conscripts).
6 Territorial Commands (4 military regions, 2 military zones).
3 composite bde (1 mech, 2 mot inf, 1 tk, 1 fd arty bn).
1 AB/lt inf bde (1 cdo regt, 3 AB, 1 log bn).
1 AB bde (Air Force-manned).
3 cav regt.
12 inf regt, each 1 armd, 3 inf bn.
1 fd, 1 AD, 1 coast arty regt.
2 engr regt.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 86 M-48A5.
RECCE: 30 Saladin, 56 AML-60/-90, 32 Ferret Mk 4.
APC: 132 M-113 (incl -A2 TOW), 19 M-577A2, 81 Chaimite.
TOWED ARTY: 141: 105mm: 42 M-101A1, 18 M-101, 18 pack; 140mm: 23 5.5-in; 155mm: 40 M-114.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 6 M-109A2.
COAST ARTY: 150mm: 27; 152mm; 234mm.
MORTARS: 136: incl 81mm, 107mm: 20 M-2/M-30; 120mm: 81.
ATGW: 46 TOW, 31 SS-11,45 Milan.
RCL: 240: 90mm; 106mm.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 34 M-163A1 Vulcan SP, 30 Rh-202; 40mm: 322 L/60.
SAM: 57 Blowpipe.
DEPLOYMENT:
3 inf regt, 2 coast arty bn, 2 AA bty in Azores and Madeira.

NAVY: 16,100 incl 2,800 marines (5,900 conscripts) 3 comd: Continental, Azores, Madeira.
BASES: Lisbon (Alfeite), Portimao (HQ Continental comd), Punta Delgado (HQ Azores), Funchal (HQ Madeira).
SUBMARINES: 3 Albacora (Fr Daphne) SS with EL-5HWT.
FRIGATES: 14:
   4 Commandante Joao Belo (Fr Cdt Riviere) with 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW mor, plus 3 100mm gun.
   4 Baptista de Andrade with 2x3 ASTT; plus 1 100mm gun.
   6 Joao Coutinho.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 21:
PATROL COASTAL: 14: 10 Cacine, 4 Sao Rogue ex-MSC.
INSHORE: 7<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only, 3 LCU, 3 LCM
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 5: 1 AOR, 1 AK, 1 AGHS, 1 trg, 1 tug.

MARINES: (2,800) (1,400 conscripts).
   3 bn (2 inf, 1 police), spt units.
EQUIPMENT: Chaimite APC, mor, 7 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 15,200 (6,300 conscripts) incl 2,000 AB tps listed with Army.
1 operational air command (COFA).
FGA: 4 sqn:
   2 with A-7P;
   1 with G-91R3/T1;
   1 with G-91R4/T1.
SURVEY: 1 sqn with C-212B.
MR: 1 sqn with P-3P.
TRANSPORT: 6 sqn:
   1 with C-130;
   2 with C-212;
   1 with Falcon 20.
   2 hel with SA-316.
SAR: 2 sqn with SA-330 hel.
LIAISON: 2 sqn with Reims-Cessna FTB-337G.
OCU: 1 sqn with T-33, T-38.
TRAINING: 3 sqn:
   1 with C-212 ac, SA-316 hel;
   1 with T-37C;
   1 with Chipmunk, TB-30, Cessna 337.
EQUIPMENT: 99 cbt ac, no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   A-7: 40. -7P: 34 (FGA); TA-7P: 6 (trg).
   G-91: 53. -R3: 25 (FGA); R4: 18 (FGA); -T1: 10 (trg).
   P-3P: 6 (MR).
   T-38: 12 (trg).
   T-33: 18 (trg).
   T-37: 23 (trg).
   C-130: 5 (SAR, tpt).
   C-212: 22. -A: 18 (12 tpt/SAR, 4 OCU, 2 ECM trg); -B: 4 (survey).
   Falcon 20: 3 (tpt, calibration).
   Cessna 337: 31 (23 liaison, 8 trg).
   Chipmunk: 5 (trg).
   TB-30: 18 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   SA-330: 10 (SAR/tpt).
   SA-316: 24 (trg, utility).

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL REPUBLICAN GUARD: 19,000; Commando Mk III APC, 12 SA-313 hel.
PUBLIC SECURITY POLICE: 17,000.
BORDER SECURITY GUARD: 8,500.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NATO:
NATO HQ for IBERLANT area at Lisbon (Oeiras).
US: 3,800. Navy (800). Air (3,000) (incl Azores).

   SPAIN
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 285,000 (210,000 conscripts (to be reduced), some 200 women).
Terms of service: volunteers 16, 18, 24 or 36 months, conscripts 12 months.
RESERVES: 2,400,000 (all services to age 38); 1,030,000 (service in past 5 years): Army: 820,000; Navy: 135,000; Air Force: 35,000.

ARMY: 210,000 (164,000 conscripts);
Plan META, a modernization and reorganization programme, is in progress incl strength reduction. Due to be completed in 1990.
8 Regional Operational Commands incl 2 Overseas:
   1 armd div (1 armd, 1 mech bde, 1 arty, 1 lt armd cav, 1 engr regt).
   1 mech div (2 mech bde, 1arty, 1 lt armd cav, 1 engr regt).
   1 mot div (2 mot, 1 mech bde, 1 arty, 1 lt armd cav, 1 engr regt).
   2 mtn div (each 2 bde, 1 arty, 1 engr regt).
   2 armd cav bde.
   1 air portable bde.
   1 inf regt.
   1 coast arty comd (6 mixed arty regt; 1 coast arty gp).
   6 special ops bn.
   5 regional engr bn.
   1 Spanish Legion (7,000): 3 regt;
   2 with 1mech, 1 mot bn, 1ATK coy; 1 with 2 mot bn; 1 lt inf bn.
General Reserve Force:
   1 AB bde (3 bn) (also Army elm of Rapid Deployment Force).
   1 AD comd (6 AD regt incl 1 HAWK SAM gp, 1 Nike Hercules bty, 1 Roland gp).
   1 fd arty comd (1 fd, 1 locating, 1 MRL regt).
   1 engr comd (4 engr regt incl 2 rail way).
   Royal Guard Regt (incl inf, naval, air force coy and escort cav sqn).
Aviation (FAMET): 40 armed hel.
   HQ with 1 hel, 1 spt, 1 trg sqn.
   1 attack bn.
   1 tpt bn (1 med, 1 by coy).
   3 utility units.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 838: 299 AMX-30, 329 M-47E1, 46 M-47E2, 164 M-48A5E.
LIGHT TANKS: 36 M-41.
RECCE: 138 VEC.
APC: 2,565: 1,195 M-113, 1,370 BMR-600 (incl variants).
TOWED ARTY: 684: 105mm: 359 M-26 (215 in store), 150 Model-56 pack; 122mm: 85 390-1; 155mm: 84 M-114, 6 M-44.
SP ARTY: 180: 105mm: 48 M-108; 155mm: 96 M-109A; 203mm: 24 203/25, 12 M-110.
COAST ARTY: 6-in: 113; 203mm: 24; 305mm: 14; 381mm: 7.
MRL: 140mm: 12 Teruel.
MORTARS: 81mm: 1,200 (incl 767 SP); 120mm: 400 M-40 (incl 190 SP).
ATGW: 442 Milan, 28 HOT.
RCL: 106mm: 654.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 365 GAI-BO1; 35mm: 92 GDF-002 twin; 40mm: 274 L/70.
SAM: 4 Nike Hercules, 24 Improved HAWK, 16 Roland, some Skyguard/Aspide.
HELICOPTERS: 59 HU-8/-10B (UH-1B/H), 71 HA-15 (19 with 20mm guns, 28 with HOT), 6 AB-212, 17 HR-12B, 6 HT-21, 18 HT-17.

DEPLOYMENT:
CEUTA AND MELILLA: 15,800; 2 armd cav, 2 Spanish Legion, 2 mixed arty regt; 2 lt AD bn, 2 engr, 1 coast arty gp.
BALEARIC ISLANDS: 5,600; 1 inf regt: 2 inf bn. 1 arty regt: 2 fd arty, 1 coast arty, 1 engr bn, 1 special ops coy.
CANARY ISLANDS: 10,000; 2 inf bn. 1 Spanish Legion, 2 coast arty regt, 2 engr bn, 2 special ops coy.

NAVY: 39,000, incl marines (24,500 conscripts).
5 Commands (Fleet, plus 4 Naval Regions: Cantabria (Atlantic), Mediterranean, Straits, Canaries).
BASES: Ferrol (HQ Cantabria), Rota (HQ Fleet), Cadiz (HQ Straits), Cartagena (HQ Mediterranean and submarine base), Palma de Mallorca,
   Mahon, Las Palmas (HQ Canaries).
SUBMARINES: 8:
   4 Galerna (Fr Agosta) with F-17 and L.5 HWT
   4 Delfin (Fr Daphne) with F-17 and L.5 HWT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 19:
CARRIERS: 1 (CW):
   1 Principe de Asturias (16,200 tonnes). Air gp about 21 ac: typically 8 AV-8B, 8 Sea King (Mk46 LWT), 4 AB-212, 1 Sea King AEW.
DESTROYERS: 4:
   4 Churruca (US Gearing) with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 2x2 127mm guns, 1 Hughes 500 hel;
FRIGATES: 14: FFG: 8 (AAW/ASW):
   3 Santa Maria (US Perry) with 1 SM-1MR/Harpoon launcher, 1 SH-60B hel, 2x3 ASTT.
   5 Baleares with 1 SM-1MR SAM, 1x8 ASROC, 2 x 533mm, 4 324mm ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon, 1 127mm gun.
FF: 6 Descubierta with 2x3 ASTT, 1x2 ASW RL; plus 2x2 Harpoon SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 59.
PATROL OFFSHORE: 4 Atrevida PCO.
COASTAL 18 PCC: 6 Lazaga, 10 Anaga, 2 Naldn (ex MSC).
INSHORE: 37: 6 Barceld PFI; 1 Sdlvora PCI, 30 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 12:
MCMV: 12:
   4 Guadalete (US Aggressive) MSO.
   8 Jucar (US Adjutant) MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 5:
2 Castilia (US Paul Revere) amph tpt, capacity: 1,600 tps.
3 Velasco(US TerrebonneParish) LST, capacity: 400 tps, 18tk.
Plus 11 craft: 3 LCT, 2 LCU, 6 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 19: 1 tpt, 5 ocean tugs, 1 Royal Yacht, 4 water carriers, 6 AGHS, 2 trg.

NAVAL AIR:
FGA: 2 sqn:
   1 with AV-8A Matador (Harrier II), TAV-8A.
   1 with AV-8B.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 6 Comanche, Citation.
HELICOPTERS: 6 sqn:
ASW: 4 sqn:
   1 with Hughes 500.
   1 with AB-212 ASW.
   1 with SH-3D/G Sea King (mod to SH-3H standard).
   1 with SH-60B (LAMPS-III fit).
AEW: 1 fit with SH-3D (Searchwater radar).
COMMAND/RECCE: 1 sqn with AB-212.
TRAINING: 1 sqn with Bell 47G.
EQUIPMENT: 23 cbt ac, 39 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   AV-8: 23. -A: 7 (FGA); -B: 12 (FGA); TAV-8A: 4 (trg).
   Comanche: 2 (liaison). Twin Comanche: 2 (liaison). Citation II: 2 (liaison).
HELICOPTERS:
   AB-212: 12 (ASW/SAR).
   Sea King: 13(10 ASW, 3 AEW).
   Hughes 500M: 11 (ASW).
   SH-60B: 6 (ASW).
   Bell 47G: 8 (trg).

MARINES:(8,500).
   1 marine regt (3,500): 2 inf, 1 spt bn; 3 arty bty.
   5 marine garrison regt.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 18 M-48E.
AFV: 17 Scorpion lt tk, 19 LVTP-7 amph.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 12 Oto Melara M-56 pack.
SP ARTY: 105 mm: 8 M-52A1; 155mm: 6 M-109A.
ATGW: 18 TOW, 18 Dragon.
RL: 88mm: M-65; 90mm: C-90C.
RCL: 106mm: 66.

AIR FORCE: 36,000 (21,500 conscripts).
COMBAT AIR COMMAND (MACOM): 4 wings.
FIGHTER: 8 sqn:
   2 with EF-18 (F-18 Hornet);
   2 with F-4C/RF-4C (F-4C to retire 1989);
   2 with Mirage IIIEE/ED.
   2 with Mirage F-1CE/BE.
TACTICAL AIR COMMAND (MATAC): 3 wings.
FGA: 2 sqn with F-5A, F-5B, RF-5A.
OCU: 2 sqn with F-5B.
MR: 1 sqn with P-3A.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with Do-27.
AAM:Sparrow, Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.
AIR COMMAND, CANARY ISLANDS (MACAN):
FGA: 1 sqn with Mirage F-1EE.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with C-212 Aviocar, Do-27.
SAR: 1 sqn with F-27 ac, AS-332 hel.
TRANSPORT COMMAND (MATRA): 3 wings.
TRANSPORT: 6 sqn.
   1 with C-130H/H-30;
   1 tkr/tpt with KC-130H;
   2 with C-212;
   2 with DHC-4.
TRAINING COMMAND (MAPER):
TRAINING:
   11 ac sqn with Piper (Aztec, Navajo), Beech (Bonanza, Baron), C-101 Aviojet, C-212, T-34 (to be replaced by E-26 Tamiz).
   2 hel sqn: 1 with AB-205A, UH-1H; 1 with Hughes 269, Bell-47G/OH-13.
MATERIEL COMMAND (MAMAT): l wing.
TRIALS: 1 sqn with C-101, C-212.
AIR FORCE HQ GROUP (ACGA):
TRANSPORT: 1 hel sqn with SA-330, AS-332.
   1 ac sqn with Boeing 707 (tkr/tpt), Falcon 900, Falcon-50, Falcon-20, 1 DC-8 (to bereplaced). (VIP)
SAR: 3 sqn(incl 1 under MACAN):
   1 with C-212 ac, AS-332 hel;
   1 with C-212 ac, AS-332, SA-319 hel;
   1 (MACAN) with F-27 ac, AS-332 hel.
SUPPORT: 2 sqn with CL-215, Do-27/C-127.
LIAISON: 1ac sqn with C-212, Do-27/C-127; 1 helsqn with SA-330, AS-332.
EQUIPMENT: 217 cbt ac (plus 12in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
EF-18 A/B: 55 (ftr, OCU).
   F-5: 51. -A: 14 (FGA); -B: 25 (3 FGA, 22 OCU); RF-5A: 12 (recce); plus 12 in store.
   Mirage: 85. F-1CE: 36 (FGA); F-1BE 5 (ftr); F-1EE: 21 (ftr); IIIEE: 18 (ftr); IIIDE: 5 (ftr).
   F-4C: 32 (ftr); RF-4C: 12 (recce).
   P-3A: 6 (MR).
   Boeing 707: 2 (tkr/tpt).
   C-130H: 12. 7 (tpt); KC-130H: 5 (tkr).
   C-212: 83 (27 tpt, 11 SAR, 5 liaison, 24 trg); -E: 14 trg; TR-12D: 2 (EW).
   C-101: 85 (trg).
   CL-215: 13 (spt).
   DHC-4: 21 (tpt).
   Falcon 20: 5 (VIP tpt); Falcon 50: 1 (VIP tpt); Falcon 900: 1 (VIP tpt).
   F-27: 3 (SAR).
   Do-27/CASA C-127: 58 (liaison).
   T-34: 21 (trg).
   Other 68 (6 Aztec, 2 Navajo, 43 Bonanza, 17 Baron).
HELICOPTERS: AB-205/UH-1H: 13 (trg). AB-206: 4 (trg). SA-319: 6 (SAR). SA-330: 6 (tpt). AS-332: 11 (9 SAR, 2 tpt).
   Hughes 269A (TH-55A): 17 (trg). Bell 47/OH-13: 25 (trg).

FORCES ABROAD: NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 85. 8 C-212 tpt ac.

PARA-MILITARY:
GUARDIA CIVIL: 64,000 (3,000 auxiliary); 20 inf tercios (regt), 56 rural bn, 6 traffic security gp, 1 anti-terrorist special gp;
   BLR APC, 1 B-11T (BK-117) hel.
POLICIA NACIONAL: 47,000; 26 inf bn, 2 cav sqn gp, 3 cavtp, 1 special opscdogp (GEO), civil security gp.
MARITIME SURVEILLANCE FORCE: (Ministry of Transportation and Communications): some 54 patrol craft, many armed.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 8,600. Navy (3,700). Air(4,900): 1 tac wing with 72 cbt ac

   TURKEY
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 650,900 (575,800 conscripts).
Terms of service: 18 months.
RESERVES: 951,000 to age 46 (all). Army 808,000, Navy 73,000, Air 70,000.

ARMY: 528,500 (497,000 conscripts).
   4 army HQ: 10 corps HQ.
   1 armd div (3 armd bde, 1 arty regt, 1 recce bn).
   2 mech div (each 1 armd, 2 mech bde, 1 arty regt, 1 recce bn).
   12 inf div (4 with 1 armd, 2 inf bde, 1 arty regt; 8 with 3 inf bde, 1 arty regt, 1 armd bn).
   6 indep armd bde (each 2 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 arty bn, 1 recce sqn).
   4 indep mech bde (each 1 armd, 2 mech inf, 1 arty bn, 1 recce sqn).
   11 indep inf bde (each 3 inf, 1 mtn arty bn, 1 recce sqn).
   1 AB bde (3 AB, 1 mtn arty bn).
   2 cdo bde (each 3 cdo, 1 arty bn).
   5 coastal def bn.
   Corps units: 10 tk, 50 (30 fd 20 AD) arty bn.
   Note: some div and bde may be understrength.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 3,727: 800 M-47 (500 in reserve), 1,100 M-48A1/A2 (to be -A5), 1,600 M-48A5, some 227 Leopard 1A3.
LIGHT TANKS: 114 M-24 in store.
RECCE: M-8 in store.
APC: 3,300: 500 M-59, 2,000 M-113, some 800 M-2/-3 (incl perhaps 150 in store).
TOWED ARTY: 1,428: 75mm: 108 M-116; 105mm: 618 M-101A1, 108 M-102; 155mm: 402 M-114A1, 144 M-59; 203mm: 48 M-115.
SP ARTY: 739: 105mm: 90 M-108, 108 M-7, 162 M-52; 155mm: 168 M-44 (some in store), 42 M-109A1, 36 M-53; 175mm: 36 M-107;
   203mm: 81 M-55 in store, 16 M-110A2.
COAST ARTY: 240mm: 20.
MRL: 12 MLRS.
MORTARS: 81mm: M-1, M-4A1 (M-2/-3 APC), UT1, M-29, M-125A1 SP; 107mm (incl 4.2-in): M-2, M-30, M-84 (M-59 APC) SP, M-106A1 SP;
   120mm: 100: Soltam, TOSAM MkE HY12-DI.
ATGW: 85 Cobra, SS-11, TOW incl M-113 SP, 162 Milan.
RCL: 57mm: 1,200 M-18; 75mm: 400 M-40A1; 106mm: 1,000+.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 88 GAI-DO1, Mk 20 Rh-202 twin; 35mm: 84 Oerlikon twin; 40mm: 900 M-1A1, L/70, 153 M-42A1; 75mm: M-51; 90mm: M-117/-118.
SAM: 12 Rapier, Redeye.
AIRCRAFT: 1 DHC-2 Beaver, 20 U-17 (Cessna 185), 50 O-1E, 8 Cessna 206, 4 Cessna 421, 5 Do-27A, 19 Do-28D, 15 T-42A (Beech Baron),
   1 Piper Cherokee, 40 Citabria 150S trg.
HELICOPTERS: 20 AB-204, 85 AB-205, 20 AB-206A, 3 AB-212, 30 UH-1D, 70 UH-1H, 60 SA-313, 30 TH-55, 15 OH-13H.

NAVY: 55,000, incl marines (42,000 conscripts).
BASES: Ankara (Navy HQ and COMEDNOREAST), Golcuk (HQ Fleet), Istanbul (HQ Black Sea area), Izmir, (HQ Mediterranean coast area), Eregli,
Iskenderun, Kara Mursel, Aksaz Bay.
SUBMARINES: 15 SS:
   6 Atilay (FRG Type 209/1200) with SST-4 HWT.
   7 Burakreis (US Guppy) with Mk 37 HWT.
   2 Hizirreis (US Tang) with Mk 37 HWT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 22:
DESTROYERS: 12:
   8 Yucetepe (US Gearing) (ASW/ASUW) with 2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT); 5 with 1x8 ASROC, 2 with Harpoon SSM, all with 2x2 127mm guns.
   2 Alcitepe (US Carpenter) with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1x2 127mm guns.
   1 Zafer (US Sumner) with 2x3 ASTT, 3x2 127mm guns.
   1 Muavenet (mod Sumner), weapons as Zafer; plus 80 mines.
FRIGATES: 10:
   4 Yavuz (FRG MEKO 200) with 1 AB-212 hel (ASW/OTHT), 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1 127mm gun.
   4 Gelibolu (FRG T-120 Koln) with 4 533mm ASTT, 2x4 ASW mor, plus 2 100mm gun.
   2 Berk with 2x3 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 48.
MISSILE CRAFT: 16:
   8 Dogan (FRG Lurssen-57) (PFM) with 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   8 Kartal (FRG Jaguar) (PFM) with 4 Penguin 2 SSM, 2 533mm TT.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 4: 4 Turfan (FRG Jaguar) PFT with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 28:
   COASTAL 7: 1 Girne PFC, 6 Sultanhisar PCC.
   INSHORE: 21: 1 Bora (US Asheville) PFI, 12 AB-27 PCI, 4 AB-21, 4<.
MINE WARFARE: 39:
MINELAYERS: 6:
   1 Nusret (400 mines).
   5 Mordogan (US LSM) coastal (400 mines).
   Note: Bayraktar, Sarucabey and Cacabey LST have dual amph/minelaying role.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 33:
   12 Seymen (US Adjutant) MSC.
   4 Trabzon (Can Bay) MSC.
   6 Karamursel (FRG Vegesack) MSC.
   4 Foqa (US Cape) MSI.
   7 MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 7 LST:
   2 Ertugrul (US Terrebonne Parish): capacity 400 tps, 18 tk.
   2 Bayraktar (US LST-512): capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   2 Sarucabey: capacity 600 tps, 11 tk.
   1 Cakabey: capacity 400 tps, 9 tk.
   Plus about 73 craft: 40 LCT, 13 LCU, 20 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 17: 1 Akar AO, 6 spt tankers, 5 depot ships, 3 salvage/rescue, 1 survey, 1 trg.

NAVAL AVIATION: 22 combat ac, 9 armed hel.
ASW: 1 sqn with 22 S-2A/E/TS-2A Tracker ac (Air Force owned, Air Force and Navy crews); 3 AB-204AS, 6 AB-212 ASW hel.

MARINES: 1 bde (4,000).
   HQ, 3 bn, 1 arty bn (18 guns), spt units.

AIR FORCE: 67,400 (36,800 conscripts).
2 tac air forces, 1 tpt, 1 air trg comd.
FGA: 18 sqn:
   3 (1 OCU) with F-5A/B;
   7 (1 OCU) with F-4E;
   3 with F-16 (1 OCU, 1 converting)
   5 (1 OCU) with F/TF-104G.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with F-104S/G, TF-104G.
RECCE: 2 sqn:
   1 with RF-5A/F-5B/RT-33;
   1 with RF-4E.
ASW: 1 sqn with S-2A/E Tracker (see Navy).
TRANSPORT: 4 sqn:
   1 with C-130H and C-47;
   1 withC-160D;
   1 with C-47, Viscount 794 (VIP) ac; UH-1H hel.
   1 with C-47 (ECM/EUNT/SAR/calibration).
LIAISON: 3 HQ fit with C-47, Beech AT-11, T-33 ac; UH-1H hel;
   10 base fit with C-47, T-33 ac; UH-1H, UH-19B (Sikorsky S-55) hel.
TRAINING: 3 sqn: 1 with T-34, T-41; 1 with T-33, T-38; 1 with T-37; trg schools with C-47 ac, UH-1H hel.
SAM: 8 sqn with Nike Hercules; 2 Rapier sqn.
EQUIPMENT: 366 cbt ac (plus 110 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
F-16C/D: 33 (FGA, OCU).
F-5: 104. -A: 54 (FGA); -B: 7 (6 FGA, 1 recce); RF-5A: 19 (recce); NF-5A/B: 24; plus 15 in store.
F-4E: 108. 90 (FGA); 10 (OCU); RF-4E: 8 (recce).
F-104: 140. -G: 108 (90 FGA, 18 ftr); TF-104G: 14 (10 FGA, 4 ftr); -S: 18 (ftr); plus 95 in store.
S-2 Tracker: 22. -A: 10 (8 ASW, 2 TS-2A trg); -E: 12 (ASW). With Navy.
C-130: 7 (tpt). C-160D: 20 (tpt). Viscount 2 (VIP).
C-47: 40+ (22 tpt, 2 VIP, 12 comms fit, trg school ac). Citation: 4 (VIP tpt).
   T-33: 94 (60 trg/OCU, 34 liaison/OCU). T-38: 29 (trg). T-37: 42 (30 trg, 12 store). T-34: 12 (trg). T-41: 20 (trg).
HELICOPTERS: UH-1H: 45+ (tpt, liaison, base fit, trg schools).
SAM: 128 Nike Hercules, 24 Rapier.

FORCES ABROAD:
CYPRUS: 1 corps of 2 inf div, 1 indep armd bde (27,000); 275 M-47, M-48A2/-A5 MBT; 100 M-113, 100 M-59 APC;
   144 105mm, 36 155mm, 8 203mm towed; 18 105mm, 6 155mm SP; 114 107mm mor, 84 40mm AA guns; 8 ac, 12 hel.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE/NATIONAL GUARD: (Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Defence in War) 75,000 active, 50,000 reserve
   (incl 3 mobile bde, 67 regt, plus 5 cdo regt with V-150, UR-416, Condor APC; AB-204, AB-205, AB-206, S-70A hel).
COAST GUARD: 1,100: 28 PCI plus boats, 4 tpt.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 4,900. Army (1,300). Air (3,600): 1 tac, 1 air base gp.

   UNITED KINGDOM
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 311,650 incl 16,250 women and some 9,200 enlisted outside the UK.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: 325,000.
   Army: 255,200. Regular 173,100; Territorial Army (TA) 72,800; Home Service Force some 3,000. Ulster Defence Regt (UDR) 6,300 (3,400 part time).
   Navy: 30,300. Regular 24,700; Volunteers and Auxiliary Service 8,800.
   Marines: 3,700. Regular 2,400; Volunteers and Auxiliary Forces 1,300.
   Air Force: 35,700. Regular 34,100; Volunteers and Auxiliary Forces 1,600.

STRATEGIC FORCES: 2,100:
SLBM: 64 msl in 4 SSBN:
   4 Resolution SSBN each with 16 Polaris A-3TK msl (1 in refit).
Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS) station at Fylingdales (to be upgraded).

ARMY: 155,500 (incl 6,500 women and 8,900 enlisted outside the UK, of whom some 7,600 are Gurkhas).
(Note: regt are normally of bn size).
1 corps HQ.
3 armd div (2 with 3 armd bde, 1 with 2 armd, 1 mech bde, all 3 arty, 1 engr, 1 avn regt, 1AD bty).
corps tps: 1 arty bde (1 SSM, 3 hy, 2 AD regt), 2 armd recce, 4 engr regt
1 inf div (1 air-mobile bde, 2 inf bde (reserve), 1 arty regt).
2 mech bde (Saxon).
1 AB bde.
3 inf bde (incl 1 air-mobile).
9 inf bde (mixed regular and TA for trg/administrative purposes only).
3 engr bde HQ.
Summary Combat Ann Units:
   13 armd regt.
   5 armd recce regt.
   20 mech inf bn (10 FV 432, 10 Saxon).
   3 armd inf bn (Warrior).
   29 inf bn (incl 5 Gurkha).
   3 AB bn (2 only in para role).
   1 SF (SAS) regt.
   18 arty regt (1 SSM with 12 Lance launchers, 3 hy, 8 SP, 6 fd incl 1 cdo, 1AB).
   3 AD regt (Rapier).
   13 engr regt (incl 1 Gurkha, 1 amph, 1 armd).
   4 avn regt.
RESERVES:
   Territorial Army: 2 armd recce, 3 lt recce regt, 41 inf bn, 2 SAS, 2 fd, 1 arty recce, 4 AD (Blowpipe/Javelin), 8 engr regt, 1 avn sqn.
   Home Service Force: some 43 coy (to be 47).
   Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR): 9 bn (internal security role in Northern Ireland only).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,290 some 420 Challenger, 870 Chieftain (incl 400 in store).
LIGHT TANKS: 271 FV 101 Scorpion.
RECCE: 290 FV 107 Scimitar, 500 Ferret, some 200 Fox.
AIFV: some 200 Warrior (MCV-80).
APC: 3,437: 2,338 FV 432 (incl variants), some 60 FV 603 Saracen, 12 FV 601 Saladin, 500 FV 103 Spartan, some 527 AT-105 Saxon.
TOWED ARTY: 229: 105mm: 150 L-118; 155mm: 79 FH-70.
SP ARTY! 321: 105mm: 159 FV 32 Abbot; 155mm: 110 M-109/A2/A3 SP; 175mm: 36 M-107; 203mm: 16 M-110 (to be withdrawn).
MRL: 4 MLRS 227mm (trials).
MORTARS: 81mm: some 500.
SSM: 14 Lance launchers (incl 2 in store).
ATGW: ~1,100 Milan (incl 72 FV 103 Spartan SP), 48 Swingfire (FV 102 Striker SP).
SAM: Blowpipe, 12 Javelin; 120 Rapier (some 50 SP).
AIRCRAFT: 5 BN-2, 7 DHC-2, 21 Chipmunk trg.
HELICOPTERS: 30 Scout, 159 SA-341, 120 Lynx AH-1/-7/-9 (some with TOW), 4 A-109.
LANDING CRAFT: 2 Ardennes, 9 Arromanches log; 4 Avon, LCVP<; 3 tugs, 28 other service vessels.

NAVY (RN): 64,650 (incl Air, Marines, 3,450 women and 400 enlisted outside the UK).
ROYAL FLEET AUXILIARY (RFA): (2,350 civilians) man major spt vessels.
ROYAL MARITIME AUXILIARY SERVICE (RMAS): (2,900 civilians) provides harbour/coastal services.
RESERVES:
ROYAL FLEET RESERVE: (24,700) Ex-regulars, no trg commitment.
ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE (RNR): (5,600) 6 HQ units, 11 Sea Trg Centres (STC), 12 Comms Trg Centres (CTC), 1 MCM sqn: 10 MCMV, 19 PCI.
ROYAL NAVAL AUXILIARY SERVICE (RNXS): (3,200) 72 auxiliary service units; Port HQ, patrols, etc.
BASES: UK: Northwood (HQ Fleet, CINCHAN/CINCEASTLANT), Devonport (HQ), Faslane, Portland, Portsmouth, Rosyth (HQ).
   Overseas: Gibraltar, Hong Kong.
SUBMARINES: 31:
STRATEGIC SUBMARINES: 4 SSBN (see p. 78)
TACTICAL SUBMARINES: 27:
SSN: 16 (incl 3 in refit):
   5 Trafalgar, 6 Swiftsure all with Mk 24 HWT and Harpoon USGW.
   2 Valiant, 3 Churchill with Mk24 HWT and Harpoon.
SS: 11 (incl 2 in refit): 11 Oberon with Mk 24 HWT (incl 2 in refit).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 49:
CARRIERS: 2 Invincible C W (plus 1 in store); each with ac: 8 Sea Hairier V/STOL; hel: 12 Sea King: 9 ASW, 3 AEW; plus 1x2 Sea Dart SAM.
DESTROYERS: 13 DDG (incl 3 in refit):
   12 Birmingham with 1x2 Sea Dart SAM; plus 1 Lynx hel, 2x3 ASTT, 1 114mm gun.
   1 Bristol (trg) with 1x2 Sea Dart SAM; plus 1 114mm gun.
FRIGATES: 34 (incl 5 in refit)
   3 Cornwall (Type 22 Batch 3) with 1 Sea King hel (Sting Ray LWT), 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1 114mm gun.
   10 Broadsword (Type 22 Batch 1/2) with 2 Lynx hel (2 with 1 Sea King), 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
   6 Amazon with 1 Lynx hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 MM-38 Exocet, 1 114mm gun.
   15 Leander:
   12 (Batch 2/3A) with 1 Lynx hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 x MM-38 Exocet.
   2 (Batch 3B) with 1x3 ASW mor, plus 2 114mm guns.
   1 trg with 2x3 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 44:
OFFSHORE: 14 PCO: 1 Endurance, 1 Sentinel, 2 Castle, 1 Jersey, 3 Peacock.
INSHORE: 30 PCI: 5 Kingfisher, 4 Manly, 21<.
MINE WARFARE: 38:
MINELAYER: No dedicated minelayer, but all submarines have limited minelaying capability.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 38:
   13 Brecon MCO.
   1 Sandown MHC.
   12 Waveney MSO (11 with RNR).
   9 Ton MHC, 3 Ton MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 7:
   2 Fearless LPD with 4 LCU, 4 LCVP; capacity 400 tps, 15 tk, 3 hel. (1 in refit).
   1 Sir Galahad, 4 Sir Lancelot LST: capacity 340 tps, 16 tk (Sir G. 18), 1 hel (RFA manned).
   Plus 32 craft: 15 LCU, 17 LCVP.
   Note: See Army for additional amph lift capability.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 38:
UNDERWAY SUPPORT: 13: 3 Olwen, 1 Tidespring, 5 Green Rover AO, 4 AEF.
MAINTENANCE/LOGISTIC: 11: 2 AR (1 chartered), 5 AOT, 1 AK, 3 AT.
SPECIAL PURPOSE: 7: 1 AVT, 1 trg (chartered), 1 seabed ops, 3 trials/research, 1 Royal Yacht.
SURVEY: 7 AGHS.
(29 of above civilian manned, either RFA or RMAS).

FLEET AIR ARM (FAA):
FIGHTER/ATTACK: 3 ac sqn with Sea Harrier FRS-1.
ASW: 7 hel sqn with Sea King HAS-5;
ASW/ATTACK: 2 sqn with Lynx HAS-2/-3 (in indep fit).
AEW: 1 hel sqn with Sea King AEW-2.
COMMANDO SUPPORT: 3 hel sqn with Sea King HC-4.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with Sea King HC-4.
TRAINING: 3 sqn: 1 with Jetstream ac; 1 with SA-341 Gazelle HT-2 hel; 1 with Wessex HU-5 hel, Chipmunk T-10, Sea Devon C-20 ac.
FLEET SUPPORT: Canberra T-18/-22, Hunter T-7/-8, GA-11, PR-11, 3 Mystere-Falcon 20 (civil registration, operated under contract).
LIAISON: HS-125 (VIP, operated by RAF), Sea Heron, Sea Devon.
EQUIPMENT: 44 cbt ac, 134 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Sea Harrier/Harrier: 46. Sea Harrier FRS-1: 42 (some being mod to FRS-2). T-4N: 2 (trg).
   Harrier T-4A: 2 (trg).
   Canberra: 10 (3 spt, 7 store).
   Hunter: 26 (spt, trg).
   HS-125: 2 (VIP tpt); Mystere-Falcon 20: 8 (spt);
   Jetstream: 19; T-2: 15 (trg); T-3: 4 (trg); Sea Heron: 4 (liaison). Heron: 1 (liaison). Sea Devon: 2 (liaison). 1 in store. Chipmunk: 14 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   SH-3: 120. HAS-5: 76 (56 ASW, 20 trg). HC-4: 34 (cdo). AEW-2: 10.
   Lynx: 78. HAS-2: 55. HAS-3: 23.
   Gazelle HT-2/-3: 22 (trg).
ASM: Sea Skua. Sea Eagle. AAM:AIM-9 Sidewinder.

MARINES (RM): (7,700).
   1 cdo bde: 3 cdo; 1 cdo arty regt (Army) + 1 bty (TA); 2 cdo engr sqn (1 Army, 1 TA), 1 log regt (tri-Service); 1 lt hel sqn.
   1 mtn and arctic warfare cadre.
   Special Boat Service (SF): HQ: 5 sqn.
   1 aslt sqn (6 landing craft).
EQUIPMENT:
ATGW: Milan.
SAM: Javelin, Blowpipe.
HELICOPTERS: 8 SA-341, 6 Lynx AH-1.

AIR FORCE (RAF): 91,450 (incl 6,300 women).
FGA/BOMBER: 11 sqn: (nuclear capable)
   9 with Tornado GR-1;
   2 with Buccaneer S-2A/B (maritime strike, with Sea Eagle ASM).
FGA: 5 sqn:
   3 with Harrier GR-3/T-4, GR-5 being delivered;
   2 with Jaguar.
FIGHTER: 9 sqn:
   5 with Phantom; (to be replaced with Tornado F-3 and European Fighter Aircraft).
   4 with Tornado F-3.
RECCE: 1 sqn with Tornado GR-1A; 1 sqn with Jaguar
GR-1; 1 photo-recce unit with Canberra PR-9.
MR: 4 sqn with Nimrod MR-2.
AEW: 1 sqn with Shackleton AEW-2.
ECM/ELINT: 2 sqn: 1 ECM with Canberra, 1 ELINT with Nimrod R-1.
TANKER: 3 sqn: 1 with Victor K-2; 1 with VC-10 K-2/-3; 1 with Tristar K-1/KC-1.
TRANSPORT: 5 sqn:
   1 strategic with VC-10 C-1.
   4 tac with Hercules C-1/-1K/-1P/-3P.
LIAISON: 2 comms sqn with HS-125, Andover ac; SA-341E hel.
Queen's Fit: BAe -146-100, Andover ac; Wessex hel.
CALIBRATION: 2 sqn: 1 with Andover E-3/-3A; 1 calibration/target facility with Canberra B-2/E-15/T-4/TT-18.
OCU: 11: Tornado GR-1, Tornado F-3, Buccaneer S Mk 2, Phantom FGR-2, Jaguar GR-1/T-2, Harrier GR-3/5, T-4 Nimrod, Canberra B-2/T-4,
   Hercules, VC-10, SA-330/CH-47.
1 weapons conversion unit with Tornado GR-1.
2 tac weapons units with Hawk T-1A.
TRAINING: Hawk T-1, Jet Provost, Jetstream T-1, Bulldog T-1, Chipmunk T-10, HS-125 Dominie T-1. Tucano in service, 1989.
TACTICAL HELICOPTERS: 5 sqn: 1 with Wessex; 2 with SA-330 HC-1; 2 with CH-47 HC-1.
SAR: 2 hel sqn; 9 fit: 4 with Wessex HC-2; 5 with Sea King HAR-3.
TRAINING: Wessex, SA-341.
AD: 2 SAM sqn with Bloodhound 2.
EQUIPMENT: 570cbt ac (plus 251 in store), no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT:
   Tornado: some 221: GR-1: 161 (108 strike, 12 recce, 20 in tri-national trg sqn (Cottesmore), 21 in weapons conversion unit);
   F-2/3: 66 (48 ftr, 18 OCU); plus 51 GR-1, 59 F-2/-3 in store.
   Buccaneer. 34(25 attack, 9 OCU), plus 25 in store.
   Jaguar: 87 (24 FGA, 24 close spt, 24 recce, 15 OCU); plus 55 in store.
   Harrier: 51 (36 close spt, 15 OCU); plus 18 in store.
   Phantom: 90. FG-1: 18 (ftr); F-3(F-4J): 12 (ftr); FGR-2: 60 (42 ftr, 18 OCU); plus 55 in store.
   Hawk: 117 (72 tac weapons unit {Sidewindercapable), 45 trg).
   Canberra: 48. B2: 5 (trg); T4: 9 (trg); PR7: 4 (recce); PR9: 5 (recce); T-17: 12 (ECM); TT-18: 9 (target towing); E15: 4 (calibration).
   Nimrod: 37. R-1: 3 (ECM); MR-2: 34 (MR); plus 2 MR-2 in store.
   Shackleton: 6 (AEW); plus 5 in store.
   Victor: 14 (tanker/OCU).
   Tristan 9. K-1: 4 (tanker/tpt); KC-1: 2 (tanker/ego); K-2: 3 (tpt, to be mod to tanker/tpt).
   VC-10: 22. C-1: 13 (strategic tpt); K-2: 5 (tanker); K-3: 4 (tanker).
   Hercules: 60 C-130H (mod): C-1: 8 (OCU); C-1K: 6 (tpt/tkr); C-1P: 16 (tac tpt, air-refuelled); C-3P: 30 (tac tpt).
   Andover: 12 (6 calibration, 6 comms).
   HS-125: 31; T-1: 19 (trg); CC-1/-2/3: 12 (comms).
   BAe-146: 2 (comms).
   Jet Provost: 144 (trg).
   Jetstream: 11 (trg).
   Chieftain: 3 (comms).
   Bulldog: 122(trg).
   Chipmunk: 65 (trg).
HELICOPTERS:
   Wessex: 64 (28 tac tpt, 18 SAR, 4 OCU, 2 VIP, 12 trg).
   CH-47: 32 (27 tac tpt, 5 OCU).
   SA-330: 31 (26 tac tpt, 5 OCU).
   Sea King: 19 (SAR).
   SA-341: 22 (liaison,trg).
MISSILES:
   AAM:Sidewinder, Sparrow, Red Top, Firestreak,Sky Flash.
   ASM:Mattel, Harpoon, Sea Eagle.
   SAM: 64 Bloodhound.

ROYAL AIR FORCE REGIMENT:
   5 wing HQ.
   5 lt armd sqn.
   1 lt inf wpn sqn.
   6 SAM sqn (Rapier).
   36 Scorpion lt tk; 90 Spartan APC; 72 Rapier SAM.
RESERVES (Royal Auxiliary Air Force Regiment): 6 fd def sqn; 1 lt AA gun sqn with 12x2 35mm Oerlikon and Skyguard.

DEPLOYMENT:
ARMY:
United Kingdom Land Forces (UKLF):
Reinforcements for 1 (BR) Corps (declared to NORTHAG).
   1 inf div (regular 1 air-mobile bde, 1 artyregt, 1 avn sqn. TA: 2 inf bde, 2 arty regt).
   1 mech bde (for armd div).
   Additional TA units incl 18 inf bn, 2 SAS, 1 arty recce, 4 AD (Blowpipe) regt.
United Kingdom Mobile Force (UKMF): (declared to COMLANDJUT, based on 1 mech bde, would be reinforced by 5,000 TA/reservists):
   1 air portable inf bde: 4 inf bn, 1 armd recce, 1 arty regt, 1 armd sqn, 1+ SAM bty, log sptgp.
Allied Command Europe Mobile Force (Land) (AMF(L)): (some 2,300):
   UK contribution 1 inf bn, 1 armd recce, 1 sigs, 1 engr sqn, 1 arty bty, 1 log bn; 1avn fit.
HQ Northern Ireland: (some 9,200 exel UDR): 3 inf bde HQ, up to 10 major units in inf role (6 resident, 4 roulement inf bn), 1 SAS, 1 engr sqn, 2 avn sqn.
   9 UDR bn.
Remainder of Army regular and TAunits for Home Defence.
NAVY:
FLEET: (CinC is also CINCCHAN and CINCEASTLANT).
Regular Forces, with the exception of most Patrol and Coastal Combatants, Mine Warfare and Support forces are declared to ACCHAN or EASTLANT.
MARINES: 1 cdo bde (declared to AFNORTH).
AIR FORCE:
STRIKE COMMAND: (CinC is also CINCUKAIR).
   Commands all combat air operations other than for RAF (Germany), Belize and Falklands: 3 Groups:
   No. 1 (Strike, Attack, Transport), No 11 (Air Defence), No 18 (Maritime).
SUPPORT COMMAND: trg, supply and maint spt of other comd.

OVERSEAS:
ANTARCTICA: 1 ice patrol ship (in summer).
ASCENSION ISLAND: RAF: Hercules C-1K det.
BELIZE: 1,500. Army: some 1,200; 1 inf bn, 1 armd recce tp, 1 fd arty bty, 1 engr sqn, 1 hel fit (3 Gazelle AH-1).
   RAF: 300; 1 fit (4 Harrier GR-3 FGA, 4 Puma hel), 1 Rapier AD det (4 fire units) RAF Regt.
BRUNEI: Army: some 900: 1 Gurkha inf bn, 1 hel flt(3bel).
CANADA: Army: trg and liaison unit. RAF: Tornado det.
CYPRUS: 3,900. Army: 2,300 1 inf bn plus 2 inf coy, 1 armd recce, 1 engr spt sqn, 1 hel fit.
   RAF: 1,600: 1 hel sqn (Wessex), det of Phantom, Tornado ac, 1 lt armd sqn RAF Regt. Navy/Marines: 20.
FALKLAND ISLANDS: some 1,600. Army: 1 inf bn gp (incl AD bty, engr sqn), 1--4 engr sqn (fd, plant). RN: 1 DD/FF, 2 patrol, spt and auxiliary ships.
   RAF: 1 Phantom fit, 6 Hercules C-1K, 3 Sea King HAR-3, 6 CH-47 hel, 1 sqn RAF regt (Rapier SAM).
   (Garrison may vary through the year.)
FRG: 69,700. Army (BAOR declared to NORTHAG): 55,700; 1 corps HQ; 3 armd div; 1 arty bde, 2 armd recce, 4 engr regt.
   Berlin Inf Bde: (3,000); 3 inf bn, 1 armd sqn.
   RAF: 11,000 (declared to 2 ATAF); 13 ac, 2 hel sqn: 7 Tornado, 2 Harrier, 2 Phantom FGR-2, 1 Tornado recce, 1 Andover (comms);
   1 SA-330, 1 CH-47 (tpt). RAF regt: 2 Wing HQ; 4 Rapier SAM, 1 lt armd sqn.
GIBRALTAR: 1,800. Army: 700; 1 inf bn, Gibraltar regt (reserve), 1 engr team, 1 arty surveillance tps.
   Navy/Marines: 700; 2 PCI, Marine det, 2 twin Exocet launchers (coast defence), base unit.
   RAF: 400; periodic Jaguar ac det.
HONG KONG: 8,200. Army. 5,900 (British 1,700, Gurkha 4,200, Hong Kong regt (reserve) 1,200).
   Gurkha inf bde with 1 UK, 3 Gurkha inf bn, 1 Gurkha engr, regt, 1 hel sqn (-) with 10 Scout AH-1, 3 small landing craft, 3 other vessels.
   Navy/Marines: 700 (400 locally enlisted); 3 Peacock PCC, (12 patrol boats in local service).
   RAF: 300; 1 Wessex hel sqn (10 HC-2).
INDIAN OCEAN (Operation Armilla): 3 DD/FF, 1 spt ship. Diego Garcia: 1 naval party, 1 Marine det.
WEST INDIES (see also Belize): 1 DD/FF.
MILITARY ADVISERS: 550 in 30 countries.
PEACE-KEEPING:
CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 700: 1 inf bn(-), 1 armd recce sqn, 1 hel fit, engr and log spt.
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): 38 admin and spt.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): Army: 175; (comms).

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 27,900. Navy (2,500). Air (25,400): 1 Air Force HQ, 292 cbt ac trg.
FRG/ITALY: Tri-national Tornado trg sqn.

OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES


   European neutral and non-aligned nations have contributed to the four United Nations peace-keeping and observer groups established during the year. Finland has supplied an infantry battalion and Switzerland the medical support in Namibia (UNTAG), with Ireland and Yugoslavia providing observers. Yugoslavia also provides observers in Angola (UNAVM) and in Iran/Iraq (UNIIMOG). Austria, Finland, Ireland and Sweden provide observers both for UNIIMOG and in Afghanistan/Pakistan (UNGOMAP).
   There have been only minor developments in the size and shape of the armed forces listed in this section over the last twelve months. Fresh information has allowed us to reassess the organization of the Cypriot National Guard. Rather than two active formed brigades we now believe that there are merely two active level HQ each with an area responsibility and a number of active force battalions. We now list cadre infantry brigades as reserves and the Militia of 60 Home Guard battalions as a para-military force. It is proposed to raise an additional force of militia companies consisting of men over the age of 50 to support the Home Guard. Equipment developments include: the equipping of 18 VAB APCto carry HOT ATGW and 28 EE-3 recce vehicles with Milan, the delivery of eight Oerlikon twin 35mm AA guns and Skyguard mobile radar units, eight Yugoslav-made 128mm tube MRL, and two more Gazelle helicopters mounting HOT ATGW.
   By the mid-1990s the Swiss Army's reservist strength will be cut by some 100,000 as military service for non-commissioned ranks is to end at age 42 (instead of 50) and for officers at age 50 (instead of 55). There are plans to enhance Swiss artillery by the procurement of additional 155mm M-109 SP howitzers for three battalions. A referendum on the possible disbandment of the army will be held in November 1989; current assessments are that this will be clearly rejected.
   Naval developments include the Irish Navy's purchase of two Peacock offshore patrol craft from the UK. Sweden has retired four Draken submarines, commissioned a third Vastergb'tland, with a fourth under construction, and modernized one Ndcken submarine with an air-independent propulsion system which greatly increases its ability to remain submerged for long periods. New information has enabled us to revise our assessment of the Yugoslav frigate force which now comprises two Soviet ATom-class (Yugoslav Split) and two very similar but Yugoslav-built, ATo/or-class ships, one Kotor was commissioned in the last twelve months.
   There have been few Air Force developments. The Austrian Air Force has a squadron of eight J-35Oe Draken fighters now operational, which have replaced the SAAB 105e. Last year we overestimated Yugoslav holdings of MiG-29, the current holding is 16 not 26.

ДРУГИЕ ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЕ СТРАНЫ


   Европейские нейтральные и неприсоединившиеся страны внесли свой вклад в деятельность четырех созданных в течение года групп Организации Объединенных Наций по поддержанию мира и наблюдателей. Финляндия предоставила пехотный батальон, Швейцария-медицинскую помощь в Намибии (ЮНТАГ), а Ирландия и Югославия-наблюдателей. Югославия также предоставляет наблюдателей в Анголе (КМООНА) и Иране/Ираке (ЮНИМОГ). Австрия, Ирландия, Финляндия и Швеция предоставляют наблюдателей как для ЮНИМОГ, так и для Афганистана/Пакистана (РГОМАП ООН).
   За последние двенадцать месяцев произошли лишь незначительные изменения в численности и форме вооруженных сил, перечисленных в этом разделе. Свежая информация позволила нам переоценить организацию кипрской Национальной гвардии. Вместо двух активно сформированных бригад мы теперь полагаем, что есть только два активных штаба уровня каждый с областью ответственности и несколькими батальонами активных сил. Сейчас мы перечисляем кадровые пехотные бригады в качестве резервов, а ополчение из 60 батальонов внутренних войск-в качестве полувоенных сил. Для поддержки ополченцев предлагается привлечь дополнительные силы роты ополченцев, состоящие из мужчин старше 50 лет. Разработки оборудования включают: оснащение 18 ВАБ APCto carry HOT ATGW и 28 ee-3 recce автомобилей с Миланом, поставку восьми Oerlikon twin 35mm AA guns и мобильных радиолокационных установок Skyguard, восемь югославских 128-мм труб MRL и еще два вертолета Gazelle, устанавливающих горячие ATGW.
   К середине 1990-х годов численность резервистов швейцарской армии сократится примерно на 100 000 человек, поскольку военная служба для сержантов закончится в возрасте 42 лет (вместо 50), а для офицеров-в возрасте 50 лет (вместо 55). Планируется усилить швейцарскую артиллерию путем закупки дополнительных 155-мм гаубиц M-109 SP для трех батальонов. Референдум по вопросу о возможном расформировании армии состоится в ноябре 1989 года; по нынешним оценкам, это предложение будет однозначно отвергнуто.
   Военно-морские разработки включают покупку ирландским флотом двух морских патрульных кораблей Peacock из Великобритании. Швеция вывела на пенсию четыре подводные лодки Draken, ввела в эксплуатацию третью Vastergb'tland, с четвертым в стадии строительства, и модернизировала одну подводную лодку Ndcken с воздухонезависимой двигательной установкой, которая значительно увеличивает ее способность оставаться под водой в течение длительного периода времени. Новая информация позволила нам пересмотреть нашу оценку югославских фрегатов, которые в настоящее время состоят из двух советских кораблей класса "Атом" (югославский Сплит) и двух очень похожих, но югославских кораблей класса "АТО", один из которых был введен в эксплуатацию за последние двенадцать месяцев.
   Было несколько разработок ВВС. Австрийские ВВС располагают эскадрильей из восьми истребителей J-35Oe Draken, которые пришли на смену SAAB 105e. В прошлом году мы переоценили югославские холдинги МиГ-29, нынешний холдинг-16, а не 26.
   ALBANIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 40,700 (22,400 conscripts).
Terms of service: Army 2 years; Air Force, Navy and special units 3 years.
RESERVES: 155,000 (to age 56): Army 150,000, Navy/Air Force 5,000.

ARMY: 31,500 (20,000 conscripts).
   1 tk bde.
   4 inf bde.
   3 arty regt.
   6 lt coastal arty bn.
   1 engr regt.
EQUIPMENT: t
MBT: 190: T-34, T-54.
RECCE: 13 BRDM-1.
APC: 80: BTR-40/-50/-152, Ch Type-531.
TOWED ARTY: 122mm: M-1931/37, M-1938, Ch Type-60; 130mm: Ch Type-59-1; 152mm: M-1937, Ch Type-66, D-1.
MRL: 107mm: Ch Type-63.
MORTARS: 82mm, 120mm, 160mm.
RCL: 82mm: T-21.
ATK GUNS: 45mm: M-1942; 57mm: M-1943; 85mm: D-44, Ch Type-56.
AD GUNS: 80: 23mm: ZU-23 twin; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60; 85mm: KS-12.

NAVY: 2,000 (1,000 conscripts). 400 may serve in coast defence.f
BASES: Durres, Valona, Sazan Island, Pasha Liman.
SUBMARINES: 2 Sov Whiskey with 533mm TT (plus 1 trg, unserviceable).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 40:
TORPEDO CRAFT: 32 Ch Huchwan PHT with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL 8: 2 Sov Kronshtadt PCO; 6 Ch Shanghai-II PH.
MINE WARFARE: 1 Sov T-301 MSI.
SUPPORT: 1 Sov Khobi harbour tanker.

AIR FORCE: 7,200 (1,400 conscripts); 95 cbt ac, no armed hel-t
FGA: 3 sqn:
   1 with 10 Ch J-2;
   2 with 35 J-4.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn:
   2 with 30 J-6;
   1 with 20 J-7.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 3 Il-14M, 6 Li-2, 10 Y-5.
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn with 20 Ch Z-5.
TRAINING: 6 MiG-15UTI, 8 CJ-5, 6 Yak-11.
SAM: some 4 SA-2 sites, 22 launchers.

PARA-MILITARY: 12,000.
INTERNAL SECURITY FORCE:(5,000).
FRONTIER GUARD: (7,000).

* Est total since 1949.
t Spares are short; some eqpt may be unserviceable.


   AUSTRIA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (Air Service forms part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 42,500 (20,500 conscripts; some 80,000 reservists a year undergo refresher training, a proportion at a time).
Terms of service: 6 months recruit trg, 60 days reservist refresher trg during 15 years (or 8 months trg, no refresher);
   30-90 days additional for officers, NCO and specialists.
RESERVES: 242,000 ready (72 hrs) reserves; 1,200,000 with reserve trg but no commitment (men to age 51, specialists, NCO, officers to 65).

ARMY: 38,000 (e 20,000 conscripts).
Army HQ.
Standing Alert Force: (some 15,000):
   1 mech div of 3 mech bde (each 1 tk, 1 mech inf, 1 SP arty, 1 SP ATK bn); 1 recce bn (cadre), 1 AA, 1 engr bn.
   1 air-mobile, 1 mtn bn.
Field Units:
   Army: 1 HQ, 1 arty (cadre), 1 SF bn.
   Corps: 2 HQ, 1 guard, 2 arty, 1 SP ATK, 2 AA, 2 engr bn (cadre), 2 log regt (cadre).
   9 Provincial Commands.
   Peacetime: trg and maint.
   On mob: equates to div HQ (with 1 inf bde, 1 or more territorial defence regt and indep units).
   30 Landwehrstammregimente (trg regt, no war role):
RESERVES:
8 inf bde HQ: with 24 inf, 8 arty, 3 engr/ATK/recce bn.
Territorial Tps: (82,000):
   26 inf regt, 90 inf coy, 42 guard coy; 16 hy, 15 lt inf, 11 inf/ATK bn, 5 hy arty bty (static), 13 engr, 6 ATK coy.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 56 M-60A3, 114 M-60A1 (to be A3).
APC: 460 Saurer 4K4E/F.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 144 IFH (M-2A1); 155mm: 24 M-114, 6 GHN-45 (trials).
SP ARTY: 155mm: 59 M-109 A2.
MRL: 128mm: 18 M-51.
MORTARS: 81mm: 551; 107mm: 105; 120mm: 82.
RL: 400 LAW
RCL: 74mm: Miniman; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 397 M-40A1.
ATK GUNS:
   SP: 105mm: 284 Kuerassier JPz SK.
   TOWED: 85mm: 240 M-52/M-55;
   STATIC: 84mm: 60 20-pdr tk turrets; 90mm: some 130 M-47 tk turrets; 105mm: some 300 L7A2 (Centurion tk); 155mm: 24 SFKM2 fortress.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 512; 35mm: 74 Oerlikon twin towed; 40mm: 38 M-42 twin SP.
MARINE WING (under School of Military Engineering): 1 river patrol craft<; 10 boats.

AIR FORCE: 4,500 (500 conscripts) 24 cbt ac, no armed hel.
1 air div HQ; 3 air regt; 1 AD regt:
FGA: 2 sqn with 16 SAAB J-35Oe.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 8 J-35Oe.
RECCE: 15 O-1E (arty fire control).
HELICOPTERS: 7 sqn:
RECCE: 12 OH-58B, 8 AB-204 (9 in store).
TRANSPORT: (med): 23 AB-212; (lt): 11 AB-206A.
SAR: 24 Alouette III.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 2 Skyvan 3M, 11 PC-6B.
TRAINING: 6 SAAB 105Oe, 14 SAAB 9ID, 16 PC-7, O-1A/-E.
AD: 3 bn with 36 20mm, 18 M-65 twin 35mm AA guns; Super-Bat and Skyguard AD, Goldhaube, Selenia MR(S-403) 3-D radar systems.

FORCES ABROAD:
AFGHANISTAN (UNGOMAP): 5.
CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 1 inf bn (410).
SYRIA (UNDOF): 1 inf bn (532).
MIDDLE EAST (UNTSO): 17.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): Observers.

   REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 13,000.
Terms of service: conscription, 29 months, then reserve to age 50 (officers 65).
RESERVE: 50,000 (have yearly refresher trg): 20,000 first-line; 30,000 second-line.

NATIONAL GUARD: 13,000.*
   1 Army, 2 div HQ.
   2 bde HQ.
   2 mech bn.
   1 armd bn.
   1 arty bn.
   1 cdo bn.
RESERVES: 6 inf bde (each with 3 inf, 1 lt arty bn, 1 armd recce sqn) (all at cadre strength).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 8 T-34 (static defence), 16 AMX-30 B-2.
RECCE: 40 EE-9 Cascavel, 24 Marmon-Harrington armd cars.
AIFV: 27 VAB-VCI.
APC: 16 Leonidas, 81 VAB-VTT; 15 EE-11 Urutu, 17 BTR-50P.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 4 M-116A1 pack; 76mm: 18 M-42; 88mm: 52 25-pdr, 100mm: 18 M-1944; 105mm: 18 M-101, 18 M-56.
MRL: 128mm: 8 Yug M-77 (YMRL-32).
MORTARS: 81mm: 71 incl SP; 82mm: M-41/-43 some SP; 107mm: 12 M-2.
ATGW: Milan, HOT (incl 18 VAB).
RL: 89mm: 540 M-20.
RCL: 57mm: 189 M-18; 106mm: 126 M-40.
AD GUNS: 100: 20mm: M-55; 35mm: 8 GDF-003; 40mm; 94mm: 3.7-in.
SAM: 20+ SA-7.
MARINE: 1 PCI<.
AIRCRAFT: 1 BN-2A Maritime Defender.
HELICOPTERS: ~6 SA-342 Gazelle (with HOT).

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL GUARD TERRITORIAL DEFENCE FORCE: some 30,000, 60 Home Guard bn.
ARMED POLICE: 3,700 Shorland armd cars, 2 17m patrol boats.

FOREIGN FORCES:
GREECE (ELDYK): 950: (Army) 1 inf, 1 cdo bn, spt elm, plus 3,000 officers/NCO seconded to Greek-Cypriot forces.
UNITED KINGDOM: (in Sovereign Base areas) 4,200: Army: 1 inf bn plus 2 coy, 1 armd recce sqn. Air Force: 1 hel sqn plus ac on det.
UNITED NATIONS:
   UNFICYP: some 2,300; 3 inf bn (Austria, Canada, Denmark) 1 inf bn, armd recce sqn (UK).

* Mainly Greek-Cypriot conscripts, but some 3,000 seconded Greek Army officers and NCO.
   NORTHERN CYPRUS
Data presented here represents the de facto situation in the island. It in no way implies recognition, or IISS approval.
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: some 3,000.
Terms of service: conscription, 24 months, then reserve to age 50.
RESERVES: 5,000 first-line, 10,000 second-line.

ARMY:
   7 inf bn.
   spt arty reported.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 5 T-34 (operability questionable).
MORTARS: 107mm: 10 4.2-in.; 120mm: 30.
MARITIME: 1 patrol boat.

FOREIGN FORCES:
TURKEY: 27,000; 1 corps of 2 inf div, 1 indep armd bde.

* Officially reported figures.

   FINLAND
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 31,000 (23,700 conscripts).
Terms of service: 8-11 months (11 months for ofl&cers and NCO).
RESERVES (all services): some 700,000 (31,000 a year do conscript trg; some 50,000 reservists a year do refresher trg:
   total obligation 40 days (75 for NCO, 100 for officers) between conscript service and age 50 (NCO and officers to age 60)).
   Total strength on mob some 500,000, with 300,000 in general forces (bde etc) and 200,000 in local defence forces,
   (Army 460,000, Navy 12,000, Air Force 30,000) plus 200,000 unallocated as replacements etc.

ARMY: 27,800 (22,300 conscripts).
7 Military Areas; 23 Military Districts:
   1 armd bde (1 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 ATK, 1 arty bn, 1 AA bty).
   7 inf trg bde (each 3 inf bn (1 cadre), some with 1 arty bn).
5 indep inf bn (incl 1 cdo, 1 para).
Field arty: 3 regt, 1 indep bn.
Coast arty: 2 regt; 3 indep bn (1 mobile).
3 AA arty regt (incl 1 SAM bn with SAM-79).
1 indep AD arty bn.
2 engr bn.
RESERVES:
   2 armd bde.
   25 inf bde (11 Type 90, 14 Type 80).
   Some 50 indep bn.
   200 local defence units.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 100 T-54/-55, 80 T-72.
LIGHT TANKS: 15 PT-76.
AIFV: 30 BMP-1, 6 BMP-2.
APC: 90 BTR-50P, some 60 BTR-60, some 80 A-180 Sisu, 10 MT-LB.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 70+ M-37/-61; 122mm: M-38/D-30; 130mm: 170 M-54 (M-46); 150mm: M-40; 152mm: 240 M-38; 155mm: 12 M-74 (K-83).
COAST ARTY: 100mm: D-10T (tank turrets); 122mm: M-60; 130mm: 170 K-87; 152mm: 240.
COAST SSM: some RBS-15.
MORTARS: 81mm: 880; 120mm: 550.
ATGW: 24 M-82 (AT-4 Spigot), 12 M-83 (BGM-71C Improved TOW), AT-5 Spandrel.
RL: 112mm: some APILAS.
RCL: 55mm: M-55; 74mm: Miniman; 95mm: 100 SM-58-61.
AD GUNS: 20mm; 23mm: ZU-23; 30mm; 35mm: GDF-002; 40mm: 100+ L-60/L-70; 57mm: 12 S-60 towed, 12 ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: SAM-79 (SA-3), SAM-78 (SA-7), SAM-86 (SA-14).

NAVY: 1,400 (600 conscripts).
BASES: Upinniemi (Helsinki), Turku.
4 functional sqn (gunboat, missile, patrol, mine warfare). Approx 50% of units kept fully manned. Others in short-notice storage, rotated regularly.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 21:
CORVETTES: 2 Turunmaa with 1 120mm gun, 2x5 ASW RL.
MISSILE CRAFT: 8:
   4 Helsinki IPFM with 2x2 RBS-15SF SSM;
   4 Tuima (Sov Osa-II) with 4 MTO-74 (Sov SS-N-2B) SSM.
PATROL CRAFT: inshore: 11:
   2 Rihtriemi with 2 ASW RL.
   3 Ruissalo with 2 ASW RL.
   6 Nuoli PFI<.
MINE WARFARE: 8:
MINELAYERS: 2:
   1 Pohjanmaa (trg), 120 mines; plus 1 120mm gun.
   1 Keihdssalmi, 100 mines.
MCM: 6 Kuha MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 3 Kampela LCU tpt, 6 Kala LCU, 5 Kave LCU.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS:
   5 Valas coastal tpt (can be used for minelaying).
   9 icebreakers (civil, Board of Navigation Control).

AIR FORCE: 1,800(800 conscripts); 75 cbt ac, no armed hel.
3 ADdistricts: 3 fighter wings.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn:
   1 with 25 MiG-21bis;
   2 with 41 SAABJ-35.
OCU: 5 MiG-21U/UM, 4 SAAB SK-35C.
RECCE: 1 fit with 8 Hawk Mk 51.
SURVEY: 3 Learjet 35A(survey, ECM trg, target-towing).
TRANSPORT: 1 ac sqn with 3 F-27. 1 hel fit with 7 Mi-8 (alsoSAR), 2 Hughes 500.
TRAINING: 38 Hawk Mk 51, 30 L-70 Vinka.
LIAISON: 6 CM-170 Magister, 15 Piper (9 Cherokee Arrow, 6 Chieftain).
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, RB-27, RB-28 (Falcon), AIM-9 Sidewinder.

FORCES ABROAD:
   AFGHANISTAN (UNGOMAP): 3.
   CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 8.
   INDIA/PAKISTAN (UNMOGIP): 4.
   IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): 15.
   LEBANON (UNIFIL): 1 bn (550).
   MIDDLE EAST (UNTSO): 23.
   NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 1 bn (890).
   SYRIA (UNDOF): 1 bn (410).

PARA-MILITARY:
FRONTIER GUARD (Ministry of Interior): 4,400 (on mob 24,000); 4 frontier, 3 coast guard districts, 1 air comd;
   5 offshore, 1 coastal, 9 inshore patrol craft;
   3 Mi-8 (SAR), 2 AS-332, 3 AB 412, 7 AB-206 hel; 4 lt ac.

   IRELAND
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 13,000 incl 60women.
Terms of service: voluntary, 3-year terms to age 60, officers 56-65.
RESERVES: 16,100 (obligation to age 60, officers 57-65). Army: first-line 950,second-line 14,800. Navy 350.

ARMY: 11,200.
4 cmd.
1 inf force (2 inf bn).
4 inf bde:
   2 with 2 inf bn, 1 with 3, all with 1 fd arty regt, 1 cav recce sqn, 1 engr coy;
   1 with 2 inf bn, 1 armd recce sqn, 1 fd arty bty.
Army tps: 1 lt tk sqn, 1 AD regt, 1 Ranger coy.
(Total units: 11 inf bn; 1 UNIFIL bn ad hoc with elm from other bn, 1 tk sqn, 4 recce sqn (1 armd), 3 fd arty regt (each of 2 bty);
   1 indep bty, 1 AD regt (1 regular, 3 reserve bty),3 fd engr coy, 1 Ranger coy).
RESERVES: 4 Army Gp (garrisons), 18 inf bn, 6 fd arty regt, 3 cav sqn, 3 engr sqn, 3 AA bty.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 14 Scorpion.
RECCE: 19 AML-90, 32 AML-60.
APC: 60 Panhard VTT/M3, 10 Timoney.
TOWED ARTY: 88mm: 48 25-pdr, 105mm: 12 lt.
MORTARS: 81mm: 400; 120mm: 72.
ATGW: 21 Milan.
RCL: 84mm: 444 Carl Gustav, 90mm: 96 PV-1110.
AD GUNS: 40mm: 24 L/60, 2 L/70.
SAM: 7 RBS-70.

NAVY: 1,000.
BASE: Cork.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 7:
7 PCO:
   1 Eithne with 1Dauphin hel;
   3 Enter, 1 Deirdre.
   2 Orla (UK Peacock).

AIR FORCE: 800. 14 cbt ac, no armed hel.
   3 wings (1 trg):
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 CM-170-2 Super Magister.
COIN/TRAINING: 1 sqn with 8 SF-260WE, 1 SF-260MC ac, 2 SA-342L trg hel.
MR: 2 Super King Air 200.
TRANSPORT: 1 HS-125, 1Super King Air 200.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 7 Reims Cessna F-172H, 1 F-172K.
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn.
   1 Army spt with 8 Alouette III.
   1 Navy spt with 2 SA-365.
   1 SAR with 3 SA-365.

FORCES ABROAD:
   AFGHANISTAN (UNGOMAP): 5.
   CYPRUS (UNFICYP): 8.
   INDIA/PAKISTAN (UNMOGIP): 1
   IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): 52.
   LEBANON (UNIFIL): 1 bn+ (748); 4 AML-90 armd cars, 13 VTT/M3 APC, 4 120mmmor.
   MIDDLE EAST (UNTSO): 21.
   NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 20.

   MALTA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,500.
Terms of service: voluntary.

'ARMED FORCES OFMALTA':
Comd HQ, spt tps.
No.1 Regt with:
   1 inf coy; RPG-7 RL, 81mm and 82mm mor.
   1 marine sqn; 8 inshore patrol craft.
   1 airport coy; 1 airport security coy.
   1 hel fit; 2 AB-204, 1 AB-206A, 1 AB-47G, 1 Bell-47G. (3 SA-316 in store).
No.2 Regt with:
1 AD bty; 50 ZPU-4 14.5mm AA guns,
   1 general duties coy.
   1 security coy.
   1 electrical andmechanical engr coy.

PARA-MILITARY: 'ID DEJMA' (R): 700(being phased out).

FOREIGN FORCES: ITALY: 2 AB-212 (SAR)hel.

   SWEDEN
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 64,500 (49,000 conscripts);
Terms of Service: Army and Navy 7 Ґ - 15 months, Air Force 8-12months.
RESERVES* (obligation to age47): 709,000: Army (incl Local Defence and Home Guard) 550,000; Navy 102,000; Air Force 57,000.

ARMY: 44,500 (37,700 conscripts).
   6 Military comd; 26 Defence districts (Laens).
PEACE ESTABLISHMENT:
44 armd, cav, inf, arty, AA, engr, sig,spt regt (local defence, cadre for mob, basic conscript plus refresher trg).
WAR ESTABLISHMENT: (725,000 on mob)
Field Army: (300,000).
   4 armd bde.
   1 mech bde.
   18 inf, 5 Norrland, 1 Gotland bde.
   100 indep armd, inf, arty and AA arty bn.
   1 avn bn.
   9 arty avn pi.
Local Defence Units: (300,000)
   90 indep bn, 400-500 indep coy.
Home Guard: (125,000) incl inf, arty, static arty, AD
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 340 Strv-101, 110 Strv-102/-104 (Centurion), 335 Strv-103B.
LIGHT TANKS: 200 Ikv-91.
APC: 600 Pbv-302.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 550 Type-40; 150mm: 140 M-39; 155mm: 300 FH-77AAB.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 30 BK-1A.
MORTARS: 81mm: 1,000; 120mm: 500.
ATGW: RB-53 (Bantam), RB-55 (TOW, incl Pvrbv 551 SP).
RCL: 74mm: Miniman; 84mm: AT-4, Carl Gustav, 90mm: PV-1110.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 114; 40mm: 600.
SAM: RB-69 (Redeye), RBS-70 (incl Lvrbv SP), RB-77 (Improved HAWK).
AIRCRAFT: 17 SK-61C (BAe Bulldog) observation, 2 Dornier Do-27 tpt.
HELICOPTERS: 20 HKP-9A ATK, 14 HKP-3 tpt, 26 HKP-5B trg, 19 HKP-6A utility.

NAVY: 12,000, incl coast arty and naval air (6,300 conscripts); some vessels with Coast Defence.
BASES: Musko, Harnosand, Karlskrona, Goteborg (spt only).
SUBMARINES: 11:
   3 Vastergotlandwith TP-617 HWT and TP-42 LWT.
   1 modernized Nacken (AIP) with TP-617 and TP-42.
   2 Nacken, 5 Sjoormen, with TP-61 and TP-42.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 45:
MISSILE CRAFT: 30 PFM:
   2 Stockholm with 4x2 RBS-15 SSM; plus 2 533mm TT or 4 400mm TT.
   16 Hugin with 6 RB-12 (No Penguin) SSM; plus 4 Elma ASW launchers.
   12 Norrk Sping with 2 RBS-15 SSM or up to 6 533mm TT.
PATROL 15: 1 PFC, 3PCC, 11 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 31:
MINELAYERS: 3:
   1 Carlskrona (105 mines) trg.
   2 Alvsborg (300 mines).
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 28:
   6 Landsort MCC.
   4 Arko USC.
   18 other MSI
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 12 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 12: 1 AGI, 1 salvage ship, 1 survey, 6 icebreakers, 2 tugs, 1 MCM spt ship.

COAST DEFENCE: (2,650; 1,700 conscripts).
5 arty bde: 60 units incl arty, barrier bn, coast ranger coy, minelayer sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
GUNS: 40mm incl 1770 AA, 75mm, 120mm incl CD-80 Karin (mobile); 75mm, 120mm (static).
SSM: RBS-17 Hellfire, RBS-08A, RB-52.
MINELAYERS: 9 coastal, 16 inshore.
PATROL CRAFT: 18 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 9 LCM, 80 LCU, 55 LCA.

NAVAL AIR: 1 cbt ac, 14 armed hel.
ASW: 1 C-212 ac.
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn with 14 HKP-4B/C (KV-107) ASW, 9 HKP-6 (AB-206) liaison.

AIR FORCE: 8,000 (5,000 conscripts); 417 cbt ac, no armed hel.
   1 attack gp.
   4 AD districts.
   9 wings liaison ac: 42 SK-50 (SAAB 91 Safir).
FGA: 6 sqn:
   5 with 82 AJ-37 Viggen;
   1 (OCU)with 18 SK-37.
FIGHTER: 11 sqn:
   3 with 68 J-35F/J, 4 SK-35C Draken;
   8 with 139 JA-37 Viggen.
RECCE: 3 sqn with 48 SH/SF-37 Viggen.
ECM: 2 Caravelle (ECM/ELINT).
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 8 C-130E/H.
COMMUNICATIONS: SK-60, 3 King Air 200, 2 Metro III (VIP).
TRAINING: incl 106 SK-60A/B/C (also have lt attack/recce role), 50 SK-61, 22 J-32 Lansen (14 -32E ECM trg, 8 -32D target towing).
SAR: 1 sqn with 6 HKP-4, 4 HKP-9B, 2 HKP-10.
UTILITY: 6 HKP-3 hel.
AAM: RB-24 (AIM-9J/L Sidewinder), RB-27 (Falcon), RB-28 (Improved Falcon), RB-71 (Skyflash).
ASM: RB-04E, RB-05A, RB-15F, RB-75 (Maverick).
AD: Semi-automatic control and surveillance system, Stril 60, co-ordinates all AD components.

FORCES ABROAD:
   AFGHANISTAN (UNGOMAP): 6.
   LEBANON (UNIFIL): 770 log bn and medical tps.
   IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): Observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD: (550); 2 TV-171 fishery protection vessels, 70 PCI<; (Air Arm:) 2 C-212 MR, 1 Cessna 337G, 1 402C ac.
CIVIL DEFENCE: shelters for 6,300,000. All between age 16-25 liable for civil defence duty.
VOLUNTARY AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS: Some 35,000 volunteers for army units from:
   Motor Cycle Corps, Radio Organization, Women's Motor Transport Corps, Women's Auxiliary Defence Services, Red Cross.

* Each year some 100,000 reservists carry out refresher trg; length of trg depends on rank (officers up to 31 days, NCO and specialists, 24 days, others 17 days). Commitment is 5 exercises during reserve service period, plus mob call-outs.

   SWITZERLAND
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (Air Corps forms part of the Army):
ACTIVE: about 3,500 regular, plus recruits (2 intakes of 18,000 each for 17 weeks only).
Terms of service: 17 weeks compulsory recruit trg at age 20, followed by reservist refresher trg of 3 weeks over an 8-year period between ages
   21-32 for Auszug (call out), 39 days over a 3-year period (33-42) for Landwehr (militia), 13 days over 2-year period (43-50)
   for Landsturm (Home Guard/last reserve). Some 438,500 attend trg each year.
RESERVES (all services): 625,000.

ARMY: 565,000 on mob.
3 corps, each 1 mech, 2 inf div, 1 inf, 1 cyclist, 1 SAM, 1 engr regt, 1 arty bn, 1 hel sqn, 1 lt ac flt.
1 mtn corps with 3 mtn div (each 1 inf, 1 fortification, 1 redoubt bde), 1 mtn, 7 inf, 1 engr, 5 pack horse bn, 1 hel sqn.
Corps Tps:
   6 Territorial Zones: each with log, medical and civil defence regt.
   11 border bde.
Army Tps:
   1 inf, 3 engr regt, 3 sigs (EW) bn.
   1 airport guard regt, 1 indep airport bn.
   20 fortress guard coy.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 820: some 130 Pz-87 (Leopard 2), 150 Pz-55/-57 (Centurion), 150 Pz-61, 390 Pz-68 (195 to be mod).
APC: 1,350 M-63/-73/-64 (M-113).
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: some 360 Model-35, 468 Model-46.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 473 PzHb-66/-74 (M-109U).
MRL: 81mm: RWK-014 30-tube.
MORTARS: 2,750: 81mm: M-33, M-72; 120mm: 110 M-64/-74.
ATGW: 6 MOWAG Piranha with TOW-2; 800 B/B-65 (Bantam), B/B-77 (Dragon).
RL: 83mm: 5,500 M-80.
RCL: 106mm: 600 M-58.
ATK GUNS: 90mm: 850 Model-50/-57.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 1,700; 35mm: 260 GDF-002.
SAM: 60 B/I^84 (Rapier).
MARINE: 11 Aquarius patrol boats.

AIR CORPS: 60,000 on mob; (incl military airfield guard units). 272 cbt ac, no armed hel.
1 Air Force bde: 3 air regt (1 lt ac wing, 1 long-range recce patrol coy).
FGA: 8 sqn with 127 Hunter F-58, 7 T-68.
FIGHTER: 8 sqn:
   6 with 92 F-5E, 12 F-5F;
   2 with 30 Mirage IIIS.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 18 Mirage IIIRS.
LIAISON/SAR: 1 sqn with 2 Learjet 36, 18 PC-6 Turbo-Porter.
HELICOPTERS: 7 sqn with 26 SA-315, 70 SA-316, 3 AS-332.
TRAINING: incl 40 PC-7, 32 Vampire T-55, 20 Vampire Mk 6 (plus 40 in store), 4 Mirage IIIBS, 64 Pilatus P-3, 4 PC-9.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-26B Falcon.
ASM: AGM-65A/B Maverick, AS-30.
1 airbase bde: 3 regt x 4 bn, each with 4 bty of 20mm and twin 35mm guns with Skyguard fire-control radar.
1 AD bde:
   1 SAM regt (2 bn, each of 2 bty; 64 Bloodhound);
   7 AD arty regt (each of 3 bty; 35mm guns, Skyguard fire control).

PARA-MILITARY:
CIVIL DEFENCE: 480,000 (300,000 fully trained). Shelter programme for 5,500,000; emergency supplies and medical facilities.

   YUGOSLAVIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 180,000 (101,400 conscripts).
Terms of service: 12 months.
RESERVES: 510,000: Army 440,000; Navy 43,000; Air 27,000 (to age 55, officers 60).

ARMY: 138,000 (93,000 conscripts);
   4 Military Regions; incl 1 coastal.
   10 Corps HQ.
   2 inf div.
   29 armd/mech inf/mtn/arty bde reported following recent re-org.
   1 AB bde.
RESERVES: Territorial Defence Force (militia): 860,000 in wartime; mobile inf bde, arty, AA bn; (eqpt mainly obsolescent).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,635: 750 T-54/-55, some 290 M-84 (T-74; mod T-72) and T-72, 45 M-47, some 250 T-34 (in store), 300 M-4 (in store).
LIGHT TANKS: 13 PT-76.
RECCE: 92 M-3A1, 18 M-8, some 40 BRDM-2.
AIFV: 410 M-80.
APC: 200 BTR-40/-50, 300 M-60P.
TOWED ARTY: 2,137: 105mm: 516: M-101, M-56, M-18; 122mm: 241 M-1931/37, 378 M-1938/D-30; 130mm: 186 M-46;
   152mm: 240: M-1937, D-20/M-84; 155mm: 150 M-59, 426 M-65, M-114.
SP ARTY: 105mm: M-7; 122mm: 2S1.
MRL: 128mm: 160 M-77 (YMRL-32), M-63.
MORTARS: 82mm: 3,400; 120mm: 3,000.
SSM: 4 FROG-7.
ATGW: BOV-1 veh with AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 57mm: 1,550; 82mm: 2,000 M-60PB SP; 105mm: 650 M-65.
ATK GUNS: 75mm: 748: M-1943, PAL-40; 90mm: 540: M-63B2 (incl SP); 100mm: 511 T-12.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 2,300: M-55/-75, BOV-3 SP triple; 30mm: 620: M-53, M-53/-59, BOV-3 SP; 37mm: 418 M-1939; 40mm: 128: M-1, L/70;
   57mm: 304: S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP; 85mm: 260 M-1944; 90mm: 210 M-117; 3.7-in. (94mm): 46.
SAM: SA-6/-7/-9.

NAVY: 10,000 incl 900 marines, 2,300 coast defence (4,400 conscripts).
BASES: Split, Pula, Sibenik, Kardeljevo, Kotor.
SUBMARINES: 5:
   3 Heroj SS with 533mm TT.
   2 Sutjeska SSC (trg) with 533mm TT.
   plus 4 Una SSI for SF ops.
FRIGATES: 4.
   2 Kotor with 4 SS-N-2B Styx SSM, 2x12 ASW RL, 2x3 ASTT.
   2 Split (Sov Koni) with 4 SS-N-2B Styx SSM, 2x12 ASW RL
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 71:
MISSILE CRAFT: 16:
   6 Rode Koncar PFM with 2 SS-N-2B Styx.
   10 Mitar Acev (Sov Osa-I) PFM with 4 SS-N-2A.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 15: 15 Topcider (Sov Shersheri) with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 40:
   COASTAL 3 Alomar ASW with 4 ASW RL.
   INSHORE: 27: 10 Kraljevica, 17 Mima
   RIVERINE: 10<.
MINE WARFARE: 14
MINELAYERS: None, but DTM-211 LCT can lay 100 mines - see amph forces.
MCM: 14:
   4 Vukov Klanac MHC
   4 UK 'Hani1 MSI.
   6 M-117 MSI
   (plus 6 riverine MSI<).
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 35: 10 DTM-211 LCT, 25 DJC-601 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 7: 3 PO-91 Lubin tpt, 1 salvage, 1 Sov Motna survey, 1 trg, 1 flagship.

MARINES:
2 marine bde (2 regt each of 2 bn).

COAST DEFENCE: 25 coast arty bty:
GUNS: 85mm: 45 M-44; 88mm: 55 M-36; 122mm: 75 M-37; 130mm: 85 M-54; 152mm: 85 D-20.
SSM: SS-C-3 Shaddock, Brom (truck-mounted SS-N-2).

AIR FORCE: 32,000 (4,000 conscripts); 421 cbt ac, some 200 armed hel.
3 air corps each 1 AD div, incl ac, AD arty, SAM.
FGA: 12 sqn with 25 P-2 Kraguj, 60 Jastreb, 30 Super Galeb, 50 Orao 2.
FIGHTER: 9 sqn with 112 MiG-21F/PF/M/bis, 18 MiG-21U, 16 MiG-29.
RECCE: 4 sqn with 25 Galeb, 20 Jastreb RJ-I, 25 Orao-I.
ARMED HEL: 70 Mi-8 (aslt); 120 Gazela (attack).
ASW: 1 hel sqn with 8 Ka-25, 2 Ka-28 (Navy-assigned).
TRANSPORT: 2 ac sqn with 6 Yak-40, 12 An-12, 15 An-26, 2 Falcon 50 (VIP), 2 Learjet, 4 CL-215 (SAR/fire-fighting), 9 PC-6.
   7 hel sqn with Gazela, Mi-8 (Army-assigned).
   1 sqn with 10 Mi-8, 15 Gazela (Navy-assigned).
LIAISON: 50 UTVA-66 ac, 14 Gazela hel.
TRAINING: ac: 110 Galeb/Jastreb, 80 UTVA-75/-76; hel: 20 Gazela.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-8 Aphid.
ASM: AGM-65 Maverick, AS-7 Kerry, AS-9 Kyle.
AD: 14 SAM bn (8 SA-2, 6 SA-3).
   15 regt AD arty.

FORCES ABROAD:
ANGOLA (UNAVM): 7.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): Observers.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 25.

PARA-MILITARY:
FRONTIER GUARDS: Ministry of Defence (15,000); 10 Mima, 6 Type-131 PCI.
MILICIJA (Police): BRDM-2 recce; TAB-71/-72, BTR-50, M-60P APC; SA-341/-342 hel.

CIVIL DEFENCE: 2 m on mob (not under Army).

The Middle East and the Mediterranean


   Military Developments
   Weapon Proliferation
   Concern over the proliferation of chemical weapons (CW) and SSM continues. Despite denials, Libya is widely believed to have been constructing a CW plant at Rabta some 35 miles inland from Tripoli. Following press allegations Egypt has also denied that it has a CW production capability. Allegations have also been made of the existence of an Israeli CWplant in the Negev.
   While the year has seen no new operational deployments of ballistic missiles in the region, co-operative development of them involving Middle East and other Third-world partners has continued apace. Joint Egyptian-Iraqi development of the Badr 2000, based on the Argentinian Condor 2, with a claimed capability of accurate delivery to 400 km and maximum range of 1,200 km remains of concern. Iraq also continues to extend the range of its Soviet-supplied Scud B. Israel has again tested the Jericho2, this time to a range of 850 km; it is assessed that the missile will have an eventual maximum range of 1,500 km. Israel also launched its first satellite, the Ofek 1, which went into low orbit on 19 September 1988 with a 75-kg test payload. Although the next launch is not expected for two to three years, it is already being suggested that the launch rocket, the Shavit, might provide a basis for a Jericho 3 with a potential range of up to 7,000 km. Another worrying development in the region is the delivery to Libya of some six Su-24 fighter-bombers coupled with the possibility that the Soviet Union would convert a Libyan transport to the tanker role.
   The Gulf War
   After eight years of bitter fighting the UN-brokered cease-fire between Iraq and Iran came into force on 20 August 1988. The UN Iran Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG), to which 26 countries have contributed some 600 military personnel, was quickly deployed. There have been relatively few cease-fire violations even though neither side has withdrawn all troops into their own territory. A limited exchange of sick and injured prisoners of war has taken place. Though both sides need to rebuild and re-equip their armed forces there is little evidence as yet of any new large-scale arms imports. Indeed, at the Baghdad Military Fair in April/May 1989, Iraq revealed the extent to which it has managed to establish, with Egyptian assistance, its own armaments industry. Amongst equipments unveiled at the exhibition were two new 6x6 wheeled SP guns, of 155mm and 210mm calibre, for which maximum ranges of 38 and 57 km are claimed. Other developments noted were the successful integration of equipments from different sources, such as a French Mirage aircraft armed with a Soviet ASM, and Soviet transport aircraft equipped for AEWwith both French and British radar equipment. Apart from a requirement for advanced combat aircraft, which has led to the procurement of further Chinese J-6 FGA aircraft, Iraq is more in the market for industrial technology, components and production licences. Iran has also procured more J-6 aircraft but, although it held an arms trade fair in Teheran in November 1988, at which were notably displayed various types of Iranian-made free-flight rockets copied from other models, no other major acquisitions to restore the Iranian armoury have yet been reported. The visit to Moscow by Hashemi-Rafsanjani Speaker of the Iranian Majlis was widely believed to include a request for Soviet arms. Moscow is thought to have assured Iraq that only items of a defensive nature such as SAM and ATGW would be supplied to Iran. Gulf naval forces, remain substantially unchanged. The major portion of the Iraqi fleet remains in the Mediterranean whilst negotiations between Italy and Iraq continue on the terms of payment for the undelivered ships. Improvements in the Khawr Abd'Allah waterway to Umm Qasr mean that Iraq would not be dependent on the use of the Shatt al'Arab to berth the ships.
   International naval forces in the Gulf have continued to draw down since the cease-fire. Belgium, Italy and the Netherlands have brought their ships home: the US has cut its escort force from nine to six combatants and reduced the MCM group to three vessels, while maintaining a Carrier Battle Group on station in the Western Indian Ocean but at longer notice for intervention thus allowing it a wider field of operations. The UK has withdrawn its MCM group but retains the Armilla patrol, and the French and Soviet navies are covering the area from normal on-station forces.
   Regional Diplomacy
   Saudi Arabia and Iraq signed a non-aggression pact in March 1989 during a visit by King Fahd to Baghdad. In February 1989 the Arab Cooperation Council was formed with Iraq, Egypt, North Yemen and Jordan as members. Its stated aim is to foster economic co-operation but it seems unlikely to be able to avoid becoming involved in political and military affairs. The final outstanding element of the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty was resolved in September 1988, when international arbitrators ruled on the line of the border in Sinai and determined that the disputed Tabah area, on the Gulf of Aqaba coast, was Egyptian territory. Israel withdrew from the area on 15 March 1989 after compensation terms had been agreed.
   Lebanon
   Inter-factional fighting continued in Lebanon, mainly between Syrian-backed Muslim groups and General Aoun's Christian army units, now backed to some extent by Iraq, which is rumoured to have supplied the Lebanese forces with Frog SSM.The Arab League took measures aimed at resolving the civil war. An Arab League Observer Force some 300 strong is to be established with officers provided by Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Sudan and Tunisia, but despite a visit by the Arab League Secretary General and two Arab generals, no observers have yet deployed to Lebanon. The Arab League has also set up a committee, comprising King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, King Hassan of Morocco and President Chadli Bendjedid of Algeria to assist the Lebanese parliament to make constitutional changes that would lead to the election of a Lebanese President.
   Israel
   The intifada in the West Bank and Gaza Strip continues unabated but without the anticipated rise in the use by the Palestinians of fire-arms and explosives which remains at a very low level. Implications for the Israeli Defence Forces include: loss of conventional training, problems of morale, increased periods of duty for reservists, the growing militancy of Jewish settlers and, additional expenditure.
   Forces and Armaments
   Ground force inventories in the region show little change. Algeria and Kuwaithave taken delivery of Soviet BMP-2, their first AIFV, and Kuwait has received 100 Egyptian Fahd APC. The UAE now includes MRL in its artillery (Belgian LAU-97 and Italian FIROS-25) and has also procured some 45 Milan firing posts. Oman has acquired Javelin SAM from the UK. Saudi Arabian acquisitions include further M-113 APC, some 460 V-150 Commando APC for the National Guard and we have been able to reassess holdings of AM-10P which show an increase of 150 AIFV. The upgrading programme for M-60A1 tanks continues with 100 more tanks upgraded to A3 standard, but no decision (despite hard lobbying) has yet been taken on the next generation MBT. Jordan's tank holding has been increased with a gift from Iraq of 90 Chieftain MBT and 19 Scorpion light tanks captured from Iran, some in the final stages of the war. Israel added some 50 Merkava 2 tanks to its holding.
   There have been some minor naval developments. We have revised the Moroccan naval entry so as to show the correct class names. New deliveries in the year have been a fourth LV Rabhi from Spain and two El Wacil patrol craft from France. In November 1988 Djibouti took delivery of three inshore patrol craft from the UK. Egypt has retired two Soviet Whiskey-class submarines. Oman has commissioned a fourth Dhofar missile craft armed with Exocet SSM. Saudi Arabia is reported to have placed an order for two, possibly three French frigates. Israel has commissioned four Super-Dvora inshore patrol craft and retired two Sa'ar missile craft which have been sold and delivered to Chile. Although the order for newmulti-purpose corvettes is going ahead, the decision to order replacement submarines remains in the balance.
   Most other changes to last year's air force listings are a result of re-assessment. Syria has formed two more squadrons with additional MiG-29 aircraft. The YAR has added a squadron of MiG-17 FGA. Egypt has introduced the F-16C into operational service.
   Defence Spending
   United States aidstill goes predominantly to Egypt and Israel. For FY 1990 the Administration has requested $2.3 bn in combined military, economic and food assistance for Egypt; of this $ 1.3 bn is for foreign military sales financing (FMSF) and will be focused on modernization programmes for armour and airforce requirements. The FY 1990 request for Israel is for $1.8 bn in FMSF and $1.2 bn in economic assistance, both to be provided on a grant basis. Israel's FMSF is mainly associated with F-15 and F-16 aircraft purchases, financing the Israeli-designed and manufactured Merkava tank (of which a number of Mark 3 prototypes were recently unveiled) and for naval modernization; $400 m would beauthorized forprocurement costs within Israel. Additionally, the US will provide $120 m for continued joint research of the Arrow ATBM programme, as part of the SDI programme.
   Economic problems, asforecast in earlier editions of The Military Balance, have ledtopolitical disorder with potential implications for internal security in several countries in theregion. Algiers was thescene ofuprisings in autumn 1988, caused by rising food prices and shortages, housing shortages and unemployment; similar riots andprotests took place in Jordan in spring 1989. Throughout the year Egypt also witnessed social unrest which strengthened the government's resolve (unlike Jordan) not to implement proposed IMF fiscal reforms (and so reduce food subsidies) for fear of major disturbances. Tunisia, too, saw sporadic antigovernment demonstrations. Syria, with debts of over $20 bn is onthebrink ofeconomic disaster aggravated by its involvement in Lebanon.
   Even theoil-producers face major economic problems. Iran, whose acceptance of UN Resolution 598 was provoked mainly byeconomic pressure, now faces major programmes for social and industrial reconstruction aswell asthe rearmament ofthe forces forwhich $2.4 bnhas been allocated, all to be paid for by very limited hard currency resources, which amounted to less than $10 bn in 1988. Atleast Iran has nomajor debt problem, however, unlike Iraq which owes some $50 bn to Western andEastern Bloc countries (andaround a further $40 bn to its Arab neighbours which may well beforgiven). However, Iraq's armed forces areinbetter shape than Iran's (and arestronger and better trained than they were in 1980 when the Gulf War started). It also has a higher oil revenue - some $14 bn in 1988.
   Despite continued shortfalls in oilrevenues theGulf States, especially Saudi Arabia, nevertheless continue to expand andmodernize their military inventories. These programmes, however, tend not to be reflected in official budgets, but instead are set against complex barter, counter, offset andnetback agreements whose precise values arenotknown. Intheregion asa whole only Israel shows a significant increase in budgeted defence spending, to some extent caused by the Intifida in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

Ближний Восток и Северная Африка


   Военные события
   Распространение оружия
   Озабоченность по поводу распространения химического оружия (ХО) и ракет сохраняется. Несмотря на опровержения, широко распространено мнение, что Ливия строила завод ОВ в Рабте примерно в 35 милях от Триполи. После заявлений прессы Египет также отрицает, что у него есть потенциал для производства ХО. Были также выдвинуты утверждения о существовании израильского завода в Негеве.
   Хотя в этом году в регионе не было новых оперативных развертываний баллистических ракет, их совместная разработка с участием стран Ближнего Востока и других партнеров из третьего мира продолжалась быстрыми темпами. По-прежнему вызывает озабоченность совместная египетско-иракская разработка Badr 2000 на базе аргентинского Condor 2 с заявленной способностью точной доставки до 400 км и максимальной дальностью 1200 км. Ирак также продолжает расширять номенклатуру своих поставляемых Советским Союзом Scud B. Израиль снова испытал Jericho2, на этот раз на дальность 850 км; предполагается, что максимальная дальность полета ракеты составит 1500 км. Израиль запустил свой первый спутник, Ofek 1,который вышел на низкую орбиту 19 сентября 1988 года с 75 кг испытание нагрузки. Хотя следующий запуск не ожидается в течение двух-трех лет, уже высказывается предположение, что ракета-носитель Shavit может стать основой для Jericho 3 с потенциальной дальностью до 7000 км. Еще одним тревожным событием в регионе является поставка Ливии шести истребителей-бомбардировщиков Су-24 в сочетании с возможностью того, что Советский Союз превратит ливийский транспорт в танкер.
   Война в заливе
   После восьми лет ожесточенных боев 20 августа 1988 года вступило в силу соглашение о прекращении огня между Ираком и Ираном при посредничестве ООН. Оперативно была развернута группа военных наблюдателей ООН в Ираке и Иране (UNIIMOG), в состав которой 26 стран предоставили около 600 военнослужащих. Было относительно мало нарушений режима прекращения огня, хотя ни одна из сторон не вывела все войска на свою территорию. Ограниченный обмен больными и ранеными военнопленными состоялся. Хотя обе стороны нуждаются в восстановлении и переоснащении своих вооруженных сил, пока еще мало данных о каком-либо новом крупномасштабном импорте оружия. Действительно, на Багдадской военной ярмарке в апреле/мае 1989 года Ирак показал, в какой степени ему удалось создать при содействии Египта свою собственную оружейную промышленность. Среди оборудования, представленного на выставке, были две новые колесные самоходные пушки 6x6 калибра 155 мм и 210 мм, для которых заявлены максимальные дальности 38 и 57 км. Другими отмеченными достижениями были успешная интеграция оборудования из различных источников, таких как французский самолет Mirage, вооруженный Советским ASM, и советский транспортный самолет, оснащенный как французским, так и британским радиолокационным оборудованием. Помимо потребности в современных боевых самолетах, что привело к закупке новых китайских самолетов J-6 FGA, Ирак в большей степени находится на рынке промышленных технологий, компонентов и лицензий на производство. Иран также закупил больше самолетов J-6, но, хотя он провел выставку вооружений в Тегеране в ноябре 1988 года, на которой были представлены различные типы иранских ракет свободного полета, скопированных с других моделей, никаких других крупных приобретений для восстановления иранского Арсенала пока не сообщалось. Визит в Москву спикера иранского Меджлиса Хашеми - Рафсанджани, по общему мнению, включал в себя запрос на советское оружие. Считается, что Москва заверила Ирак в том, что Ирану будут поставляться только предметы оборонительного характера, такие как ЗРК и ПТРК. Военно-морские силы залива остаются практически неизменными. Большая часть иракского флота остается в Средиземном море, пока продолжаются переговоры между Италией и Ираком об условиях оплаты за непоставленные корабли. Улучшение водного пути Хавр-Абдалла в Умм-Каср означает, что Ирак не будет зависеть от использования Шатт-эль-Араба для швартовки судов.
   Международные военно-морские силы в заливе продолжают сокращаться с момента прекращения огня. Бельгия, Италия и Нидерланды вернули свои корабли домой: США сократили свои силы сопровождения с девяти до шести комбатантов и сократили группу ТЩ до трех судов, сохраняя при этом Авианосную боевую группу на станции в западной части Индийского океана, но при более длительном уведомлении о вмешательстве, что позволило ей расширить поле деятельности. Великобритания отозвала свою группу ТЩ, но сохраняет патруль Armilla, а французский и Советский флоты прикрывают район от обычных сил на станции.
   Региональная дипломатия
   Саудовская Аравия и Ирак подписали пакт о ненападении в марте 1989 года во время визита короля Фахда в Багдад. В феврале 1989 года был образован Совет сотрудничества арабских государств с Ираком, Египтом, Северным Йеменом и Иорданией в качестве членов. Его заявленная цель заключается в содействии экономическому сотрудничеству, но, как представляется, он вряд ли сможет избежать участия в политических и военных делах. Последний нерешенный элемент египетско-израильского мирного договора был урегулирован в сентябре 1988 года, когда международные арбитры вынесли решение по линии границы на Синае и определили, что спорный район Таба на побережье залива Акаба является египетской территорией. Израиль покинул этот район 15 марта 1989 года после согласования условий компенсации.
   Ливан
   В Ливане продолжались межфракционные бои, главным образом между поддерживаемыми Сирией мусульманскими группировками и подразделениями христианской армии генерала Ауна, в настоящее время в некоторой степени поддерживаемыми Ираком, который, по слухам, снабжал Ливанские силы ракетами FROG. Лига арабских государств приняла меры, направленные на урегулирование гражданской войны. Планируется создать силы наблюдателей Лиги арабских государств численностью около 300 человек, в состав которых войдут офицеры из Алжира, Иордании, Кувейта, Судана и Туниса, однако, несмотря на визит Генерального секретаря Лиги арабских государств и двух арабских генералов, в Ливан еще не направлены наблюдатели. Лига арабских государств также создала комитет в составе короля Саудовской Аравии Фахда, короля Марокко Хасана и президента Алжира Чадли Бенджедида для оказания ливанскому парламенту помощи в проведении конституционных изменений, которые привели бы к избранию ливанского президента.
   Израиль
   Интифада на Западном берегу и в Секторе Газа продолжается, но без ожидаемого роста использования палестинцами, огнестрельного оружия и взрывчатых веществ, который остается на очень низком уровне. Последствия для израильских сил обороны включают: потерю обычной подготовки, проблемы морального духа, увеличение сроков службы резервистов, рост воинственности еврейских поселенцев и дополнительные расходы.
   Силы и вооружение
   Запасы наземных сил в регионе практически не изменились. Алжир и Кувейт получили советские БМП-2, их первые БМП, а Кувейт получил 100 египетских БТР Fahd. ОАЭ теперь включает РСЗО в свою артиллерию (бельгийская LAU-97 и итальянская FIROS-25), а также закупил около 45 огневых постов Milan. Оман приобрел ЗРК Javelin из Великобритании. Приобретения Саудовской Аравии включают в себя дополнительные БТР M-113, некоторые из 460 БТР V-150 Commando для Национальной гвардии, и мы смогли переоценить запасы AM-10P, которые показывают увеличение на 150 БМП. Программа модернизации танков М-60А1 продолжается, еще 100 танков модернизированы до стандарта А3, но решение (несмотря на жесткое лоббирование) по следующему поколению ОБТ еще не принято. Иорданский танковый холдинг был увеличен с подарком из Ирака 90 ОБТ Chieftain MBT и 19 легких танков Scorpion, захваченных из Ирана, некоторые из которых находятся на заключительных этапах войны. Израиль добавил около 50 танков Merkava 2 в свой холдинг.
   Были некоторые незначительные военно-морские события. Мы пересмотрели марокканскую военно-морскую запись, чтобы показать правильные имена классов. Новыми поставками в этом году стали четвертый LV Rabhi из Испании и два патрульных корабля El Wacil из Франции. В ноябре 1988 года Джибути приняла поставку трех прибрежных патрульных судов из Великобритании. Египет вывел две советские подводные лодки. Оман ввел в эксплуатацию четвертый ракетный корабль Dhofar, вооруженный ПКР Exocet. Сообщается, что Саудовская Аравия разместила заказ на два, возможно, три французских фрегата. Израиль ввел в эксплуатацию четыре патрульных корабля Super-Dvora и два ракетных корабля Sa'ar, которые были проданы и доставлены в Чили. Несмотря на то, что заказ на корветы нового многоцелевого назначения продолжается, решение о заказе субмарин замены остается на балансе.
   Большинство других изменений в прошлогодних списках ВВС являются результатом переоценки. Сирия сформировала еще две эскадрильи с дополнительными самолетами МиГ-29. В ЙАР добавили эскадрилью ИБ МиГ-17. Египет получил истребители F-16С на оперативную службу.
   Расходы на Оборону
   Помощь США по-прежнему идет преимущественно Египту и Израилю. На 1990 финансовый год администрация запросила $2,3 млрд. в виде комбинированной военной, экономической и продовольственной помощи Египту; из них $1,3 млрд. предназначены для финансирования иностранных военных продаж (FMSF) и будут направлены на программы модернизации бронетехники и военно-воздушных сил. В 1990 ф.г. запрос США на $1,2 млрд в виде экономической помощи, которые будут предоставляться на безвозмездной основе. FMSF Израиля в основном связана с закупками самолетов F-15 и F-16, финансированием разработанного и изготовленного Израилем танка Merkava (из которых недавно был представлен ряд прототипов Mark 3) и модернизацией флота; $400 млн будет потрачено на закупку в Израиле. Кроме того, США выделят на продолжение совместных исследований по программе АТБР Arrow ATBM в рамках программы СОИ.
   Экономические проблемы, как и в предыдущих изданиях военного баланса, привели к политическому беспорядку с потенциальными последствиями для внутренней безопасности в ряде стран региона. Алжир осенью 1988 года стал центром массовых беспорядков, вызванных ростом цен на продовольствие и дефицитом, нехваткой жилья и безработицей; аналогичные беспорядки и акции протеста прошли весной 1989 года в Иордании. В течение всего года в Египте также происходили социальные волнения, которые укрепили решимость правительства (в отличие от Иордании) не проводить предлагаемые МВФ финансовые реформы (и, таким образом, сократить продовольственные субсидии) из-за опасений крупных беспорядков. Тунис также стал свидетелем спорадических антиправительственных демонстраций. Сирия с долгами более $ 20 млрд находится на грани экономической катастрофы, усугубляемой ее участием в Ливанской войне.
   Даже производители нефти сталкиваются с серьезными экономическими проблемами. Иран, принятие резолюции 598 ООН которого было спровоцировано главным образом экономическим давлением, в настоящее время сталкивается с крупными программами социальной и промышленной реконструкции, а также перевооружением сил, на которые было выделено 2,4 млрд. долл. Однако у Ирана, в отличие от Ирака, который должен около $50 млрд странам западного и восточного блока (и еще $40 млрд-арабским соседям, что вполне может привести к дефолту), проблемы с долгом есть. Тем не менее, вооруженные силы Ирака лучше, чем иранские (и сильнее и лучше подготовлены, чем они были в 1980 году, когда началась война в Персидском заливе). Он также имеет более высокие доходы от нефти - около $ 14 млрд в 1988 году.
   Несмотря на продолжающийся дефицит нефти, страны Персидского залива, особенно Саудовская Аравия, тем не менее продолжают расширять и модернизировать свои военные запасы. Однако эти программы, как правило, не отражаются в официальных бюджетах, а вместо этого устанавливаются на основе сложных бартерных, встречных, взаимозачетных и обратных соглашений, точные значения которых неизвестны. В целом только Израиль демонстрирует значительное увеличение бюджетных расходов на оборону, в некоторой степени вызванное Интифидой на Западном берегу и в Секторе Газа.
   ALGERIA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 138,500 (70,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 18 months Army only; 6 months basic, 1 year civil projects.
RESERVES: Army: some 150,000, to age 50.

ARMY: 120,000 (70,000 conscripts).
   6 Military Regions.
   3 armd bde (3 tk, 1 mech, 1 arty, 1 engr bn, recce coy, ATK, log bn).
   5 mech bde (3 mech, 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 engr recce, ATK, log bn).
   12 mot inf bde (3 inf, 1 tk, 1 arty, 1 engr bn).
   1 AB/SF bde.
   31 indep inf, 4 para bn.
   5 indep arty, 5 AD bn.
   4 engr bn.
   12 coy desert troops.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 900: 113 T-34 (in store), 390 T-54/-55, 300 T-62, 100 T-72.
LIGHT TANKS: 50 PT-76.
RECCE: 140 BRDM-2.
AIFV: 780: 690 BMP-1, 90 BMP-2.
APC: 860: 460 BTR-5O/-6O, 400 BTR-152.
TOWED ARTY: 440: 122mm: 100 M-1931/37, 70 M-1974, 40 M-30, M-1938, 170 D-30; 152mm: 60 M-1937.
SP ARTY: 152mm: 50 ISU-152.
MRL: 78: 122mm: 48 BM-21; 240mm: 30 BM-24.
MORTARS: 120mm: M-43.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (some SP/BRDM-2), Milan.
RCL: 168: 82mm: 110 T-21; 107mm: 58 B-11.
ATK GUNS: 206: 57mm: 156 ZIS-2; 100mm: 50 SU-100 SP.
AD GUNS: 855: 14.5mm: 65 ZPU-2/-4; 20mm: 100; 23mm: 65 ZU-23; 37mm: 150; 57mm: 75; 85mm: 20; 100mm: 150; 130mm: 20 towed;
   210 ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: SA-7/-8/-9.

NAVY: 6,500.
BASES: Mers el Kebir, Algiers, Armaba.
SUBMARINES: 4:
   2 Sov Kilo with 533mm TT.
   2 Sov Romeo with 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 3 Mourad Reis (Sov Koni) with 2x12 ASWRL.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 25:
CORVETTES: 3 Rais Hamidou (Sov Nanuchka) with 4 SS-N-2C Styx SSM.
MISSILE CRAFT: 11 Osa with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
PATROL 11.
   OFFSHORE: 1 local-built PFO.
   INSHORE: 9 El Yadekh PCI, 1<.
MINE WARFARE: 2 Sov T-43 MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 3:
   2 Kalaat beni Hammad LST, capacity 240 tps, 10 tk, 1 hel.
   1 Polnocny LSM, capacity 100 tps, 5 tk.
COAST GUARD (under naval control): 550; 16 PFI<.

AIR FORCE: 12,000; 299 cbt ac, 48 armed hel.
FGA: 5 sqn:
   1 with 18 Su-7BM;
   3 with some 54 MiG-23BN/MF;
   1 with some 12 Su-20.
FIGHTER: 9 sqn:
   8 with 98 MiG-2IMF/bis;
   1 with 18 MiG-25.
COIN: 2 sqn with 21 CM-170.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 7 MiG-25R.
MR: 1 sqn with 3 F-27-400 (Navy-assigned, may not be operational), 2 Super King Air B-200T.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 6 An-12, 2 An-26, 10 C-130H, 3 C-130H-30, 3 SE-210, 1 Aero Commander 680 (survey);
VIP: 1 Il-18, 2 Falcon 20, 4 Gulfstream (1 -II, 3 -III), 4 Super King Air.
HELICOPTERS: 9 sqn:
   ATTACK: 4 sqn with 48 Mi-24.
   TRANSPORT: (hy): 3 sqn with 38 Mi-8 (some may be armed), 4 Mi-6; (med): 2 sqn with 42 Mi-4, 5 SA-330; (lt): 6 Hughes 269A, 4 SA-313, 6 SA-316.
TRAINING: 10 MiG-15, 4 MiG-15U, 55 MiG-17, 9 MiG-21U, 9 MiG-23U, 3 MiG-25U, 19 Yak-11, 6 T-34C.
AD: GUNS: 3 bde+: 85mm, 100mm, 130mm.
SAM: 3 regt: 1 with 30 SA-2, 2 with SA-6, 21 SA-3.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: (Ministry of Interior): 23,000; 44 Panhard AML-60/M-3 APC.

* Excl eqpt and internal security costs.

   BAHRAIN
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 3,350.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 2,300.
   1 bde: 2 inf bn, 1 tk, 1 SFbn, 1 armd car sqn, 2 arty, 2 mor bty.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 54 M-60A3.
RECCE: 8 Saladin, 22 AML-90, 8 Ferret.
APC: some 10 AT-105 Saxon, 93 Panhard M-3.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 8 lt; 155mm: 12 M-198.
MORTARS: 81mm:
ATGW: 60 BGM-71A TOW.
RCL: 106mm: 30 M-40A1, 120mm: 6 MOBAT.
SAM: 40+ RBS-70, 60+ Stinger.

NAVY: 600.
BASE: Jufair (Manama).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 13:
CORVETTES: 2 Al Manama (FRG Lurssen 62-m) with 2x2 MM-40 Exocet SSM, 1 Dauphin II hel (AS-15ASM).
MISSILE CRAFT: 4 Ahmad el Fateh (FRG Lurssen 45-m) with 2x2 MM-40 Exocet.
PATROL: 2 Al Riffa (FRG Lurssen 38-m PFI). 5PFI<.

AIR FORCE: 450; 12 cbt ac, 12 armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 8 F-5E, 4 F-5F.
TRANSPORT: 2 Gulfstream (1 -II, 1 -III; VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 12 AB-212 (8 armed), 4 Bo-105 (armed).
AAM: AIM-9P3 Sidewinder.
ASM: AS-11, AS-12.

PARA-MILITARY: (Ministry of Interior):
COAST GUARD 250; 6 PCI<, plus boats; 3 landing craft, 1 hovercraft.
POLICE 2,000; 2 Sikorsky S-76, 2 Hughes 500, 2 Bell 412, 1 Bell 205 hel.

* Excl a subsidy from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) of $1.8 bn (1984-94) shared between Bahrain and Oman,
t Total population


   DJIBOUTI
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services, incl Gendarmerie, form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 4,230, incl 1,200 Gendarmerie.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 2,870.
   1 inf bn, incl mor, ATK pi.
   1 armd sqn.
   1 spt bn.
   1 border cdobn.
   1 AB coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: some 10 BRDM-2, 4 AML-60, 16 AML-90, 15 M-11 VBL.
APC: 18 BTR-60.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 9.
RL: 70: 73mm, 89mm.
RCL: 106mm: 18.
AD GUNS: 20mm: M-693 SP; 23mm: 4 ZSU-23-2.

NAVY: 60.
BASE: Djibouti.
PATROL CRAFT, INSHORE: 5<.

AIR FORCE: 100; no cbt ac or armed hel.
TRANSPORT: 2 N-2501, 2 C-212. lt 1 Cessna 206G, 1 SOCATA 235GT.
HELICOPTERS: 1 SA-330, 2 SA-313, 3 AS-355.

PARA-MILITARY: 1,200. GENDARMERIE: 1 bn, 1 patrol boat.

FOREIGN FORCES:
FRANCE: 3,900, incl 1 inf, 1 Foreign Legion regt, 1 FGA sqn.

   EGYPT
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 448,000 (some 250,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 3 years (selective).
RESERVES: 604,000. Army 500,000; Navy 14,000; Air Force 20,000; AD 70,000.

ARMY: 320,000 (perhaps 180,000 conscripts).
2 Army HQ:
   4 armd div (each with 2 armd, 1 mech bde).
   6 mech inf div (type: 2 mech, 1 armd bde).
   2 inf div (each with 2 inf, 1 mech bde).
1 Republican Guard armd bde.
1 indep armd bde.
4 indep inf bde.
3 indep mech bde.
2 airmobile, 1 para bde.
14 indep arty bde (2 more to form).
2 hy mor bde.
7 cdo gp.
2 SSM regt (1 with FROG-7, 1 with Scud B).
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 2,425: 1,040 T-54/-55, 600 T-62, 785 M-60A3.
LIGHT TANKS: 15 PT-76.
RECCE: 300 BRDM-2.
AIFV: 470: 220 BMP-1, some 250 BMR-600P.
APC: 2,925: 650 Walid, 200 Fahd, 1,075 BTR-50/OT-62, 1,000 M-113A2.
TOWED ARTY: 1,120: 122mm: 48 M-31/37, 400 M-1938, 220 D-30; 130mm: 440 M-46; 152mm: 12 M-1937 (ML-20).
SP ARTY: 122mm: some mod D-30; 155mm: 140 M-109A2.
MRL: about 300: 80mm: VAP-80-12; 122mm: BM-21/as-Saqrr-18/-30; 130mm: M-51/Praga V3S; 132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16; 240mm: BM-24.
MORTARS: 82mm (some 50 SP); 120mm: 450 M-43; 160mm: 100 M-43; 240mm: 24 M-1953.
SSM (launchers): 12 FROG-7, 9 Scud B.
ATGW: 1,000 AT-1 Snapper, AT-2 Swatter, 1,400 AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2); 220 Milan; 200 Swingfire; 520 TOW (incl 52 on M-901 (M-113)SP).
RCL: 107mm: B-11.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: ZPU-2/-4; 23mm: 460 ZU-23-2, 110 ZSU-23-4 SP, 45 Situar, 37mm: 150 M-1939; 57mm: 300 S-60, 40 ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: 1,200 SA-7/'Ayn as-Saqr, SA-9, some M-54 SP Chaparral.

NAVY: 18,000 (10,000 conscripts).
BASES: Alexandria (HQ, Mediterranean), Port Said, Mersa Matruh, Safaqa, Port Tewfig; Hurghada (HQ, Red Sea).
SUBMARINES: 10:
   10 Sov Romeo (4 Ch Type-033) with 533mm TT (some to be modernized).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 6:
DESTROYER: 1: El Fateh (UK 'Z') (trg), with 4 114mm guns, 5 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 5:
   2 El Suez (Sp Descubierta) with 2x3 ASTT, 1x2 ASW RL; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   2 Al Zaffir (Ch Jianghu) with 2 ASW RL; plus 2 CSS-N-2 (HY-2) SSM.
   1 Tariq (UK Black Swan) (trg) with 3x2 102mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 43:
MISSILE CRAFT: 25:
   6 Ramadan with 4 Otomat SSM.
   7 Sov Osa-I with 4 SS-N-2A Styx SSM.
   6 October< with 2 Otomat SSM.
   6 Ch Hegu (Komar-type)< with 2 HY-2 SSM.
PATROL 18:
   8 Ch Hainan PFC with 4 ASW RL.
   6 Sov Shershen PFI with BM-21 (8-tube) 122mm or 1 BM-24 (12-tube) 240mm MRL, or 4 533mm TT.
   4 Ch Shanghai II PH.
MINE WARFARE: 9:
MINELAYERS: 3 SRN-6 hovercraft.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 6:
   4 Aswan (Sov Yurka) MSC.
   2 El Fayoum (Sov T-301) MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 3 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 100
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 7: 1 submarine spt, 2 trg, 4 tugs.

NAVAL AVIATION:
HELICOPTERS: 5 Sea King Mk 47 (ASW, anti-ship); 12 SA-342 (anti-ship).

COASTAL DEFENCE: (Army tps, Navy control):
GUNS: 130mm: SM-4-1.
SSM: 30 Otomat and Samlet.

AIR FORCE: 30,000 (10.000 conscripts); (incl AD comd)t 517 cbt ac, 72 armed hel.
BOMBERS: 1 bde (sqn): 9 Tu-16.
FGA: 10 sqn:
   1 with 16 Mirage 5E2.
   2 with 33 F-4E.
   4 with 76 Ch J-6.
   1 with 15 Alpha Jet.
   2 with 30 MiG-17.
FIGHTER: 6 bde (16 sqn):
   5 sqn with 83 MiG-21.
   3 with 52 Ch J-7.
   2 with 33 F-16A.
   2 with 34 F-16C.
   3 with 54 Mirage 5E.
   1 with 16 Mirage 2000C.
RECCE: 20: 1 bde (2 sqn) with 6 Mirage 5SDR, 14 MiG-21.
EW: 2 EC-130H (ELINT), 4 Beech 1900 (ELINT) ac; 4 Commando 2E hel (ECM).
AEW: 5 E-2C.
MR: 1 Beech 1900C. One more due, late 1989.
HELICOPTERS: 15 sqn:
   ATTACK: 2 bde (4 sqn) with 72 SA-342L (42 with HOT, 30 with 20mm gun).
   TACTICAL TRANSPORT: 3 bde: hy: 6 Mi-6, 15 CH-47C; med: 27 Mi-8, 24 Commando (5 -1 tpt, 17 -2 tpt, 2 -2B VIP); lt 12 Mi-4, 17 UH-12E(trg).
   TRANSPORT: 2 bde (3 sqn) with 19 C-130H, 5 An-12, 5 DHC-5D, 1 C-123B.
TRAINING: incl 29 Alpha Jet MS-1, 20 L-29, 36 Gumhuria, 10 PZL-104, 5 Mirage 5SDD, 7 F-16B, 6 F-16D, 3 Mirage 2000B, 40 EMB-312, 4 DHC-5, 16 JJ-6.
AAM:AA-2 Atoll, Matra R-530, AIM-7F Sparrow, R-550 Magic, AIM-9P3/-9L Sidewinder.
ASM: AS-1 Kennel, AS-5 Kelt, AGM-65 Maverick, AS-30, AS-30 Laser, HOT.

AIR DEFENCE COMMAND: 80,000 (50,000 conscripts).
   5 div: regional bde.
   100 AD arty bn.
   65 SA-2, 60 SA-3 bn.
   12 bty Improved HAWK
   12 bty Crotale
EQUIPMENT:
AD GUNS: some 2,500: 20mm, 23mm, 37mm, 40mm, 57mm, 85mm; 100mm.
SAM: 858+: some 400 SA-2, 240 SA-3, 60 SA-6, 108 Improved HAWK, ~50 Crotale, SA-9.
AD SYSTEMS:some 18 Amoun (Skyguard/RlM-7F Sparrow - some 36 twin 35mm guns, some 36 quad SAM).
   Sinai-23 short-range AD: Dassault 6 SD-20S radar, 23mm guns, Ayn as-Saqr SAM.

FORCES ABROAD: Advisers in Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Somalia, Zaire.

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD: ~2,000.
   PATROL, INSHORE: 20: 9 Swifiships, 5 Nisr, 6 Crestitalia PFI<, plus boats.
CENTRAL SECURITY FORCES: 300,000.
NATIONAL GUARD: 60,000: Walid APC.
FRONTIER CORPS: 12,000.

FOREIGN FORCES:
PEACE-KEEPING (MFO): some 2,600. Contingents from the US, Canada, UK, Colombia, Fiji, France, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand and Uruguay.

* Est military debt of $11-12 bn, of which some $3 bn is owed to the USSR and $4.6 bn to the US.
t Egypt operates five exchange rates; for consistency, the official rate is used here.
%Most Soviet eqpt now in store, incl MBT and some cbt ac.


   IRAN
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 604,500.
Terms of service: 24-30 months.
RESERVES: Army: 350,000, ex-service volunteers.

ARMY: 305,000 (perhaps 250,000 conscripts),
   ~3 Army HQ.
   4 mech div (each 3 bde: 9 armd, 18 mech bn).
   6 inf div.
   1 AB bde.
   1 SF div (4 bde).
   Some indep armd, inf bde (incl 'coastal force').
   12 SAM bn with Improved HAWK.
RESERVES: 'Qods' bn (ex-service).
EQUIPMENT: t
MBT: perhaps 500: T-54/-55, Ch T-59, T-62, some T-72, Chieftain Mk 3/5, M-47/-48, M-60A1.
LIGHT TANKS: 30 Scorpion.
RECCE: 130 EE-9 Cascavel.
AIFV: 100+ BMP-1.
APC: perhaps 500: BTR-50, BTR-60, M-113.
ARTY: perhaps 800.
   TOWED: 105mm: M-101, 36 Oto Melara; 130mm: 125 M-46/Type-59; 155mm: 50 M-71, 18 FH-77B, ~130 GHN-45, G-5 reported;
   203mm: some 30 M-115.
   SP: 155mm: some 100 M-109A1; 175mm: 30 M-107; 203mm: 10 M-110.
MRL: 107mm: Ch Type-63; 122mm: 65 BM-21; 122mm: BM-11.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: M-304.2-in.; 120mm: 3,000.
SSM: Scud; local manufacture msl reported incl ~50 Oghab, Nazeat, Shahin 2.
ATGW: ENTAC, SS-11/-12, Dragon, TOW.
RCL: 57mm; 75mm; 106mm: M-40A/C.
AD GUNS: 1,500: 23mm: ZU-23 towed, ZSU-23-4 SP; 35mm: 92; 37mm; 57mm: ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: 30 Improved HAWK, SA-7, some 200 RBS-70.
AIRCRAFT: incl 40+ Cessna (185, 310, O-2A), 2 F-27, 5 Shrike Commander, 2 Falcon 20.
HELICOPTERS: ~100 AH-1J (attack); ~10 CH-47C (hy tpt); ~250 Bell 214A; ~35 AB-205A; ~15 AB-206.

REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS (Pasdaran Inqilab):
GROUND FORCES: some 250,000; 11 Regional Commands: loosely org in bn of no fixed size, grouped into perhaps
   40 inf, 5 armd div and many indep bde, incl inf, armd, para, SF, arty incl SSM, engr, AD and border defence units, serve indep or with Army;
   small arms, spt weapons from Army; controls Basij (see Para-military) when mob.
NAVAL FORCES: strength unknown, five island bases (Al Farsiyah, Halul (oil platform), Sirri, Abu Musa, Larak);
   some 40 Swedish Boghammar Marin boats armed with ATGW, RCL, machine guns. Italian SSM reported.
   Controls coast defence elm incl arty and CSS-N-2 (HY-2) Silkworm SSM in at least 3 sites, each 3-6 msl.
MARINES: 3 bde reported.
AIR FORCES: forming. 60 Ch J-7 (AD), 10 J-6 (trg) reported. Also to have AD role in static defence of major installations.

NAVY: 14,500, incl naval air and marinesf
BASES: Bandar Abbas (HQ), Bushehr, Kharg, Bandar-e-Anzelli, Bandar-e-Khomeini, Chah Bahar (building).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 8:
DESTROYERS: 3:
   1 Damavand (UK Battle) with 4x2 SM-1 (boxed) SSM, 2x2 114 m m guns; plus 1x3 AS mor.
   2 Babr (US Sumner) with 4x2 SM-1 SSM (boxed), 2x2 127mm guns; plus 2x3 ASTT.
FRIGATES: 5:
   3 Alvand (UK Vosper Mk 5) with 1x5 Sea Killer SSM, 1x3 AS mor, 1 114mm gun.
   2 Bayandor (US PF-103).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 34:
MISSILE CRAFT: 10 Kaman (Fr Combattante II) PFM fitted for Harpoon SSM.
PATROL INSHORE: 24: 3 Kaivan, 3 Parvin PCI, 3 Ch Chaho PFI, plus some 15 hovercraft< (about half serviceable).
MINE WARFARE: 3: 2 Shahrokh MSC, 1 Harischi MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 7:
   4 Hengam LST, capacity 9 tk, 225 tps, 1 hel.
   3 Iran Hormuz 24 (Korean) LST, capacity 8 tk, 140 tps.
   Plus craft: 4 LCT.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 8: 1 Kharg AOR, 2 Bandar Abbas AOR, 1 repair, 2 water tankers, 2 accommodation vessels.

MARINES: 3 bn.

NAVAL AIR
: 11 armed hel.
ASW: 1 hel sqn with ~3 SH-3D, 6 AB-212 ASW.
MCM: 1 hel sqn with 2 RH-53D.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 4 Commander, 4 F-27, 1 Mystere-Falcon 20 ac; AB-205, AB-206 hel.

AIR FORCE: 35,000; Some 121 cbt ac (est numbers serviceable in brackets; total 70); no armed hel4
FGA: 8 sqn:
   4 with some 35 (20) F-4D/E;
   4 with some 45 (20) F-5E/F.
   24 Ch J-6 reported.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 15 (5) F-14.
MR: 2 (1) P-3F.
RECCE: 1 sqn (det) with some 5 F-5, 3 RF-4E.
TANKER/TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 4 Boeing 707.
TRANSPORT: 5 sqn: 9 Boeing 747F, 10 Boeing 707, ~20 C-130E/H, 9 F-27, 3 Commander 690, 3 Falcon 20.
HELICOPTERS: 2 AB-206A, 39 Bell 214C, 10 CH-47, 2 S-61A.
TRAINING: incl 26 F-33A/C Bonanza, 7 T-33, 46 PC-7. 5-6 EMB-312 (15 on delivery).
SAM: 5 sqn with 30 Rapier, 25 Tigercat, 50 HQ-2J (Ch version of SA-2).
AAM:AIM-54 Phoenix, AIM-9 Sidewinder, AIM-7 Sparrow.
ASM: AS-12 Bullpup, AGM-84 Harpoon.

FORCES ABROAD:
LEBANON: Revolutionary Guard 2,000 reported.

PARA-MILITARY:
BASIJ 'Popular Mobilization Army' volunteers, mostly youths: strength has been as high as 1 million during periods of offensive operations.
   Org in up to 500 300-350-man 'bn' of 3 coy, each 4 pi and spt; small arms only. Not currently embodied for mil ops.
GENDARMERIE: (45,000 incl border guard elm); Cessna 185/310 lt ac, AB-205/-206 hel, patrol boats, 96 coastal, 40 harbour craft f
HOME GUARD: some 2.5 million reported, controlled by Revolutionary Guard Corps.
TRIBAL GUARDS: some 40 units reported forming.
KURDS: Kurdish Democratic Party armed wing PeshMerga, ~12,000.

OPPOSITION:
KURDISH COMMUNIST PARTY OF IRAN (KOMALA): strength unknown.
DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF IRANIAN KURDISTAN (DPIK): perhaps 10,500.
NATIONAL LIBERATION ARMY (NLA): ~4,500. Org in bde, armed with captured eqpt. Iraq based.

FOREIGN FORCES:
UNITED NATIONS (UNIIMOG): Observers from 26 countries.

* Defence costs are highly tentative. Excl also barter, countertrade agreements. Value unknown.
t Population estimates tentative due to unknown casualties in Iraq-Iran War.
f State or operability of all eqpt unknown.


   IRAQ
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,000,000.
Terms of service: 21-24 months.
RESERVES: People's Army (Para-military) ~850,000

ARMY: 955,000 (incl perhaps 480,000 recalled reserves).
   7 corps HQ.
   7 armd/mech div.
   42 inf div.
   6 Presidential Guard Force div (3 armd, 1 inf, 1 cdo bde).
   20+ SF bde.
   2 SSM bde.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 5,500: 2,500 T-54/-55/M-77, 1,500 Ch T-59/-69, 1,000 T-62, ~500 T-72, 30 Chieftain Mk 3/5, M-60, M-47.
LIGHT TANKS: 100 PT-76.
RECCE: incl BRDM-2, 300 AML-60/-90, FUG-70, ERC-90, MOWAG Roland, EE-9 Cascavel, 300 EE-3 Jararaca.
AIFV: 1,000 BMP.
APC: ~7,100: BTR-50/-60/-152, OT-62/-64, M-113A1, Panhard M-3, EE-11 Vrutu.
TOWED ARTY: some 3,000: 105mm: M-56 pack; 122mm: D-74, D-30, M-1938; 130mm: M-46, Type 59-1; 152mm: M-1937, M-1943;
   155mm: 100 G-5, 200 GHN-45, M-114.
SP ARTY: ~500: 122mm: 2S1; 152mm: 2S3; 155mm: M-109, 85 AUF-1 (GCT).
MRL: 200: incl 122mm: BM-21; 127mm: 60 ASTROS II; 128mm: Ababil; 132mm: BM-13/-16; 180mm: ASTROS SS-40; 300mm: ASTROS SS-60.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm; 160mm.
SSM (launchers): 30 FROG-7; Sijil; 36 Scud B; Abbas; Husayn.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2), AT-4 Spigot reported, SS-11, Milan, HOT (incl 100 VC-TH).
RCL: 73mm: SPG-9; 82mm: B-10; 107mm.
ATK GUNS: 85mm; 100mm towed; 105mm: 100 JPz SK-105 SP.
HELICOPTERS: some 160 armed hel.
   ATTACK: ~40 Mi-24 with AT-2 Swatter, 20 SA-342; 13 SA-321, some with Exocet ASM; some 30 SA-316B with AS-12 ASM;
   some 56 Bo-105 with AS-11 ATGW.
   TRANSPORT: hy: 15 Mi-6; med: 100 Mi-8/-17, 6 AS-61, 10 SA-330, 20 Mi-4;
   lt: 3 A-109, 5 AB-212, 40 Bell 214 ST, Hughes 300C/500D/530F (30/30/26), 30 SA-342.
AD GUNS: 4,000: 23mm: ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939 and twin; 57mm: incl ZSU-57-2 SP; 85mm; 100mm; 130mm.
SAM: 120 SA-2, 150 SA-3, SA-6, SA-7, SA-9, SA-13, SA-14, 60 Roland.

NAVY: 5,000.
BASES: Basra, Umm Qasr.
FRIGATES: 5:
   4 Hittin (It Lupo) with 1 AB-212 hel (ASW), 2x3 ASTT; plus 8 x Otomat SSM, 1 127mm gun.f
   1 Khaldoum (trg) with 2 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 38:
CORVETTES: 4:
   2 Hussa el Hussair (It Assad, hel version) 1 AB-212 hel, 2 Otomat SSM.
   2 Hussa el Hussair (It Assad) with 6 Otomat, 2x3 ASTT f
MISSILE CRAFT: 8 Nisan 7 (Sov Osa) with 4 SS-N-2 Styx SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 6 Sov P-6< with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL, INSHORE: 20: 3 SO-1, 4 Nyryatll, 13<.
MINE WARFARE: 8: MCM: 2 Sov T-43 MSC, 6 MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 6:
   3 Al Zahraa LST, capacity 250 tps, 20 tk, 1 hel.
   3 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 180 tps, 6 tk.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 3: 1 Agnadeen (It Stromboli) AORJ, 2 Presidential yachts.

AIR FORCE: 40,000 incl 10,000 AD personnel; some 513 cbt ac, no armed hel.
BOMBERS: 2 sqn:
   1 with 8 Tu-22; 1 with 8 Tu-16, 4 Ch H-6D.
FGA: 17 sqn:
   4 with 70 MiG-23BN;
   4 with 64 Mirage F-1EQ5/EQ5-200 (EQ5 with Exocet, -200 with in-flight refuelling);
   2 with 30 Su-7;
   3 with 50 Su-20;
   2 with 30 Su-25;
   2 with 40 Ch J-6.
FIGHTER: ~16 sqn with some 25 MiG-25, some 80 Ch J-7, 70 MiG-21, 30 Mirage F-1EQ, 18 MiG-29.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 8 MiG-25.
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn: 10 An-2; 6 An-12, 6 An-24; 2 An-26, 19 Il-76, 19 Il-14.
TRAINING: incl MiG-15/-17/-21/-23U, Su-7U, 16 Mirage F-1BQ, 50 L-29, 40 L-39, 50 PC-7, 15 PC-9, 88 EMB-312, 35 AS-202.
AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, AA-2/-6/-7/-8.
ASM: AS-30 Laser, Armat, Exocet AM-39, C-601, AS-4, AS-5.

PARA-MILITARY:
FRONTIER GUARDS.
SECURITY TROOPS: 4,800.

OPPOSITION
:
KURDISH DEMOCRATIC PARTY (KDP): 15,000 (30,000 more in militia); small arms, some Iranian lt arty, MRL, mor, SAM-7.
KURDISH WORKERS' PARTY: strength unknown; breakaway from KDP, anti-Iran, Syria-based.
PATRIOTIC UNION OF KURDISTAN (PUK): 4,000 cbt (plus 6,000 spt).
   11 T-54/-55 MBT; 450 mor (60mm, 82mm, 120mm); 106mm RCL; some 200 12.5mm AA guns; SA-7 SAM.
SOCIALIST PARTY OF KURDISTAN: ~1,500.
SUPREME ASSEMBLY OF THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION (SAIRI): claims 3 div; Iran based; Iraqi dissidents, ex prisoners of war.

FOREIGN FORCES:
EGYPT: some 2,000 advisers and technicians
UNITED NATIONS (UNIIMOG): Observers from 26 countries.

* Based on official information; previous editions of The MilitaryBalanceused commercial banking estimates,
t Population estimates tentative due to unknown casualties in Iraq-Iran War.
% Remain in Mediterranean awaiting delivery.


   ISRAEL
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 141,000 (110,000 conscripts).
Terms of Service: officers 48 months, men 36 months, women 24 months (Jews and Druze only, Christians, Circassians and Muslims may volunteer).
   Annual trg as reservists there after to age 54 for men, 24 (or marriage) for women.
RESERVES: 504,000: Army 494,000; Navy 1,000; Air Force 9,000.
   Most serve at least one month a year, ideally 2 weeks trg and 2 weeks op duty (border def, security at military installations or administrative duties).
   Male commitment until 54 in reserve op units may be followed by voluntary service in the Civil Guard or Civil Defence.

STRATEGIC:
It is widely believed that Israel has a nuclear capability. Delivery means could include ac, Jericho 1 SSM (range up to 450 km),
   Jericho 2 (tested in 1987 and 1988, range ~1,500 km) and Lance, with up to 100 warheads.

ARMY: 104,000 (88,000 conscripts, male and female); some 598,000 on mob.
2 corps HQ
3 armd div (2 armd, 1 arty bde, plus 1 armd, 1 mech inf bde on mob).
5 mech inf bde (incl 1 para trained, 1 based on NCO school,
   1 Nahal (Noar Halutzi Lohen Pioneer Fighting Youth, combines military duty with establishing agricultural settlements).
3 Regional inf div HQ (border def).
1 Lance SSM bn.
3 arty bn with 203mm M-110 SP.
RESERVES:
9 armd div (2 or 3 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 arty bde).
1 airmobile/mech inf div (3 bde manned by para trained reservists).
10 regional inf bde (each with own border sector).
4 arty bde.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 3,794 incl 1,080 Centurion, 561 M-48A5, 1,300 M-60/A1/A3, 138 T-54/-55 mod, 115 T-62, 600 Merkava I/II.
RECCE: about 400 incl Ramta RBY, M-2/-3, BRDM-2.
APC: 5,900 M-113, ~80 Nagmashot, BTR-50P, 4,400 M2/-3 halftrack.
TOWED ARTY: 579: 105mm: 70 M-101; 130mm: 109 M-46; 122mm: 100 D-30; 155mm: 300 Soltam M-68/-71, M-839P/-845P.
SP ARTY: 781: 155mm: L-33, 75 M-50, 530 M-109A1/A2; 175mm: 140 M-107; 203mm: 36 M-110.
MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 160mm: LAR-160; 240mm: BM-24; 290mm: MAR-290.
MORTARS: 81 mm; 120mm: ~230; 160mm (some SP).
SSM: 12 Lance, Jericho 1.
ATGW: TOW (incl Ramta (M-113) SP), Dragon, Picket 81 mm, Mapats.
RL: 82mm: B-300.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 250.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 850; 30 M-163 Vulcan/M-48 Chaparral gun/msl systems; 23mm: ZU-23-2 and 50 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm and 40mm: L-70.
SAM: Redeye.

NAVY: 9,000 (3,000 conscripts), 10,000 on mob.
BASES: Haifa, Ashdod, Eilat.
SUBMARINES: 3 Gal (UK Vickers) SSC with Mk 37 HWT, Harpoon USGW.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 61:
MISSILE CRAFT: 26 PFM:
   2 Aliya with 4 Harpoon, 4 Gabriel SSM, 1 AB-206 Kiowa hel (OTHT).
   2 Romat with 8 Harpoon, 8 Gabriel.
   8 Reshef with 2-4 Harpoon 4-6 Gabriel,
   10 Mivtachl Sa'ar with 2 Harpoon, 3-5 Gabriel.
   3 Shimrit (US Flagstaff!) PHM with 4 Harpoon, 2 Gabriel.
   1 Dvora (with 2 Gabriel).
PATROL, INSHORE: 35:
   4 Super-Dvora PFI<
   31 Dabur FFI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 6 LCT, 3 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 2: 1 patrol craft depot ship, 1 tpt.

MARINES: Naval cdo: 300.

AIR FORCE: 28,000 (19,000 conscripts, mainly in AD), 37,000 on mob; 574 cbt ac (plus perhaps 102 stored), 77 armed hel.
FGA/FIGHTER: 16 sqn:
   2 with 53 F-15 (35 -A, 2 -B, 11 -C, 5 -D);
   4 with 112 F-4E (plus 13 in store);
   4 with 95 Kfir C2/C7 (plus 75 in store);
   6 with 145 F-16 (62 -A, 8 -B, 51 -C, 24 -D).
FGA: 4 sqn with 121 A-4H/N, plus 14 in store.
RECCE: 14 RF-4E, plus 10 in store.
AEW: 4 E-2C.
EW: 6 Boeing 707 (ELINT/ECM), 9 King Air (3 RU-21A, 6 RC-21D; ELINT), 2 EV-1E (ECM), 4 IAI 201 (ELINT).
MR: 5 IAI-1124 Seascan.
TANKER: 5 Boeing-707, 2 KC-130H.
TRANSPORT: 1 wing: incl 3 Boeing 707, 24 C-130H, 10 IAI-201, 3 IAI-1124, 20 C-47.
LIAISON: 4 Islander, 16 Dornier (6 Do-27, 10 DO-28D); 45 Cessna (41 U-206C, 2 172, 2 180); 12 Queen Air 80.
TRAINING: incl 27 TA-4H/J, 5 Kfir TC2/7, 16 F-4E, 80 Magister/Tzugit, 35 Super Cub, 6 Cessna 152.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 3 sqn: 2 with 42 AH-1G/S, 1 with 35 Hughes 500MD;
   SAR: 1 sqn with 2 HH-65A;
   TRANSPORT: hy: 35 CH-53 (2 -A, 33 -D); med: 9 SA-321, 17 UH-1D; lt: 58 Bell 212, 40 Bell 206A.
SAM: 15 bn with MIM-23 HAWK/Improved HAWK.
AAM:AIM-9/-9L Sidewinder, AIM-7E/F/M Sparrow, R-530, Shafrir, Python III.
ASM: AGM-45 Shrike, AGM-62A Walleye, AGM-65 Maverick, AGM-78D Standard, Luz, Gabriel III (mod).

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER POLICE: 6,000; BTR-152APC.
COAST GUARD: 3 US PBR, 3 other patrol craft.

  JORDAN
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 85,250.
Terms of service: voluntary; conscription, 2 years authorized.
RESERVES: 35,000 (all services): Army 30,000 (obligation to age 40).

ARMY: 74,000.
2 armd div (each 2 tk, 1 mech inf, 1 AD bde).
2 mech inf div (each 2 mech inf, 1 tk, 1 AD bde).
1 indep Royal Guards bde.
1 SF bde (3 AB bn).
16 arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 1,131: 260 M-47/-48A5 (in store), 218 M-60A1/A3, 360 Khalid/Chieftain, 293 Tariq (Centurion).
LIGHT TANKS: 19 Scorpion.
RECCE: 144 Ferret.
APC: 1,235 M-113, 34 Saracen, some EE-11 Urutu.
TOWED ARTY: 95: 105mm: 36 M-101A1; 155mm: 38 M-114 towed, 17 M-59; 203mm: 4 M-115 towed (in store).
SP ARTY: 152: 155mm: 20 M-44, 108 M-109A2; 203mm: 24 M-110.
MORTARS: 81mm, 107mm, 120mm.
ATGW: 330 TOW (incl 50 SP), 310 Dragon.
RL: 112mm: APILAS.
RCL: 106mm: 330.
AD GUNS: 408: 20mm: 100 M-163 Vulcan; 23mm: 44 ZSU-23-4 SP; 40mm: 264 M-42 SP.
SAM: SA-7B2, 20 SA-8, 20 SA-13, SA-14, Redeye.

NAVY (Coast guard): 250.
BASE: Aqaba.
PATROL boats only.

AIR FORCE: 11,000; 111 cbt ac, 24 armed hel.
FGA: 4 sqn with 59 F-5 (52 -E, 7 -F).
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 34 Mirage F-1 (15 -CJ, 17 -EJ, 2-BJ).
OCU: 1 sqn with 14 F-5A, 4 F-5B.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 6 C-130 (2-B,4 -H), 3 C-212A.
VIP: 1 sqn with 2 Boeing 727, 2 Gulfstream III (VIP) ac; 4 S-76 hel.
HELICOPTERS: 5 sqn:
   ATTACK: 2 with 24 AH-1S (with TOW ASM; for eventual transfer to Army);
   TRANSPORT: 1 with 14 S-76, 3 S-70; 1 with 12 AS-332M. 1 with 8 Hughes 500D.
TRAINING: 16 C-101, 18 Bulldog, 18 Piper (12 Warrior-II, 6 Seneca-II).
AD: 2 bde: 14 bty with 126 Improved HAWK.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.
ASM: TOW.

PARA-MILITARY:
PUBLIC SECURITY FORCE: 4,000.
CIVIL MILITIA 'PEOPLE'S ARMY': 15,000+; men 16-65, women 16-45.
PALESTINE LIBERATION ARMY (PLA): 1,200; 1 bde (PLO but firmly supervised by Jordanian Army).

* Excl some D 25 m for 'internal security, civil defence and Islamic Justice'.


   KUWAIT
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 20,300.
Terms of service: conscription, 2 years (university students, 1 year).
RESERVES: Obligation for 14 years following regular/conscript service. 1 month annual trg.

ARMY: 16,000.
   2 armd bde (each with 2 armd regt, 1 arty bn; 1 with 1 mech inf, 1 with 2 mech inf regt).
   1 mech inf bde (with 1 armd, 3 mech inf/cdo regt, 1 arty bn).
   1 arty bde with 1 SP arty regt, 1 SSM bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 275: 70 Vickers Mk 1, 40 Centurion, 165 Chieftain.
RECCE: 100 Saladin, 90 Ferret.
AIFV: 50 BMP-2.
APC: 200 M-113, 130 Saracen, 100 Fahd.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 16 M-101; 155mm: 40 AMX Mk F-3.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 36 M-109A2.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 40.
SSM: 12 FROG-7 launchers.
ATGW: 20 HOT, TOW/Improved TOW (incl 56 M-901 SP), 200 Vigilant.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 24.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 2,100.
BASES: El Adami (HQ), Shuwaikh.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 23:
MISSILE CRAFT: 8:
   2 Istiqlal (FRG Lurssen FPB-57) PFM with 2 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
   6 Al Boom (FRG Lurssen TNC-45) with 2 MM-40 Exocet.
PATROL 15 inshore<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 4 LCM.
SUPPORT SHIPS: 3 coastal transports.
MARINES: 2 bn cdo.

AIR FORCE: 2,200 (exd foreign personnel); 36 cbt ac, 18 armed hel.
FGA: 24 A-4KU, 3 TA-4KU in store. To be replaced by F-18.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 20 Mirage F-1CK, 4 F-1BK.
   12 Lightning, 4 Hunter in store.
COIN/TRAINING: 1 sqn with 12 Hawk Mk 64.
TRANSPORT: 2 DC-9, 4 L-100-30, 2 DHC-4; used also in civil role.
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn:
   ATTACK: 12 SA-342K (with HOT), 6 AS-332 (with Exocet, anti-ship).
   TRANSPORT: 10 SA-330.
   TRAINING: 8 SA-342 hel.
AD: KAFAD (Kuwait Air Forces and Air Defence): integrated AD control system plus;
   1 SAM bn (6 bty each 2 x 1 2 Improved HAWK) SA-6 reported.
AAM: R-550 Magic, Super R-530, AIM-9 Sidewinder.
ASM: AS-11/-12, HOT, AM-39 Exocet.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL GUARD: 1,500: Palace, Border Guard; 20 V-150, 62 V-300 Commando APC.
CIVIL DEFENCE: forming.

* Excl eqpt and internal security budget.

   LEBANON
No worthwhile economic or demographic data is available. However, the government announced a defence budget of some $26 m in 1988.
Despite the apparent break-up of the Lebanese Armed Forces all units are still paid from national funds and we continue to list these under national Armed Forces. Only the main Militia groups have been listed.

NATIONAL ARMED FORCES:

ARMY: some 21,000.
10 nominal bde.
Christian: (12,000): 6 bde, 1 Ranger, 1 SF bn.
Muslim: (8,000): 3 bde (2 Sunni, 1 Shi'a (AMAL)).
Druze: (1,000): 1 bde (may be divided amongst militia units).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 105 M-48 A1/A5.
LIGHT TANKS: 32 AMX-13 (with 75mm or 105mm guns).
RECCE: 65 Saladin, 5 Ferret.
APC: 300 M-113, Saracen, 20 VAB-VTT.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 15 M-101A1; 122mm: 18 M-102, M-1938/D-30; 130mm: M-46; 155mm: 36 M-50, M-114, M-198.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 25.
ATGW: ENTAC, Milan, 20 BGM-71A TOW.
RL: 85mm: RPG-7; 89mm: M-65.
RCL: 106mm: M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 20mm; 23mm: ZU-23; 30mm: towed; 40mm: 15 M-42 SP.

NAVY: some 500 (Christian controlled)
BASE: Juniye.
PATROL CRAFT: Inshore: 4
   1 Tarablous, 3 Byblos<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 2 Fr LCT.

AIR FORCE: Some 800 (mainly Christian).
1 operational base (Juniye-Jubayl highway strip).
EQUIPMENT (operational status doubtful):
FIGHTERS: 6 Hunter (5 F-70, 1 T-66); (5 operational).
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn:
ATTACK: 4 SA-342 with SS-11/-12 ASM;
TRANSPORT: (med): 7 AB-212, 9 SA-330; (lt): 2 SA-313, 7 SA-316.
TRAINING: 5 Bulldog, 3 CM-170.
TRANSPORT: 1 Dove, 1 Turbo-Commander 690A.

PARA-MILITARY:
INTERNAL SECURITY FORCE (Ministry of Interior): 8,000 (largely ineffective: some law courts closed); 30 Chaimite APC.
CUSTOMS: 2 Tracker, inshore patrol craft<.

MILITIAS:
CHRISTIAN:
LEBANESE FORCES MILITIA: 6,000 active, 35,000 all told.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT:some 150 T-55, M-48.
LIGHT TANKS: some 5 AMX-13.
APC: M-113.
ARTY: some 100: 105mm, 122mm: 25; 130mm; 155mm: 10.
MORTARS: 60mm, 81mm, 120mm.
SSM: FROG-7 reported.
RL: RPG-7.
AD: 12.7mm, 14.5mm, 23mm guns.
PATROL CRAFT: 1 Tracker, 2 Dvora PFI<.
THE PHALANGE: 800-1,000 active, 6,000 all told.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: some M-113
MORTARS: some 120mm
RL: RPG-7.
MBT: 70 T-34, T-54/-55.
APC:BTR-60/-152.

MUSLIM:
AMAL (Shi'a, pro-Syria): ~5,000 active; some 15,000 all told.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: M-48, 50 T-54/-55.
RECCE: Saladin.
APC: 25 VAB, BTR, M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm, 122mm, 130mm, 155mm.
MRL: 107mm, 122mm.
MORTARS: 81mm, 120mm.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 107mm.
ATK GUNS: 85mm, 100mm.
AD GUNS: 23mm ZU-23.
SAM: SA-7.
HIZBOLLAH ('The Party of God'; Shi'a, fundamentalist, pro-Iranian): ~3,500 active; some 15,000 all told.
EQUIPMENT incl: APC, arty, RL, RCL,ATGW, (AT-3Sagger) AA guns.

DRUZE:
PROGRESSIVE SOCIALIST PARTY (PSP): ~5,000 active; perhaps 12,000 all told.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 70 T-34, T-54/-55.
APC: BTR-60/-152.

SOUTH LEBANESE ARMY (SLA): ~1,200 active, 1,500 militia; (mainly Christian, some Shi'a and Druze, trained, equipped and supported by Israel, occupies the 'Security Zone' between Israeli border and area controlled by UNIFIL)
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 40 M-4, 30 T-54/-55.
APC: M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 122mm: M-1938; 130mm: M-46; 150mm: Fr, 155mm: M-198.

FOREIGN FORCES:
UNITED NATIONS (UNIFIL): some 5,500; Contingents from France, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Norway and Sweden.
SYRIA: 30,000.
   BEIRUT: 1 armd bde, 5 SF regt.
   METN: 1 mechinf bde.
   BEKAA: Div HQ, 1 inf bde, 1 mech inf bde.
   TRIPOLI: 3 SF regt, elm PLA.
IRAN: Revolutionary Guards: some 2,000 including locally recruited Shi'ia Lebanese.
PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION (PLO):*
   All significant factions of the PLO and other Palestinian military groups are listed here irrespective of the country in which they are mainly based.
   Strengths are estimates of the number of active 'fighters', these could be trebled perhaps to give an all-told figure.
   FATAH: 4,500.
   PLF (Palestine Liberation Front, Al-Abas): ~300.
   FATAH (dissidents, Abu Musa): 1,000.
   PFLP (Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine, Habash): 900.
   PFLP (GC) (Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine, (General Command), Jibril): 500.
   SAIQA (al-Khadi): 600.
   PSF (Popular Struggle Front, Ghisha): ~500.
   DFLP (Democratic Front for Liberation of Palestine, Hawatmah): ~1,000.
   FRC (Fatah Revolutionary Council, Abu Nidal): E 500.

* The Palestine Liberation Army is not part of the PLO but is the name for Palestinian units either forming part of, or closely monitored by, host nation armed forces, 3-4 bde (Jordan, 2-3 Syria, possibly Iraq).

   LIBYA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 85,000.
Terms of service: selective conscription, term varies: 2 to 4 years.
RESERVES: People's Militia, some 40,000.

ARMY: 55,000.
1 tk div (2 tk, 1 mech bde, 1 arty regt).
2 mech inf div (each 2 mech, 1 tk bde, 1 arty regt).
38 tk bn.
54 mech inf bn.
1 National Guard bde.
41 arty, 2 AD arty bn.
12para/cdobn.
7 SSM bde.
3 SAM bde.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,800 T-54/-55/-62 (incl 1,200 in store), 180 T-72.
RECCE: 240 BRDM-2, 380 EE-9 Cascavel.
AIFV: 520 BMP.
APC: 690 BTR-50/-60, OT-62/-64, 100 EE-11 Urutu, Fiat 6614.
TOWED ARTY: some 800: 105mm: some 60 M-101; 122mm: 60 D-74, 330 D-30; 130mm: 350 M-46.
SP ARTY: some 382: 122mm: 126 2S1; 152mm: 48 2S3, DANA; 155mm: 190 Palmaria, 18 M-109.
MRL: some 540: 107mm: Type 63; 122mm: BM-21/RM-70; 130mm: 36 M-51.
MORTARS: 82mm, 120mm, 160mm, 240mm.
SSM launchers: 30 FROG-7, 75 Scud B.
ATGW: 3,000: Vigilant, Milan, AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM SP).
RCL: 106mm: 220.
AD GUNS: 600: 23mm: ZSU-23-2, ZSU-23-4 SP, 30mm: M-53/59 SP; 40mm: L/70; 57mm: 92 S-60.
SAM: SA-7/-9/-13, 24 quad Crotale.
HELICOPTERS:
   TRANSPORT: 13 CH-47.
   LIAISON: 5 AB-206, 11 SA-316.
DEPLOYMENT:
Aouzou Strip: ~2,000; 2 mech bn, 2 tk bn: T-55 tk, BMP-1 MICV, MRL, AD guns, SAM, 5 SF-260W ac, 3 Mi-24 hel.

NAVY: 8,000 incl Coast Guard.
BASES: Tarabulus, Benghazi, Darnah, Tubruq, Sidi Bilal, Al Khums.
SUBMARINES: 6 Al Badr (Sov Foxtrot) with 533mm and 406mm TT.
FRIGATES: 3:
   1 Dat Assawari (UK Vosper Mk 7) with 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 Otomat SSM, 1 114mm gun.
   2 Al Hani (Sov Koni) with 4 ASTT, 2 ASW RL; plus 4 SS-N-2C SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 55:
CORVETTES: 7:
   4 Assad al Tadjer (It Assad) with 4 Otomat SSM; plus 2x3 ASTT (A244S LWT).
   3 Eanal Gazala (Sov Nanuchka) with 2x2 SS-N-2C Styx SSM,
MISSILE CRAFT: 24
   9 Sharara (Fr La Combattante-II) with 4 Otomat SSM;
   12 Al Katum (Sov Osa-II) with 4 SS-N-2C SSM;
   3 Susa( with 8 SS-12M SSM.
PATROL CRAFT: 24:
   COASTAL: 1 Tobruk with 1 102mm gun.
   INSHORE: 23: 4 Ganan, 14 Tu SAR-33, 3 Benina, 2<.
MINE WARFARE: 8 Ras al Gelais (Sov Natya MSO).
AMPHIBIOUS: 5.
   2 Ibn Ouf LST, capacity 240 tps, 6 tk, 1 hel.
   3 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 180 tps, 6 tk.
   Plus craft; 16 LCT.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 4: 1 log spt, 1 tpt, 1 salvage, 1 diving spt.

NAVAL AVIATION:
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn:
   1 with 25 Mi-14 (ASW);
   1 with 12 SA-321 (ASW, SAR).

AIR FORCE: 22,000 (incl Air Defence); (some Syrian pilots, Soviet, North Korean and Pakistani instructors);
   515 cbt ac, 16 armed hel (many ac in store, number nk)
BOMBERS: 1 sqn with 4 Tu-22.
FGA: 5 sqn and 1 OCU: 45 Mirage 5D/DE, 10 Mirage 5DD, 12 Mirage F-1AD, 28 MiG-23BN, 8 MiG-23U, 90 Su-20, ~6 Su-24.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn and 1 OCU: 12 Mirage F-1ED, 6 F-1BD, 75 MiG-21, 131 MiG-23 Flogger E, 55 MiG-25 Foxbat A, 3 MiG-25U.
COIN: 1 sqn with 30 J-1 Jastreb.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 6 Mirage 5DR, 7 MiG-25R.
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn: 16 An-26, 12 Lockheed (7 C-130H, 2 L-100-20, 3 L-100-30), 20 G-222, 5 Il-76, 18 L-410.
HELICOPTERS: 9 sqn:
   ATTACK: 2 with 16 Mi-24.
   TRANSPORT: hy: 1 with 6 CH-47C; med: 1 with 7 Mi-8, 1 AS-61 (VIP); lt: 1 with 4 SA-316.
TRAINING: 4 sqn:
   2 with 89 Galeb G-2 ac;
   2 with 20 Mi-2 hel;
   trg units with 2 Tu-22, 70 L-39ZO, 77 SF-260WL.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-6 Acrid, AA-7 Apex, AA-8 Aphid, R-550 Magic.
ASM: AT-2 Swatter ATGW (hel-borne).

AIR DEFENCECOMMAND:
'Senezh' AD comd and control system.
3 SA-5A bde: each 2 bn of 6 launchers, some 4 AD arty gun bn; radar coy.
3 Regions: 2 bde each 18 SA-2; 2-3 bde each 12 twin SA-3; ~3 bde each 20-24 SA-6/-8.
Some 2,000 Soviet personnel reportedly man the SA-5 complexes. Expatriates form a large proportion of the technical support staff.

PARA-MILITARY:
LIWA HARIS AL-JAMAHIRIYA (Revolution Guard Corps). T-54/-55/-62, armd cars, APC, MRL, ZSU-23-4, SA-8 (Army inventory).
ISLAMIC PAN-AFRICAN LEGION, some 2,500: reports of 1 armd, 1 inf, 1 para/cdo bde. Some 75 T-54/-55, EE-9 AIFV, BTR-50/-60 (Army inventory).
PEOPLE'S CAVALRY FORCE:parade unit.
CUSTOMS/COAST GUARD (Naval control): 14 PFI, 7 P a ; counted in naval totals.

OPPOSITION:
National Front for the Salvation of Libya: 2,000: (bases in Chad and Cameroon reported).

* Excl E $5.0 bn military and commercial debt to the USSR

   MAURITANIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 11,000.
Terms of service: conscription (2 years) authorized.

ARMY: 10,400.
6 Military Regions; 2 indep sectors.
2 inf bn.
1 para bn.
1 arty bn.
1 Camel Corps.
3 armd recce sqn.
4 AD arty bty.
1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 15 EBR-75 hy, 39 AML-60, 14-90, 12 M-3A1.
APC: 40 M-3 half-track.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 18 LH-105, 10 M-101A1/HM-2; 122mm: 12 D-74, 18 D-30.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 30 AR-51/-EC1A-L/SL.
ATGW: 4 Milan.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 75mm: M-20; 106mm: 45 M-40.
ATK GUNS: 85mm: 12 D-44.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm; 23mm: 50 ZU-23-2; 37mm: 25 M-1939; 100mm: 12 KS-19.
SAM:SA-7.

NAVY: 350.
BASES: Nouadhibou.
PATROL CRAFT, INSHORE: 8:
   1 Dix Juillet (Fr Patra) PCI.
   3 El Vaiz (FRG Lurssen 36-m) PFI.
   2 PFI, 2 PCI<.

AIR FORCE: 250; 5 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 5 BN-2 Defender.
MR: 2 Cheyenne II.
TRANSPORT: 1 Gulfstream II, 1 DHC-5D, 2 Skyvan 3M, 1 Cessna F-337.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE 2,200; 6 regional coy (Defence Ministry).
NATIONAL GUARD: 2,800.
BORDER GUARD: 100.
AUXILIARIES: 1,000 (Interior Ministry).

   MOROCCO
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 192,500.
Terms of service: conscription 18 months authorized; most enlisted personnel are volunteers.
RESERVES: 100,000: obligation to age 50.

ARMY: 170,000.
3 Comd (South, Northwest Atlas, Border).
1 mech inf bde HQ.
2 mot inf bde HQ.
1 lt sy bde.
2 para bde.
6 mech inf regt.
2 mot inf regt.
Independent units:
   11 arty gp. 3 mot (camel corps) bn.
   1 AD gp. 3 cav bn.
   7 armd sqn gp. 1 mtn bn.
   41 inf bn. 5 engrbn.
ROYAL GUARD: 1,500,
   1 Royal Guard bn.
   1 Royal Guard cav sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 224 M-48A5.
LIGHT TANKS: 50 AMX-13.
RECCE: 16 EBR-75, 80 AMX-10RC, 190 AML-90, 38 AML-60-7, 40 Eland 90mm.
AIFV: 30 Rate! 20, some 30-90, 30 VAB-VCI.
APC: 420 M-113, 360 VAB-VTT, 70 UR-416, 29 M-3; some 45 OT-62/-64 may be operational.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 30 lt (L-118), 40 M-101, 36 HM2 (Fr M-101A1); 130mm: 18 M-46; 155mm: 20 M-114;
SP ARTY: 155mm: 98 AMX-F3, 44 M-109.
MRL: 122mm: 40 BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 680 (incl 20 VAB SP).
ATGW: Dragon, 80 Milan, TOW.
RL: 66mm: LAW; 88mm: M-20 3.5-in., STRIM-89.
RCL: 75mm: 260 M-20; 90mm: 30 M-67; 106mm: 350 M-40.
ATK GUNS: 90mm: 28 M-56; 100mm: 8 SU-100 SP; 105mm: 90 Steyr SK-105 Kuerassier SP.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 180 ZPU-2, 20 ZPU-4; 20mm: 40 towed, 60 M-163 Vulcan SP; 23mm: 90 ZU-23-2; 37mm: 25 M-38/-39; 100mm: 12 KS-19 towed.
SAM: 37 M-54 SP Chaparral, SA-7.

NAVY: 6,500 incl 1,500 naval infantry.
BASES: Casablanca, Agadir, Al Hoceima, Dakhla.
FRIGATE: 1 Lt Col. Errhamani (Sp Descubierta) with 2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT), 1x2 375mm AS mor, plus 4 x MM-40 Exocet SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 23:
MISSILE CRAFT: 4 Cdt El Khattabi (Sp Lazaga) PFM with 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
PATROL 19:
   COASTAL: 9:
   2 Okba (Fr PR-72) PFC.
   4 LV Rabhi (Sp 58m B-200D) PCC.
   1 Riffi PCC.
   2 El Lahik (Dk 'Osprey') PCC.
   INSHORE: 10 El Wacil (Fr P-32) PFI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 3: Ben Aicha (Fr Champlain BATRAL) LSM, capacity 140 tps, 7 tk.
   Plus craft; 1 LCT
SUPPORT: 2 tpt, 1 ro-ro ferry.

MARINES: 1,500.
1 naval inf bn.

AIR FORCE
: 16,000; 109 cbt ac, 24 armed hel.
FGA: 3 sqn:
   1 with 17 Mirage F-1EH;
   1 with 7 F-5A, 2 F-5B;
   1 with 13 F-5E, 4 F-5F.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 21 Mirage F-1CH.
COIN: 2 sqn:
   1 with 23 Alpha Jet,
   1 with 22 CM-170.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 1 RF-5A, 2 F-5E, 4 OV-10. 2 C-130H with side-looking radar.
EW: 1 C-130 (ELINT), 1 Falcon 20 (ELINT).
TANKER: 1 Boeing 707, 2 KC-130H.
TRANSPORT: 1 Boeing 707, 11 C-130H, 1 Falcon 50 (VIP), 1 Falcon 20, 1 Gulfstream II (VIP), 5 King Air A100, 1 King Air A200, 3 Do-28.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 24 SA-342 (12 with HOT, 12 with cannon).
   TRANSPORT: hy: 7 CH-47; med: 27 SA-330, 24 AB-205A; lt 20 AB-206, 5 AB-212.
TRAINING: 10 AS-202, 2 CAP-10, 4 CAP-230, 10 T-34C.
LIAISON: 2 King Air 200.
AAM: AIM-9B/D/J Sidewinder, R-530, R-550 Magic.
ASM: AGM-65B Maverick (for F-5E).

DEPLOYMENT:
ARMY:
Northwest Atlas: 1 Royal Guard, 1 mtn bn; 1 armd sqn, 1 mech sqn, 1 cav sqn, 1 arty gp.
South: 1 mech inf, 2 motor inf bde: 1 mech inf, 2 motor inf regt; 25 inf, 2 para, 2 Camel Corps bn; 3 lt sy, 4 armd sqn, 1 mech sqn gp;
   4 mech sqn gp (UR-416 APC); 7 arty gp.
Borden 2 mech inf regt; 3 inf, 1 Camel Corps bn; 2 armd sqn, 1 arty gp.

FORCES ABROAD:
EQUATORIAL GUINEA: 360: 1 bn.

PARA-MILITARY: 40,000.
GENDARMERIE ROYALE: 10,000;
   1 bde, 2 mobile gp, air sqn, coast guard unit; 18 boats, 2 Rallye ac; 2 SA-318, 3 SA-315, 3 SA-316, 6 Gazelle, 2 SA-360 SA-330, 6 Puma hel.
FORCE AUXILIAIRE: 30,000 incl Mobile Intervention Corps (5,000).

OPPOSITION:
POLISARIO: Military Wing: Sahrawi People's Liberation Army: 15,000 (perhaps 4,000 active) org in bn.
EQUIPMENT:T-55, T-62 tk; BMP-1, 20-30 EE-9 Cascavel MICV; M-1931/37 122mm how, BM-21 122mm MRL; 120mm, 160mm mor,
   AT-4 Spigot ATGW; ZSU-23-2 23mm SP AA guns; SA-6/-7/-9 SAM.
   (Captured Moroccan eqpt incl AML-90, Eland AFV, Ratel 20, Panhard APC, Steyr SK-105 105mm SP ATK guns.)

* Incl border and internal security costs.

   OMAN
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 25,500 (exd Royal Household tps, but incl some 3,700 foreign personnel).
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 20,000. (Regt are of bn size.)
   1 div HQ.
   2 bde HQ.
   1 armd regt (2 tk sqn).
   2 arty regt, 1 AD bty.
   1 armd recce regt (3 armd car sqn).
   8 inf regt (incl 3 Baluch).
   1 inf recce regt (3 recce coy), 2 indep recce coy.
   1 fd engr regt (3 sqn).
   1 AB regt.
   Musandam Security Force (indep rifle coy).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 6 M-60A1, 33 Qayidal-Ardh (Chieftain).
LIGHT TANKS: 30 Scorpion, 6 VBC-90.
AIFV: 2 VAB PC.
APC: 6 VAB VCI, 15 AT-105 Saxon, Fahd reported.
TOWED ARTY: 63: 105mm: 39 ROF lt; 130mm: 12 M-1946; 155mm: 12 FH-70.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 12 M-109A2.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: 12 M-30 4.2-in.; 120mm: 12.
ATGW: 10 TOW, 50 Milan (incl 2 VCAC).
AD GUMS: 20mm (incl 2 VAB VD); 23mm: 4 ZU-23-2; 40mm: 12 Bofors L/60.
SAM: Blowpipe, 28 Javelin, SA-7.

NAVY: 2,500.
BASES: Seeb (HQ), Wudam (main base), Raysut, Ghanam Island, Alwi.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 12:
MISSILE CRAFT: 4 Dhofar, 1 with 2x3 MM-40, 3 with 2x4 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
PATROL 8: 4 Waft (UK 37-m) PCC, 4 Seeb (UK 25-m) PCI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2:
   1 Nasr el Bahr LST, capacity 240 tps, 7 tk, hel deck.
   1 AlMunassir LST, capacity 200 tps, 8 tk, hel deck.
   Plus craft; 3 LCM.
SUPPORT: 1 tpt.

AIR FORCE: 3,000; 63 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 2 sqn with 18 Jaguar S(O) Mk 1,1 GR1,4 T-2.
FGA/RECCE; 1 sqn with 13 Hunter FGA-73, 4 T-7.
COIN/TRAINING: 1 sqn with 12 BAC-167 Mk 82, 4 AS-202.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn: 1 with 3 BAC-111; 2 with 7 BN-2 Defender/Islander, 15 Skyvan 3M (7 radar-equipped, for MR), 3 C-130H.
HELICOPTERS: 2 med tpt sqn with 20 AB-205,3 AB-206.
AD: 2 sqn with 28 Rapier SAM, Martello radar.
AAM: AIM-9P Sidewinder, R-550 Magic.

ROYAL HOUSEHOLD:
Royal Guard bde.
1 Special Force regt.
Royal Yacht Squadron (based Muscat):
   1 Royal Yacht, 3,800 tonnes.
   1 Royal Yacht spt ship, 11,000 tonnes, 1 hel.
Royal Flight: 1 Boeing-747 SP, 1 DC-8, 2 Gulfstream, 1 Falcon 20 ac; 2 AS-332, 4 SA-330 hel.

PARA-MILITARY:
TRIBAL HOME GUARD (Firqat): 3,500.
POLICE COAST GUARD: 400: 15 AT-105 APC, 11 inshore patrol craft.
POLICE AIR WING: 100: 1 Learjet, 2 Do-228-100, 2 Merlin IVA, 3 DHC-5 Buffalo, 1 Learjet ac, 5 AB-205, 3 AB-206, 6 Bell 214 ST, 1 Hughes 369 hel.

* Excl $1.8 bn military subsidy from GCC between 1984 and 1991, shared with Bahrain.

   QATAR
    []

OTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 7,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 6,000.
   1 Royal Guard regt
   1 tk bn.
   3 mech inf bn.
   1 fd arty regt
   1 SAM bty with Rapier.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 24 AMX-30.
RECCE: 10 Ferret (in store).
AIFV: 30 AMX-10P.
APC: 160 VAB, 8 Commando Mk 3.
TOWED ARTY: 88mm: 8 25-pdr.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 6 Mk F-3.
MORTARS: 81mm.
ATGW: 100 Milan, HOT (incl 24 VAB SP).
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav.
SAM: 12 Rapier, Blowpipe, some 12 Stinger reported.

NAVY: 700 incl Marine Police.
BASE: Doha.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 9:
MISSILE CRAFT: 3 Damsah (Fr Combattante III) with 2x4 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
PATROL INSHORE: 6: 6 Barzan (UK 33-m) PCI.
COAST DEFENCE: 3x4 MM-40 Exocet.

AIR FORCE: 300; 13 cbt ac, 20 armed hel.
FGA: Tac spt unit with 6 Alpha Jet.
FIGHTER: 1 AD sqn with 13 Mirage F-1 (11 -E, 2 -D).
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 1 Boeing 727, 2 Boeing 707.
HELICOPTERS:
ATTACK: 12 SA-342L (with HOT), 8 Commando Mk 3 (AM-39 Exocet).
TRANSPORT: 4 Commando (3 -2A tpt, 1 -2C VIP).
LIAISON: 2 SA-341G.
ASM: AM-39 Exocet.
SAM: 6 Roland.

  SAUDI ARABIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 65,700.
Terms of service: voluntary; conscription, males aged 18-35, authorized.

ARMY: 38,000.
   2 armd bde.
   4 mech bde.
   1 inf bde.
   1 AB bde (2 AB bn, 3 SF coy).
   1 Royal Guard regt (3 bn).
   5 arty bn.
   18 AD arty bty.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 550: 300 AMX-30, 50 M-60A1 (to be A3), 200 M-60A3.
RECCE: 250 AML-60/-90.
AIFV: 500+ AMX-10P.
APC: 1,100 M-113 (incl TOW/comd/spt variants), 30 EE-11 Urutu, 170 Panhard M-3.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: some 24 Model 56 pack, 40 M-101/-102 (in store); 155mm: 70 FH-70, 34 M-198.
SP ARTY: 275: 155mm: 224 M-109, 51 GCT.
MRL: 127mm: 6 ASTROS II.
MORTARS: 107mm: 360 M-30 4.2-in.
SSM: ~9 Ch CSS-2.
ATGW: BGM-71A TOW (incl 200 VCC-1 SP), M-47 Dragon, HOT (incl AMX-10P SP).
RCL: 75mm; 84mm: 450 Carl Gustav, 90mm; 106mm.
AD GUNS: 40mm: M-42 SP; 90mm: 15 M-117.
SAM: Stinger, 500 Redeye.

NAVY: 7,200 (incl 1,200 marines);
BASES: Riyadh (HQ Naval Forces). Western Fleet: Jiddah (HQ), Al Wajh, Yanbu.
   Eastern Fleet: Jabayl (HQ), Al Qatif, Ras Tanura, Al Dammam, Ras al Mishab.
FRIGATES: 8:
   4 Madina (Fr F2000) with 4 533mm, 2 406mm ASTT, 1 AS-365N hel (AS 15 ASM) plus 8 Otomat-2 SSM, 1 100mm gun.
   4 Badr (US Tacoma) (ASUW) with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 13:
MISSILE CRAFT: 9 As Siddiq (US 58m) PFM with 2x2 Harpoon.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 3 Dammam (FRG Jaguar) with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL, INSHORE: 1 US Pegasus PHI, 9 PCI in store.
MINE WARFARE: 4 Addriyah (US MSC-322) MCC
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 4 LCU, 12 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 6: 2 Boraida (mod Fr Durance) AOR, 3 ocean tugs, 1 Royal Yacht.

NAVAL AVIATION:
HELICOPTERS: 24 AS-365N, (4 SAR, 20 with AS-15TTASM).
MARINES: (1,200): 1 inf regt, with 140 BMR-600P.

AIR FORCE: 16,500; 179 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 5 sqn:
   3 with 63 F-5E;
   2 with 20 Tornado IDS.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn with 42 F-15C. Tornado ADV being delivered.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 10 RF-5E.
AEW: 1 sqn with 5 E-3A.
TANKER: 8 KE-3A, 8 KC-130H.
OCU: 2 with 15 F-5B, 22 F-5F, 17 F-15D.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn: 35 C-130 (10 -E, 25 -H), 9 L-100-30HS (hospital ac), 35 C-212.
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn: 1 AB-204,14 AB-205, 25 AB-206B, 29 AB-212, 17 KV-107 (SAR, tpt).
TRAINING: 30 Hawk Mk 60, 30 BAC-167 Mk 80, 30 PC-9, 2 Jetstream 31,13 Cessna 172.
ROYAL FLIGHT:
   ac: 2 BAe 125-800, 2 C-140, 4 CN-235, 1 Gulfstream III, 2 Learjet 35, 2 VC-130H.
   hel: 5 AS-61, AB-212.
AAM: AIM-9J/L/P Sidewinder, AIM-7F Sparrow.
ASM: AGM-65 Maverick.

AIR DEFENCE FORCES: (4,000):
   33 SAM bty:
   16 with 128 Improved HAWK;
   17 with 68 Shahine (Crotale) fire units and AMX-30SA 30mm SP AA guns.
   73 static Shahine fire units as static defence.
EQUIPMENT:
AD GUNS: 20mm: 100 M-163 Vulcan; 30mm: 53 AMX-30SA; 35mm: 180; 40mm: 120 L70(in store).
SAM: 141 Shahine, 128 MIM-23B Improved HAWK.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL GUARD: (Ministry of Interior) 56,000 (10,000 active, 20,000 reserve; 26,000 tribal levies):
   2 mech inf bde each 4 all arms bn.
   1 ceremonial cav sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: 700+ V-150 Commando.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 50 M-102.
RCL: 106mm.
ATGW: TOW.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 30 M-40 Vulcan.
FRONTIER FORCE: 8,500.
COAST GUARD: about 40 PCI<, 24 hovercraft, about 400 boats.
GENERAL CIVIL DEFENCE ADMINISTRATION
   UNITS: 10 KV-107 hel.

FOREIGN FORCES:
PENINSULAR SHIELD FORCE: ~2,000; 1 inf bde (understrength with elm from all GCC states), also incl 1 Saudi bde.

* Indigenous population only.

   SOMALI REPUBLIC
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 65,000.
Terms of service
: conscription (males 18-40), 18 months selective.

ARMY: 61,300 (~30,000 conscripts).
   4 corps, 12 div HQ (formations in name only; below establishment in units, men and eqpt. Bde of bn size).
   4 tk bde.
   45 mech and inf bde.
   4 cdo bde.
   1 SAM bde.
   3 fd arty bde.
   30 fd, 1 AD arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 293: 30 Centurion, 123 M-47, 30 T-34, 110 T-54/-55.
LIGHT TANKS: 10 M-41.
RECCE: 30 BRDM-2, 15 AML-90.
APC: 474: 64 BTR-40/-50/-60, 100 BTR-152, 310 Fiat 6614/6616; BMR-600 reported.
TOWED ARTY: 210: 100mm: 8 M-1944; 105mm: 100 M-56; 122mm: 84 M-1938; 155mm: 18 M-198.
MORTARS: 82mm: 100 M-41; 120mm: 50M-1943.
ATGW: 100Milan, TOW (incl 22 SP).
RL: 89mm: 300 LRAC.
RCL: 106mm: 60 M-40.
AD GUNS: 20mm; 23mm: 50ZU-23-2, 4 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: 180 M-1939/Type 63; 40mm; 57mm: 20 S-60; 100mm: 24 KS-19.
SAM: 40 SA-2 (operational status uncertain), 10 SA-3, 20 SA-7.

NAVY: 1,200.
BASES: Berbera, Mogadishu, Kismayu.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 12:
MISSILE CRAFT: 2 Sov Osa-II PFM with SS-N-2A Styx SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 4 SovMol PFT with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL INSHORE: 1 US Swiftships 32-m, 5 Sov Poluchat<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 1 SovPolnocny LSM, capacity 120 tps, 5 tk. Plus craft; 4 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 2,500; 63 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 3 sqn with 12 MiG-17, 6 Hunter (5 FGA-76, 1 T-77).
FIGHTER: 3 sqn with 8 MiG-21MF, 30 J-6.
COIN: 1 sqn with 5 SF-260W.
FIGHTER/RECCE: 2 Hunter FR76.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 3 An-2, 3 An-24, 1 An-26, 4 BN-2, 6 C-212(2 VIP), 2 G-222.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 6 Mi-4, 2 Mi-8, 5 Agusta-Bell (1 204, 4 212 (2 VIP)).
TRAINING: incl 2 MiG-15UTI, 3 SF-260W, 2 Cessna 150, 10 Yak-11.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.

PARA-MILITARY: 29,500.
POLICE: 8,000; 2Do-28,2 Cessna (1185,1 150) ac.
BORDER GUARDS: 1,500.
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 20,000.

OPPOSITION:
DEMOCRATIC FRONT FORTHE SALVATION OF SOMALIA (DFSS): perhaps 1,200; mainly central Somalia from Mjerten tribe.
SOMALI NATIONAL MOVEMENT (SNM); some 10,000 Northern Somalia from Issaq tribe.

* Much eqpt is unserviceable.

  SUDAN*
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 72,800.
Terms of Service: voluntary.

ARMY: 65,000.
   1 Military District.
   5 Regional Commands ('infantry divisions').
   1 armd div HQ.
   1 Republican Guard bde.
   2 armd bde.
   1 mech inf bde.
   12 inf bde.
   1 AB bde.
   1 air aslt bde.
   3 arty regt.
   1 engr regt.
   2 AD arty bde.
EQUIPMENT:t
MBT: 175: 155 T-54/-55, 20 M-60A3.
LIGHT TANKS: 70 Ch Type-62.
RECCE 6 AML-90, 15 Saladin, 50 Ferret, BRDM-1/-2.
APC: 286: 40 BTR-50/-152, 30 OT-62/-64, 36 M-113, 80 V-100/-150, 100 Walid.
TOWED ARTY: 159: 100mm: 20M-1944; 105mm: 18 M-101 pack; 122mm: 26 Type-60, 24 M-1938, 12 Type-54/D-30;
   130mm: 36 M-46 and Ch Type 59-1; 155mm: 11 MkF-3, 12 M-114A1.
MRL: 122mm: 6 Al Saqr-30, 4 BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm (some SP); 82mm; 120mm: 50 RT-61, 50 M-38/-43.
ATGW: 18 Swingfire.
ATK GUNS: 76 mm: 18 M-1942; 100mm: some M-1944.
AD GUNS: 20mm: M-167 towed, M-163 SP; 23mm: ZU-23-2; 37mm: 120 M-1939/Type-63; 40mm: 60 L/60; 85mm: KS-12; 100mm: KS-19 towed.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY:t 1,800.
BASE: Port Sudan.
PATROL CRAFT: 6: 3 Gihad (Yug 35m) PCI. 3 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 2 Sobat (Yug DTM-221) LCT.

AIR FORCE: 6,000 (incl Air Defence). 45 cbt ac, no armed hel.t
FGA: 2 sqn: 1 with 3 F-5 (1 -E, 2 -F); 1 with 10 J-5.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn: 1 with some 8 MiG-21, 4 MiG-23; 1 with 6 J-6.
COIN: 1 sqn with 3 BAC-167, 3 Jet Provost Mk 55.
MR: 2 C-212.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 4 C-130H, 4 C-212, 1 F-27, 2 Falcon 20, 2 DHC-5D, 6 EMB-110.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 15 IAR/SA-330, 10 Mi-8, 9 Bo-105 (police), 10 Mi-4, 11 AB-212.
TRAINING: incl 4 MiG-151JTI, 4 MiG-21U, 2 JJ-5, 2 JJ-6.
AD: 5 bty SA-2 SAM.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder, AA-2 Atoll

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL GUARD: 500.
BORDER GUARD: 2,500.

OPPOSITION
:
SUDANESE PEOPLE'S LIBERATION ARMY (SPLA): ~30,000 org in bn; mainly small arms plus 60mm mor, 14.5mm AA, SA-7 SAM; arty reported;
   operating only in southern Sudan.

* Excl £S 450 m for internal security.
t Eqpt serviceability questionable.


   SYRIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 404,000.
Terms of service: conscription, 30 months.
RESERVES (to age 45): 400,000. Army 392,000 active; Navy 8,000.

ARMY: 300,000 (130,000 conscripts, 50,000 reservists).
   2 corps HQ:
   5 armd div (each 3 armd, 1 mech, 1 arty bde).
   3 mech div (each 2 armd, 2 mech, 1 arty bde).
   1 SF div (5 para/cdo regt).
   (1 bde in each div at cadre strength).
   2 indep mech inf bde.
   2 arty bde.
   7 indep SF regt.
   3 SSM bde:
   2 (each 3 bn) with-FROG, Scud; 1 (3 bn) with SS-21.
   1 coastal defSSM bde with SS-C-1B Sepal and SS-C-3.
   2 coastal def bde.
RESERVES: 9 mech and inf bde.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 4,050: 2,100 T-54/-55, 1,000 T-62M/K, 950 T-72A72M (some 1,100 in static positions and in store).
RECCE: 500 BRDM-2.
AIFV: 2,350 BMP-1.
APC: 1,450 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, OT-64.
TOWED ARTY: some 2,000; 122mm: 100 M-1931/-37 (in store), ISU-122; M-1938, 500 D-30; 130mm: 650 M-46; 152mm: D-1, M-1937, M-1943;
   180mm: S23.
SP ARTY: 122mm: 72 2S1, 36 T-34/D-30; 152mm: ISU-152, 42 2S3.
MRL: 122mm: 250 BM-21; 220mm: BM-27; 240mm: BM-24.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm, 160mm, 240mm.
SSM launchers: 18 FROG-7, some 18 SS-21, 18 Scud-B; SS-C-1B Sepal, SS-C-3 coastal.
ATGW: 1,300 AT-3Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP), AT-4 Spigot and Milan.
ATK GUNS: 100mm:T-12.
AD GUNS: 1,700: 23mm: ZU-23-2 towed, ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60, ZSU-57-2 SP; 85mm: M-1939/-44; 100mm: KS-19.
SAM: SA-7/-9/-13.

NAVY: 4,000
BASES: Latakia, Tartus, Minet el-Baida.
SUBMARINES: 3: Sov Romeo with 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 2 Sov Petya II with 4 ASW RL, 3 533mm TT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 18:
MISSILE CRAFT: 12 Sov Osa PFMwith 4 SS-N-2 Styx SSM.
PATROL: 6 Sov Zhuk PFI<.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 9:
   1 Sov Natya MSO
   1 Sov T-43, 1 Sonya MSC.
   2 Sov Vanya, 4 YevgenyaMSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 3 Polnocny LSM, capacity 100 tps, 5 tk.

NAVAL AVIATION:
   ASW: 12 Mi-14, 5 Ka-25 hel.

AIR FORCE: 40,000; 499 cbt ac; 110 armed hel.t
FGA: 9 sqn:
   2 with 38 MiG-17 (FGA/trg);
   1 with 15 Su-7;
   2 with 35 Su-20;
   4 with 60 MiG-23BN.
FIGHTERS: 17 sqn:
   2 with 30 MiG-25, 5 MiG-25U;
   8 with 172 MiG-21PF/PFMA/bis;
   5 with 80 MiG-23MF;
   2 with 24 MiG-29.
RECCE: 6 MiG-25R.
TRANSPORT: 6 An-12, 4 An-24, civil-registered ac ind: 4 An-26, 2 Falcon 20, 4 Il-76, 7 Yak-40.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 25 Mi-24, 35 Mi-25, 50 SA-342L (ATK).
   TRANSPORT: 10 Mi-6 (hy), 60 Mi-8, 45 Mi-17, 10 Mi-4, 10 Mi-2.
   ASW (Navy-assigned): 5 Ka-25, 20 Mi-14.
TRAINING: incl 90 L-39, 70 L-29, 20 MBB-223, 10 MiG-17, 20 MiG-21U, 10 Su-7U, Yak-11.
AAM: AA-2Atoll, AA-6Acrid,AA-7Apex, AA-8 Aphid.
ASM: ATGW: AT-2 Swatter, AS-12, HOT.

AIR DEFENCE COMMAND: ~60,000;
21 AD bde (some 95 SAM bty):
   11 (some 60 bty) with some 392 SA-2/-3;
   10 (27 bty) with some 200 SA-6 and AD arty.
   2 SAM regt (each 2 bn of 2 bty) with some 48 SA-5, 60 SA-8.

FORCES ABROAD:
LEBANON: 30,000: 1 div HQ, 1 armd, 2 mech, 1 inf bde, 8 SF regt.

PARA-MILITARY:
REPUBLICAN GUARD (Internal Security Force): 10,000: 1 armd bde (3 armd, 1 mech inf, 1 arty bn) plus some 5 indep units.
DESERT GUARD (Frontier Force): 1,800.
PALESTINE LIBERATION ARMY: 4,500; 2 or 3 bde (in Syria/Lebanon, some Syrian officers);
   90 T-54/-55 MBT; 105mm, 122mm, 152mm how; MRL; AT-3 Sagger ATGW; SA-7 SAM.
GENDARMERIE (Ministry of Interior): 8,000.
BA'ATH PARTY: Workers Militia (People's Army).

FOREIGN FORCES:
UNITED NATIONS (UNDOF): some 1,400, contingents from Austria, Canada, Finland and Poland.
SOVIET UNION: Some 3,000 advisers, mainly in Air Defence.

* Exd some $14-15 bn owed to USSR and Eastern-bloc countries, probably half formilitary eqpt.
t Some ac maybe in store.


   TUNISIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 38,000 (26,400 conscripts).
Terms of service: 12 months selective.

ARMY: 30,000 (25,000 conscripts).
   2 mech bde (each with 1 armd, 2 mech inf bn).
   1 Sahara bde.
   1 para-cdo bde.
   1 armd recce regt.
   1 ATK regt.
   1 fd arty regt.
   1 AD bde (2 AD regt).
   1 engr regt.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 68: 14 M-48A3, 54 M-60A3.
LIGHT TANKS: 104: 40 AMX-13, 10 M-41, 54 Steyr SK-105 Kuerassier.
RECCE: 24 Saladin, 23 AML-90.
APC: 208: 100 M-113A1/-2, 18 EE-11 Urutu, 90 Fiat F-6614.
TOWED ARTY: 123: 105mm: 48 M-101A1/A2; 155mm: 18 M-114A1, 57 M-198.
SP ARTY: 28: 105mm: 10 M-108; 155mm: 18 M-109.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: 12 M-30SP; 120mm: 18.
ATGW: TOW (incl 35 M-901), Milan, SS-11.
RL: STRIM-89.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 26 M-163 Vulcan SP; 37mm: 10 M-1939/Type-55; 40mm: 12 M-42.
SAM: 48 RBS-70, 25 MIM-72 Chaparral.

NAVY: 4,500 (700 conscripts).
BASES: Bizerte, Sfax, Kelibia.
FRIGATE: 1 Pres Bourguiba (US Savage) with 2x3 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 23.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6:
   3 La Galite (Fr Combattante III) PFM with 8 MM-40 Exocet SSM;
   3 Bizerte (Fr P-48) with 8 SS-12 SSM.
PATROL 17:
   COASTAL: 3: 1 Youssef, 2 Hannibal (US Adjutant ex-MSC).
   INSHORE: 14: 2 Gafsa (Ch Shanghai) PFI, 2 Tazarka (UK Vosper 31-m) PCI, 10<.

AIR FORCE: 3,500 (700 conscripts); 43 cbt aircraft, no armed hel.
FGA: 8 F-5E, 4 F-5F.
COIN: 1 sqn with 7 MB-326K, 4 MB-326L.
TRANSPORT: 2 C-130H.
LIAISON: 2 S-208M.
TRAINING: 21 SF-260 (9 -C, 12 -W), 8 MB-326B.
HELICOPTERS: 1 wing with 6 SA-313, 5 SA-316, 6 UH-1 (4-H.2-N), 18 AB-205. 6 AS-350B, 1 AS-365F.
AAM: AIM-9J Sidewinder.

PARA-MILITARY:
PUBLIC ORDER BRIGADE: 3,500: (Ministry of Interior); army trained; 3 bn; EBR-75 AFV; 110 Fiat 6614, V-150 Commando APC.
NATIONAL GUARD: 10,000; incl Coastal Patrol with some 13 craft<.

   UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE)
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:*
ACTIVE: 43,000 (perhaps 30% expatriates).
Terms of service: voluntary.
ARMY: 40,000.
   MoD (Dubai); GHQ (Abu Dhabi).
INTEGRATED:
   1 Royal Guard 'bde'.
   1 armd bde.
   1 mech inf bde.
   2 inf bde.
   1 arty, 1 AD bde (each 3 bn).
NOT INTEGRATED:
   1 inf bde (Dubai)
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 131: 95 AMX-30, 36 OF-40 Mk 2 (Lion).
LIGHT TANKS: 76 Scorpion.
RECCE: 90 AML-90, VBC-40, 70 Saladin (in store), 60 Ferret (in store).
AIFV: 30 AMX-10P.
APC: 428: 30 AMX VCI, VCRTT, 300 Panhard M-3, 20 VAB, 66 EE-11 Uruttr, 12 Saracen (in store).
TOWED ARTY: 77: 105mm: 59 ROF lt, 18 M-56 pack.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 20 Mk F-3.
MRL: 70mm: 18 LAU-97; 122mm: 40 FIROS-25.
MORTARS: 81mm: 80; 120mm: 21.
ATGW: 45 Milan, Vigilant, 25 TOW (incl EE-11 SP), HOT (incl 20 SP).
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 120mm: BAT L-4.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 48 M-3VDA SP; 30mm: 12 GCF-BM2.
SAM: 12 Rapier, 8 Crotale, 140 RBS-70.

NAVY: 1,500.
BASES: Abu Dhabi: Dalma, Mina Zayed; Ajman; Dubai: Mina Rashid, Mina Jabal 'Ali; Fujairah;
   Ras al Khaimah: Mina Sakr, Sharjah: Mina Khalid, Khor Fakkan; Taweela (under construction).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 15:
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Ban Yas (FRG Lurssen TNC-45) PFM with 2x2 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
PATROL, INSHORE: 9: 6 Ardhana (UK Vosper 33-m) PFI, 3<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only, 2 Jananah LCT.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 1 maint ship.

AIR FORCE: (incl Police Air Wing): 1,500; 61 cbt ac, 19 armed hel.
FGA: 2 sqn:
   1 with 14 Mirage IIIEAD;
   1 with 12 Hawk Mk63 (FGA/trg).
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 12 Mirage 5AD.
   Mirage 2000 being delivered.
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 MB-326 (4 -KD, 2-LD), 5 MB-339A.
RECCE: 3 Mirage 5RAD.
EW: 4 C-212.
TRANSPORT: incl 5 BN-2, 4 C-130H, 2 L-100-30, 5 DHC-5D, 1 G-222, 2 Cessna 182.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 2 AS-332F (anti-ship, with Exocet AM-39), 10 SA-342K (with HOT), 7 SA-316/-319 (with AS-11/-12).
   TRANSPORT: 8 AS-332 (2 VIP), 1 AS-350, 13 Bell (3 -205, 5 -206A, 1 -206L, 4 -214), 11 SA-330.
TRAINING: 2 Mirage 5DAD, some 20 PC-7, 8 Hawk Mk61, 6 SF-260TP, 2 MB-339A.
AAM: R-550 Magic.
ASM: HOT, AS-11/-12, AS-15TT, AM-39 Exocet.
AD: AN/TPS-70 radar.
   5 bty Improved Hawk (still forming).

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD (Ministry of the Interior): 28 PCI<, about 32 boats.

* The Union Defence Force and the armed forces of the UAE (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah) were formally merged in 1976; Abu Dhabi and Dubai still maintain a degree of independence.

   YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC (NORTH)
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 36,500 (perhaps 25,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription, 3 years.
RESERVES: Army: perhaps 40,000.

ARMY: 35,000 (perhaps 25,000 conscripts).
   3 armd 'bde' (bn).
   9 inf bde.
   1 mech bde.
   1 SF bde.
   2 AB/cdo bde.
   1 central guard force.
   5 arty bde.
   3 AD arty bn, 2 AD bn (1 with SA-2 SAM).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 664: 100 T-34, 480 T-54/-55, 20 T-62, 64 M-60A1.
RECCE: 50 Saladin, Ferret.
AIFV: 120 BMP-1.
APC: 370: 70 M-113, 300 BTR-40/-50/-60.
TOWED ARTY: 332: 76mm: 200 M-1942; 105mm: 90 M-101; 122mm: 30 M-1931/37; 155mm: 12 M-114.
ASSAULT GUNS: 100mm: 30 SU-100.
MRL: 122mm: 65 BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm; 82mm; 120mm: 50 M-43.
ATGW: 20 Vigilant, 12 TOW, 24 Dragon.
RL: 66mm M72 LAW.
RCL: 75mm: M-20; 82mm.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 52 M-167, 20 M-I63 Vulcan SP; 23mm: 30 ZU-23, ZSU-23-4; 37mm: 150 M-1939; 57mm: 120 S-60.
SAM: SA-2, SA-9.

NAVY: 500.
BASE: Hodeida.
PATROL CRAFT, INSHORE: 8: 3 Sana (US Broadsword 32-m) PFI, 5 Sov Zhuk<.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 3 Sov Yevgenya MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 2 Sov Ondatra LCU, 2 T-4 LCU.

AIR FORCE: 1,000, 83 cbt ac (plus some 40 in store), no armed hel.
FGA: 3 sqn:
   1 with 11 F-5E;
   1 with 10 MiG-17;
   1 with 22 Su-20.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 30 MiG-21.
TRANSPORT: 3 An-24, 3 An-26, 2 C-130H, 2 F-27, 2 Skyvan 3M.
TRAINING: 2 F-5B, 2 MiG-15, 4 MiG-21U, 4 Su-22U, Yak-11.
HELICOPTERS: 2 AB-204, 6 AB-206, 6 AB-212, 1 Mi-4, 23 Mi-8, 2 SA-316.
AD: 12 SAM bty: 4 with SA-2; 3 with SA-3; 5 with SA-6.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AIM-9 Sidewinder.

PARA-MILITARY:
MINISTRY OF NATIONAL SECURITY FORCE: 5,000.
TRIBAL LEVIES: at least 20,000.

   YEMEN: PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (SOUTH)
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 27,500 (perhaps 18,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 2 years.
RESERVES: Army: 45,000.

ARMY: 24,000 (perhaps 18,000 conscripts).
   1 armd bde.
   3 mech bde (status uncertain).
   9 inf regt (some being mech).
   3 arty bde.
   10 arty bn.
   2 SSM bde with FROG-7 and Scud B. EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 480 T-34/-54/-55/-62.
RECCE: 130 BRDM-2.
AIFV:some 150 BMP-1.
APC: 325 BTR-40/-60/-152.
TOWED ARTY: 225: 122mm: 40 M-1938, 120 D-30; 130mm: 65 M-46.
COAST ARTY: 130mm: 36 SM-4-1.
MRL: 155: 122mm: 140 BM-21; 140mm: 15 BM-14.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm: 50 M-43; 160mm.
SSM: launchers: 12 FROG-7, 6 Scud B.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (incl 36 BRDM SP).
RCL: 82mm: 20 B-10; 107mm: B-11.
ATK GUNS: 70: 85mm: 30 D-44; 100mm: 40.
AD GUNS: 200: 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: 30 M-1939; 57mm: S-60; 85mm: 20 KS-12.
SAM: SA-7/-9.

NAVY:* 1,000.
BASES: Aden, Perim Island, Al Mukalla.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 10:
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Sov Osa-II with 4 SSN-2B Styx SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 2 Sov P-6< with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL 2 Sov Zhuk PFI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 5:
   1 Sov Ropucha 1ST, capacity 200 tps, 9 tk.
   4 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 100 tps, 5 tk.

AIR FORCE: 2,500 (may be some Soviet and Cuban aircrew). 114 cbt ac, 12 armed hel.*
BOMBERS: 5 Il-28.
FGA: 4 sqn:
   1 with 25 MiG-17;
   1 with 12 MiG-21;
   1 with 25 Su-20;
   1 with 15 MiG-23BN.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn with 30 MiG-21.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 2 An-12, 6 An-24, 2 An-26, 4 Il-14.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 12 Mi-24, 30 Mi-8, 4 Mi-4, 2 Ka-26.
TRAINING: 3 MiG-15UTI, 2 MiG-21U.
AD: 1SAM regt: 6 bty SA-2,3 bty SA-3, SA-6 reported.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.
ASM: AT-2 Swatter, AT-6 Spiral.

PARA-MILITARY:
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 15,000.
PUBLIC SECURITY FORCE: 30,000 (increasing); 6 PFI<.

FOREIGN FORCES:
Cuba: 500.

* Eqpt totals are of doubtful reliability, as is serviceability.

Sub-Saharan Africa


   Peace Processes
   Angola/Namibia
   The most significant development in the year has been the conclusion of treaties between Angola, Cuba and South Africa designed to produce an Angolan/Namibian settlement based on the implementation of UN Resolution 435 in conjunction with a phased withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola. The settlement has required a pull-out of South African troops from Angolan territory and, as a preliminary to their eventual complete withdrawal, a reduction of South African forces in Namibia to 1,500, confined to two bases at Oshivelo and Grootfontein, by 1 July 1989. Both these have been effected. Cuban troops in Angola were required both to withdraw progressively northwards and, in a phased programme, to pull out altogether by 1 July 1991.By 1June 1989 most, if not all, Cuban troops were believed to have redeployed north of the 13th Parallel and total Cuban strength in Angola had been reduced by some 10,000 to about 40,000 men.
   Two UN groups have been established: the UN Angolan Verification Mission (UNAVM), with military observers from ten countries, is monitoring the Cuban withdrawal; and the UN Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) is tasked with supervising a demilitarized zone along the Namibia-Angola border and monitoring the transition to Namibian independence - including elections currently scheduled for 1 November 1989. The UNTAG force, originally planned to be 7,500 strong, was implemented at a strength of only 4,600 because of budgetary pressures and comprises infantry battalions from Finland, Kenya and Malaysia, supported by British signal troops and Australian engineers.
   Delays in setting-up and deploying the force meant that only the support contingents were in place by the implementation date of 1April/Shortly after this, some 500 armed SWAPOguerrillas crossed into Namibia from Angola, contrary to the agreement, for purposes which remain obscure. This disrupted the transition process by provoking the deployment of South African troops from the camps to which they had withdrawn prior to returning to South Africa. After some fighting, in which SWAPO suffered casualties, UN troops established 'safe' rendezvous to which a few SWAPO forces reported, while the remainder withdrew to Angola. The programme now appears to be back on track, although some concerns remain about the role of former members of the Koevoetthe South West African counter-insurgency unit, who appear to be taking an active part in policing although the unit has nominally been disbanded. UNITA was not involved in the peace process, but in June 1989 at a meeting organized by President Mobuto of Zaire it met the Angolan government and established the basis for a reconciliation.
   Mozambique
   In Mozambique, however, while there are grounds for some optimism regarding settlement of the internal struggle, resolution may still remain distant. South Africa has reaffirmed the Nkomati Accord and thus, at least officially distanced itself from any support of the RENAMO rebels; there are reported contacts between the Mozambican government and RENAMO; and the Bush Administration is keen to follow up its success in Angola-Namibia by similarly brokering a settlement in Mozambique. As yet, however, RENAMO remains active. Zimbabwean and Malawian forces are still deployed in Mozambique keeping lines of communication open, but the Tanzanian detachment has been withdrawn.
   The Horn of Africa
   There are also prospects of progress towards peace in the Horn of Africa. In Ethiopia the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF), after considerable success in wresting territory from government control, and the Tigre People's Liberation Front (TPLF) have agreed to hold talks with the government which survived an attempted army coup in May 1989 and the subsequent purge of the higher echelons of the armed forces. In Sudan a bloodless military coup succeeded in June 1989. The new regime has instituted a cease-fire and seems more deterDownloaded by [Johns Hopkins University] at 06: 34 09 January 2015 mined to negotiate a settlement of the SPLA revolt in the southern provinces than its predecessor, but dialogue with the rebels has not been taken up as quickly as expected.
   Military Developments
   There have been few developments in the armed forces of the Sub-Saharan region. While some new aircraft have been delivered, most of the changes noted in this edition could have been effected more than twelve months ago and represent revisions rather than acquisitions. The South African Air Force now has some 27 Cheetah (locally modified Mirage) in service. A further South African development with considerable potential significance is the successful test of the booster stage of a rocket, thought to be part of the development of an IRBM (possibly in co-operation with Israel). Angolan aircraft holdings now include MiG-17 FGA and additional MiG-21 fighters. The Nigerian Air Force's MB-339AN trainers have a COIN capability, as do some 16 Bo-105D helicopters shown in the SAR role last year. Burkina Faso's SF/260 aircraft also have a COIN capability. Botswana has acquired nine BAC-167 Mk 83 COIN aircraft. Togo now has eight CM-170, four in the COIN role and four trainers.
   Defence Spending
   There has been an overall downwards trend for defence expenditure in the region over the last two years, both in local currency terms and, more markedly, in dollar terms, the latter emphasized by the continuing depreciation of currencies in the region against the dollar. The sole exceptions have been South Africa and Zimbabwe. While South Africa's increasing isolation affected its economy, which registered only limited growth, defence spending has continued to rise - by 9% in real terms in 1988 and with an 8% increase planned for 1989. The cost of replacing equipment, however, is becoming prohibitive, though the 1977 arms embargo has led to the establishment of a broad-based arms industry which has gained a foothold in the export market. Zimbabwe has curbed its defence allocations in real terms in the current fiscal year. The more significant defence spenders have either kept a check on, or reduced, allocations. Mozambique has allocated some $115 m to defence in 1989, about half what it spent three years earlier, while Nigeria kept defence allocations for 1989 level with 1988 in local currency terms, but this represents almost a 30% reduction when converted to nominal dollar terms. A similar pattern is to be found in Uganda. Information for other major countries is insufficient to draw firm conclusions, but Ethiopia, which is under some pressure from its principal ally, the USSR, will never the less attempt to maintain a high level of defence spending.

Африка к югу от Сахары


   Мирный процесс
   Ангола / Намибия
   Наиболее значительным событием года стало заключение договоров между Анголой, Кубой и Южной Африкой, направленных на достижение анголо-намибийского урегулирования на основе осуществления резолюции 435 Организации Объединенных Наций в сочетании с поэтапным выводом кубинских войск из Анголы. Урегулирование потребовало вывода южноафриканских войск с территории Анголы и, в качестве предварительного шага к их окончательному полному выводу, сокращения южноафриканских сил в Намибии до 1500 человек, ограничиваясь двумя базами в Ошивело и Грутфонтейне, к 1 июля 1989 года. Оба они были осуществлены. Кубинские войска в Анголе должны были как постепенно уходить на север, так и, в рамках поэтапной программы, полностью уйти к 1 июля. 1991.By 1 июня 1989 года большинство, если не все, кубинские войска были передислоцированы к северу от 13-й параллели, и общая численность кубинских войск в Анголе сократилась примерно на 10 000 человек до 40 000 человек.
   Были созданы две группы Организации Объединенных Наций: ангольская Контрольная миссия Организации Объединенных Наций (КМООНА), в состав которой входят военные наблюдатели из десяти стран, следит за уходом Кубы; и группа Организации Объединенных Наций по оказанию помощи в переходный период (ЮНТАГ), которой поручено осуществлять надзор за демилитаризованной зоной вдоль Намибийско-ангольской границы и следить за переходом к независимости Намибии, включая выборы, намеченные в настоящее время на 1 ноября 1989 года. Первоначально планировалось, что численность сил ЮНТАГ составит 7500 человек, однако из-за нехватки бюджетных средств их численность составила лишь 4600 человек, и в их состав входят пехотные батальоны из Финляндии, Кении и Малайзии при поддержке британских войск связи и австралийских инженеров.
   Задержки с созданием и развертыванием сил означали, что к дате введения в действие 1 апреля/вскоре после этого около 500 вооруженных Свапогеррилл пересекли границу Намибии из Анголы вопреки соглашению в целях, которые остаются неясными. Это нарушило переходный процесс, спровоцировав развертывание южноафриканских войск из лагерей, в которые они были выведены до возвращения в Южную Африку. После нескольких боев, в которых СВАПО понесли потери, Войска ООН установили "безопасное" рандеву, о котором сообщили несколько сил СВАПО, а остальные ушли в Анголу. В настоящее время программа, как представляется, возвращается в прежнее русло, хотя по-прежнему сохраняется некоторая озабоченность в отношении роли бывших членов группы по борьбе с повстанцами в Юго-Западной Африке, которые, как представляется, принимают активное участие в деятельности полиции, хотя эта группа номинально расформирована. УНИТА не участвовал в мирном процессе, однако в июне 1989 года на встрече, организованной президентом Заира Мобуто, он встретился с правительством Анголы и заложил основу для примирения.
   Мозамбик
   В Мозамбике, однако, хотя есть основания для некоторого оптимизма в отношении урегулирования внутренней борьбы, решение все еще может оставаться далеким. Южная Африка подтвердила Соглашение Нкомати и, таким образом, по крайней мере официально дистанцировалась от любой поддержки повстанцев RENAMO; имеются сообщения о контактах между Мозамбикским правительством и РЕНАМО; и администрация Буша стремится продолжить свой успех в Анголе-Намибии путем аналогичного посредничества в урегулировании в Мозамбике. Пока, однако, RENAMO остается активным. Зимбабвийские и малавийские силы все еще развернуты в Мозамбике, сохраняя открытыми линии связи, но Танзанийский отряд был выведен.
   Африканский Рог
   Существуют также перспективы достижения прогресса на пути к миру на Африканском Роге. В Эфиопии эритрейский народно-освободительный фронт (EPLF) после значительных успехов в освобождении территории от правительственного контроля и Тигрский народно-освободительный фронт (TPLF) согласились провести переговоры с правительством, которое пережило попытку военного переворота в мае 1989 года и последующую чистку высших эшелонов вооруженных сил. В Судане в июне 1989 года произошел бескровный военный переворот. Новый режим ввел режим прекращения огня и, похоже, более сдержан [Университетом Джона Хопкинса] в 06: 34 09 января 2015 года, чтобы договориться об урегулировании восстания Ноас в южных провинциях, чем его предшественник, но диалог с повстанцами не был начат так быстро, как ожидалось.
   Военные события
   В Вооруженных силах стран региона к югу от Сахары произошли незначительные изменения. Хотя некоторые новые самолеты были поставлены, большинство изменений, отмеченных в этом издании, могли быть внесены более двенадцати месяцев назад и представляют собой изменения, а не приобретения. ВВС Южной Африки в настоящее время имеют на вооружении около 27 Cheetah (локально модифицированных Mirage). Еще одна разработка Южной Африки, имеющая значительное потенциальное значение, - это успешное испытание ступени ракеты-носителя, которая, как считается, является частью разработки IRBM (возможно, в сотрудничестве с Израилем). Ангольские авиационные холдинги теперь включают ИБ МиГ-17 и дополнительные истребители МиГ-21. Инструкторы ВВС Нигерии MB-339AN имеют противоповстанческую возможность, как и некоторые 16 вертолетов Bo-105D, показанные в роли SAR в прошлом году. Самолет SF/260 Буркина-Фасо также имеет противоповстанческий потенциал. Ботсвана приобрела девять самолетов BAC-167 Mk 83 COIN. Теперь у того восемь см-170, четыре в роли противоповстанческого и четыре учебных.
   Расходы на Оборону
   В течение последних двух лет в регионе наблюдалась общая тенденция к снижению расходов на оборону как в местной валюте, так и, что более заметно, в долларовом выражении, что было подчеркнуто продолжающимся снижением курса валют в регионе по отношению к доллару. Единственными исключениями были Южная Африка и Зимбабве. В то время как усиливающаяся изоляция Южной Африки сказалась на ее экономике, которая демонстрировала лишь ограниченный рост, расходы на оборону продолжали расти - на 9% в реальном выражении в 1988 году и на 8% в 1989 году. Однако стоимость замены оборудования становится непомерно высокой, хотя эмбарго на поставки оружия 1977 года привело к созданию широкой оружейной промышленности, которая закрепилась на экспортном рынке. Зимбабве сократила свои ассигнования на оборону в реальном выражении в текущем финансовом году. Более значительные расходы на оборону либо сдерживали, либо сокращали ассигнования. Мозамбик выделил около 115 млн. долл.США на оборону в 1989 году, что примерно вдвое меньше, чем он потратил тремя годами ранее, в то время как Нигерия сохранила ассигнования на оборону за 1989 год на уровне 1988 года в местной валюте, но это представляет собой почти 30% сокращение при пересчете в номинальном долларовом выражении. Аналогичная картина наблюдается и в Уганде. Информации по другим крупным странам недостаточно для того, чтобы сделать твердые выводы, но Эфиопия, находящаяся под некоторым давлением своего главного союзника - СССР, тем не менее будет стремиться поддерживать высокий уровень оборонных расходов.

  ANGOLA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: ~100,000 (incl some 10,000 recalled ODP militia, 24,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription, 2 years.
RESERVES: Militia (ODP): 50,000.

ARMY: ~91,500 (~24,000 conscripts, 10,000 ODP).
   10 Military Regions, (some may be fd HQ).
70 + bde (each with inf, tk, APC, arty and AA units as required. Bde = ~1,000 men).
   EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 500: 100 T-34, 300 T-54/-55, 100+ T-62.
UGHT TANKS: some 50 PT-76.
RECCE: 200+BRDM-2.
APC: 255 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152.
TOWED ARTY: 500: incl 76mm, 85mm, 100mm, 122mm, 130mm, 152mm.
ASSAULT GUNS: SU-100.
MRL: 122mm: 75 BM-21, BM-24.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm: 40+.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 900: 75mm, 82mm, 107mm.
AD GUNS: 300+: 14.5mm: ZPU-4; 20mm: M-55; 23mm: M-1939, ZU-23-2, 20 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm; 57mm: 70 S-60 towed, 40 ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: SA-7/-14.
RESERVES:
PEOPLE'S DEFENCE ORGANIZATION (ODP): 50,000; 11+ 'bde'. 10,000 serving with the Regular Army at any one time.

NAVY:* 1,500.
BASES: Luanda (HQ), Lobito, Namibe.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 24:
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Sov Osa-II with 4 SS-N-2 Styx SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 5 Shershen with 4 533mm HWT.
PATROL, INSHORE: 13: 4 PortArgos, 2 Sov Poluchat, 7<.
MINE WARFARE: 2 Sov Yevgenya MHI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 3 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 100 tps. 6 tk.
   Plus craft; 1 LCT, 10 LCM.
COASTAL DEFENCE: SS-C-1 Sepal at Luanda.

AIR FORCE/AIR DEFENCE: ~7,000; 179 cbt ac, 22 armed hel t
FGA: 25 MiG-17, 53 MiG-23; 10 Su-22;
FIGHTER: 75 MiG-21 MF/bis.
COIN/RECCE: 1 sqn with 8 PC-7.
MR: 1 F-27MPA, 2 EMB-111.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 16 Mi-25, 6 SA-365M.
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn with 3 C-47, 12 CASA C-212, 12 An-12 (Sov), 30 An-26, 4 PC-6B, 13 BN-2 Islander.
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn with 13 Mi-17, 49 Mi-8, 30 IAR-316, 1 SA-315, 10 SA-316. 6 SA-342, 10 SA-365.
LIAISON: 10 An-2, 5 Do-27.
TRAINING: 3 MiG-15UTI, 6 MiG-21U, 2 Su-22, 11 PC-7, 6 Yak-11, 3 Cessna 172.
AD: 5 SAM bn. 10 bty; with 12 SA-2, 40 SA-3, 72 SA-6, 48 SA-8, SA-9, SA-13.
AAM:AA-2 Atoll.

FORCES ABROAD: SAO TOME: some 500; 1 bn.

PARA-MILITARY: BORDER GUARD (TGFA): 7,000.

OPPOSITION:
UNITA (Union for the Total Independence of Angola): some 28,000 'regulars' (1-2 years service), 37,000 'militia' (spt and log);
EQUIPMENT: captured T-34/85, 70 T-55 MBT reported, misc APC (not in service); BM-21 122mm MRL; 75mm, 76mm, 122mm fd guns;
   81mm, 82mm, 120mm mor, 85mm RPG-7 RL; 75mm RCL; 12.7mm hy machine guns; 14.5mm, 20mm and ZU-23-2 23mm AA guns;
   Stinger, SAM-7;
FNLA (National Frontfor the Liberation of Angola): (Bakongo tribesmen) claims up to 5,000, actual strength ~250; small arms only.
FLEC (Frontfor the Liberation of the Cabinda Enclave):(200-300); small arms only.

FOREIGN FORCES:
CUBA: 40,000 (plus 8,000 civilian instructors/advisers); 5 'Div Comds', 1 inf div, some 13 inf regt in security and in field roles, cbt ac pilots,
   technicians, advisers. To be progressively withdrawn by 1 July 1991.
GDR: 500; intelligence and security advisers.
USSR: 1,200 advisers and technicians; ship repair facilities Luanda; Bear D MR ac.
ANC: African National Congress, up to 1,400.
SWAPO: (South West African People's Organization) 9,000.
UNITED NATIONS: (UNAVM) observers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Czechoslovakia, India, Jordan, Norway, Spain, Yugoslavia.

* Incl some $1.5 bn owed to the USSR, mostly for arms,
t Angola is reported to have received up to $2 bn in Soviet military material between 1983 and 1986. US State Dept reported that Angola received some $1 bn in military assistance in 1987.
f Delivery and loss data incomplete; eqpt totals uncertain, as is serviceability.


   BENIN
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 4,350.
Terms of service: conscription (selective), 18 months.

ARMY 3,800.
   3 inf, 1 AB/cdo, 1 engr bn, 1 armd sqn, 1 arty bty.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 20 PT-76.
RECCE: 9 M-8, 14 BRDM-2.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 4 M-101.
MORTARS: 81mm.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.

NAVY: 200.
BASE: Cotonou.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 7.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 2 Sov P-4( with 2 x 533mm TT.
PATROL, INSHORE: 1 Patriote PFI (Fr 38m), 4<.
Note: All except Patriote, which is new, probably non-operational.

AIR FORCE: 350; no cbt ac, 1 armed hel.
AIRCRAFT: 3 An-2, 2 An-26, 2 C-47, 1 Commander 500B, 2 Do-128.
HELICOPTERS: 2 AS-350B, 1 Ka-26, 1 SE-3130, 1 SA-355 (armed).

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 2,000; 4 mobile coy.
PUBLIC SECURITY FORCE.
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 1,500-2,000.

   BOTSWANA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 4,500.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY:
   5 inf, 1 armd car, 1 recce, 1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 10 Shorland, 12 V-150 Commando (11 with 90mm gun).
APC: 30 BTR-60 (unserviceable).
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 6 lt, 4 Model 56 pack.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 10.
ATGW: TOW reported.
RCL: 84mm: 20 Carl Gustav.
AD GUNS: 20mm: M-167 reported.
SAM: some 10 SA-7.

AIR FORCE: 14 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 5 BN-2 Defender, 9 BAC-167 Mk 83.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 2 BN Trislander, 2 CN-235, 1 Skyvan 3M.
LIAISON/TRAINING: 1 sqn with 1 Cessna 152, 5 Bulldog 120.
HELICOPTERS: 2 AS-350L, 3 Bell 212.

PARA-MILITARY: POLICE MOBILE UNIT: 1,000.

   BURKINA-FASO
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services incl Gendarmerie form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 8,700.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 7,000.
6 Military Regions.
   5 inf'regt': HQ, 3 'bn' (each 1 coy of 5 pl).
   1 AB 'regt': HQ, 1 'bn', 2 coy.
   1 tk 'bn': 2 pl.
   1 arty 'bn': 2 tps.
   1 engr 'bn'.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 83: 15 AML-60/-90, 24 EE-9 Cascavel, 10 M-8, 4 M-20, 30 Ferret.
APC: 13 M-3.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 8 M-101.
MRL: 107mm: Ch Type-63.
MORTARS: 81mm.
RL: 89mm: LRAC, M-20.
RCL: 75mm: Ch Type-52.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 30
SAM: SA-7.

AIR FORCE
: 200; 18 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 8 MiG-21.
COIN: 4 SF-260W, 6 SF-260WP.
TRANSPORT: 2 C-47, 1 Commander 500B, 2 HS-748, 2 N-262.
LIAISON: 3 MH-1521M.
HELICOPTERS: 2 SA-316B, 2 SA-365N.

PARA-MILITARY: 1.750:
GENDARMERIE: 1,500; 6 coy (2 mobile).
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 45,000 trained; 2 years part-time; men and women 20-35 (military and civil duties).
SECURITY COMPANY (CRG): 250.

   BURUNDI
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services incl Gendarmerie form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: ~7,200 (incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 5,500.
   2 inf, 1 AB, 1 cdo bn.
   1 armd car coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 6 AML-60, 12 -90, 7 Shorland.
APC: 29: 9 M-3, 20 BTR-40 and Walid.
MORTARS: 82mm: 18.
RL: 83mm: Blindicide.
RCL: 75mm: 15 Ch Type-52.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 15 ZPU-4.

NAVY: 50.
BASE: Bujumbura.
PATROL BOATS: river. 3<.

AIR: 150.3 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 3 SF-260W.
TRANSPORT: 1 C-47.
HELICOPTERS: 3 SA-316B, 4 SA-342L.
LIAISON: 3 Reims-Cessna 150, 1 Do-27Q.
TRAINING: 3 SF-260C, 4 SF-260TP.

PARA-MILITARY: GENDARMERIE: ~1,500.

   CAMEROON
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 11,600 (incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service: voluntary (pre-military compulsory trg programme in force).

ARMY: 6,600.
3 Military Regions; 7 Military Sectors: coy gp under command.
   Presidential Guard: 1 guard, 1 armd recce bn, 3 inf coy.
   1 AB/cdo bn.
   5 inf bn (1 trg).
   1 engr bn.
   1 arty bn (5 bty).
   1 AA bn (6 bty).
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 8 M-8, Ferret, 8 V-150 Commando (20mm gun).
AIFV: 12 V-150 Commando (90mm gun).
APC: 29 V-150 Commando, 12 M-3 half-track.
TOWED ARTY: 22: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 105mm: 16 M-101.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 16.
ATGW: Milan.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
RCL: 57mm: 13 Ch Type-52; 106mm: 40 M-40.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 18 Ch Type-58; 35mm: 18 twin Oerlikon; 37mm: 18 Ch Type-63.

NAVY: 700.
BASES: Douala (HQ), Limbe, Kribi.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 4:
MISSILE CRAFT: 1 Bakasi (Fr P.48) PFM with 8 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
PATROL INSHORE: 3: 1 L'Audacieux (Fr P. 48m) PFT, 2<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only: 2 LCM, 5 LCVP.

AIR FORCE: 300; 16 cbt ac, 4 armed hel.
   1 composite sqn.
   1 Presidential fit.
FGA/COIN: 5 Alpha Jet, 11 Magister.
MR: 2 Do-128D-6.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 4 SA-342L (with HOT).
TRANSPORT: 3 C-130H/-H-30,1 DHC-4, 4 DHC-5D, 1 IAI-201, 2 PA-23.
HELICOPTERS: 3 SE-3130, 1 SA-318, 4 SA-319.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 4,000: 10 regional groups.
PATROL CRAFT: 1 PCC, 12 PCI.

   CAPE VERDE
    []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,200.
Terms of service: conscription (selective).

ARMY". 1,000 (Popular Militia).
   4 inf coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 8 BRDM-2.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm: 8 M-1943.
RL: 89mm: 3.5-in.

NAVY: 200,
BASE: Praia.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 5:
   2 Sov Shershen PFI (no TT), 3<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 1 survey.

AIR FORCE: under 100; no cbt ac.
TRANSPORT: 2 An-26.

   CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
    []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 6,500 incl Gendarmerie.
Terms of service: conscription (selective), 2 years; Reserve obligation thereafter, term unknown.

ARMY: 3,500.
   1 Republican Guard regt (2 bn).
   1 territorial defence regt (bn).
   1 combined arms regt (1 mech, 1 inf bn).
   1 spt/HQ regt.
   1 Presidential Guard bn.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 4 T-55.
RECCE: 10 Ferret.
APC: 4 BTR-152, some 10 VAB, 25+ ACMAT.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 12 M-1943.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
RCL: 106mm: 14.
RIVER PATROL CRAFT: 9<.

AIR FORCE: 300; No cbt ac, no anned hel.
TRANSPORT: 2 C-47, 2 Cessna 337, 1 DC-4.
LIAISON: 8 AL-60, 6 MH-1521.
HELICOPTERS: 1 AS-350, 1 SE-3130.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 2,700;
   3 Regional Legions, 8 bde

FOREIGN FORCES:
FRANCE: 1,100. 1 inf bn gp, 1 armd cav sqn, 1 arty bty. Cbt and tpt ac/hel.

* All Soviet eqpt probably unserviceable.

   CHAD
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: some 17,000.
Terms of service: conscription, 3 years.

ARMY: ~17,000; comprises regular and rejoined rebel groups.
   1 armd bn.
   3 inf bn and 16 inf coy.
   Presidential Guard regt.
   1 recce sqn and 2 recce tp.
   2 arty bty.
EQUIPMENT:
AFV: some 65: 4 Panhard ERC-90, some 50 AML-60/-90, 9 V-150 with 90mm.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 5 M-101.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: AM-50.
ATGW: Milan.
RL: 68mm; 89mm.
RCL: 106mm: M-40; 112mm: APILAS.
AD GUNS: 20mm, 30mm.
SAM: 10 Stinger launchers.

AIR FORCE: 200; 4 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 2 PC-7, 2 SF-26OW.
TRANSPORT: 3 C-47, 3 C-130 (1 -A, 2 -B), 1 C-212, 2 DC-4.
HELICOPTERS: 4 SA-330, 1 SA-341.
LIAISON: 2 PC-6B, 5 Reims-Cessna FTB 337.

PARA-MILITARY: perhaps 5,700:
NATIONAL MILITARY POLICE (PMN).
TERRITORIAL MILITARY POLICE (PMT).
SURETE (Police): 800.

OPPOSITION:
CONSEIL DEMOCRATIQUE DE LA REVOLUTION (CDR): ~1,000 (Libyan-backed).

FOREIGN FORCES:
FRANCE: 1,400. 3 inf coy, AD arty units; cbt and tpt ac/hel.

   CONGO
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 8,800.
Terms of service: voluntary (2 years).

ARMY: 8,000.
   2 armd bn.
   2 inf bn gp(each with lt tk tp, 76mm gunbty).
   1 inf bn.
   1 arty gp (how, MRL).
   1 engr bn.
   1 AB/cdo bn.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 35 T-54/-55,15 Ch Type-59. (Some T-34 instore.)
LIGHT TANKS: 14 Ch Type-62, 3 PT-76.
RECCE: 25 BRDM-1/-2.
APC: M-3, 104 BTR (30 -50, 30 -60, 44 -152).
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 76mm: 8 M-1942; 100mm: 10 M-1944; 122mm: 8 M-1938.
MRL: 122mm: 8 BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm: 10 M-1943.
RCL: 57mm: M-18.
ATK GUNS: 57mm: 5 M-1943.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: ZPU-2/-4; 23mm: ZSU-23-4SP; 37mm: 28 M-1939; 57mm: S-60.

NAVY:* 300.
BASE: Point Noire.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 13:
PATROL, INSHORE: 13:
   3 Marien N'gouabi PFI (Sp Barcelo 33m).
   3 Ch Shanghai-W, 1 SovShershen (noTT),
   6 SovZhuk PFI<.

AIR FORCE: 500. 20 cbt ac,no armed hel.*
FGA: 20 MiG-17. MiG-21 reported.
TRANSPORT: 5 An-24, 1 An-26, 2 C-47, 2 Il-14, 1 N-2501.
TRAINING: 4 L-39, 1 MiG-15UTI.
HELICOPTERS: 2 SA-316, 2 SA-318, 1 SA-365.

FORCES ABROAD
ANGOLA (UNAVM): observers.

PARA-MILITARY: 6,100:
GENDARMERIE: 1,400; 20 coy.
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 4,700.

FOREIGN FORCES: CUBA: 500.

* Spares areshort; much eqpt may be non-operational.

   COTE D'IVOIRE
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 7,100.
Terms of service: conscription (selective), 6 months.
RESERVES: 12,000.

ARMY: 5,500.
   4 Military Regions:
   1 armd, 3 inf bn, 1 artygp.
   1 AB, 1 AA, 1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 5 AMX-13.
RECCE: 7 ERC-90, ~16 AML-60/-90.
APC: 16 M-3, 13 VAB.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 4 M-1950.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 16 AM-50.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
RCL: 106mm: M-40.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 16 incl 6 M-3 VDA SP; 40mm: 5 L/60.

NAVY: 700.
BASE: Locodjo (Abidjan).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 10:
MISSILE CRAFT: 2 L'Ardent (Fr Auroux 37m) with 4 SS-12 SSM.
PATROL 2 Le Vigilant (FrSFCN 47-m), 6 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS*. 1 L'Elephant (Fr BATRAL) LSM, capacity 140 tps, 7 tk, hel deck.

AIR FORCE: 900; 6 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 6 Alpha Jet.
TRANSPORT: 1 helsqn with 1 SA-318, 1SA-319, 1 SA-330, 4 SA-365C.
PRESIDENTIAL FLIGHT:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 F-28, 1 Gulfstream IV.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 SA-330.
TRAINING: 6 Bonanza F-33C, 2 Reims Cessna150H.
LIAISON: 1 Cessna 421, 2 Super King Air 200.

PARA-MILITARY: 7,800.
PRESIDENTIAL GUARD: 1,100.
GENDARMERIE: 4,400; VAB APC, 4 patrol boats.
MILITIA: 1,500.
MILITARY FIRE SERVICE: 800.

FOREIGN FORCES:
FRANCE: 500: 1 marine inf regt.

   EQUATORIAL GUINEA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,400
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 1,100
   3 inf bn.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 6 BRDM-2.
APC: 10 BTR-152.

NAVY: 100.
BASES: Malabo (Santa Isabel), Bata.
PATROL COMBATANTS: 2 PFI<.

AIR FORCE: 100; no cbt ac or armed hel.
TRANSPORT: 1 Yak-40. 3 C-212 on loan from Spain.

PARA-MILITARY: some 2,000.
GUARDIA CIVIL: 2 coy.

FOREIGN FORCES
:
MOROCCO: 360: 1 bn.

   ETHIOPIA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 315,800 (notind foreign personnel).
Terms of service: conscription, 30 months, incl police, border guard.
RESERVES: People's Militia. Allcitizens 18-50 do 6 months trg.Assigned to Army, Police and Border Guard.

ARMY: 313,000: (incl ~150,000 People's Militia).
   22 inf div (incl 3 mot, 4 mtn, 3 lt) with some 32 tk bn.
   8 AB/cdo bde.
   37 arty bn (assignment to div varies).
   12 AD bn (incl 3 bn each of SA-2, SA-3 SAM).
EQUIPMENT: t
MBT: ~750: 30 M-47, 20 T-34, ~600T-54/-55, 100 T-62.
LIGHT TANKS: 15 M-41.
RECCE: 200 BRDM-1/-2.
AIFV: 40 BMP-1.
APC: some 30 M-113, 600 BTR-40/-60/-152.
TOWED ARTY: some 700 incl: 75mm: M-116 pack; 105mm: 40; 122mm: 370: 180 D-30, M-1938; 130mm: 48 M-46; 152mm: 12 D-20.
SP ARTY: 122mm: some; 155mm: 6 M-109.
MRL: 122mm: BM-21.
MORTARS: 107mm: 200 M-2/-30; 120mm: 100 M-38.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 82mm: B-10.
ATK GUNS: 100mm: M-1955.
AD GUNS: 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: M-1950, ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: 18 SA-2, 18 SA-3, SA-7.
AIRCRAFT: 3 DHC-6, 4 DHC-3, 1 U-17.
HELICOPTERS: 6 UH-1H.

NAVY: 1,800.t
BASES: Massawa, Assab.
FRIGATES: 2 Zerai Deres (Sov Petya II) with 2 ASW RL, 10 406mm TT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 21:
MISSILE CRAFT: 8 Sov Osa with 4 SS-N-2 Styx SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 6: 2 Sov Turya PHT, 4 Mol PFT all with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 7:
   COASTAL 1 Nl ex-MSC.
   INSHORE: 6 PFI: 3 US Swiftships 32m, 3<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 100 tps, 6 tk.
   Plus craft; 2 LCT, 4 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 2: 1 tpt, 1 trg.

AIR FORCE: 4,000; 143 cbt ac; 22 armed hel.t
FGA: 8 sqn:
   1 with 20 MiG-17F;
   6 with 78 MiG-21MF;
   1 with 40 MiG-23BN.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 11 An-12, 2 An-26, 2 L-100-30, 1 Yak-40 (VIP).
TRAINING: 11 L-39, 5 MiG-21U, 21 SF-260TP.
HELICOPTERS:
TRANSPORT: 32 Mi-8, 1 IAR-330.
LIAISON: 10 IAR-316, 10 Chetak.

PARA-MILITARY: 169,000.
BORDER GUARD.
MOBILE EMERGENCY POLICE FORCE: 9,000. 2 Do-28, 1 Cessna 337 ac.

OPPOSITION: Main groups only listed:
ERITREAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION FRONT (EPLF): some 30,000: Captured eqpt incl T-54/-55 and artillery.
   Has absorbed ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front).
TIGRE PEOPLE'S LIBERATION FRONT (TPLF): some 20,000.
WESTERN SOMALI LIBERATION FRONT (WSLF): some 1,000. In Ogaden region.

FOREIGN FORCES:
CUBA: 2,800: possibly 1 inf bde, advisers and technicians.
SOVIET UNION: Some 1,700 advisers and technicians.
GDR: 550 advisers and technicians.
NORTH KOREA: 200 advisers.

* Excl debt to the Soviet Union.
t War situation makes eqpt data suspect; older US eqpt probably unserviceable.


   GABON
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 4,700.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 3,200.
   Presidential Guard bn gp (1 recce/armd, 3 inf coy, arty, AA bty) (under direct Presidential control).
   8 inf, 1 AB/cdo, 1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 16 EE-9 Cascavel, 24 AML-90, 12 EE-3 Jararaca, some VBL M-11.
AIFV: 12 EE-11 Urutu with 20mm gun.
APC: 6 V-150 Commando, Panhard M-3, 12 VXB-170.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 4 M-101.
MRL: 140mm: 8.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 20.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
RCL: 106mm: M40.
AD GUNS: 23mm: 24 ZU-23-2; 37mm: 10 M-1939; 40mm: 2.

NAVY: 500.
BASE: Port Gentil (HQ).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 6:
MISSILE CRAFT: 1 General Nazaire Boulingi Kounba PFM (Fr 42m) with 4 SS-12 SSM.
PATROL: 5.
   COASTAL: 1 General Ba'Oumar (Fr P.400 55m).
   INSHORE: 4: 1 Nguene (US Swiftships 32m), 3<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 1 President Omar Bongo (Fr BATRAL) LSM, capacity 140 tps, 7 tk.
   Plus craft: 2 LCT, 1 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 1,000. 19 cbt ac, 7 armed hel.
FGA: 9 Mirage 5 (2 -G, 4 -Gil, 3 -DG).
MR: 1 EMB-111P1.
TRANSPORT: 1 C-130H, 1 L-100-20, 2 L-100-30, EMB-110, 1 Falcon 50, 1 Gulfstream III, 2 YS-11A.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 2 AS-350, 5 SA-342.
   TRANSPORT: 3 SA-33OC/-H.
   LIAISON: 3 SA-316/-319.
PRESIDENTIAL GUARD:
   COIN: 6 CM-170, 4 T-34.
   TRANSPORT: 1 EMB-110.

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD: 2,800; boats only.
GENDARMERIE: 2,000; 3 'bdes', 11 coy, 2 armd sqn, air unit.

FOREIGN FORCES:
FRANCE: 550: marine inf regt.

* Incl internal security.
   GHANA
    []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 11,600.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 100,000.
   2 Command HQ:
   2 bde (comprising 6 inf bn (incl 1 trg, 1 UNIFIL), spt units).
   1 recce bn (2 sqn).
   1 AB force (incl 1 para coy).
   1 indep inf bn.
   1 arty 'regt' (mor bn).
   1 fd engr regt (bn).
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 3 Saladin, 3 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 50 MOWAG Piranha.
MORTARS: 81mm: 50; 120mm: 28 Tampella.
RCL: 84mm: 50 Carl Gustav.

NAVY: 800.
2 Commands, Western and Eastern.
BASES: Sekondi, (HQ, West) Tema (HQ, East).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 8:
COASTAL: 4:
   2 Kromantse PCC (ASW) with 1x3 Squid ASW mor, 1 102mm gun.
   2 Achimota (FRG Lurssen 57m) PFC.
INSHORE: 4
   2 Dzata (FRG Lurssen 45m) PCI.
   2 Dela PH.
Note: all unserviceable; except 1 PFC, 1 PFI recently refitted in UK.

AIR FORCE: 800. 6 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 4 MB-326K (serviceability doubtful), 2 MB-339.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn:
   1 VIP with 3 Fokker (2 F-27, 1 F-28);
   1 with 3 F-27, 1 C-212.
   1 with 6 Skyvan.
HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 212 (VIP), 2 Mi-2, 4 SA-318.
TRAINING: 1 sqn with 10 Bulldog 122 (serviceability doubtful).

FORCES ABROAD:
LEBANON (UNIFIL): 1 bn (850).
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG) observers.

PARA-MILITARY: PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 5,000.

   GUINEA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 9,900 (perhaps 7,500 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription, 2 years.

ARMY: 8,500.
   1 armd bn.
   5 inf bn.
   1 arty bn.
   1 engr bn.
   1 cdo bn.
   1 SF bn.
   1 AD bn.
EQUIPMENTS
MBT: 30 T-34, 8 T-54.
LIGHT TANKS: 20 PT-76.
RECCE: 25 BRDM-1/-2.
APC: 40 BTR (16 -40, 10 -50, 8 -60, 6 -152).
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 8 M-1942; 85mm: 6 D-44; 122mm: 12 M-1931/38.
MORTARS: 82mm: M-43; 120mm: 20 M-1938/43.
RCL: 82mm: B-10.
ATK GUNS: 57mmr M-1943.
AD GUNS: 30mm: twin M-53; 37mm: 8 M-1939; 57mm: 12 S-60, Ch Type-59; 100mm: 4 KS-19.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 400.
BASES: Conakry, Kakanda.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 9:
INSHORE: 9: 1 Vigilante,1 Intrepide, 1 Sov Matka, 6 other PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; LCU: 2.

AIR FORCE: 800; 12 cbt ac, no armed hel.t
FGA: 4 MiG-17F, 8 MiG-21.
TRANSPORT: 2 An-12, 4 An-14.
TRAINING: 3 L-29, 2 MiG-15UTI, 6 Yak-18.
HELICOPTERS: 4 Mi-4, 1 SA-316B, 1 SA-330, 1 IAR-330, 1 SA-342K.

PARA-MILITARY:
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 7,000.
GENDARMERIE: 1,000.
REPUBLICAN GUARD: 1,600.
* In January 1986 the Guinean franc replaced the Syli at par, followed by a major devaluation.
t Operational status of Soviet supplied eqpt uncertain.

   GUINEA-BISSAU
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services incl Gendarmerie are part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 9,200.
Terms of service: conscription (selective).

ARMY: 6,800.
   1 armd 'bn' (sqn).
   5 inf, 1 arty bn, 1 recce, 1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 10 T-34.
LIGHT TANKS: 20 PT-76.
RECCE: 10 BRDM-2.
APC: 35 BTR-40/-60/-152, 20 Ch Type-56.
TOWED ARTY: 85mm: 8 D-44; 122mm: 18 M-1938/D-30.
MORTARS: 82mm: M-43; 120mm: 8 M-1943.
RL: 89mm.
RCL: 75mm: Ch Type-52; 82mm: B-10.
AD GUNS: 23mm: 18 ZU-23; 37mm: 6 M-1939; 57mm: 10 S-60.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 300.
BASE: Bissau.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 12:
PATROL INSHORE: 12: 1 Sov Shershen (no TT), 1 Sov Matka, 2 Ch Shantou PFI. 8 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 2 Sov T4 LCVP.

AIR FORCE: 100. 4 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FIGHTER: 3 MiG-17.
MR: 1 Reims-Cessna FTB 337.
HELICOPTERS: 1 SA-318, 2 SA-319.

PARA-MILITARY: GENDARMERIE: 2,000.

   KENYA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 23,600.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 19,000.
   1 armd bde (2 armd bn).
   2 inf bde (1 with 2, 1 with 3 inf bn; 1 armd recce, 2 arty bn).
   1 engr bde.
   2 engr bn.
   1 indep air cav bn.
   5 inf bn (cadre).
   1 AB bn.
   1 AA bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 76 Vickers Mk 3.
RECCE: 40 AML-60/-90, 8 Shorland.
APC: 30 UR-416, 10 Panhard M-3.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm; 40 lt; 16 pack.
MORTARS: 81mm: 20 L16; 120mm: 10.
ATGW: Milan, 8 Swingfire.
RCL: 84mm: 80 CarlGnstar, 120mm: Wombat.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 50 TCM-20.

NAVY: 1,100.
BASE: Mombasa.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 8:
MISSILE CRAFT 6:
   2 Nyayo (UK Vosper 56m) PFM, with 4 Otomat II SSM.
   1 Mamba, 3 Madaraka (UK Brooke Marine 37m/32m) PCM with 4 Gabriel II SSM.
PATROL, INSHORE: 2<.

AIR FORCE
: 3,500: 28 cbt ac, 38 armed hel.
FGA: 11 F-5 (9 -E, 2 -F).
COIN: 17 Bae (5 Strikemaster Mk17, 12 Hawk T-62).
TRANSPORT: 1 Commander 680, 8 DHC-5D, 7 Do-28D, 1 PA-32.
TRAINING: 8 Bulldog 103/127.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 15 Hughes 500MD (with TOW), 8 Hughes 500ME, 15 Hughes 500M.
   TRANSPORT: 9 IAR-330, 3 SA-330, 1 SA-342.
   TRAINING: 2 Hughes 500D.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.
ASM: AGM-65 Maverick.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE GENERAL SERVICE UNIT: 4,000.
POLICE AIR WING: 7 Cessna lt ac, 3 Bell hel (1 206L, 2 47G).
POLICE NAVAL SON: Some boats.

FORCES ABROAD:
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 889: 1 inf bn plus HQ staff.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): observers.

  LESOTHO
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 2,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY:
   7 inf coy.
   1 spt coy (incl recce/AB, 81mm mor).
   1 air sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 10 Is Rabta.
HELICOPTERS: 2 Bo-105, 3 Bell 412.

   LIBERIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 5,800.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: ~50,000 males 16-45.

ARMY: 5,300.
   1 Executive Mansion Guard bn.
   6 inf bn.
   1 arty bn.
   1 engr bn.
   1 armd recce sqn.
   1 air recce bn.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: 10 MOWAG Piranha.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm 3 M-116 pack; 105mm: 8 M-101.
MRL: 122mm: BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm: M-37; 107mm; 120mm: M-43.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
RCL: 106mm: M-40.
AVIATION:
LIAISON/RECCE: 2 Cessna 172, 1 Cessna 208.

NAVY: (Coast Guard): 500.
BASES: Monrovia, Bassa, Sinoe, Cape Palmas.
PATROL CRAFT: 5 PCI<.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL POLICE: 2,000.

FOREIGN FORCES:
NORTH KOREA: 100.

  MADAGASCAR
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 21,000.
Terms of service: conscription (incl for civil purposes), 18 months.

ARMY: some 20,000.
   2 bn gp.
   1 engr regt.
   1 sigs regt.
   1 service regt.
   7 construction regt.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 12 PT-76.
RECCE: 8 M-8, ~20 M-3A1, 10 Ferret, ~35 BRDM-2.
APC: ~30 M-3A1 half-track.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 12 ZIS-3; 105mm: some M-101; 122mm: 12 D-30.
MORTARS: 81mm:M-29; 120mm: 8.
RL: 89mm: M-20.
RCL: 106mm: M-40.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 50 ZPU-4; 37mm: 20 Type 55.

NAVY: 500 (incl some 100 marines).
BASE: Diego-Suarez.
PATROL CRAFT: 1 Malaika (Fr PR-48m) PCI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 1 Toky (Fr BATRAM) LSM,with 8 SS-12SSM, capacity 30 tps, 4 tk.
   Plus craft; 1 LCT, 1 LCA.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 1 tpt/trg.

AIR FORCE: 500; 12 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 4 MiG-17F, 8 MiG-21FL.
TRANSPORT: 4 An-26, 2 Yak-40 (VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 6 Mi-8.
LIAISON: 3 BN-2, 1 Cessna 310, 1 PA-23.
TRAINING: 4 Cessna 172.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 7,500, incl maritime police with 5 PCI<.


   MALAWI
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 7,250.
Terms of service: voluntary, 7 years.
RESERVES: Army: some 1,000; ex-soldiers have a 5-year obligation.

ARMY: 7,000.
   3 inf bn.
   1 spt bn (incl 1 recce sqn).
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 20 Fox, 10 Ferret, 4 Eland.
TOWED ARTY: 12 105mm lt.
MORTARS: 81mm: L16.
RL: 89mm: M-20.
RCL: 57mm.
SAM: 12 Blowpipe.

MARINE: 100.
BASE: Chilumba. (Lake Nyasa).
PATROL CRAFT: 1 PCI<, some boats.

AIR: 150; No cbt ac, 2 armed hel.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 6 Dornier (3 Do-28, 3 Do-228), 1 HS-125-800 (VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 1 SA-316B, 2 SA-330J, 2 AS-350 (COIN).

FORCES ABROAD:
MOZAMBIQUE: ~600; elm of 1 inf bn.

PARA-MILITARY: 500.
POLICE: 3 BN-2T Defender (border patrol), 1 Skyvan 3M ac, 1 AS-350 hel.

   MALI
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 7,300.
Terms of service: conscription (incl for civil purposes), 2 years (selective).

ARMY: 6,900.
   2 tk, 4 inf, 1 AB, 2 arty, 1 engr, 1 SF bn, 2 AD, 1 SAM bty.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 21 T-34.
LIGHT TANKS: 18 Type 62.
RECCE: 20 BRDM-2.
APC: 30 BTR-40, 10 BTR-152, 10 BTR-60.
TOWED ARTY: 85mm: 6 D-44; 100mm: 6 M-1944; 122mm: 8 D-30.
MRL: 122mm: 2 BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 30 M-43.
AD GUNS: 37mm: 6 M-1939; 57mm: 6 S-60.
SAM: 12 SA-3.

NAVY: About 50.
BASES: Bamako, Mopti, Segou, Timbuktu.
PATROL CRAFT: 3 river PCI<.

AIR FORCE: 400; 27 cbt ac, no armed hel.*
FGA: 5 MiG-17F, 8 MiG-19.
FIGHTER: 14 MiG-21.
TRANSPORT: 2 An-2, 2 An-24, 2 An-26.
TRAINING: 6 L-29, 1 MiG-15UTI, 6 Yak (4 -11, 2 -18).
HELICOPTERS: 2 Mi-4, 1 Mi-8.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 1,800; 8 coy.
REPUBLICAN GUARD: 2,000.
MILITIA: 3,000.
NATIONAL POLICE: 1,000.

   MOZAMBIQUE
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 71,000 (some 10,500 conscripts) incl Border Guard.
Terms of service: conscription (selective), 2 years (incl women), extended during emergency.

ARMY: ~60,000 (perhaps 75% conscripts; most units well under strength.)
   10 Provincial Commands.
   1 tk bde (Presidential Guard).
   7 inf bde (each 1 tk, 3 inf, 2 mot, 2 arty, 1 AD bn).
   Many indep cbt and cbt spt bn and sy units.
   6 AA arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 150: some 50 T-34, some 100 T-54/-55.
RECCE: 48: 30 BRDM-1/-2.
AIFV: 16 BMP-1.
APC: 100+ BTR-60, 100 BTR-152.
TOWED ARTY: 200: 76mm: M-1942; 85mm: D-44; 100mm: 24 M-1944; 105mm: M-101; 122mm: M-1938/D-30; 130mm: 24 M-46; 152mm: 20 D-1.
MRL: 122mm: 30 BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm: M-43; 120mm: M-43.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 75mm; 82mm: B-10; 107mm: B-11.
AD GUNS: 400: 20mm: M-55; 23mm: ZU-23-2; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60 towed, ZSU-57-2 SP.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 750*
BASES: Maputo (HQ), Beira, Nacala, Pemba, Inhambane, Quelimane (ocean); Metangula (Lake Nyasa) where about 4 PCI< are based.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 26:
INSHORE: 26: 5 Sov SO-1, 5 other PFI<.
   1 Sov Poluchat, some 15 other PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 3 Sov Yevgenya MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 2 LCU.

AIR FORCE: 4,250 (incl ADunits); 66 cbt ac, 12 armed hel.*
FGA: 5 sqn with some 21 MiG-17, 45 MiG-21.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 8 An-26 (some equipped for COIN operations), 3 Cessna (2 152, 1 172).
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn with 8 Mi-8, 12 Mi-24/-25.
TRAINING: 1 Cessna 180, 4 Cessna 182, 3 MiG-15UTI, 4 PA-32.
AD SAM: SA-2, 10 SA-3.

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER GUARD: 6,000; 5 bde.
PROVINCIAL (some 10 bn per province as required), People's Militias, Local Militias (village self-defence force): to be 100,000 in 1989.

OPPOSITION:
MOZAMBIQUE NATIONAL RESISTANCE: (MNR or RENAMO): 20,000 reported, ~10,000 trained.
4 bn (active).
Special Forces (~200) in small teams.
EQUIPMENT: RCL: 82mm B-10, RPG-7. MORTARS: 60mm, 82mm, 120mm M-1943. AD GUNS: 12.7mm and 14.5mm.

FOREIGN FORCES:
ZIMBABWE: Some 3,000-8,000 (varies).
MALAWI: ~600 (varies).
MILITARY ADVISERS: USSR 650; Cuba 600; North Korea 10, Zimbabwe e200.
SECURITY ADVISERS: GDR 50.

* Eqpt serviceability questionable; perhaps only 50-60% operational. Some eqpt in store.

   NAMIBIA
   []

Joint Transition Administration headed by South African Administrator-General and UN Special representative. UN-monitored election due in November 1989 for an assembly which is to agree the constitution, after which independence will be achieved.
ARMED FORCES:
Nil. (South West Africa Territory Forces incl Standing Force, Reaction Force, Area Force claimed to be disbanded.)

PARA MILITARY:
Status of Police COIN unit (Koevoet) uncertain, but claimed to have been disbanded.

FOREIGN FORCES:
SOUTH AFRICA: 1,500 (to remain until independence).
UNITED NATIONS (UNTAG) 4,470: 3 inf bn (Finland, Kenya, Malaysia), engr (Australia), sigs (UK), medical (Switzerland), log (Poland, Canada),
   avn (Italy, Spain), observers (Bangladesh, Czechoslovakia, India, Ireland, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Sudan, Togo, Yugoslavia).

  NIGER
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 3,300.
Terms of service:selective conscription (2 years).

ARMY: 3,200.
   3 Military Districts.
   2 armd recce sqn.
   6 inf, 1 AB, 1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE 50+: 10 M-8, 18 AML-90, 18 AML-60-7, some AML-60-20.
APC: 14 M-3.
MORTARS: 81mm: 30; 120mm: 15.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
RCL: 57mm: 8 M-18; 75mm: 6 M-20.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 10 M-3 VDA SP.

AIR FORCE: 100+; no cbt ac or armed hel.
TRANSPORT: 1 C-54, 2 C-130H, 2 Do-228, 3 N-2501.
LIAISON: 2 Cessna 337D, 3 Do-28D.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 900; 7 groups.
PRESIDENTIAL GUARD: 200.
REPUBLICAN GUARD: 1,900.
NATIONAL POLICE: 1,500.

  NIGERIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 94,500.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: planned; none organized.

ARMY: 80,000.
   1 armd div (4 armd, 1 mech bde).
   1 composite div (incl 1 AB, 1 air portable, 1 amph bde).
   2 mech div (each 3 mechbde).
   Div tps: each div 1 arty, 1 engr bde, 1 recce bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 132: 60 T-55, 72 Vickers Mk3.
LIGHT TANKS: 100 Scorpion.
RECCE20 Saladin, ~120 AML-60, 60 AML-90, 55 Fox.
APC: 10 Saracen, 300 Steyr 4K-7FA.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 200 M-56; 122mm: 200 D-30/-74; 155mm: 25 FH-77B.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 25 Palmaria.
MORTARS: 81mm: 200.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm:M-40.
AD GUNS: 20mm: some 60; 23mm: 30 ZSU-23-4 SP; 40mm: 1760.
SAM: 48 Blowpipe, 16 Roland.

NAVY: 5,000.
BASES: Apapa (Lagos; HQ Western Command), Calabar (HQ Eastern Command), Warri.
FRIGATES: 2:
   1 Aradu (FRG Meko-360) with 1 Lynx hel , 2x3 ASTT; plus 8 Otomat SSM, 1 127mm gun.
   1 Obuma (trg) with hel deck; plus 1x2 102mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 51:
CORVETTES: 3:
   2 Erinomi (UK Vosper Mk 9) with 1x2 ASW mor.
   1 Otobo (UK Vosper Mk 3) (inItaly, refitting to PCO).
MISSILE CRAFT: 6:
   3 Ekpe (FRG Lurssen-57) PFM with 4 Otomat SSM.
   3 Siri (Fr Combattante) with 2x2 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
PATROL, INSHORE: 42: 4 Makurdi (UK Brooke Marine 33m), some 38 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 2 Ohm (mod It Lerici) MCC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2 Ambe (FRG)LST, capacity 200 tps, 5 tk.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 1 survey.

NAVAL AVIATION:
HELICOPTERS: 3 Westland Lynx Mk89 MR/SAR.

AIR FORCE: 9,500; 95 cbt ac (plus 12 being mod), 16 armed hel.
FGA/FIGHTER: 3 sqn:
   1 with 22 Alpha Jet (FGA/trg);
   1 with 11 MiG-21 MF, 6 MiG-21U (plus 12 MiG-21MF being mod);
   1 with 18 Jaguar (14 -SN, 4 -BN).
COIN/TRAINING: 24 L-39, 12 MB-339AN.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 16 Bo-105D.
MR/SAR: 1 sqn with:
AIRCRAFT: 2 F-27MR (armed);
HELICOPTERS: 4 Bo-105D.
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn with 9 C-130 (6 -H, 3 -H-30), 3 Do-228 (VIP), 3 F-27, 5 G-222.
LIGHT TPT: 3 sqn with 18 Do-28D, 18 Do-128-6.
HELICOPTERS: incl 2 SA-330, 12 AS-332 (being delivered), 4 Bo-105C.
TRAINING:
   AIRCRAFT: 2 MiG-21U, 25 Bulldog,
   HELICOPTERS: 14 Hughes 300.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD: 15Abeokuta, 3 other patrol craft.
PORT SECURITY POLICE: 12,000.
SECURITY ANDCIVIL DEFENCE CORPS (Ministry of Internal Affairs): Police: UR-416 APC; 1 Cessna 500, 3 Piper (2 Navajo, 1 Chieftain) ac,
   4 Bell (2 -212, 2 -222) hel; 68 small craft, 7 hovercraft (5 AV Tiger).

* Excl Police and Police Affairs Dept, and Internal Affairs Ministry.

   RWANDA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 5,200.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 5,000.
   1 cdo bn.
   1 recce, 8 inf, 1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 12 AML-60.
APC: 16 M-3.
MORTARS: 81mm: 8.
RL: 83mm: Blindicide.
ATK GUNS: 57mm: 6.
AVIATION:
   TRANSPORT: 2 C-47, 2 Do-27Q-4.
   HELICOPTERS: 2 SE-3160.

AIR: 200; 2 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 2 R-235 Guerrier.
TRANSPORT: 2 BN-2, 1 N-2501.
LIAISON: 5 SA-316, 6 SA-342L hel.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 1,200.

* Recurrent budget only

   SENEGAMBIA
In December 1983 a confederal budget was introduced. In 1988/9 it was fr CFA 3.4 bn.
The Federal Armed Forces consist of 1 inf bn located in The Gambia. One coy is manned by Gambian troops, the remainder by Senegal.
   SENEGAL
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (incl Federal):
ACTIVE: 9,700.
Terms of service: conscription, 2 years selective.
RESERVE: exists, no details known.

ARMY: 8,500 (mostly conscripts).
   4 Military Zone HQ.
   1 armd bn.
   5 inf bn.
   1 inf bn (-) with confederal force.
   1 AB bn.
   1 cdo bn.
   1 arty bn.
   1 engr bn.
   1 Presidential Guard (horsed).
   3 construction coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 10 M-8, 4 M-20, 30 AMI^60, 27 -90.
APC: some 16 Panhard M-3, 12 M-3 half-track.
TOWED ARTY: 18: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack; 105mm: 6 M-101; 155mm: ~6 Fr Model-50.
MORTARS: 81mm: 8; 120mm: 8.
ATGW: Milan.
RL: 89mm: LRAC.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 21 M-693; 40mm: 12 L/60.

NAVY: 700.
BASES: Dakar, Casamance (Senegal).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 8:
PATROL COASTAL 2:
   1 Fouta (Dk Osprey) PCC.
   1 Njambuur (Fr SFCN 59m) PFC.
INSHORE: 6: 3 Saint Louis (Fr 48m) PCI, 3<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 2 LCT, 2 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 500; 9 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 5 CM-170, 4 R-235 Guerrier.
MR/SAR: 1 DHC-6-300M, 1 EMB-111.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 6 F-27-400M, 2 MH-1521. 1 PA-23 (liaison).
TRAINING: 4 Rallye (2 235A, 2 160).
HELICOPTERS: 2 SA-318C, 2 SA-330, 1 SA-341H.

FORCES ABROAD
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 12 VXB-170 APC.
CUSTOMS: 2 PCI<, boats.

FOREIGN FORCES:
FRANCE: 1,100: 1 marine inf regt, MR and tpt ac/hel.

  THE GAMBIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: (900).
Terms of service: voluntary; some compulsory conditions authorized.

GAMBIAN NATIONAL ARMY (GNA):
   1 inf bn (3 coy), engr sqn.
   1 inf coy with Confederal bn.
MARINE BRANCH: About 100.
BASE: Banjul.
PATROL, INSHORE: 6:
2 Ch Shanghai-II PFI, 4 PFI<.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 600+.

   SEYCHELLES
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part ofthe Army):
ACTIVE: 1,300.
Terms of service: conscription: 2 years.

ARMY: 1,000.
   1 inf bn (3 coy).
   2 arty tps.
   Spt coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 6 BRDM-2, ~8 Shorland.
APC: 4 BTR-152.
TOWED ARTY: 122mm: 3 D-30.
MRL: 122mm: 2 BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm: 6 M-43.
RL: RPG-7.
SAM: 10 SA-7.

MARINE: 200.
BASE: Port Victoria.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 5:
INSHORE: 5:
   1 Andromache (It Pichiotti 42m) PFI
   1 Zoroaster(Sov Turya, no foils) PFI.
   2 PFI<, 1 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 1 LCT.

AIR: 100. 1 cbt ac, no armed hel.
MR: 1 BN-2 Defender.
LIAISON: 1 Merlin IIIB, 1 R-235E.
HELICOPTERS: 2 Chetak.

PARA-MILITARY:
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 800.

   SIERRA LEONE
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 3,100.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 3,000.
   2 inf bn.
   2 arty bty.
   1 engr sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 4 Saladin.
APC: 10 MOWAG Piranha.
MORTARS: 81mm.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 150.
BASE: Freetown.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 2 Ch Shanghai-II PH.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 3 LCU<.

PARA-MILITARY: 800.
STATE SECURITY DIVISION: 1 SF bn

   SOUTH AFRICA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: (Full Time Force and National Service) 103,000 (incl 64,000 white conscripts; 3,200 women).
Terms of service: 24 months National Service for whites, followed by 12 years part-time service in Citizen Force (CF)
   (in any 2 years periods of call-up for op duty not to exceed 90 days, plus 30 days trg).
   There after continued voluntary service in Citizen Force (to age 55) or 5 years with no commitment in Active Citizen Force Reserve.
   Then may be allocated to Commandos to age 55 with annual commitment of 12 days.
   Races other than whites volunteer for Full Time Force, National Service and Commandos but arc not conscripted.
RESERVES: 425,000. Citizen Force 380,000: Active Citizen Force Reserve: 150,000: Commandos ~140,000.

ARMY: ~77,500. Full Time Force 19,900 (12,000 White, 5,400 Black and Coloured; ~2,500 women). National Service: ~58,500.
FULL TIME FORCE (FT):
Army tps
   1 AB bde (1 FT, 1 trg, 2 CF AB bn, 1 CF arty bn with 120mm mor).
   SF: 5 recce coy (4 FT, 1 CF)
   State President's Guard bn.
Territorial Fprces
   11 Territorial comd
   7 inf bn (2 coloured, 5 black)
Training Units (all with cbt capability)
   2 armd bn
   9 inf bn (8 white, 1 black)
   2 arty regt
   1 AD arty regt
   1 engr regt.
RESERVES:
CITIZEN FORCE (CF):
1 Corps HQ. (FT administered)
   2 div (each 1 armd, 2 mech bde) (bdes: armd: 2 armd regt, 2 mech inf bn; mech: 3 inf bn; all 1 armd recce, 1 arty, 1 engr regt).
   1 indep mot inf bde
   2-3 arty regt
Territorial Forces
   2 armd recce regt
   16 inf bn
   2 arty regt
   2 AD regt
   3 engr regt
COMMANDOS:
   Some 150 inf bn home defence units.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 250 Centurion/Olifant 2B.
RECCE: 1,600 Eland (90mm gun, 60mm mor), some Rooikat.
AIFV: 1,500 Ratel (20mm/60mm/90mm gun; 81mm mor).
APC: 1,500 incl Buffalo, Bulldog, Hippo, Casspir, Rhino, Hyena, Lynx (wheeled).
TOWED ARTY: 145: 25-pdr (88mm): 30; 5.5-in (140mm): 75 G-2; 155mm: 40+ G-5.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 10+ G-6.
MRL: 127mm: 120 Valkiri 22 SP;some Valkiri 5 towed.
MORTARS: 81mm: 4,000; 120mm: + 120.
ATGW: SS-11, 120 ENTAC.
RCL: 84mm; 106mm.
ATK GUNS: 6-pdr (57mm); 17-pdr (76mm); 90mm: M-67.
AD GUNS: 20mm: some SP; 35mm: 55 K-63 twin; 40mm: 25 L/70; 3.7-in (94mm): 15.
SAM: 20 Cactus (Crotale), 54 Tigercat.
   Some captured SA-7/-8/-9/-13/-14 SAM and ZU-23-2 AA guns may be in service.

NAVY: 6,500, (incl 900 marines, 1,500 conscripts; ~300 women).
Two Commands: Western (HQ, Cape Town); Eastern (HQ, Durban).
BASES: Simonstown, Durban.
SUBMARINES: 3 Maria Van Riebeek (Fr Daphne) with 550mm TT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 9:
MISSILE CRAFT: 9:
   9 Jan Smuts (Is Reshej) with 6 Skerpioen (Is Gabriel) SSM.
MINE WARFARE: 9:
   1 Kimberley (UK Ton) MHC.
   3 Walvisbaai (UK Ton) MSC.
   4 Umximkulu MHC.
   1 diving spt.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 3: 2 AOR, each with 2 hel and extempore amph capability (perhaps 200 tps), 1 survey.
ADDITIONAL IN STORE: 1 President Pretorius (UK Rothesay) FF.

MARINES: (900; 600 conscripts).
   1 Bde HQ.
   9 local harbour/base defence units.
   1 amph coy.
EQUIPMENT:
81mm mortars, some 30 boats.

AIR FORCE: 11,000 (4,000 conscripts; ~400 women); 338 cbt ac (incl 116 with Citizen Force), 14+ armed hel.
2 Territorial Area Comds Air Defence, Tac Spt, Log, Trg Comd.
BOMBERS: 2 sqn:
   1 with 5 Canberra B(I)12, 2 T-4;
   1 with 5 Buccaneer S-50.
FGA/FIGHTER: 8 sqn.
   1 with 29 Mirage F-1AZ;
   1 with 14 Mirage F-1CZ;
   1 with 16 Mirage IIICZ/BZ, plus recce fit (below);
   1 with 13 Cheetah;
   4 (Citizen Force) with 92 Impala II, 14 Cheetah.
RECCE: 1 fit with 7 Mirage III (4 RZ, 3 R2Z).
EW: 1 sqn with 4 Boeing 707 (ELINT/tkr).
MR: 2 sqn:
   1 with some 8 C-47;
   1 with 19 P-166S (COIN/SAR roles, also).
   (Some C-130 have a MR role).
ASW: 1 hel sqn: 8 Wasp HAS-1, 6 SA-316.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn:
   1 with 7 C-130B, 9 C-160Z;
   1 (VIP) with 4 HS-125 (civil registration).
   1 with 1 Viscount 781 (civil registration), 19 C-47, 4 DC-4.
HELICOPTERS: 5 sqn with 14 SA-321, 65 SA-330, 57 SA-316 (some armed).
LIAISON/FAC: 3 sqn with 34 AM-3C, 35 C-4M, 10 Cessna 185.
TRAINING COMMAND (incl OCU): 6 schools:
AIRCRAFT: 130 T-6G Harvard IIA/III (80 to be updated), 120 Impala I, 12 C-47;
HELICOPTERS: 30 SE-3130, 7 SA-316.
AAM: R-530, R-550 Magic, AIM-9 Sidewinder, Kukri V-3.
ASM:AS-11/-20/-3O.
RPV: Meteor PI, IAI Scout, Armscor Seeker.
RESERVES:
CITIZEN FORCE: 4 sqn, see FGA/FIGHTER above.
Sqn are available for day-to-day ops.

MEDICAL SERVICE: 8,000. A separate service within SADF, organized territorially to support all three services.

PARA-MILITARY:
SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE: 55,000 (to be increased); Police Reserves: 37,000.
   Coast guard to form; 7 MR ac planned.

OPPOSITION:
AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANC): combat wing Umkhonto we Sizwe: perhaps 10,000 trained; up to 1,400 based in Angola.
PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS (PAC): Azanian People's Liberation Army: possibly inactive.

HOMELANDS
Each homeland has its own armed forces, not included in South African data. Currency in all cases is the South African Rand.

BOPHUTHATSWANA
Population: 1,855,000.
ARMED FORCES: ~3,100
Terms of service: voluntary; conscription authorized.
6 Military Regions.
   1 inf bn.
   1 AB/SF unit (coy-).
   2-3 indep inf coy gp.
   Air Wing 1 recce, 1 lt tpt, 1 hel fit.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: Buffalo.
MORTARS: 81mm.
AIRCRAFT: 2 P-68, 2 C-212-200.
HELICOPTERS: 1 AS-355, 2 BK-117, 2 SA-316.

CISKEI
Population: 831,000.
ARMED FORCES: ~1,000:
Terms of service: voluntary; conscription authorized.
1 inf bn (2nd forming).
1 AB/SF coy
AIRCRAFT: 2 BN-2, 2 Skyvan, 1 IAI-1124 (VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 3 BK-117, 1 Bo-105.

TRANSKEI
Def bdgt 1985/86: R 203 m.
Population: 3,221,000.
ARMED FORCES: ~2,000:
Terms of service: voluntary; conscription authorized.
1 lt inf/COIN bn.
1SF regt: 1SF coy, ABcoy, mounted sqn, marine gp.
Air wing.
AIRCRAFT: 2 C-212.
HELICOPTERS: 2 BK-117.

VENDA
Def bdgt 1984/5: R 257.19 m.
Population: 453,000.
ARMED FORCES: 8 1,500:
Terms of service: voluntary.
2 inf bn.
Engr tp.
Air wing.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: Buffalo.
MORTARS: 81mm.
HELICOPTERS: 2 BK-117, 1 SA-316B.

* Excl Intelligence and Police (internal sy) bdgt which in 1988/9 amounted to R 1.8 bn and Namibian expenditure.

  TANZANIA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 46,700 (perhaps 20,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: national service incl civil duties, 2 years.
RESERVE: 10,000: armed elm of Citizen's Militia.

ARMY: 45,000 (some 20,000 conscripts).
   3 div HQ.
   8 inf bde.
   1 tk bde.
   2 fd arty bn, 2 AA arty bn (6 bty).
   2 mor bn.
   1 SAM bn with SA-3, SA-6.
   2 ATK bn.
   2 sigs bn.
EQUIPMENTS:
MBT: 30 Ch Type-59, 30 T-62.
LIGHT TANKS: 30 Ch Type-62, 36 Scorpion.
RECCE: 20 BRDM-2.
APC: 45 BTR-40/-152, 30 Ch Type-56.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 45 ZIS-3; 85mm: 80 Ch Type-56; 122mm: 200 D-30, 20 Ch Type-54; 130mm: 50 Type-59.
MRL: 122mm: 50 BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm: 300 M-43; 120mm: 50 M-43.
RCL: 75mm: 540 Ch Type-52.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 280 ZPU-2/-4; 23mm: 40 ZU-23; 37mm: 120 Ch Type-55.
SAM: 9 SA-3, 12 SA-6, SA-7.

NAVY: 700.
BASES: Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Mwanza (Lake Victoria - 4 boats).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 18:
TORPEDO CRAFT: 4 Ch Huchuan PHT< with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL, INSHORE: 14: 6 Ch Shanghai II PFI, 8 PCI<, (4 in Zanzibar).
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 4 LCA<.
Note: Spares are short; some vessels are not operational.

AIR FORCE: 1,000; 24 cbt ac, no armed helt.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn with 11 Ch J-7, 3 J-5, 10 J-6.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 5 DHC-5D, 1 Ch Y-5.
HELICOPTERS: 4 AB-205.
LIAISON: 9 Cessna (7 310, 2 404), 5 PA-28, 1 PA-32 ac; 2 Bell 206B hel.
TRAINING: 2 MiG-15UTI.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE FIELD FORCE: 1,400.
POLICE AIR WING: 1 Cessna U206 ac; 2 Bell 206L, 4 AB 206 (2 -A, 2 -L), 2 Bell 47G hel.
POLICE MARINE UNIT: (100).
CITIZEN'S MILITIA: 100,000.

   TOGO
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services, incl Gendarmerie, form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 5,900.
Terms of service: conscription, 2 years (selective).

ARMY: 4,000.
2 inf regt:
   1 with 1 mech bn, 1 mot bn;
   1 with 2 armd sqn, 3 inf coy, spt units (trg).
1 Presidential Guard regt: 2 bn (1 cdo), 2 coy.
1 para cdo regt: 3 coy.
1 spt regt: 1 fd arty bty; 2 AD arty bty; 1 log/tpt/engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 2 T-54/-55.
LIGHT TANKS: 9 Scorpion.
RECCE: 6 M-8, 3 M-20, 3 AML-60, 7 -90, 36 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 4 M-3A1, 30 UR-416.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 4 HM-2.
MORTARS: 82mm: 20 M-43.
RCL: 57mm: 5 ZIS-2; 75mm: 12 Ch Type-52/-56; 85mm: 10 ChType-65.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 38 ZPU-4; 37mm: 5M-39.

NAVY: 100.
BASE: Lome.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 2
INSHORE: 2 Mono PFl<.

AIR FORCE: 250; 18 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN/TRAINING: 5 Alpha Jet, 4 CM-170, 6 EMB-326G, 3 TB-30.
TRANSPORT: 2 Baron, 2 DHC-5D, 1 Do-27, 1 F-28-1000 (VIP), 1 Falcon 10 (VIP), 2 Reims-Cessna 337.
HELICOPTERS: 2 SA-313B, 2 SA-315, 1 SA-330.

FORCES ABROAD:
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 25 observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 750; 1 trg school, 2 regional sections, 1 mobile sqn.
PRESIDENTIAL HONOUR GUARD: 800.

   UGANDA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: ~70,000
Terms of service: voluntary.

NATIONAL RESISTANCE ARMY (NRA). (now incorporates surrendered Uganda People's Democratic Army and Uganda National Liberation Army).
   6 bde.
   Some bn.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: some BTR-60, 4 OT-64 SKOT.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 60; 122mm: 20.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm.
ATGW: 40 AT-3 Sagger.
AD GUNS: 40: 23mm, 37mm.
SAM: SA-7.

AVIATION: 13 cbt ac no armed hel.
FGA: 8 MiG-17F.
FIGHTER: 5 MiG-21MF.
TRANSPORT: 1 Commander 112, 1 N-2501.
TRAINING: 5 L-29, 5 P-149D, 4 S-211, 6 SF-260, SF-260W.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 2 AB-412.
   TRANSPORT: 3 Bell 205, 5 Bell 206, 3 Bell 214, 2 Mi-8, 1 Sioux.
LIAISON: 2 PA-23, 11 Super Cub.
POLICE AIR WING:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 DHC-2, 1 DHC-4, 1 DHC-6.
   HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 206, 4 Bell 212.

OPPOSITION:
HOLY SPIRIT MOVEMENT: ~500, small arms only.

* Recurrent budget only.
t Serviceability doubtful.


  ZAIRE
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 51,000 (incl Gendarmerie).
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 22,000.
   3 Military Regions.
   1 inf div(3 inf bde).
   1 SF div:
   1 para bde (3 para, 1 spt bn) (2nd forming).
   1 SF (cdo/COIN) bde.
   1 Presidential Guard bde.
   1 indep armd bde.
   2 indep inf bde (each 3 inf bn, 1 spt bn).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 50 Ch Type-62.
RECCE: 95 AML-60, 60 -90.
APC: 12 M-113, 12 YW-531, 60 M-3.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 30 M-116 pack; 85mm: 20 Type 56; 122mm: 20 M-1938/D-30, 30 Type 60; 130mm: 8 Type 59.
MRL: 107mm: 20 Type 63.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: M-30; 120mm: 50.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 75mm: M-20; 106mm: M-40; 107mm.
AD GUNS: 12.7mm; 14.5mm; 20mm; 37mm: M-1939; 40mm: L/60.

NAVY: 1,500 incl marines.
BASES: Banana, Boma, Matadi (coast), Kinshasa (river), Kalemie (lake (4 boats)).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 4:
INSHORE: 4 Ch Shanghai-II PFI.
MARINES: 600.

AIR FORCE
: 2,500; 28 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA/FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 8 Mirage (7 -5M, 1-5DM).
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 MB-326K, 6 AT-6G.
TRANSPORT: 1 wing with 1 BN-2, 8 C-47, 5 C-130H, 3 DHC-5, 2 MU-2J (VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 1 AS-332, 7 SA-316, 1 SA-321 (VIP), 9 SA-330.
TRAINING: incl 21 Cessna (12 150, 9 310), 8 MB-326GB, 9 SF-260C ac; 6 Bell 47 hel.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE: 25,000 (to be 27,000); 40 bn.
CIVIL GUARD: 25,000.

* Excl capital expenditure.

   ZAMBIA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 16,200.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 15,000.
   1 armd regt (incl 1 armd recce bn).
   9 inf bn (3 Reserve).
   3 arty bty, 2 AA arty bty.
   1 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 10 T-54/-55, 20 Ch Type-59.
LIGHT TANKS: 30 PT-76.
RECCE: 88 BRDM-1/-2.
APC: 13 BTR-60.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 35 M-1942; 105mm: 18 Model 56 pack; 122mm: 25 D-30; 130mm: 25 M-46.
MRL: 122mm: 50 BM-21.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 57mm: 12 M-18; 75mm: M-20; 84mm: Carl Gustav.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 50 M-55 triple; 37mm: 40 M-1939; 57mm: 55 S-60; 85mm: 16 KS-12.
SAM: SA-7.

AIR FORCE: 1,200; 68 cbt ac, some armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 12 Ch J-6;
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 13 MiG-21 MF.
COIN/TRAINING: 5 Galeb G-2, 18 Jastreb J-1, 18 MB-326GB.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 4 An-26, 6 C-47, 2 DC-6B;
VIP: 1 fit with 1 HS-748, 3 Yak-40.
LIAISON: 9 Do-28.
TRAINING: 10 CJ-6, 20 MFI-17, 2 MiG-21U, 8 SF-260MZ.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 13 AB-205A, 2 AB-212, 7 Mi-8.
LIAISON HELICOPTERS: 15 AB-47G.
SAM: 1 bn; 3 bty: SA-3 Goa.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE MOBILE UNIT (PMU): 700; 1 bn of 4 coy.
POLICE PARA-MILITARY UNIT (PPMU): 500; 1 bn of 3 coy.

   ZIMBABWE
   []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 49,500.
Terms of service: conscription; length unknown.

ARMY: 47,000.
   7 bde HQ (incl 1 Presidential Guard).
   1 armd regt.
   26 inf bn (incl 3 Guard, 1 mech, 1 cdo, 2 para, 1 mounted).
   1 arty regt (incl 2 AD bty).
   1 engr spt regt.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 8 T-54, 35 Ch T-59/Ch T-62.
RECCE: 90 EE-9 Cascavel (90mm gun), 28 AML-90 Eland.
APC: 10 YW-531, ~40 UR-416, 50+ Crocodile.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: M-1942; 88mm: 24 25-pdr, 122mm: 18 Ch Type-60, Ch Type-54.
MRL: 107mm: Ch Type-63.
MORTARS: 81mm: LI 6; 120mm: 4.
RCL: 107mm: 12.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm; 23mm: ZU-23; 37mm: M-1939.
SAM: SA-7.

AIR FORCE: 2,500; 81 (65) cbt ac, no armed hel; (est number op in parentheses).
FGA/COIN: 2 sqn:
   1 with 9 Hunter FGA-90, 1 T-81 (7);
   1 with 7 Hawk Mk 60 (3).
FIGHTER: 3 sqn with 48 Ch J-7 (48).
COIN/RECCE: 1 sqn with 16 Reims-Cessna 337 Lynx (7).
TRAINING/RECCE/LIAISON: 1 sqn with 13 SF-260C/W Genet, 5 SF-260TP (10).
TRANSPORT: 7 BN-2, 11 C-212-200 (1 VIP), 7 C-47.
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn:
   1 with 6 AB-205, 10 SA-316 (4 all types);
   1 with 10 AB-412 (VIP) (4).
SECURITY: 2 sqn.

FORCES ABROAD:
MOZAMBIQUE: some 3,000-8,000 (varies).

PARA-MILITARY:
ZIMBABWE REPUBLIC POLICE FORCE, incl Air Wing: 15,000.
POLICE SUPPORT UNIT: 3,000.
NATIONAL MILITIA: 20,000.

* Calendar year exchange rate average used to calculate $US GDP: 1 $US = $Z 1.6611 (1987); $Z 1.8018 (1988)

Asia and Australia


CHINA


   General
   Events in Tiananmen Square, culminating on 4 June 1989 in the action by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) to reassert government control, have had a profound effect on the world's attitude to relations with China. Most Western nations immediately banned all trade in the defence sector and cancelled high-level official visits. These moves will adversely affect the modernization programme of the Chinese armed forces but may not impact much on China's growing arms export business. The events themselves showed the PLA to be generally unprepared and inappropriately trained and equipped for internal security operations. While there was some evidence indicating a difference in approach to the task between forces based around Beijing and those brought in from other military districts, media reports of a possible break-up of the PLA into contending factions appear to have been much exaggerated.
   The events coincided with a visit to Beijing by President Gorbachev. The degree of Sino Soviet rapprochement the visit signalled, together with the announced withdrawals and reductions of Soviet forces in Mongolia and in the Far East Military District, and the continuing negotiations on the disputed border issues may permit further reductions and more rapid progress with the reorganization of the PLA. Some redeployment from the border areas may also be possible.
   Nuclear Forces
   The 60 CSS-1 (DF-2) MRBMof the Strategic Rocket Forces have been retired. The CSS-1 was first introduced in 1970; it had a range of 1,200 km and was assessed as carrying a 20-KT warhead. No replacement weapon has yet been noted. There have been no other developments in the nuclear field.
   Conventional Forces
   Information has allowed us to revise the organization of Chinese military districts (MD);there are now 28 MD (shown on the map on p. 147) reinstating the South Xinjiang MD and deleting the Sanxia MD (in Chengdu Region). We have also revised the number of Group Armies (GA), up by two, to 24 and their deployment by Military Region (MR). As forecast last year, helicopter groups have been formed in two GA.
   The Chinese Navy continues to be slimmed down. The only new completions we can confirm are the commissioning of a fourth Han-class SSN and a new mine countermeasures vessel. The second Xia-class SSBN is still not operational. The 20 Whiskey-class submarines built some 30 years ago are no longer in service; we show them as in store, but like other elderly submarines they are unlikely to be made operational again.
   We have no new information on Air Force aircraft holdings (but we have corrected last year's inadvertent error which showed the combat aircraft total at 6,000 instead of 5,000).
   Defence Spending
   Although growth continued at over 11% in real terms, it was uneven; inflation reached a new high of over 20%. Gross external debt also rose to $35 bn, about 10%of GDP. The government was forced to make urgent price reforms, to introduce subsidies as well as price ceilings on certain commodities.
   After accepting years of manpower contraction, a significantly reduced defence budget and a much lower political profile, the military was brought back into prominence as a result of the civil disturbances of May and early June. The defence establishment had made up its reduced defence expenditures by large-scale arms exports (especially to Iran and other Middle Eastern states) in recent years. In the wake of the Peking confrontation it seems probable that its budget will once again increase.

Китай


   Основное
   События на площади Тяньаньмэнь, кульминацией которых 4 июня 1989 года стали действия Народно-освободительной армии Китая (НОАК) по восстановлению государственного контроля, оказали глубокое влияние на мировое отношение к Китаю. Большинство западных стран немедленно запретили всю торговлю в оборонном секторе и отменили официальные визиты высокого уровня. Эти шаги отрицательно скажутся на программе модернизации китайских вооруженных сил, но могут не сильно повлиять на растущий экспорт вооружений Китая. Сами события показали, что НОАК в целом не подготовлена и не имеет надлежащей подготовки и оснащения для проведения операций по обеспечению внутренней безопасности. Хотя имеются некоторые свидетельства, указывающие на различие в подходе к решению этой задачи между силами, базирующимися вокруг Пекина, и силами, прибывшими из других военных округов, сообщения средств массовой информации о возможном распаде НОАК на враждующие группировки, как представляется, сильно преувеличены.
   События совпали с визитом в Пекин президента Горбачева. О степени китайско-советского сближения сигнализировал визит, наряду с объявленными выводами и сокращениями советских войск в Монголии и в Дальневосточном военном округе, а продолжающиеся переговоры по спорным пограничным вопросам могут позволить дальнейшие сокращения и более быстрый прогресс с реорганизацией НОАК. Возможна также некоторая передислокация из приграничных районов.
   Ядерные силы
   60 БРСД CSS-1 (DF-2) ракетных войск стратегического назначения выведены. CSS-1 был впервые представлен в 1970 году; он имел дальность 1200 км и был оценен как несущий боеголовку 20-KT. Замены оружия пока не отмечено. Других разработок в ядерной области не было.
   Обычные вооруженные силы
   Информация позволила пересмотреть организацию китайских военных округов (МВ);сейчас их 28 (показано на карте на стр. 147) восстановление МД Южного Синьцзяна и удаление МД Санься (в районе Чэнду). Мы также пересмотрели численность групповых армий (GA), увеличив ее на две, до 24 и их размещение по военным районам (МР). Как и прогнозировалось в прошлом году, вертолетные группы были сформированы в двух GA.
   Китайский флот продолжает сокращаться. Единственные новые доработки, которые мы можем подтвердить,-это ввод в эксплуатацию четвертой ПЛА типа Han и нового судна противоминного противодействия. Вторая ПЛАРБ типа Xia все еще не работает. 20 подводных лодок типа Whiskey, построенных около 30 лет назад, больше не находятся в эксплуатации, мы показываем их как на хранении, но, как и другие старые подводные лодки, они вряд ли будут снова введены в эксплуатацию.
   У нас нет никакой новой информации о самолетных запасах ВВС (но мы исправили прошлогоднюю непреднамеренную ошибку, которая показала, что боевые самолеты всего на 6000 вместо 5000).
   Расходы на Оборону
   Хотя рост продолжался на уровне более 11% в реальном выражении, он был неравномерным; инфляция достигла нового максимума более 20%. Валовой внешний долг также вырос до $35 млрд, около 10% ВВП. Правительство было вынуждено срочно провести ценовые реформы, ввести субсидии, а также установить предельные цены на некоторые сырьевые товары.
   После многих лет сокращения численности личного состава, значительного сокращения оборонного бюджета и гораздо более низкого политического статуса военные были возвращены на видное место в результате гражданских беспорядков в мае и начале июня. В последние годы оборонное ведомство компенсировало сокращение оборонных расходов за счет крупномасштабного экспорта оружия (особенно в Иран и другие ближневосточные государства). На волне Пекинского противостояния представляется вероятным, что его бюджет вновь увеличится.
  CHINA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:*
ACTIVE: some 3,030,000 (perhaps 1,350,000 conscripts - men and women aged 18-22), being reduced.
Terms of Service: selective conscription; Army, Marines 3 years; Navy, Air Force 4 years.
RESERVES: 1,200,000+ incl military and militia reserves. National Defence Reserve being formed on a province-wide basis.

STRATEGIC MISSILE FORCES:
OFFENSIVE (Strategic Rocket Units): (90,000).
MISSILES: org in 6 (perhaps 7) div with regt or bde and bn; org varies by msl type.
ICBM: 8:
   2 CSS-4 (DF-5); mod tested with MIRV.
   6 CSS-3 (DF-4).
IRBM: 60 CSS-2 (DF-3), some updated.
SUBMARINES: 1:
SSBN: 1 Xia with 12 CSS-N-3 (J-1).
(Note: Production of Chinese SSBN is continuing, but extremely slowly. A further 3 Xia-class are believed under construction.)
DEFENSIVE:
(a) Tracking stations: Xinjiang (covers central Asia) and Shanxi (northern border).
(b) Phased-array radar complex. Ballistic missile early warning.

ARMY: 2,300,000 (perhaps 1,075,000 conscripts), (reductions continue).
7 Military Regions (MR), 28 Military Districts, 3 Garrison Comd.
24 Integrated Group Armies (GA, equivalent to Western corps) comprising:
   80 inf div (some being mech 'all arms').
   10 armd div (normally 3 regt, 323 MBT).
   5-6 field and AD arty div.
   Some indep arty, AD regt.
   50 indep engr regt.
   Avn: 2 group hel.
AB (manned by Air Force):
   1 corps of 3 div.
   1 indep div.
   Spt tps.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 7,500-8,000: T-54, 6,000 Type-59, 200 T-69 (mod Type-59), some Type-79, Type-80 reported.
LIGHT TANKS: 1,200 Type-62, 800 Type-63 amph.
AIFV: YW-307/-309.
APC: 2,800 Type-531 C/-D/-E, YW-534, Type-85 (YW-531H), Type-55 (BTR-40), -56 (BTR-152), -63, Type-77-1/-2 (Sov BTR-50PK amph);
   Type-523, Type-551.
TOWED ARTY: 14,500: 100mm: Type-59 (fd/ATK), Type-86; 122mm: Type-54, Type-60, Type-83, D-30; 130mm: Types-59/-59-1;
   152mm: Type-54, Type-66, Type-83.
SP ARTY: 122mm: Type-54-1 (Type-531 chassis), YW-302; 152mm: Type-83.
MRL: 3,800: 107mm: Types-63 towed /-81 SP (being replaced by 122mm); 122mm: Type-81, Type-83; 130mm: Type-63, Type-70 SP, Type-82;
   132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16; 273mm: Type-83; 284mm: Type-74 minelayer, 320mm: WS-1; 425mm: Type-762 mine clearance.
MORTARS: 82mm: Type-53, Type-W84, YW-304 SP; 120mm: Type-55, Type-W86, YW-381 SP; 160mm: Type-56.
SSM: M-9 (range 600 km); M-11 (range 120-150 km; under development - in service ~1989/90).
ATGW: HJ-73 (Sagger-type), HJ-8 (TOW/Milan-type).
RCL: 75mm: Type-52, Type-56, 82mm: Type-65.
RL: 90mm: Type-51.
ATK GUNS: 57mm: Type-55; 76mm: Type-54; 100mm: Type-73, Type-86.
AD: GUNS: 15,000: i n d 23mm: (ZSU-23 type); 37mm: Types-55/-65/-74, -63 twin SP; 57mm: Types-59, -80 SP; 85mm: Type-56; 100mm: Type-59.
SAM: HN-5, HN-5A/-C (SA-7 type); HQ-61 twin SP.
HELICOPTERS: Some hel transferred from Air Force.
Details not yet known.
RESERVES: (undergoing radical reorganization on a provincial basis) 30+ inf div, cbt spt div.
DEPLOYMENT:
North-East: Shenyang MR (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning MD): 5 GA, 2 msl, 4 armd, 16 inf div; f
North: Beijing MR (Beijing, Tianjin Garrison Comds; Nei Monggol, Hebei, Shanxi MD): 6 GA, 1 msl, 3 armd, 17 inf; 1 AB (Air Force div);
West: Lanzhou MR (incl Ningxia, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, South Xinjiang MD): 2 GA, 2 msl, 1 armd, 9 inf div;f
South-West: Chengdu MR (incl Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang MD): 2 GA, 1 msl, 10 inf div;f
South: Guangzhou MR (Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan): 2 GA, ~10 inf div;f
Centre: Jinan MR (Shandong, Henan, MD): 4 GA, 1 armd, 7 inf, 3 AB (Air Force) div;
East: Nanjing MR (Shanghai Garrison Comd; Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Anhui MD): 3 GA, 1 armd, 11 inf div.
  
    []


NAVY: 260,000 incl Coast Defence (27,000),
Marines (6,000) and Naval Air (25,000) (some 35,000 conscripts);
SUBMARINES: 93:
STRATEGIC SUBMARINES: 1 SSBN: (see p. 146).
TACTICAL SUBMARINES: 92
SSN: 4 Han with 533mm TT.
SSG: 1 modified Romeo (Type ES5G), with 6 C-801 (YJ-6, Exocet derivative) SSM; plus 533mm TT.
SS: 87:
   3 Improved Ming (Type ES5E) with 533mm TT.
   84 Romeo (Type ES3B) with 533mm TT.
   (Note: probably only about half the Romeo-class op plus 20 Whiskey in store.)
OTHER ROLES: 1 GW/(SLBM trials)
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 56:
DESTROYERS: 19:
   1 mod Luda (Type EF-4) with 1x3 CSS-N-2 Hai Ying-2 (HY-2 Styx derivative) SSM, 1x2 130mm guns, 1 Z-9A (Fr Dauphin) hel (OTHT), 2x3 ASTT.
   16 Luda (Type-051) (ASUW) with 2x3 HY-2 SSM, 2x2 130mm guns; plus 2x12 ASW RL
   2 Anshan (Sov Gordy) with 2 SSM, 2x2 130mm guns.
FRIGATES: 37:
   26 Jianghu; 4 variants:
   About 13 Type I, with 4x5 ASW RL, plus 2x2 HY-2 SSM, 2 100mm guns.
   About 9 Type II, with 2x5 ASW RL, plus 2x2 HY-2, 2x2 100mm guns.
   About 2 Type III, with 2x3 ASTT, plus 8 C-801 SSM, 2x2 100mm guns.
   About 2 Type IV, with 1 Z-9A hel, 2x5 ASW RL, 2 HY-2 SSM, 1 100mm gun.
   2 Jiangdong with 2x5 ASW RL, 2x2 100mm guns.
   5 Jiangnan with 2x5 ASW RL, 3 100mm guns.
   4 Chengdu with 1x2 HY-2 SSM, 3 100mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: About 915:
MISSILE CRAFT: 215:
   125 Huangfeng/Hola (Sov Osa-type) with 4 HY-2 or 8 C-801 SSM.
   90 Hegu/Hema (Komar-type) with 2 HY-2 or 4 C-801 SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: About 160:
   100 Huchuan, 60 P-6, all < with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL About 540:
   COASTAL 110:
   10 Hairui with 3x5 ASW RL
   90 Hainan with 4 ASW RL.
   10 Sov Kronshtadt with 2 ASW RL.
   INSHORE: 380: 290 Shanghai PFI, about 90 <.
   RIVERINE: about 50<.
   (Note: some minor combatants are reportedly being assigned to para-military forces - People's Armed Police, border guards and the militia -
   or into store. Continuing reductions in manpower means craft totals may be high).
MINE WARFARE: 56.
MINELAYERS: None dedicated, but Luda, Anshan, Jiangnan and Chengdu class DD/FF, Hainan, Kronshtadt and Shanghai PC and T-43 MSO
   have minelaying capability.
MCM: 56:
   35 Sov T-43 MSO.
   1 new construction MSI Hull No 4422.
   20 Fushun MSI;plus about 60 unmanned drone MSI <.
AMPHIBIOUS: 58:
   3 Yukan 1ST, capacity about 200 tps, 10 tk.
   13 Shan (US LST-1) LST, capacity about 150 tps, 16 tk.
   30 Yuliang, I Yuling, 1 Yudao LSM, capacity about 100 tps, 3 tk.
   10 Hua (US LSM-1), capacity 50 tps, 4 tk.
   Plus about 400 craft: 320 LCU, 40 LCP, 10 LCT and some hovercraft.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 118:
   3 Fuqing AO, 25 AOT, 1 AFS, 8 submarine spt, 2 repair, 6 Qiong Ska tp tpt, 11 tpt, 35 survey/research/experimental, 3 icebreakers,
   23 ocean tugs, 1 trg.

COASTAL REGIONAL DEFENCE FORCES: (27,000).
~35 indep arty and SSM regt deployed in 25 coastal defence regions to protect naval bases, offshore islands and other vulnerable points.
GUNS: 85mm, 100mm, 130mm.
SSM: CSS-C-2 (Hai Ying 2 variant, 'Silkworm').

MARINES: (Naval Infantry): (some 6,000).
   1 bde.
   Special recce units.
RESERVES: On mob to total 8 div (24 inf, 8 tk, 8 arty regt), 2 indep tk regt.
   (3 Army div also have an amph role.)
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: T-59.
LIGHT TANKS:T-60/-63, PT-76.
APC: Type-531, LVT;some Type-77.
ARTY: how: 122mm: Type-54 (incl -54-1 SP).
MRL: Type-63.

NAVAL AIR FORCE:(25,000); 894 shore-based cbt ac, 55 armed hel.
Org in 3 bbr, 6 ftr div, incl:
BOMBERS: some 50 H-6, some H-6D reported with C-601 anti-ship ALCM.
About 130 H-5 torpedo-carrying lt bbr.
FGA: some 100 Q-5.
FIGHTER: some 600, incl J-5/-6/-7.
RECCE: H-5.
MR/ASW: 10 ex-Sov Be-6 Madge, 4 PS-5 (Y-8 mod).
HELICOPTERS: 50 Z-5, 12 SA-321 ASW, 6 Z-9.
MISCELLANEOUS: some 60 lt tpt ac; JJ-5/-6 trg ac.
ALCM: FL-1/C-601.
Naval fighters are integrated into the national AD system.
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES:
NORTH SEA FLEET: Coastal defence from Korean border (Yalu River) to south of Lianyungang (approx 35R10'N);
   equates to Shenyang, Beijing and Jinan Military Regions; and to seaward:
   BASES: Qingdao (HQ),Dalian (Luda), Huludao, Weihai, Chengshan.
   9 Coastal defence districts.
   FORCES: 2 submarine, 3 escort, 1 mine warfare, 1 amph sqn; plus Bohai Gulf trg flotillas. About 325 patrol and coastal combatants.
EAST SEA FLEET: Coastal defence from south of Lianyungang to Dongshan (35*101^ to 23R30'N approx);
   equates to Nanjing Military Region, and to seaward:
   BASES: Shanghai (HQ),Wusong, Dinghai, Hangzhou.
   7 coastal defence districts.
   FORCES: 2 submarine, 2 escort, 1 mine warfare, 1 amph sqn. About 270 patrol andcoastal combatants.
   Marines: 1 cadre div.
   Coastal Defence Regional Forces: Nanjing Coastal District.
SOUTH SEA FLEET: Coastal defence from Dongshan (approx 23R3O'N) to Vietnam border, equates to Guangzhou Military Region,
   and to seaward (including Paracel and Spratly Islands).
   BASES: Zhanjiang (HQ), Shantou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Yulin, Beihai. Huangpu; plus outposts on Paracel and Spratly Is.
   9 Coastal Defence districts.
   FORCES: 2 submarine, 2 escort, 1 mine warfare, 1 amph sqn. About 320 patrol andcoastal combatants.
   Marines: 1 bde.

AIR FORCE: 470,000, incl strategic forces and 220,000 AD personnel (160,000 conscripts); some 5,000 cbt ac, few armed hel.
7 Military Air Regions, HQ Beijing.
Combat elm org in armies of varying numbers of air div (each with 3 regt of 3 sqn of 3 fit of 4-5 ac, 1 maint unit, some tpt and trg ac).
Tpt ac in regt only.
BOMBERS:
MEDIUM: 120 H-6 (some may be nuclear-capable).
   Some carry C-601 ASM;some others to be converted to tkr.
LIGHT:Some 250-300 H-5 (some with C-801 ASM).
FGA: 500 Q-5.
FIGHTER: ~4,000, incl 400 J-5, some 60 regt with about 3,000 J-6/B/D/E, 300 J-7, 200 J-8.
RECCE: s 150 JZ-5, 100 JZ-6, 40 HZ-5 ac.
TRANSPORT: some 420, incl 18 BAe Trident 1E/2E, 30 Il-14, 10 Il-18, 50 Li-2, 300 Y-5, 20 Y-7, 25 Y-8, Y-11, Y-12.
HELICOPTERS: 400: incl 6 AS-332, 4 Bell 214, 30 Mi-8, 24 S-70, 300 Z-5, Z-6, 10 Z-9. 8 SA-342 (with HOT) on trial.
TRAINERS: (some OCU)incl CJ-5/-6 (mod CJ-5), J-2, JJ-2, JJ-4/-5/-6, HJ-5.
MISSILES:
AAM: PL-2/-2A, PL-5B Atoll-type, PL-7.
ASM (anti-ship): C-601 subsonic ALCM (perhaps HY-2 SSM derivative); C-801 surface skimmer.
AD ARTY:
   16 div: 16,000 35mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm guns;
   28 indep AD regts (100 SAM units with HQ-2/-2B, -2J (CSA-1), -61 SAM).

PARA-MILITARY: some 12,000,000,
Ministry of Public Security: People's Armed Police: (1,830,000).
   29 div, 1,029 bn border/mtn/internal defence.

* The term 'People's Liberation Army' comprises all services.

OTHER ASIAN AND AUSTRALASIAN COUNTRIES


   Military Developments
   The Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan has been reported at p. 30. As it withdrew the Soviet Army handed over a good deal of its equipment stocks to the Afghan Army and has continued to supply arms and ammunition since then. Few details of the types and quantities involved are available, however, although Scud B SSM and large stocks of missiles were included and have been used against the Mujaheddin guerrillas. FGA aircraft (including MiG-23 and Su-7B) and armed helicopters are also known to have been supplied. The opposition factions based in Peshawar have continued to be supplied with US armaments channelled through Pakistan. Since the Soviet withdrawal the Mujaheddin campaign has not had the success forecast by some observers. The Kabul government has, if anything, strengthened its position and has not yet lost any major town, despite major Mujaheddin efforts, particularly at Jalalabad. The Mujaheddin are now suffering the traditional fate of guerrilla movements forced to engage in conventional set-piece warfare and there are already signs of serious dissension between some of the main groups and between the Peshawar-based group of seven and those based in Iran.
   Soviet forces are also withdrawing from Mongolia where only one motor rifle division will remain by the end of 1990. Mongolia is to reduce the strength of its armed forces by 13,000 men and to cut defence spending in 1990 by 10%.
   Despite improved political relations between India and Pakistan, both countries continue to invest heavily in their armed forces. Prime Minister Gandhi has visited Pakistan twice; on the first occasion in December 1988 he and Prime Minister Bhutto initialled an agreement pledging that neither side would attack the other's nuclear facilities. The two countries have clashed, however, on several occasions during the year in the disputed Siachen Glacier region but, after a meeting of defence ministers, a cease-fire has been agreed and talks between senior military officers are under way to resolve the long-standing border dispute. India has continued its missile development programme: both the Privthi 250-km range SSM and Agni 2,000-km range IRBM have been successfully tested. The Trishul SAM has been tested and is expected in service within two years. Pakistan has also tested SSM and SAM. The Haft-I SSM has a range of 80 km and is probably in service, while Haft-II with a range of some 300 km is under development. The Anza 5,000-m range SAM has been tested and displayed on parade; it may now be in service. Both countries are expanding their defence industries; for example, India plans to manufacture 1,500 Arjun MBT between the early 1990s and the year 2000, while Pakistan plans to produce an improved version of the Chinese T-69 tank.
   During the year both countries have brought new equipments into service. The growth of the Indian Navy continues. The year saw the completion of a number of separate purchases of Soviet vessels. The last three of the six Sindhughosh (Kilo)-class SS joined the fleet as did the last three Veer (Tarantul)-class corvettes and three Pondicherry (Natya) off-shore minesweepers. In the home yards the first Indian-built submarine, a Shishumar (FRG T-209/ 1500) class SS is expected to commence trials at the end of the year, which should also see the completion of the Vikrant carrier's conversion to operate only V/STOL aircraft. The Pakistani Navy, too, has enjoyed a dramatic increase in size during the year. The acquisition, by purchase and/or lease of two Shamsher (UK Leander), four Khyber (US Brooke) and four Saif (US Garcia) frigates has more than doubled the combat tonnage of the fleet. In addition, the destroyer Babur has completed a conversion refit enabling her to embark four Sea King ASW helicopters. Both Indian and Pakistani Air Forces have increased their combat strength. India has added over 100 aircraft to the inventory including Mirage 2000 fighters and a maritime attack squadron with eight. Jaguar armed with Sea Eagle. Indian Army helicopter holdings have increased by some 80 Chetak (SA-319) and 40 Cheetah (SA- 315). Pakistani Air Force acquisitions include a further 90 Chinese Q-5 FGA and some 20 J-6 and 20 J-7 fighter aircraft. The Pakistan Army has added more 155mm M-109A2 SP guns and some 100 Chinese Type-59 tanks to its holding.
   Despite continuing violence in Sri Lanka instigated both by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) and the Tamil separatist movements, President Premadasa has campaigned actively to achieve the withdrawal of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF). The force was reduced by some 8,000 in May 1989 but since then India has adamantly refused to be rushed into further reductions - until the eleventh hour - when at the end of July a token battalion of 600 was withdrawn. India also intervened to forestall an attempted coup launched by mercenaries against the government of The Maldives. The Indian Army despatched airborne forces, which landed within 24 hours of the alert being given. Some 1,500 men were deployed and the coup was put down within 12 hours. About 150 Indian troops remain on the islands.
   There has been growing co-operation between Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore in defence matters. Singapore and Indonesia signed a Memorandum of Understanding in February 1989 which included arrangements for Singaporean armed forces to train in Indonesia. Malaysia and Singapore have also reached agreement on joint army training and the use of each other's training facilities; arrangements for joint air force training were already in effect. Meanwhile, New Zealand has withdrawn its infantry battalion from Singapore, leaving only a small support unit. We have revised our holdings of Indonesian Naval Patrol and Coastal Combatants: last year we listed two Andou FRG Lurssen torpedo craft; there is only one torpedo craft - the Singa -and there are a total of seven Andou coastal patrol craft which have been delivered over the last three years. It has been confirmed that the Navy is to acquire a further two ex-Netherlands Van Speijk frigates, the first to be delivered in late 1989. The delivery of six Wasp HAS-1 helicopters to the Malaysian Navy has been completed. Malaysia has concluded a major arms deal with the United Kingdom said to total ё1 bn, to be financed mainly through counter trade. Few details are available but it has been speculated that arms to be supplied will include both ground attack and air defence Tornado, Rapier SAM and possibly a refurbished submarine. The Singaporean Navy has commissioned its first FRG-designed, Lurssen 62m corvette armed with Harpoon SSM and ASTT. The first eight F-16 aircraft have been delivered but are not yet operational.
   The Vietnamese Army has continued its withdrawal from both Laos, where some 10-15,000 (mainly construction) troops remain, and Cambodia. Vietnam is committed to a complete withdrawal from Cambodia by 27 September 1989, but at 1 June still had some 60-65,000 troops there. A month-long international conference on the Cambodian situation began as we went to press.
   In Thailand the army has introduced the Corps HQ to improve operational command following the poorly executed operations along the Laotian border in 1987-8. There are Corps HQ in the Central and North East Regions. The first of three divisions has been converted to a new mechanized organization. Equipment acquisitions include some 300 Chinese Type-88 and 100 Type-63 APC, while holdings of Chinese Type-69 tanks have doubled to 60. Some Chinese 130mm Type-82 MRL may also have been delivered.
   There has been only minimal progress towards improved relations between the two Koreas. A proposed prime ministerial meeting foundered over the continuance of the annual major US-Korean military exercise 'Team Spirit'. The North Korean Navy has taken into service two additional Chinese Type-031 submarines, while the Air Force inventory has increased by some 34 MiG-29 fighters. We have reassessed our listing of army formations and now show 31 (rather than 26) active infantry divisions and 26 reserve infantry divisions (rather than 2 divisions and 18 independent brigades). The main changes in South Korean forces are the start of the replacement of F-5 FGA aircraft by smaller numbers of F-16, Air Force holdings of F-16 have doubled to 48 aircraft in the last twelve months.
   The Japanese Self-Defense Forces have continued to expand their armoury. The Maritime Self-Defense Force has commissioned a tenth Yuushio-class submarine, three more Asagiri-class frigates and two Hatsushima-class mine countermeasure vessels. The first of six improved Yubari-classfrigates was launched in December 1988 and the second Towada-class tanker (AO) in March 1989. Fabrication of the first Aegis-equipped guided missile destroyer is expected to start during 1989. We have recategorized a number of Japanese ship classes as frigates to reflect their primarily ASWrole. The Naval Air Arm has withdrawn the PS-1 maritime reconnaissance aircraft from service while increasing its holding of P-3C, and has taken delivery of the first two (of ten) S-80 MCM helicopters.
   The first of two indigenously-built Adelaide-class FFG was finally launched for the Australian Navy in May 1989, over twoyears behind schedule, and is not now due to complete before 1991. To date no decision hasbeen reached on the design for the newANZAC frigate. The Australian AirForce has acquired a further 15 F-18 fighter/FGA aircraft and has formed a squadron, in the joint training/attack role with 16 M3-326H. There have been no developments in the New Zealand Armed Forces other than the withdrawal of the infantry battalion from Singapore.
   Defence Spending
   In general, defence expenditures have continued to increase in real terms. In Japan increased commitments to play a wider security role and decisions on major acquisition programmes have led to major increases in defence budgets which rose by some 4.2% and 4.8%, in real terms, in fiscal years 1989 and 1990 but are unlikely to excede 1% of GDP. If NATO defence budget definitions are applied, Japan has been the second largest defence spender amongst the industrialized countries.
   Both South Korea and Taiwan have increased their defence spending, but,because of their fast rate of economic growth, these increases represent a smaller percentage of national resources. North Korea, whose economy hasnot expanded, also increased defence spending. Both Sri Lanka and The Philippines have internal security problems which required additional defence expenditure.
   India's defence budget decreased in real terms in 1989but the official figure excluded the cost of operations in Sri Lanka, The Maldives and on the Siachen Glacier, as well as much of the R&Dprogramme which is largely funded by the Department of Science and Technology. The Indian Space Research Organisation, which carries out work of a defence nature, is not funded by the Defence Ministry, nor is a significant portion of foreign arms procurement which is financed by special allocations from the Finance Ministry. Pakistan's defence expenditure rose some 5%in real terms in FY 1989/90, assisted by a generous US FMA allocation which is in some jeopardy as a result of Congressional concerns over Pakistan's nuclear aspirations.
   There is little economic data available for either Afghanistan or the Indochina region, where Vietnam is in acute economic difficulties but should be able to make savings in defence spending once the withdrawal from Cambodia is completed (although the reabsorption of substantial numbers of demobilized servicemen into the domestic economy may itself cause problems).
   Finally Australia, Malaysia and Thailand have announced ambitious modernization programmes for their armed forces which have been reflected in increased defence allocations.

ДРУГИЕ СТРАНЫ АЗИИ И АВСТРАЛИИ


   Военные события
   О выводе советских войск из Афганистана сообщается на стр. 30. После вывода войск советская армия передала афганской армии значительную часть своего имущества и с тех пор продолжает поставлять оружие и боеприпасы. Тем не менее, имеется мало информации о типах и количествах, хотя Scud B и большие запасы ракет были включены и использовались против партизан моджахедов. Известно также о поставках самолетов ИБ (включая МиГ-23 и Су-7Б) и боевых вертолетов. Оппозиционные группировки, базирующиеся в Пешаваре, по-прежнему снабжаются американским оружием, направляемым через Пакистан. После вывода советских войск кампания моджахедов не имела успеха, предсказанного некоторыми наблюдателями. Кабульское правительство, во всяком случае, укрепило свои позиции и до сих пор не потеряло ни одного крупного города, несмотря на значительные усилия моджахедов, особенно в Джелалабаде. Моджахеды в настоящее время страдают от традиционной участи партизанских движений, вынужденных участвовать в обычных боевых действиях, и уже есть признаки серьезных разногласий между некоторыми основными группами и между базирующейся в Пешаваре Группой семи и теми, кто базируется в Иране.
   Советские войска также уходят из Монголии, где к концу 1990 года останется только одна мотострелковая дивизия. Монголия сократить численность своих вооруженных сил на 13 000 человек и сократить расходы на оборону в 1990 году на 10%.
   Несмотря на улучшение политических отношений между Индией и Пакистаном, обе страны продолжают вкладывать большие средства в свои вооруженные силы. Премьер-министр Ганди дважды посещал Пакистан; в первый раз в декабре 1988 года он и премьер-министр Бхутто парафировали соглашение, согласно которому ни одна из сторон не будет нападать на ядерные объекты другой. Однако в течение года две страны несколько раз сталкивались в спорном районе ледника Сиачен, однако после встречи министров обороны было достигнуто соглашение о прекращении огня и ведутся переговоры между старшими офицерами Вооруженных сил для урегулирования давнего пограничного спора. Индия продолжает реализацию программы развития ракет: как Privthi 250 км дальность ССМ и Agni 2000-километровой зоне досягаемости БРСД были успешно протестированы. ЗРК Trishul был испытан и ожидается, что в течение двух лет. Пакистан также испытал БР и ЗРК. БР Haft-I имеет дальность 80 км и, вероятно, находится в эксплуатации, в то время как Haft-II с дальностью около 300 км находится в стадии разработки. ЗРК ANZA 5,000-m был испытан и показан на параде; теперь он может быть на вооружении. Обе страны расширяют свою оборонную промышленность; например, Индия планирует произвести 1500 ОБТ Arjun в период с начала 1990-х годов по 2000 год, а Пакистан планирует произвести улучшенную версию китайского танка Т-69.
   В течение года обе страны ввели в эксплуатацию новое оборудование. Рост индийского военно-морского флота продолжается. В этом году был завершен ряд отдельных закупок советских судов. Последние три из шести ПЛ типа Sindhughosh (Kilo) пополнили флот, как и последние три корвета типа Veer (Tarantul) и три морских тральщика Pondicherry (Natya). На верфях ожидается, что первая индийская подводная лодка класса Shishumar (FRG T-209/ 1500) начнет испытания в конце года, что также должно привести к завершению конверсии авианосца Vikrant для эксплуатации только самолетов ВВП. Пакистанский военно-морской флот также значительно увеличился в размерах в течение года. Приобретение путем покупки и / или аренды двух фрегатов Shamsher (UK Leander), four Khyber (US Brooke) и four Saif (US Garcia) более чем удвоило боевой тоннаж флота. Кроме того, эсминец Babur завершил переоборудование, позволившее ему взять на борт четыре вертолета ПЛО Sea King. Как индийские, так и пакистанские ВВС увеличили свою боевую мощь. Индия добавила более 100 самолетов, включая истребители Mirage 2000 и эскадрилью морской атаки с восемью. Jaguar вооружен Sea Eagle. Вертолетные холдинги индийской армии увеличились примерно на 80 Chetak (SA-319) и 40 Cheetah (SA-315). Пакистанские ВВС приобрели еще 90 китайских ИБ Q-5 и около 20 истребителей J-6 и 20 J-7. Пакистанская армия добавила в свой арсенал еще 155-мм орудия M-109A2 и около 100 китайских танков Type-59.
   Несмотря на продолжающееся насилие в Шри-Ланке, спровоцированное как движением "Джаната Вимукти Перамуна" (СПД), так и тамильскими сепаратистскими движениями, президент Премадаса проводит активную кампанию за вывод индийских сил по поддержанию мира (ИПКФ). В мае 1989 года численность сил была сокращена примерно на 8000 человек, но с тех пор Индия категорически отказывалась идти на дальнейшие сокращения - вплоть до одиннадцатого часа, когда в конце июля был выведен символический батальон численностью 600 человек. Индия также вмешалась, чтобы предотвратить попытку переворота, предпринятую наемниками против правительства Мальдивских островов. Индийская армия отправила воздушно-десантные войска, которые приземлились в течение 24 часов после объявления тревоги. Было развернуто около 1500 человек, и переворот был подавлен в течение 12 часов. На островах остаются около 150 индийских военнослужащих.
   Укрепляется сотрудничество между Индонезией, Малайзией и Сингапуром в вопросах обороны. В феврале 1989 года Сингапур и Индонезия подписали меморандум о взаимопонимании, который предусматривал организацию подготовки сингапурских вооруженных сил в Индонезии. Малайзия и Сингапур также достигли соглашения о совместной подготовке военнослужащих и использовании учебных объектов друг друга; уже действуют договоренности о совместной подготовке военно-воздушных сил. Тем временем Новая Зеландия вывела свой пехотный батальон из Сингапура, оставив лишь небольшое подразделение поддержки. Мы пересмотрели наши запасы индонезийских морских патрульных и прибрежных комбатантов: в прошлом году мы перечислили два торпедных катера Andou FRG Lurssen; есть только один торпедный катер - Singa - и в общей сложности семь береговых патрульных кораблей Andou, которые были поставлены за последние три года. Было подтверждено, что ВМС должны приобрести еще два бывших нидерландских фрегата Van Speijk, первый из которых будет поставлен в конце 1989 года. Завершена поставка шести вертолетов Wasp HAS-1 ВМС Малайзии. Малайзия заключила крупную оружейную сделку с Соединенным Королевством на общую сумму ё1 млрд, которая будет финансироваться в основном за счет встречной торговли. Некоторые детали доступны, но было высказано предположение, что оружие, которое будет поставляться, будет включать в себя как наземной атаки, так и противовоздушной обороны Tornado, ЗРК Rapier и, возможно, отремонтированную подводную лодку. Сингапурский Военно-Морской Флот ввел в эксплуатацию свой первый спроектированный ФРГ корвет Lurssen 62m, вооруженный ПКР Harpoon и ПЛТА. Первые восемь самолетов F-16 были поставлены, но еще не функционируют.
   Вьетнамская армия продолжила вывод как из Лаоса,где осталось около 10-15 тысяч (в основном строительных) военнослужащих, так и из Камбоджи. Вьетнам привержен полному выводу войск из Камбоджи к 27 сентября 1989 года,но на 1 июня там все еще находилось около 60-65 000 военнослужащих. Когда мы отправились в прессу, началась международная конференция по камбоджийской ситуации, длившаяся месяц.
   В Таиланде армия ввела штаб корпуса для улучшения оперативного командования после плохо выполненных операций вдоль лаосской границы в 1987-8 годах. Штаб корпуса находится в Центральном и Северо-Восточном регионах. Первая из трех дивизий была преобразована в новую механизированную организацию. Приобретение техники включает около 300 китайских БТР типа 88 и 100 БТР типа 63, в то время как запасы китайских танков типа 69 удвоились до 60. Некоторые китайские 130 мм Type-82 MRL, возможно, также были поставлены.
   Достигнут лишь минимальный прогресс в деле улучшения отношений между двумя Кореями. Предложенная премьер-министром встреча провалилась из-за продолжения ежегодных крупных американо-корейских военных учений 'Team Spirit'. ВМС КНДР приняли на вооружение две дополнительные китайские подводные лодки типа 031, в то время как инвентарь ВВС увеличился примерно на 34 истребителя МиГ-29. Мы пересмотрели наш список армейских соединений и теперь показываем 31 (а не 26) действующую пехотную дивизию и 26 резервных пехотных дивизий (а не 2 дивизии и 18 независимых бригад). Основными изменениями в южнокорейских силах являются начало замены самолетов ИБ F-5 на меньшее количество F-16, запасы ВВС F-16 удвоились до 48 самолетов за последние двенадцать месяцев.
   Японские Силы самообороны продолжают расширять свой арсенал. Морские Силы самообороны ввели в строй десятую подводную лодку Yuushio, еще три фрегата класса Asagiri и два противоминных судна класса Hatsushima. Первый из шести усовершенствованных фрегатов класса Yubari был спущен на воду в декабре 1988 года, а второй танкер класса Towada (АО) - в марте 1989 года. Ожидается, что изготовление первого эсминца с управляемыми ракетами Aegis начнется в 1989 году. Мы переклассифицировали ряд японских классов кораблей в фрегаты, чтобы отразить их основную роль. Военно-морское авиационное вооружение сняло с вооружения морской разведывательный самолет PS-1, увеличив при этом число Р-3С, и приняло на вооружение первые два (из десяти) тральных вертолета S-80.
   Первый из двух изначально построенных FFG класса Adelaide был наконец спущен на воду для австралийского флота в мае 1989 года, более чем на два года позже графика, и теперь не должен быть завершен до 1991 года. До сих пор не принято решение о конструкции нового фрегата. Австралийские Военно-воздушные силы приобрели еще 15 F-18 ИБ и сформировали эскадрилью, в совместной учебной/атакующей роли с 16 M3-326H. В новозеландских вооруженных силах не произошло никаких изменений, кроме вывода пехотного батальона из Сингапура.
   Расходы на Оборону
   В целом расходы на оборону продолжают расти в реальном выражении. В Японии возросли обязательства играть более широкую роль в области безопасности, а решения о крупных программах закупок привели к значительному увеличению оборонных бюджетов, которые выросли примерно на 4,2% и 4,8% в реальном выражении в 1989-1990 финансовых годах, но вряд ли превысят 1% ВВП. Если применять определения оборонного бюджета НАТО, то Япония занимает второе место среди промышленно развитых стран по объему расходов на оборону.
   И Южная Корея, и Тайвань увеличили свои расходы на оборону, но из-за высоких темпов экономического роста эти увеличения составляют меньшую долю национальных ресурсов. Северная Корея, экономика которой не расширилась, также увеличила расходы на оборону. Как Шри-Ланка, так и Филиппины сталкиваются с проблемами внутренней безопасности, которые требуют дополнительных расходов на оборону.
   Оборонный бюджет Индии сократился в реальном выражении в 1989 году, но официальная цифра не включает расходы на операции в Шри-Ланке, на Мальдивских островах и на леднике Сиачен, а также большую часть программы НИОКР, которая в основном финансируется Департаментом науки и техники. Индийская организация космических исследований, выполняющая работы оборонного характера, не финансируется Министерством обороны, равно как и значительная часть зарубежных закупок вооружений, финансируемых за счет специальных ассигнований Министерства финансов. Расходы Пакистана на оборону выросли примерно на 5% в реальном выражении в 1989/90 финансовом году, чему способствовало щедрое выделение средств FMA США, которое находится под угрозой в результате обеспокоенности Конгресса по поводу ядерных устремлений Пакистана.
   Экономических данных по Афганистану или Индокитаю, где Вьетнам испытывает острые экономические трудности, практически нет, однако после завершения вывода войск из Камбоджи Вьетнам сможет сэкономить на расходах на оборону (хотя реабсорбция значительного числа демобилизованных военнослужащих в национальную экономику сама по себе может вызвать проблемы).
   Наконец, Австралия, Малайзия и Таиланд объявили об амбициозных программах модернизации своих вооруженных сил, что нашло отражение в увеличении ассигнований на оборону.
   AFGHANISTAN
    []
    []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
Terms of service: Males 15-55: volunteers 2 years, conscription 3 years+, non-combatants 4-5 years.
RESERVES: No formal force identified; call-up from ex-servicemen, Youth League and tribesmen from age 20 to age 40.

ARMY: 50,000 (mostly conscripts).t
   4 corps HQ.
   3 armd div
   14 inf div (understrength bde).
   1 Special Guard div (6 bde incl presidential guard, cdo units).
   1 mtn div (2 mtn regt).
   1 mech inf div/bde.
   2 cdo bde.
   1 arty bde.
   1 AD arty bde.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 620: 50 T-34,400 T-54/-55, 170 T-62.
LIGHT TANKS: 60 PT-76.
AIFV: 250 BMP-1/-2.
APC: 850 BTR-40/-50/-60/-70/-80M52.
TOWED ARTY: 1,000+: 100mm: M-1944; 122mm: M-30, D-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: D-1.
MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 132mm: 50 BM-13-16. 220mm: BM-27 reported.
MORTARS: 1,000+: 82mm: M-37; 107mm; 120mm: 100 M-43; 160mm: M-43.
SSM: 2+ Scud launchers.
RCL: 73mm: SPG-9; 82mm: B-10.
ATK GUNS: 76mm; 100mm.
AD GUNS: 600+ 14.5mm; 23mm: 20 ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm, 57mm, 85mm and 100mm towed.

AIR FORCE: 5,000 (incl ADcomd); 193 cbt ac, 74 armed hel.t
FGA: 10 sqn (3 regt):
   3 with 40 MiG-17;
   1 with 15 MiG-23;
   4 with 60 Su-7B;
   2 with 30 Su-22.
FIGHTER:
   1 regt with 30 MiG-21F.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 8 sqn with 25 Mi-8, 35 Mi-17, 14 Mi-25.
TRANSPORT:
   AIRCRAFT:
   1 VIP sqn with 2 II-18D, 1 An-24;
   2 sqn with 10 An-2, 12 An-12, 40 An-26, 12 Il-14.
   HELICOPTERS: 12 Mi-4.
TRAINING: 18 L-29,6 MiG-15UTI, 20 MiG-19, 18 MiG-21, Yak-11, Yak-18.
AD: 1 div:
   2 SAM bde (each 3 bn) with 115 SA-2, 110 SA-3;
   1 AD arty bde (2 bn) with 37mm, 85mm, 100mm guns;
   1 radar bde (3 bn).

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER GUARD (under Army): some 7,000; 7 'bde'.
WAD (KHAD) (Ministry of State Security): 70,000; some 27,000 in cbt units.
REGIONAL MILITIAS: 100,000+. incl Defence of the Revolution (GPS), Village militia, Pioneers, Afghan Communist Party Guards,
   Khalqi Youth, tribal bde(Ministry of Tribes and Nationalities), National Fatherland Front.
SARANDOY (Ministry of Interior): 8 30,000.

OPPOSITION:*
Afghan resistance is a broad national movement.
The military elements, 'mujahedin' fighters, comprise numerous groups affiliated to either one of the seven parties of the Peshawar-based Resistance Alliance or one of the predominantly Shia groups based in Iran. It is not possible to give accurate strengths; however of the Peshawar groups some 40,000 are reported to be active, supported by a further 120,000.
Peshawar groups, leaders names in parentheses:-
TRADITIONALIST MODERATE:
NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (Jabhat-Nijat-Millt): Sibghatullah Modjaddi: ~35,000.
NATIONAL ISLAMIC FRONT (Mahaz-Millin Islarni): Sayyed Amhad Gailani: ~20,000.
ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (Harakat-Inqilab-Islami): Mohammed Nabi Mohammed: ~20,000.
ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALIST:
ISLAMIC PARTY (Hizbi-hlami-Khalis): Yunis Khalis: ~10,000.
ISLAMIC PARTY (Hizbi-Islami-Gulbaddin): Gulbaddin Hekmatyar. ~35,000.
ISLAMIC UNION (Ittihad-Islami): Abdul Rasul Sayyaf: ~15,000.
ISLAMIC SOCIETY (Jamiat IslamН): Burhanuddin Rabani: ~20,000.
IRAN-BASED:
SAZMAVE NASR (50,000).
HARAKAT-E-ISLAMI (20,000).
PASDARAV-E-JEHAD (8,000).
HEZBOLLAH (4,000).
NEHZAT (4,000).
SHOORA-E-ITTEFAQ (30,000+).
EQUIPMENT: (predominantly captured): T-34, T-55 MBT; BMPMICV, BTR-40/-60 APC; 76mm guns, 122mm D-30 how; 107mm, 122mm MRL; 82mm M-41, 120mm mor, RPG-7 RL; 12.7mm, 14.5mm, 20mm AA guns incl 40 GAI-BOI; Blowpipe, Stinger, SA-7 SAM.
* No details of Soviet military aid known; but economic assistance from CMEAofficially est at $223 m in1988.
t Actual strength suspect Divisions reported to average 2,500 (about quarter strength). Desertion is common.
i US, Western and friendly Islamic states' assistance to Afghan rebels ~$500 m in 1986.


  AUSTRALIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 69,600.
Terms of Service: voluntary.
RESERVES: 27,580 (increasing). Army: 25,000; Navy: 1,220; Ain 1,360.

ARMY: 31,300.
LAND COMD: 7 military districts
Comd tps:
   1 AD regt +
   1 engr regt (construction)
   1 avn regt.
   1 Special Air Service regt (3 sqn)
1 inf div
   1 mech bde (1 armd, 1 mech, 1 para inf bn)
   2 inf bde (each 2 inf bn)
   1 recce regt +
   1 APC regt
   4 arty regt (1 med, 3 fd (1 reserve))
   1 engr regt +
   1 avn regt (3 hel, 1 ac sqn).
   2 avn sqn forming as hel transferred from Air Force.
   (2 reserve inf bde see below)
RESERVES:
2 div HQ, 7 bde HQ, 3 recce regt, 3 APC sqn, 17 inf bn, 1 cdo, 6 arty (1 med, 5 fd) regt, 3 fd arty bty, 4 engr (2 fd, 2 construction) regt,
   3 regional surveillance units.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 103 Leopard 1A3, 42 Centurion (in store).
AIFV: 40 M-113 with 76mm gun.
APC: 725 M-113 (incl variants).
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 142 M2A2/L5, 18 Hamel. 155mm: 35 M-198.
MORTARS: 81mm: 284.
ATGW: 10 Milan.
RCL: 84mm: 574 Carl Gustav, 106mm: 73 M-40.
SAM: 19 Rapier, 19 RBS-70.
AIRCRAFT: 14 PC-6 Turbo-Porter, 22 GAF N-22B Missionmaster.
HELICOPTERS: 14 S-70 (Army/Air Force crews), 47 OH-58 Kiowa, 47 Bell 206B.
MARINE: 16 LCM, 85 LARC-5 amph craft.

NAVY: 15,700 (incl Fleet Air Arm).
Maritime Command, Support Command, 6 Naval Area and.
BASES: Sydney, NSW. (Maritime Command HQ). Base for 4 SS, 3 DDG, 6 FF, 2 patrol, LST, AOR, AD, AGT, 1 survey, 2 LCT.
   Cockbum Sound, WA. Base fon 2 SS, 3 FF, 3 patrol, 1 survey.
   Cairns, Qld: 5 patrol. 1 survey, 1 LCT
   Darwin, NT: 5 patrol.
SUBMARINES: 6 Oxley (mod UK Oberon) with Mk 48 HWT and Harpoon SSM.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 12.
DESTROYERS: 3 Perth (US Adams) DDG (2 in refit) with 1 SM-1MR SAM/Harpoon SSM launcher, plus 2 Ikara SUGW,
   2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT), 2 127mm guns.
FRIGATES: 9:
   4 Adelaide (US Perry) FFG with 1 AS-350 Squirrel hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 1 SM-1MR SAM/Harpoon SSM launcher.
   2 Swan, 3 Paramatta FF with 1 Ikara SUGW, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 114mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 22:
INSHORE: 22:
   15 Fremantle PFI, 5 Attack PCI (Reserve trg).
   2 Banks PCC (Reserve trg).
MINE WARFARE: 3:
   1 Curlew (UK 'Ton') MHC.
   2 Rushcutter MHI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 1:
   1 Tobruk LST, capacity 14 tk, 350 tps, hel deck.
   Plus craft; 3 LCT, capacity 3 tk (3 more in store).
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 6:
   1 Success (mod Fr Durance) AO, 1 Stalwart AD/comd, 1 trg/log spt (ex-ferry), 1 AGOR, 2 AGHS.

FLEET AIR ARM: (1,200); no cbt ac, 10 armed hel.
ASW: 1 hel sqn with 7 Sea King Mk 50A (ASW), 3 S-70B-2.
UTILITY/SAR: 1 sqn with 6 AS-350B, 3 Bell 206B, 4 UH-1B, 3 Wessex 31B; 1 with 2 BAe-748.

AIR FORCE: 22,600; 116 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA/RECCE: 2 sqn with 18 F-111C, 4 RF-111C.
FIGHTER/FGA: 3 sqn with 48 F-18 (45 -A, 3 -B).
ATTACK/TRAINING: 1 sqn with 16 MB-326H.
MR: 2 sqn with 20 P-3C.
OCU: 1 with 14 F-18B.
FAC: 1 fit with 4 CA-25 Winjeel.
TRANSPORT: 6 sqn:
   2 with 24 C-130 (12 -E, 12 -H);
   1 with 6 Boeing 707 (4 to be tanker ac);
   1 with 15 DHC-4;
   1 with 4 DHC-4, 16 UH-1H;
   1 VIP with 4 BAe (2 BAC-111,2 BAe-748), 3 Falcon20.
HELICOPTERS:
TRANSPORT: 1 med hel sqn with 8 CH-47 (plus 3 in store). To be withdrawn in 1989.
UTILITY: 1 hel sqn with 12 UH-1H (to be transferred to Army 1989-91).
TRAINING: 55 MB-326H (life-extended), 8 BAe-748T2, 12 PC-9 (more being delivered), 48 CT-4/4A ac.
   18 Squirrel (AS-350) hel being transferred to Army.
AAM: Sparrow AIM-7M, Sidewinder AIM-9L, -9M.
ASM: AGM-84 Harpoon.
AD: Jindalee OTH radar. 1 experimental, 3 planned.
   3 Control and Reporting units (1 mobile).

FORCES ABROAD:
MALAYSIA/SINGAPORE: 1 inf coy, det with PC-3 ac.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): 15.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 304 (engr).
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: 100; trg unit, 1 engr unit, 30 advisers.
Advisers in Solomon Is., Vanuatu, Tonga, W.Samoa and Kiribati.

PARA-MILITARY:
BUREAU OF CUSTOMS: 10 GAF N-22B Searchmaster MR ac; 6 boats.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: Air Force: 290; Navy: 450, joint facilities at NW Cape, Pine Gap and Nurrungar.

   BANGLADESH
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 103,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 90,000.
   6 inf div HQ.
   14 inf bde (some 26 bn).
   1 armd bde (2 armd regt).
   6 arty regt.
   6 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 20 Ch Type-59, 30 T-54/-55.
LIGHT TANKS: some 40 Ch Type-62.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 30 Model 56 pack, 50 M-101; 122mm: 20 Ch Type-54.
MORTARS: 81mm; 82mm: Ch Type-53; 120mm: 50 Ch Type-53.
RCL: 106mm: 30 M-40.
ATK GUNS: 57mm: 18 6-pdr, 76mm: 50 Ch Type-54.

NAVY:* 7,000.
BASES: Chittagong (HQ), Dhaka, Khulna, Kaptai.
FRIGATES: 3:
   1 Untar Farooq (UK Salisbury) with 1x3 Squid ASW mor, 1x2 114mm guns.
   2 Abu Bahr (UK Leopard) with 2x2 114mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 37:
MISSILE CRAFT: 4 Durbar (Ch Hegu) PFM with 2 CSS-N-2 (HY-2) SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 4 Ch Type-123K PFI( with 2 450mm TT.
PATROL COASTAL 11:
   8 Durjoy (Ch Hainan) with 4x5 ASW RL.
   2 Meghna fishery protection,
   1 Shahjalal.
PATROL, INSHORE: 13:
   8 Shahead Daulat PFI (Ch Shanghai)
   2 Kamaphuli, 2 Padma, 1 Bishkali PCI.
RIVERINE: 5<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 4: 1 coastal tanker, 1 repair, 1 ocean tug, 1 tpt/trg.

AIR FORCE:* 6,000; 61 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 2 sqn with 25 J-6/JJ-6, 16 Q-5.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 16 MiG-21MF, 2 MiG-21U.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 1 An-24, 4 An-26, 2 DHC-3.
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn with 2 Bell 206L, 13 -212, 12 Mi-8.
TRAINING: 20 Ch CJ-6, 14 CM-170, 2 JJ-5, 4 MiG-15UTI.

FORCES ABROAD:
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 25 observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
BANGLADESH RIFLES: 30,000 (borderguard).
PRESIDENTIAL SECURITY FORCE:
ARMED POLICE: 3,000.
ANSARS (Security Guards): 20,000.

OPPOSITION:
SHANTI BAHINI (Peace Force), Chakma tribe Chittagong Hills, ~5,000.

* Spares are short; some eqpt unserviceable.

   BRUNEI
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 4,200 incl 250 women.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: Army: to be 900.

ARMY: 3,400.
   2 inf bn.
   1 armd recce sqn.
   1 SAMbty: 2 tps with Rapier.
   1 engr sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
UGHT TANKS: 16 Scorpion.
APC: 24 Sankey AT-104.
MORTARS: 81mm.
SAM: 12 Rapier (with Blindfire).
RESERVES: 1 bn (forming).

NAVY: 500.
BASE: Muara.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 6:
MISSILE CRAFT: 3 Waspada PFMwith 2 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
PATROL 3 Perwira PFI<.
RIVERINE: Boats only.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only; 2 LCM<.

AIR FORCE: 300, 4 cbt ac, 7 armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 7 Bo-105 armed hel.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 10 Bell 212, 1 -214 (SAR).
VIP tpt: 2 S-70 hel.
TRAINING: 4 SF-260W ac, 2 Bell 206B hel.

PARA-MILITARY:
GURKHA RESERVE UNIT: 900+.
ROYAL BRUNEI POLICE: 1,750, 2 PCI<, boats.

FOREIGN FORCES:
UK: some 900. (Army) 1 Gurkha inf bn, 1 hel fit.
SINGAPORE: some 500: trg school incl bel det (5 UH-1).

   BURMA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 200,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
ARMY: 182,000.
   9 lt inf div (each 3 Tac op comd (TOC)
   9 Regional Comd (8 with 3 TOC, 1 with 4 TOC)
   28 TOC with 85 garrison inf bn.
Summary of cbt units:
   175 inf bn.
   2 armd bn.
   4 arty bn.
   1 AA arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:*
MBT: 26 Comet.
RECCE: 45 Ferret.
APC: 40 Humber.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 120 M-1948; 88mm: 50 25-pdr, 105mm: 96 M-101; 140mm: 5.5-in.
MRL: 122mm: reported.
MORTARS: 120mm: 80.
RCL: 84mm: 500 Carl Gustav, 106mm: M40A1.
ATK GUNS: 60: 57mm: 6-pdr; 76.2mm: 17-pdr.
AD GUNS: 40mm: 10.

NAVY:* 9,000 incl 800 Naval Infantry.
BASES: Bassein, Mergui, Moulmein, Seikyi, Rangoon (Monkey Point), Sittwe.

PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 39:
CORVETTES: 2:
   1 Yan Taing Aung (US PCE-827)
   1 Yan Gui Aung (US Admirable MSF).
PATROL: 37:
   COASTAL 2 Nawarat
   INSHORE: 9 US PGM-401, 12 Yug Y-301, 9<.
   RIVERINE: 5<.
SUPPORT: 1 coastal tpt, 1 AGHS, 1 PC spt.

MARINES: (Naval Infantry): 800: 1 bn.

AIR FORCE: 9,000; 26 cbt ac, no armed hel.*
COIN: 2 sqn: 12 PC-7, 4 PC-9.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn: 5 DHC-3, 5 FH-227, 7 PC-6B.
LIAISON: 3 Cessna 180, 1 -550.
HELICOPTERS: 4 sqn: 17 Bell 205, 9 SA-316.
TRAINING: incl 10 SF-260 WB (COIN, trg), 6 SF-260M, 9 T-37C; 10 KB-47G hel.

PARA-MILITARY: 73,000.
PEOPLE'S POLICE FORCE: 38,000;
PEOPLE'S MILITIA: 35,000.
FISHERY DEPT: ~250: 12 patrol boats (3 Indaw (Dk Osprey)), 9 inshore<.

OPPOSITION:
Regional independence forces with loose and varying alliances. Only main groups listed.
BURMA COMMUNIST PARTY (BCP): 10,000 Active, 8-10,000 militia (mainly Shan State, South East Kachin State).
NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC FRONT (NDF): Some 20,000: coalition of numerous ethnic gp, mainly in border areas incl Kachin (8,000),
   Shan and Karen (4,000) groups.
PRIVATE ARMIES (mainly narcotics linked)
   Mong Tai Army (formerly Shan United Army)
   Chang Shee Fu 'Khun Sa*(narcotics warlord): 2,100.
   Kan Chit: 450. United Revolutionary Army: ~1,000; Kuomintang-linked. Loi Maw Rebels/Army: ~3,000.

* Spares areshort; most eqpt unserviceable.

   CAMBODIA*
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: some 99,300 incl provincial and district forces.
Terms of service: conscription, 5 years; ages 18 to 35. Militia serve 3 to 6 months with Regulars.

ARMY: some 42,500.
   5 Military Regions.
   6 inf div.
   3 indep inf regt.
   1 cav regt.
   4 tk bn.
   Some indep recce, arty, AD bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 80 T-54A55, some Type 59.
LIGHT TANKS: 10 PT-76.
APC: some 150 BTR-40/-60/-152, M-113.
TOWED ARTY: some 350: 76mm: M-1942; 122mm: M-1938, D-30; 130mm: Type 59.
MRL: 107mm: Type-63; 132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16.
MORTARS: 82mm: M-37; 120mm: M-43; 160mm: M-160.
RCL: 82mm: B-10; 107mm: B-11.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: ZPU 1/-2/-4; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: ~1,000.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 11:
   2 Sov Turya PHT with 4 533mm TT.
   4 Sov Stenka PFI, 5<.

AIR FORCE: ~800. 15 cbt ac; 3 armed hel.
FIGHTER: 15 MiG-21.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 3 Mi-24.
TRANSPORT: 3 An-2, An-24.
HELICOPTERS: 6 Mi-8/-17.

PROVINCIAL FORCES: some 22,500. Reports of at least 1 inf regt per province: with varying number of inf bn with lt wpn.

DISTRICT FORCES: some 32,500. Reports of at least 1 inf bn per district: lt wpn only.

PARA-MILITARY: Some 50,000 Local Forces, org at village level for local defence, ~10-20 per village.

OPPOSITION:
COALITION GOVERNMENT OF DEMOCRATIC KAMPUCHEA (CGDK):
KHMER ROUGE (National Army of Democratic Kampuchea) some 30,000 org in 20 'bde': perhaps further 15,000 spt and log.
KAMPUCHEAN PEOPLE'S NATIONAL LIBERATION ARMED FORCES (KFNLAF): some 10-12,000 org in ~30 'bde'; ~7 op sectors.
ARMEE NATIONALE SIHANOUKIENNE (ANS): perhaps 15-18,000 org in 7 'bde', 6 'regt', ~5 op sectors.
EQUIPMENT: small arms, plus 12.7mm machine guns, 60mm, 82mm mor, RPG-7 RL, DK-75mm mor, RCL, SA-7 SAM reported.

FOREIGN FORCES:
VIETNAM: (Army) some 60-65,000. Complete withdrawal due September 1989.

* Data largely est. Little reliable evidence available.

   FIJI
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 3,500.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: some 5,000 (to age 45).

ARMY: 3,200.
   4 inf bn.
   1 engr coy.
EQUIPMENT:
MORTARS: 81mm: 12.
RESERVES: 2 inf bn.

NAVY: 300.
BASE: Suva.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 5:
   3 Kikau PCC (US Redwing), 1 with hel deck.
   2 Lautoka PCI.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANOUS: 2 survey<.

FORCES ABROAD: 1,100.
AFGHANISTAN (UNGOMAP): 4.
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): 400. 1 inf bn.
LEBANON (UNIFIL): 700; 1 inf bn.

  INDIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,260,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: (obligation to age 60) Army 300,000. Territorial Army (volunteers) 160,000. Air Force strength nk.

ARMY: 1,100,000.
HQ: 5 Regional Comd (= Fd Army), 10 Corps.
   2 armd div (each 2/3 armed, 1 SP arty (2 SP fd, 1 med regt) bde).
   1 mech div (each 3 mech (4/6 mech bn, 3 armd regt), 1 arty bde).
   19 inf div (each 2-5 inf, 1 arty bde; some have armd regt).
   11 mtn div (each 3-4 bde, 1 or more arty regt).
   14 indep bde: 5 armd, 7 inf, 1 mtn, 1 AB/cdo.
   3 indep arty bde.
   6 AD bde.
   4 engr bde.
These formations comprise:
   53 tk regt (bn).
   19 mech, 332 inf bn.
   9 AB/cdo bn.
   164 arty regt (bn): 1 hy, 5 MRL, 50 med (incl 11 SP), 69 fd (incl 3 SP), 39 mtn.
   29 AD arty regt; perhaps 10 SAM gp (3-5 bty each).
   7 sqn, 25 fit, Air Observation.
   6 ATK/tpt, 4 liaison hel sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 3,150 (~500 in store): some 800 T-55, 650 T-72/-M1, 1,700 Vijayanta.
LIGHT TANKS: 100 PT-76.
RECCE: BRDM-2.
AIFV: 700 BMP-1, some Sarath (BMP-2).
APC: 400 OT-62/-64, 50 BTR-60.
TOWED ARTY: some 3,860: 75mm/76mm: 900 75/24 mtn, 215 Yug M-48; 88mm: 1,000 25-pdr (retiring); 100mm: 185 M-1944;
   105mm: some 800 (incl M-56 pack), some 30 IFG Mk II; 130mm: 550 M-46; 140mm: 150 5.5-in (retiring); 155mm: 50 FH-77B.
SP ARTY: 105mm: 80 Abbot, 130mm: 100 mod M-46
MRL: 122mm: 80 BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm: L16A1; 82mm: M-43; 120mm: 1,000 M-43; 160mm: 200 M-43.
ATGW: SS-11-B1, Milan, AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot.
RCL: 106mm: 1,000+M-40.
AD GUNS 2,750: 23mm: 140 ZU 23-2, 75 ZSU-23-4 SP; 40mm: 1,245 L40/60, 790 L40/70; 94mm: 500 3.7-in.
SAM: 26 SA-6, 620 SA-7, 20 SA-8A/-B, SA-9, 25 Tigercat launchers.
HELICOPTERS: 9 sqn with 180 Chetak (some with 4 AS-11), 4 with 100 Cheetah.
RESERVES:
Territorial Army: 30 inf bn.
DEPLOYMENT:
North - 1 Corps with 2 inf, 1 mtn div; 1 mtn, 1 indep inf, 1 indep arty bde. 1 Corps with 4 inf div; 2 indep armd, 1 indep inf, 2 indep arty bde.
West - 1 Corps with 1 armd, 1 mech div; 1 Corps with 2 inf div; 1 Corps with 3 inf div.
Central - 1 Corps with 1 armd, 2 inf div, plus 3 indep div (2 inf, 1 mtn).
East - 3 Corps each with 3 mtn div.
South - 1 Corps with 4 inf div.

NAVY: 47,000, incl 5,000 naval air force and 1,000 marines.
PRINCIPALCOMMANDS:
WESTERN COMD (HQ) Bombay: BASES: Goa, Lakshadweep (Laccadive Is), Karwar (under construction).
EASTERN COMD (HQ) Visakhapatnam: BASES: Calcutta, Port Blair (Andaman Is).
SOUTHERN COMMAND (trg); (HQ) Cochin.
NAVALAIR: (HQ), Goa.
SUBMARINE: (HQ), Visakhapatnam.
SUBMARINES: 17:
SSGN: 1 Chakra (Sov Charlie-I) with SS-N-7 Starbright USGW; plus 533mm TT (presence of USGW not confirmed).
SS: 16:
   6 Sindhughosh (Sov Kilo) with 533mm TT.
   2 Shishumar (FRG T-209/1500) with 533mm TT.
   8 Kursura (Sov Foxtrot) with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 28.
CARRIERS: 2:
   1 Viraat (UK Hermes) (29,000t) CW.
   1 Vibrant (UK Glory) (19,800t) (in refit converting to CW)
   both to operate:- ac: 8 Sea Harrier attack, hel: 8 Sea King ASW/ASUW (Sea Eagle ASM).
DESTROYERS: 5 Rajput (Sov Kashiri) DDG with 2x2 SA-N-1 Goa SAM; plus 4 SS-N-2C Styx SSM, 5 533mm TT, 2 ASW RL, 1 Ka-25 or 27 hel (ASW).
FRIGATES: 21:
   3 Godavari FFH with 2 x Sea King hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 SS-N-2C Styx SSM.
   6 Nilgiri (UK Leander) with 2x3 ASTT, 4 with 1x3 Limbo ASW mor, 1 Chetak hel, 2 with 1 Sea King, 1x2 ASW RL; plus 2 114mm guns.
   1 Talwar (UK Whitby) with 1 Chetak hel, 3 Styx SSM.
   8 Kamorta (Sov Petya) with 4 ASW RL, 3 533mm TT.
   1 Khukri (ASUW) with 4 Styx, hel deck.
   2 Beas (UK Leopard) (trg).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 34.
CORVETTES: 8:
   3 Vijay Durg (Sov Nanuchka II) with 4 SS-N-2B Styx.
   5 Veer (Sov Tarantut) with 4 Styx.
MISSILE CRAFT: 13 Vidyut (Sov. Osa) with 4 Styx.
PATROL, INSHORE: 13: 11 SDB Mk 2/3, 2 Osa PH.
MINE WARFARE: 20:
MINELAYERS:None, but Kamorta FF and Pondicherry MSO have minelaying capability.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 20:
   12 Pondicherry (Sov Natya) MSO.
   2 Bulsar (UK 'Ham') MSI.
   6 Mahe (Sov Yevgenya) MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 10:
   1 Magar 1ST, capacity 200 tps, 12 tk, 1 hel
   9 Ghorpad (Sov Polnocny C) LSM, capacity 140 tps, 6 tk.
   Plus craft; 9 Vasco da Gama LCU.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 18: 2 Deepak AO, 1 AOT, 1 Amba (Sov Ugra) sub spt, 1 tpt, 2 ocean tugs, 5 AGHS, 5 AGOR, 1 Tir trg.

NAVAL AIR FORCE:(5,000); 31 cbtac, 53 armed hel.
ATTACK: 1 sqn with 8 Sea Harrier FRS Mk-51, 2 T-60 trg (more being delivered).
ASW: 1 ac sqn with 4 Alize 1050 (land-based); 5 hel sqn with 10 Chetak, 5 Ka-25, 18 Ka-27, 20 Sea King Mk 42A/B.
MR: 2 sqn: 9 BN-2, 3 Il-38, 5 Tu-142M Bear F.
COMMUNICATIONS: 1 sqn with 6 BN-2 Islander, Do-228.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 6 Sea King Mk 42C.
TRAINING: 2 sqn: 6 HJT-16, 8 HPT-32 ac; 2 Chetak, 4 Hughes 300 hel.

MARINES: (~1,000);
   1 regt (2nd forming).

AIR FORCE: 110,000; 836 cbt ac, 12 armed hel. 5 Air Comd.
BOMBERS: 1 lt bbr sqn with 10 Canberra.
FGA: 28 sqn:
   4 with 60 MiG-23BN/UM;
   7 with 105 MiG-21MF/U;
   1 with 15 MiG-21PFMA;
   5 with 70 Jaguar IS;
   5 with 72 MiG-27;
   5 with 80 Ajeet,
   1 with 20 Marut.
FIGHTER: 22 sqn:
   3 with 49 MiG-29UB;
   3 with 52 Mirage 2000 (incl 45 -H, 7 -TH);
   4 with 65 MiG-23MF/UM;
   12 with 200 MiG-21/FL/bis/U.
   Air Defence Ground Environment System.
MARITIME ATTACK: 8 Jaguar with Sea Eagle.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 12 Mi-25.
RECCE: 3 sqn:
   1 with 8 Canberra PR-57;
   1 with 6 MiG-25R, 2 MiG-25U;
   1 with 4 HS-748.
MR/SURVEY: 2 Gulfstream /FSRA, 2 Learjet 29.
TRANSPORT:
   AIRCRAFT: 12 sqn:
   6 with 108 An-32 Sutler,
   2 with 30 An-12B;
   1 with 10 DHC-3;
   1 with 10 DHC-4;
   1 with 16BAe-748;
   1 with 12 Il-76 Gajraj;
   HELICOPTERS: 11 sqn with 80 Mi-8, 50 Mi-17, 10 Mi-26 (hy tpt).
VIP: 1 HQ sqn with 2 Boeing 737, 7 BAe-748.
LIAISON: fit and det: 16 BAe-748, C-47.
TRAINING: 24 BAe-748, 20 Canberra T-4/-13/-67, 120 HJT-16, 57 Kiran II, 20 HPT-32, 60 HT-2, 20 Hunter T-66, 5 Jaguar IB, 44 TS-11 ac;
   20 Chetak hel.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex, R-550 Magic, Matra Super 530D.
ASM: AM-39 Exocet, AS-7 Kerry, AS-11B (ATGW), AS-30, Sea Eagle.
SAM: 30 bn: 280 Divina V75SM/VK (SA-2), SA-3.

FORCES ABROAD:
MALDIVES: some 150.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 21 observers/HQ staff.
SRI LANKA: some 47,000; Army: 45,000: 4 inf div HQ. Plus navaL air and Central Reserve Police Force.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL SECURITY GUARDS: 5,000: anti-terrorism contingency deployment force. Comprises elm of the Armed Forces, CRPF, Border Guard.
CENTRAL RESERVE POLICE FORCE (CRPF): 90,000; Reserves: 250,000; 100 bn, internal security duties and army first-line reserves.
BORDER SECURITY FORCE: 90,000; some 100 bn (to add 44 bn by 1991), small arms, some lt arty, tpt/liaison air spt.
ASSAM RIFLES: 40,000.
LADAKH SCOUTS: 5,000.
INDO-TIBETAN BORDER POLICE: 14,000.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE: 8,000.
CENTRAL INDUSTRIAL SECURITY FORCE: 70,000.
DEFENCE SECURITY FORCE: 30,000.
RAILWAY PROTECTION FORCES: 70,000.
PROVINCIAL ARMED CONSTABULARY: 250,000.
COAST GUARD: 2,500,
   FRIGATES: 1 Kuthar (UK Type 14).
   PATROL CRAFT: 31: 6 Vikram PCO, 2 Tara Bai PCI, 8 Rajhans PFI, 7 Jija Bai YO., 8<.
   AVIATION: 3 air sqn with 11 Do-228, 2 Fokker F-27, 5 BN-2 Islander ac, 4 Chetak hel.

   INDONESIA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 285,000.
Terms of service: 2 years selective conscription authorized.
RESERVES: 800,000: Army (planned): cadre units; numbers, strengths unknown, obligation to age 45 for officers.

ARMY: 215,000.
Strategic Reserve (KOSTRAD).
   2 inf div HQ, 1 more forming.
   1 armd cav bde (-).
   3 inf bde (9 bn).
   3 AB bde (8 bn).
   2 fd arty regt (6 bn).
   1 AD arty regt (2 bn).
   2 engr bn
10 Military Area Comd (KODAM)
(Provincial (KOREM) and District (KORIM) comd)
   63 inf bn.
   8 cav bn.
   4 AB bn.
   8 fd arty bn.
   9 AD bn (6 med, 3 lt).
   6 engr bn.
   1 composite avn sqn, 1 hel sqn.
SF (KOPASSUS): 4 SF gp.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: some 100 AMX-13, 41 PT-76.
RECCE: 56 Saladin, 58 Ferret.
APC: 200 AMX-VCI, 56 Saracen, 60 V-150 Commando, 80 BTR-40, 24 BTR-152.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: M48; 105mm: 170 M-101.
SP ARTY: 105mm: 50 FV Mk 61.
MORTARS: 81mm: 500; 120mm: M-43.
RCL: 90mm: 480 M-67; 106mm: M-40.
AD GUNS 20mm: 20; 40mm: 90 M-1; 57mm: 200 S-60.
SAM: RBS-70, Rapier.
AVIATION:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 BN-2 Islander, 2C-47,4 NC-212, 2 Cessna 185, 2 -207, 2 -310, 2 Commander 680, 2 O-1.
HELICOPTERS: 16 Bell 205, 13 Bo-105, 28 NB-412, 20 Hughes 300C, 8 Soloy-BeU 47G (trg).
MARINE: LST: 1; LCU: 20 300t; 14 tpt.

NAVY: 43,000, incl 1,000 naval air and 12,000 marines.
PRINCIPAL COMMANDS:
WESTERN FLEET (HQ) Jakarta/Tanjung Priok: BASES: Jakarta, Tanjung Pinang (Riau Is.), Sabang (Sumatra).
EASTERN FLEET (HQ Surabaya/Ujung); BASES: Surabaya, Manado (Celebes), Ambon (Moluccas).
MILITARY SEA COMMUNICATIONS COMMAND: (KOLINLAMIL): Controls some amph and tpt ships used for inter-island comms.
SUBMARINES: 2 Cakra (FRG T-209/1300) with 533mm TT (FRG HWT).
FRIGATES: 15
   4 Ahmad Yani (Nl Van Spejk) with 1 Wasp hel (ASW) (Mk 44 LWT), 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 with 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   3 Fatahillah with 2x3 ASTT, 1x2 ASW mor, 1 with Wasp hel; plus 2x2 MM-38 Exocet, 1 120mm gun.
   3 M.K. Tiyahahu (UK Ashanti) with 1 Wasp hel, 1x3 Limbo ASW mor, plus 2 114mm guns.
   4 Samadikun (US Claud Jones) with 2x3 ASTT, (possibly 2 in store).
   1 Hajar Dewantara (trg) with 2 533mm TT, 1 ASW mor, plus 2x2 MM-38 Exocet.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 35:
MISSILE CRAFT: 4 Mandau PFM with 4 x MM-38 Exocet SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 1 Singa (FRG Lurssen 57m) with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL 30:
   COASTAL: 8:
   1 Hiu (US PC 461).
   7 Andou (FRG Lurssen 57m) PFC.
   INSHORE: 22:
   3 Yug Kraljevica, 8 Siliman (Aus Attack) PCI.
   5 Bima Samudera (US Boeing Jetfoil) PHI, 6<.
MINE WARFARE: 2.
   2 Pulau Rengat (mod Nl Alkmaar) MCC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 15:
   8 Teluk Langsa (US LST-512) LST, capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   6 Teluk Semangka LST, capacity about 200 tps, 12 tk, 4 with 3 hels.
   1 Teluk Amboina LST, capacity about 200 tps, 16 tk.
   Plus about 64 craft; 4 LCU, some 40 LCM, 20 LCVP.
   (Note: 3 LST assigned to Mil Sea Comms Comd.)
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 20: 1 Sorong AOR, 2 cmd/spt, 1 repair, 6 tpt (Mil. Sea Comms Comd), 2 ocean tugs, 8 survey/research.

NAVAL AIR: (~1,000); 18 cbt ac, 12 armed hel.
ASW: 3 NAS-332B, 9 Wasp HAS-1 hel.
MR: 12 N-22 Searchmaster B, 6 Searchmaster L.
OTHER:
   AIRCRAFT: incl 6 C-47, 3 Commander, 6 NC-212;
   HELICOPTERS: 1 NAS-332F, 6 NBo-105, 2 SA-313.

MARINES: (12,000);
   2 inf regt (each 6 bn);
   1 cbt spt regt (arty, AD)
EQUIPMENT:
LGHT TANKS: 30 PT-76.
AIFV: 40 AMX-10PAC-90.
APC: 57 incl 25 AMX-10P, BTR-50P.
TOWED ARTY: 122mm: 40M-38.
MRL: 140mm: BM-14.
AD GUNS: 40mm, 57mm.

AIR FORCE: 24,000; 73 cbt ac,no armed hel.
   2 Air Operations Areas:
FGA: 2 sqn with 32 A-4 (28-E, 4 TA-4H).
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 14 F-5 (10-E, 4 -F).
COIN: 1 sqn with 12OV-10F. (See also Trg)
MR: 1 sqn with 3 Boeing 737-200, 2 C-130H-MP, 4HU-16.
TANKER: 2 KC-130B.
TRANSPORT: 4 sqn:
   2 with 20 C-130 (9-B, 3 -H,8 -H-30);
   2 with 1 Boeing 707, 7 C-47, 5 Cessna 207, 5 -401, 2 -402, 7 F-27-400M , 1F-28-1000, 10 NC-212, 1 Skyvan (survey).
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn:
   1 with 12UH-34T (updated to S-58T standard);
   2 with 2 Bell 204B, 12Hughes 500, 7 NAS-332, 12 NBo-105, 13 NSA-330, 3 SE-3160.
TRAINING: 4 sqn with 40AS-202, 2 Cessna 172, 15 Hawk T-53 (COIN/trg), 23T-34C, 10T-41D.
AIRFIELD DEFENCE: 5 bn.

PARA-MILITARY:
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE AND SECURITY: some 115,000: incl Perintis ('special police' riot squads) and Police 'Mobile bde' orgin coy:
   12,000; 3 Commander, 1 Beech 18, 7 lt ac; 7 Bo-105, 3 Bell 206 hel.
MILITIA: 300,000 a year get 3 weeks' basic trg.
CUSTOMS: About 70 PFI<, armed.
HANSIP: village guards in E. Timor.
WANRA: local forces under comd of Regional Military Commands (KOREM).
KAMRA: local police auxiliary.
MARITIME SECURITY AGENCY: 4 PFI, 6 PCI.
POLICE: About 25 PCI (armed)
SEA COMMUNICATIONS (Transport Ministry): 9 SAR craft (inshore).

OPPOSITION:
FRETILIN (Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor): some 300-400 incl spt;small arms.
FREE PAPUA MOVEMENT (OPM): perhaps 500-600 (100 armed).

  JAPAN
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 247,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: Army 46,000; Navy 1,100; Air 800.

ARMY: (Ground Self-Defense Force): 156,000.
5 Army HQ (Regional Commands).
   1 armd div.
   12 inf div (5 at 7,000, 7 at 9,000 men each).
   2 composite bde.
   1 AB bde.
   1 arty bde; 4 arty gp.
   2 AD bde; 8 AD gp.
   3 trg bde.
   1 hel bde: 24 hel sqn.
   2 ATK helpi, 1more forming.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,200: some 430 Type-61 (retiring), some 770 Type-74 (increasing).
RECCE: some 100 Type-82, 20 Type-87.
APC: 430 Type-60, 210 Type-73.
TOWED ARTY: 510: 105mm: 290 M-101; 155mm: some 40 (incl M-1, M-2), 140 FH-70; 203mm: 40 M-115.
SP ARTY: 290: 105mm: 20 Type-74; 155mm: 200 Type-75; 203mm: 70 M-110A2.
MRL: 130mm: some 70 Type-75 SP.
MORTARS: 81mm: 820 (some SP); 107mm: 560 (some SP).
SSM: 50 Type-30.
ATGW: 220 Type-64, some 100 Type-79, some 20 Type-87.
RL: 89mm: 3.5-in M-20.
RCL: 2,710: 75mm; 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm (incl Type 60 SP).
AD GUNS: 35mm: 70 twin; 37mm SP; 40mm SP.
SAM: 180 Stinger, some 40 Type 81 Tan, 200 Improved HAWK.
AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT: 22: 20 LR-1, 2 TL-1.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 40 AH-1S;
   TRANSPORT: 3 AS-332L (VIP), 10 CH-47, 50 KV-107, 160 OH-6D/J, 130 UH-1B/H; 20 TH-55 (trg).

NAVY: (Maritime Self-Defense Force): 44,000 (including 12,000 MSDF air).
BASES: Yokosuka, Kure, Sasebo, Maizuru, Ominato.
Fleet: Surface Units org into 4 escort flotillas, of about 8 DD/FF each; based at Yokosuka (2), Sasebo and Maizuru.
   Submarines org into 2 flotillas based at Kure and Yokosuka. Remainder assigned to 10 regional/district units..
SUBMARINES: 15:
TACTICAL SUBMARINES: 14:
   10 Yuushio with 533mm TT, (US Mk 37, GRX-2 HWT), 6 with Harpoon USGW.
   4 Uzushio with 533mm TT (Mk 37 HWT).
OTHER ROLES: 1 Uzushio (trials)
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 63:
DESTROYERS: 6 DDG:
   2 Hatakaze with 1 SM1-MR Standard SAM; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1x8 ASROC SUGW (Mk46 LWT) 2x3 ASTT, 2 127mm guns.
   3 Tachikaze with 1 SM1-MR; plus 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 8 Harpoon, 2 127mm guns.
   1 Amatzukaze with 1 SM1-MR; plus 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT.
FRIGATES: 57 (incl 8 mise roles):
FFH: 20:
   2 Shirane with 3 HSS-2B Sea King ASW hel, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 127mm guns.
   2 Haruna with 3 Sea King hel, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 127mm guns.
   4 Asagiri with 1 Sea King hel, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   12 Hatsuyuki with 1 Sea King, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
FF: 37:
   4 Takatsuki with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL; plus 2 with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1 127mm gun; 2 with 2 127mm guns.
   6 Yamagumo with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL.
   3 Minegumo with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL.
   2 Yubari with 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM
   1 Ishikari with 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL; plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   11 Chikugo with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT.
   4 Isuzu (2 trg) with 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL; plus 4 533mm TT.
   1 Akizuki (trg) with 2x3 ASTT, 1x4 ASW RL.
   2 Murasame (1 SS spt, 1 trials) with 2x3 ASTT; plus 3 127mm guns.
   2 Ayanami (trg) with 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 533mm TT.
   1 Katori (trg) with 2x3 ASTT, 1 ASW RL.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 14:
TORPEDO CRAFT: 5 Juichi-go PFT with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 9 Jukyu-go PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 47:
MINELAYERS: 1:
   1 Souya (460 mines) plus hel deck, 2x3 ASTT, also MCM spt/comd.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 46:
   1 Hayase MCM cmd with hel deck, 2x3 ASTT, plus minelaying capacity (116 mines).
   21 Hatsushima, 11 Takami MCC.
   6 Nana-go MSI<.
   6 Coastal diver spt ships (ex MSC).
   1 Utone coastal MCM spt.
AMPHIBIOUS: 6:
   3 Miura LST, capacity 200 tps, 10 tk.
   3 Atsumi LST, capacity 130 tps, 5 tk.
   Plus craft; 3 LCT, 15 LCM, 22 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 12:
   1 Towada AOE, 1 Sagami AOE, 1 AS, 3 trg spt, 5 survey/experimental, 1 icebreaker.

MSDF AIR ARM: 12,000; 80 cbt ac (plus 10 in store), 60 armed hel.
   7 Air Groups.
MR: 8 sqn:
   5 (1 trg) with 40 P-3C (plus 10 in store);
   3 with 30 P-2J;
ASW: 6 hel sqn (1 trg) with 60 HSS-2A/B, plus 45 in store.
MCM: 1 hel sqn with 5 KV-107A, 2 S-80 (more being delivered).
EW: 1 sqn with 2 EP-2J.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 4 YS-1 IM.
TEST: 1 sqn with 3 P-3C, 3 UP-2J, 2 U-36A ac; 2 SH-60, 2 HSS-2B hel.
SAR: 1 sqn (7 fit) with 10 US-1/1A.
   3 rescue sqn with 10 S-61 hel.
TRAINING: 9 sqn with 30 KM-2, 10 P-3C, 22 Queen Air 65, 20 TC-90/UC-90, 10 YS-11T ac; 10 HSS-2A/B, 10 OH-6D/J hel.

AIR FORCE: (Air Self Defense Force): 46,000; 362 cbt ac (plus 58 in store), no armed hel.
   6 cbt air wings; 1cbt air unit; 1 recce gp; 1 AEW unit.
FGA: 3 sqn with 70 F-1.
FIGHTER: 9 sqn:
   6 with 120 F-15J/DJ;
   3 with 72 F-4EJ (to be upgraded); 58 more in store.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 10 RF-4EJ. 5 more in store.
AEW: 1 sqn with 10 E-2C.
EW: 1 fit with 1 C-1. 4 YS-11.
AGGRESSOR TRAINING: 1 sqn with 10 T-2, 2 T-33.
TRANSPORT: 5 sqn:
   3 with 30 C-1, 10 C-130H, 10 YS-11;
   2 heavy-lift hel sqn with 6 CH-47J.
SAR: 1 wing (10 det) with 30 MU-2 ac; 30 KV-107 hel.
CALIBRATION: 1wing with 2 MU-2J, 3 T-33A, 1YS-11.
TRAINING: 5 wings: 10 sqn: 40 T-1A/B, 75 T-2, 40 T-3, 20 T-4, 60 T-33A (to be replaced by T-4).
LIAISON: 11 Queen Air 65.
TEST: 1 wing with C-1, 3 F-4EJ, F-15J, 2 F-104J, 4 MU-2J, T-1, 4 T-2, 2 T-3, 5 T-33A.
AAM: Sparrow, Sidewinder.

AIR DEFENCE:
Aircraft control and warning: 4 wings; 30 radar sites.
SAM: 6 AD msl gp (18 sqn) with 180 Nike-J (Patriot replacing).
1 Air Base Defence gp with 20mm Vulcan AA guns, Type 81 Tan, Stinger SAM.

PARA-MILITARY:
MARITIME SAFETY AGENCY: (Coast Guard) 12,000:
PATROL VESSELS: Some 336:
   OFFSHORE: 83, incl 2 Mizuho with 2, 7 Soya with 1 Bell 212 hel.
   COASTAL 10:
   INSHORE: 243: 3 PFI, 16 PCI, some 224<.
MISCELLANEOUS: 90 service, 81 tender/trg vessels;
AIRCRAFT: 5 NAMC YS-11A, 2 Short Skyvan, 16 King Air, 1 Cessna U-206G.
HELICOPTERS: 32 Bell 212, 4 Bell 206, 2 Hughes 369.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 50,500. Army (2,000): 1 Corps HQ; Navy (8,300) bases at Yokosuka (HQ 7th Fleet) and Sasebo; Marines (23,700): 1 MEF in Okinawa;
   Air (16,500): 1 Air HQ, 1 air div some 120 cbt ac.

   KOREA: DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (NORTH)
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,040,000.
Terms of service:Army 5-8 years; Navy 5-10 years; Air Force 3-4 years.
RESERVES: Army 500,000, Navy 40,000. Mob claimed in 12 hours; up to 5,000,000 have some Reserve/Militia commitment. See Para-Military.

ARMY: 930,000.
15 Corps (1 armd, 4 mech, 1 inf, 8 all-arms, 1 arty)
   31 inf/mot inf div.
   15 armd bde.
   20 mot inf bde.
   4 indep inf bde.
1 Special Purpose corps: 80,000: 25 bde incl 3 cdo, 4 recce, 1 river crossing regt, 3 amph, 3 AB bn, 22 lt inf bn. 'Bureau of Reconnaissance SF.
Arty Corps:
   Army tps: 2 hy arty, 2 mor regt; 6 SSM bn.
   Corps tps: 4 bde incl 122mm, 152mm SP, MRL.
   AD arty: 2 div; 7 regt.
RESERVE: 26 inf div.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 3,200: 200 T-34, 1,600 T-54/-55, 1,200 T-62, 175 Type-59.
LIGHT TANKS: 300 Type-63, 50 Type-62, M-1985.
RECCE: 140 BA-64.
AIFV: 200 BMP-1/BMP-2.
APC: 1,600 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, Ch Type-531, N.Korean Type M-1973.
TOWED ARTY: 1,900: 76mm: M-1942; 85mm: D-44/SD-44; 100mm: M-1944; 122mm: M-1931/-37, D-74, Type-54, Type-60, D-30;
   130mm: M-46, Ch Type-59; 152mm: M-1937 (ML-20), M-1943, M-1938, D-20.
SP ARTY: Some 2,800: 122mm: M-1981, M-1977, M-1985; 130mm: M-1975; 152mm: M-1974; 180mm: M-1978.
MRL: 2,500: 107mm: Type-63; 122mm: BM-21, BM-11 (30 tubes); 130mm: Ch Type-63; 200mm: BMD-20; 240mm: BM-24.
MORTARS: 82mm: 11,000 M-37 ; 120mm: M-43.
SSM: 54 FROG-3/-5/-7 (some 15 Scud B-type rumoured).
ATGW: AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 75mm: Type-52; 82mm: 1,500 B-10; 107mm: 1,000 B-11.
ATK GUNS: 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: M-1943; 85mm: D-48 towed; 800 SU-76 and SU-100 SP.
AD GUNS: 8,000: 14.5mm: ZPU-2/-4 SP; 23mm: ZU-23; 37mm: Ch Type-55, M-1939; 57mm: ZSU-57-2 SP, S-60, Ch Type-59; 85mm: KS-12;
   100mm: KS-19. N. Korean SP AA, type unknown.
SAM: HN-5A (SA-7 type).

NAVY: 40,000.
BASES: East Coast Woman (HQ), Chi-aho, Songjin Toejo. West Coast Nampo (HQ), Haeju, Pipaqo, Sagwon-ri.
   2 Fleet HQ.
SUBMARINES: 23:
   19 Ch Type-031/Sov Romeo with 533mm TT
   4 Sov Whiskey with 533mm and 406mm TT.
FRIGATES: 2 Najin with 2x5 ASW RL, 1 with 3 533mm TT;plus 2 100mm guns. 1 possibly with 1x2 SS-N-2 Styx SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 363:
CORVETTES: 4 Sariwan with 1 100mm gun.
MISSILE CRAFT: 29:
   8 Soju, 5 Sov OsaPFMwith 4 SS-N-2 Styx
   6 Sohung, 10 Sov Komar PFM< with 2 SS-N-2.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 173:
   3 Sov Shershen with 4 533mm TT.
   Some 170< with 2 533mm TT.
PATROL 157:
   COASTAL 6 Hainan PFCwith 4 ASW RL.
   INSHORE: some 151: 18 SO-1, 10 Taechong, 8 Shanghai II, 3 Chodo, 2K-48, some 110<.
MINE WARFARE: About 40 MSI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 14 LCM, 12 LCU, about 100 LCI<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 2 ocean tugs.

COAST DEFENCE: SSM: 2 regt: Samlet in 6 sites;
GUNS: 122mm: M-1931/-37; 130mm: SM-4-1; 152mm: M-1937.

AIR FORCE: 70,000; 650 cbt ac, 115 armed hel.
BOMBERS: 3 lt regt with 80 H-5.
FGA: 8 regt
   3 with 100 J-5;
   3 with 100 J-6;
   1 with 40 Q-5;
   1 with 20 Su-7, 10 Su-25.
FIGHTER: 10 regt:
   2 with 60 J-6;
   1 with 40 J-7;
   4 with 120 MiG-21;
   2 with 46 MiG-23;
   1 with 24 MiG-29.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 60 Hughes 500, 50 Mi-24.
ASW HELICOPTERS: 5 Mi-14.
TRANSPORT:
   AIRCRAFT: 10 An-24, 5 Il-14, 5 Il-18, 4 Il-62M, 2 Tu-134, 4Tu-154, 250 Y-5.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 Hughes 300C, 20 -500D, 6 -500E, 40Z-5, 70 Mi-8/-17.
TRAINING: incl 90 CJ-5, 30 CJ-6, H-5, 16 L-39, 50 MiG-15UTI, MiG-19U, 10 MiG-21U.
AAM:AA-2 Atoll, AA-7 Apex.
SAM: 4 bde (12 bn, 40 bty)with 72 SA-2in 45 sites, 2 regt with ~32 SA-3, 2 regt with ~72 SA-5.

FORCES ABROAD: Advisers in 10 African countries incl Madagascar (100), Mozambique(10).

PARA-MILITARY:
SECURITY TROOPS (Ministry of Public Security): 115,000 incl Border guards.
WORKER/PEASANT REDGUARD (WPRM): some 3 m up to age 50. Org on a provincial/town/village basis. Comd structure is bde - bn - coy - pi.
   Small arms with some mor and AD guns (but many units unarmed).

  KOREA: REPUBLIC OF KOREA (SOUTH)
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 650,000.
Terms of service: all Services, 30-36 months.
RESERVES: 4,500,000; being re-organized.
ARMY: 550,000.
HQ: 3 Army, 7 Corps.
   2 mech inf div (each 3 bde: 3 mech inf, 3 mot, 3 tk, 1 recce bn; 1 fd arty bde).
   19 inf div (each 3 inf regt, 1 recce, 1 tk, 1 engr bn; 1 arty regt (4 bn)).
1 indep inf bde.
7 SF bde.
2 SSM bn with Honest John.
2 AD arty bde.
2 SAM bde: 3 HAWK bn (24 sites), 2 Nike Hercules bn (10 sites).
1 avn bde.
RESERVES: 1 Army HQ,23 inf div.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,560: 200+ Type 88, 350 M-47, 950 M-48A5, 60 M-60.
AIFV: some 200 (KIFV).
APC: some 1,550 incl 450 M-113, 400 Fiat 6614/KM-900/-901.
TOWED ARTY: some 4,000: 105mm: M-101, KH-178; 155mm: M-53, M-114, KH-179; 203mm: M-115.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 100M-109A2; 175mm: M-107; 203mm: M-110
MRL: 140 Kooryong (36x130mm).
MORTARS: 5,300: 81mm: KM-29; 107mm: M-30.
SSM: 12 Honest John.
ATGW: TOW.
RCL: 57mm, 75mm, 90mm: M67; 106mm: M40A2.
ATK GUNS: 76mm: 8 M-18; 90mm: 50 M-36 SP.
AD GUNS: 600: 20mm: incl 60 Vulcan; 35mm: 20 GDF-003; 40mm: 80 L60/70, M-1.
SAM: 100 Javelin, some Redeye, 130 Stinger, 110 HAWK, 200 Nike Hercules.
AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT: 10 Cessna O-1A.
HEUCOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 48 AH-1S, 50 Hughes 500 MD.
   UTILITY: 144 Hughes 500, 5 KH-4, 34 UH-1B, 120 UH-1H.

NAVY: 60,000 (19,000 conscripts) incl 25,000 marines.
BASES: Chinhae (HQ), Cheju, Inchon, Mokpo, Mukho, Pukpyong, Pohang, Pusan.
   3 Fleet Commands.
SUBMARINES: 3 KSS-1 Tolgorae SSI (175 tonnes) with 2 406mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 28:
DESTROYERS: 11:
   7 Chung Buk (US Gearing) with 2 or 3x2 127mm guns-, plus 2x3 ASTT; 5 with 2x4 Harpoon SSM, 1Alouette III hel (OTHT), 2 with 1x8 ASROC.
   2 Dae Gu (US Sumner) with 3x2 127mm guns; plus 2x3 ASTT.
   2 Chung Mu (US Fletcher) with 5 127mm guns plus 2x3 ASTT.
FRIGATES: 17:
   5 Ulsan with 2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT); plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
   12 Donghae with 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 MM-38 Exocet (weapons fit not confirmed).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 79:
MISSILE CRAFT: 11:
   8 Pae Ku-52, 3 with 4 Standard (boxed) SSM, 5 with 2x2 Harpoon SSM.
   1 Pae Ku-51 (US Asheville), with 2 Standard SSM.
   2 Kilurki-71 with 2 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
PATROL, INSHORE: 68:
   32 Kilur M-11 (Sea Dolphin) 33m PH.
   36 Chebi-51 (Sea Hawk3) 26m PFI<.
MINE WARFARE: 9:
   1 Swallow (mod It Lerici) MHC.
   8 Kun San (US MSC-268/289) MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 15:
   8 Un Bong (US LST-511) LST, capadty 200 tps, 16tk.
   7 Ko Mun (US LSM-1) LSM, capacity 50 tps, 4 tk.
   Plus about 37 craft; 6 LCT, 10 LCM, 1 LCU about 20 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 9: 3 spt tankers, 2 ocean tugs, about 4 survey (civil manned, Ministry of Transport funded).

NAVAL AIR: 25 cbt ac; 35 armed hel.
ASW: 2 sqn:
   1 ac with 25 S-2 (9-A, 16 -E);
   1 hel with 25 Hughes 500MD (ASW);
   10 fit with 10 SA-316 hel (ASW), 2 Bell 206 (liaison).

MARINES: (25,000).
   2 div, 1 bde.
   Spt units.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 40 M-47.
APC: 60 LVTP-7.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm, 155mm.
SSM: Harpoon (truck-mounted).

AIR FORCE: 40,000; 447 cbt ac, no armed hel. 7 cbt, 2 tpt wings.
FGA: 18 sqn:
   2 with 48 F-16 (36 -C, 12 -D),
   16 with 204 F-5 (44-A, 160 -E).
FIGHTER: 4 sqn with 68 F-4 (34 -D, 34 -E).
COIN: 1 sqn with 23 A-37B.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 10 RF-5A.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 15 Bell UH-1B, 2 UH-1N.
TRANSPORT: 2 wings, 5 sqn: 10 C-54, 14 C-123J/K, 3 Commander, 2 HS-748 (VIP), 8C-130H.
TRAINING: incl 20 T-28D, 33 T-33A, 34 Cessna (14 T-37C, 20 T-41D), 35 F-5B, 51 F-5F.
AAM: Sidewinder, Sparrow.

PARA-MILITARY:
CIVILIAN DEFENCE CORPS (to age 50): 3,500,000.
COAST GUARD: (~3,500)
PATROL CRAFT, OFFSHORE: 14
   8 Ma-San-Ho (HDP-1000)
   6 Sea Dragon/Whale (HDP-600)
INSHORE: 32: 12 Sea Wolf/Shark, 20<, plus numerous boats.
HELICOPTERS: 9 Hughes 500D.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 43,200. Army (31,600): 1army HQ, 1inf div, 1 SSM btywith Lance.
   Air Force (11,600): 1div: 2 wings: 84cbt ac.

   LAOS
   []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 55,500.
Terms of service: conscription, 18 months minimum.
ARMY: 52,500.
4 Military Regions
   5 inf div.
   7 indep inf regt.
   1 engr regt.
   2 construction regt, indep construction bn.
   5 arty, 9 AD artybn.
   65 indep inf coy.
   1 lt acliaison fit.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 30 T-34/-55.
LIGHT TANKS: 25 PT-76.
APC: 70 BTR-40/-60/-152.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 25 M-101; 122mm: 40 M-1938 and D-30; 130mm: 10 M-46.
MORTARS: 82mm; 120mm: M-43.
RCL: 57mm: M-18/A1; 75mm: M-20; 107mm: B-11.
AD GUNS: 23mm: ZSU-23-4 SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm:S-60.
SAM: SA-3, SA-7.

NAVY: (~650).
PATROL CRAFT, river some40<.

AIR FORCE: 2,000; 34 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 1 regt with some 30 MiG-21.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 6 An-2, 5 An-24, 2 An-26, 2 Yak-40.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 2 Mi-6, 10 Mi-8.
TRAINING: 4 MiG-21U.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.

PARA-MILITARY:
MILITIA SELF-DEFENCE FORCES: village 'homeguard' orgfor local defence.

OPPOSITION:
Numerous factions/groups. Total armed strength ~2,000. Largest group United LaoNational Liberation Front (ULNLF).

FOREIGN FORCES:
VIETNAM: 10-15,000: mostly economic construction tps. Withdrawal continues.

   MALAYSIA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 114,500.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: 46,600; Army 45,000; Navy 1,000; Air 600.

ARMY: 105,000 (reducing to 97,000).
   1 corps, 4 div HQ.
   1 area security comd (COIN).
   9 inf bde, consisting of 36 inf bn (1 APC, 1para), 4 armd, 5 fd arty, 2 AD arty, 5 engr regt.
   1 SF regt (3 bn).
RESERVES: 1 div HQ; 1bdeHQ; 12 inf regt (to reform into 3 bde); 4 highway sy bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 26 Scorpion(90mm).
RECCE: 162SIBMAS, 140 AML-60/-90, 92 Ferret (modernized).
APC: 134V-100/-150 Commando, 25 Stormer, 460 Condor.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 150Model 56 pack, 56 M-102A1.
MORTARS: 81mm: L16.
ATGW: SS-11.
RL: 89mm: M-20.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav: 106mm: 150; 120mm: 5.
AD GUNS: 12.7mm: 70; 40mm: 36: 2440/70,12 L-70.
ASSAULT CRAFT: 165 Damen.

NAVY: 12,500.
Two Regional Commands: plus Fleet.
   Area 1:Malayan Peninsula (west of 109"E).
   Area 2: Borneo Area (east of 109RE).
BASES: Area 1: Lumut (HQ), Tanjong Gelang, Kuantan, Woodlands (Singapore); trg base.
   Area 2: Labuan (HQ), Sungei Antu (Sarawak).
FRIGATES: 4:
   2 Kasturi (FS-1500) with 2x2 ASW mor, deck for Wasp hel; plus 2x2 MM-38 Exocet SSM, 1 100mm gun.
   1 Hang Tuah (UK Mermaid) with 1x3 Limbo ASW mor, hel deck for Wasp-, plus 1x2 102mm gun.
   1 Rahmat with 1x3 ASW mor, 1 114mm gun hel deck.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 37.
MISSILE CRAFT: 8
   4 Handalan (Sw Spied) with 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
   4 Perdana (Fr Combattante-II) with 2 Exocet SSM.
PATROL 29:
   OFFSHORE: 2 Musytari with 1 100mm gun, hel deck.
   INSHORE: 27: 6 Jerong PFI, 3 Kedah, 4 Sabah, 14Kris PCI.
MINE WARFARE: 5:
   4 Mahamiru (mod It Lend) MCO.
   1 diving tender (inshore).
AMPHIBIOUS: 2:
   2 Sri Banggi (US LST-511) LST, capacity 200 tps, 16 tk, (but usually employed as tenders to patrol cran).
   Plus 33 craft: 5 LCM, 13 LCU, 15LCP.
SUPPORT ANDMISCELLANEOUS: 3: 2 logistic/fuel spt, 1 survey.

NAVAL AIR: No cbt ac, 6 armed hel.
HELICOPTERS: 6 Wasp HAS-1.

AIR FORCE: 12,000; 67 cbt ac, no armed hel,4 Comd.
FGA: 2 sqn: with 36 A-4 (30 A-4PTM, 6 TA-4);
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 14 F-5E.
RECCE: 1 recce/OCU sqn with 2 RF-5E, 2 F-5F.
MR: 1 sqn with 3 C-130HMP.
TRANSPORT:
AIRCRAFT: 4 sqn:
   1 with 6 C-130H;
   2 with 13 DHC-4;
   1 with 2 HS-125 (VIP), 1 F-28 (Royal fit), 2 HU-16 Albatross (1 tpt, 1 VIP), 11 Cessna 402B ac; 1 NAS-332 hel.
HELICOPTERS: 4 sqn with 32 S-61A, 24 Alouette III (liaison).
TRAINING: 4 trg units:
   AIRCRAFT: 10 MB-339, 44 PC-7 (4 wpn trg), 11 Bulldog,
   HELICOPTERS: 4 S-61, 7 Alouette III, 7 Bell 47.
AAM: Sidewinder.
AIRFIELD DEFENCE TROOPS: 1 sqn.

FORCES ABROAD:
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): 15
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 889: 1 inf bn, HQ staff.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE FIELD FORCE: 18,000; 4 bde HQ: 21 bn (incl 2 Aboriginal); Shorlandarmd cars, 140 AT-105, SB-301 APC.
MARINE POLICE: 51 patrol, inshore:
   15 Long Hitan (38m) PFI
   9 Sangitan (29m) PFI
   27 PCI<.
POLICE AIR WING: 4 Cessna 206, 7 PC-6 ac.
AUXILIARY POLICE FIELD FORCE: (Area Security Units), 3,500 men in 89 unite.
BORDER SCOUTS (in Sabah, Sarawak): 1,200.
PEOPLE'S VOLUNTEER CORPS (RELA): 180,000.

OPPOSITION:
COMMUNIST PARTY OF MALAYA (CPM): some 850 op in Thai/Malaysia border region.
NORTH KALIMANTAN COMMUNIST PARTY (NKCP) - Sarawak East Malaysia: some 40.

FOREIGN FORCES:
AUSTRALIA: Army: 1 inf coy. AirForce: det with P-3C ac.

* Exd internal sybdgt and also $2.8 bnfordefence in 5-year plan 1986-90.

   MONGOLIA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 21,500 (perhaps 17,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: Conscription: males 18-28 years; 2 years.
RESERVES: Army 200,000.

ARMY: 21,000 (perhaps 17,000 conscripts).
   4 MRD (to be reduced).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 650 T-54/-55/-62.
RECCE: 135 BRDM-2.
AIFV: 420 BMP-1.
APC: 450 BTR-40/-60/-152.
TOWED ARTY: 650: 122mm: M-1938/D-30; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: ML-20.
MRL: 120+: 122mm: BM-21; 132mm: BM-13-16; 140mm: BM-14-16, BM-14-17.
MORTARS: 82mm, 120mm, 160mm.
ATGW:AT-3 Sagger (incl BRDM-2 SP).
ATK GUNS: 100mm: T-12.
AD GUNS: 100: 14.5mm: ZPU-4; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60.
SAM: 300 SA-7.

AIR FORCE: 500; Soviet technicians; 30 cbt ac; 10 armed hel.
FIGHTER: 1 regt with 30 MiG-21 (incl trg).
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 10 Mi-24.
TRANSPORT: at least 2 sqn: 20 An-2, 19 An-24, 1 An-26, 1 An-32.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 4 Mi-8, 10 Mi-4.
TRAINING: 2 MiG-15U, 3 PZL-I04, Yak-11, Yak-18.

PARA-MILITARY:
MILITIA (Ministry of Public Security): 10,000: internal security troops, frontier guards; BTR-60/-152APC.

FOREIGN FORCES:
USSR: ~55,000
Army: 1 army HQ, 2 TD, 2 MRD. To be reduced to 1 MRD by end 1990.

   NEPAL
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 35,000 (to be 40,000).
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: none.

ARMY:
   1 Royal Guard bde: incl 1 cav sqn, 1 garrison bn.
   7 inf bde: incl AB bn.
   1 arty regt, 1 engr bn, 1 armd recce sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 25 Ferret.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 6 pack; 94mm: 5 3.7-in mtn; 105mm: 6 pack.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm: 18.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm: 30 Ch; 40mm: 2 L/60.

AIR FORCE: No cbt ac, or armed hel.
TRANSPORT:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 HS-748, 2 Skyvan.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 AS-332, 1 Bell 206L, 2 Chetak, 2 SA-330.

FORCES ABROAD:
LEBANON (UNIFIL): 1 inf bn (850).

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE FORCE: 28,000.

   NEW ZEALAND
   []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 12,400.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: 9,700. Regular 2,900: Army 1,300, Navy 800,Air 800. Territorial 6,800: Army 6,100, Navy 500,Air 200.

ARMY: 5,700.
   2 inf bn.
   1 armd recce sqn.
   1 fd arty bty.
   1 SAS sqn.
   1 ranger coy (to form)
RESERVES: Territorial Army: 6 inf bn, 5 fd, 1 med arty bty, 3 armd sqn (1 recce, 1 APC, 1 ATK).
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 26 Scorpion.
APC: 78 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 20 M-101A1, 24 L10A1 (pack), 24 Hamel.
MORTARS: 81mm: 72.
RL: LAW.
RCL: 84mm: 23 Carl Gustav, 106mm: 13 M-40.

NAVY: 2,500.
BASE: Auckland (Fleet HQ).
FRIGATES: 4 Waikato (UKLeander) with 1 Wasp hel, 3 with 2x3 ASTT and 2 114mm guns, 1 with Ikara SUGW.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 6:
   2 Pukaki PCI.
   4 Moa PCI (reservetrg).
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 4: 1 Endeavour AO, 1 AGHS, 1 AGOR, 1 diving spt
IN STORE: 2 Pukaki PCI.

NAVAL AIR: No cbt ac, 7 armed hel.
HELICOPTERS: 7 Wasp (seeAir Force).

AIR FORCE: 4,200; 43 cbt ac, no armed hel.
OPERATIONAL GROUP:
FGA: 2 sqn with 17 A-4(8 -G, 9 -K), 5 TA-4 (2 -G, 3-K).
MR: 1 sqn with 6 P-3K Orion.
LIGHT ATTACK/TRG: 1wpntrg sqn with 15BAC-167.
ASW: 7 Wasp HAS-1 (Navy-assigned).
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn:
   AIRCRAFT: 2 sqn: 1 with 5 C-130H; 1 with 8 Andover, 2 Boeing727.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 with 12 Bell UH-1H.
COMMUNICATIONS: 1 flight with 3 Cessna 421C.
SUPPORT GROUP:
   TRAINING: 1 wing with 4 Airtourer, 15 CT-4, 3 F-27 ac; 3 Bell 47 hel.
AAM:AIM-9G Sidewinder.
ASM: AGM-65 Maverick.

FORCES ABROAD:
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): 25.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): 28.
SINGAPORE: 20:spt unit.

   PAKISTAN
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 520,000.
Terms of Service: voluntary.
RESERVES: 513,000; Army 500,000: obligation to ages 45 (men) or 50 (officers); active liability for 8 years after service. Navy 5,000. Air 8,000.

ARMY: 480,000.
7 Corps HQ.
   2 armd div.
   14 inf div.
   5 indep armd bde.
   4 indep inf bde.
   8 arty bde/bde equivalents.
   3 AD arty bde.
   6 armd recce regt.
   1 special services group (3 bn).
Avn: 1 ac, 4 hel sqn; indep observation fit
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,750: 500M-47/-48 (incl A5), 51 T-54/-55, some 1,200 Ch Type-59.
LIGHT TANKS: Ch Type-63.
APC: 800 M-113, Ch Type-531 reported.
TOWED ARTY: 100mm: Ch Type-59; 105mm: 200 M-101, 50 M-56pack; 122mm: 100 Ch Type-54-1; 130mm: Ch Type- 59-1, M46; 140mm: 5.5in;
   155mm: M-59, 60 M-114, 100 M-198.
SP ARTY: 105mm: 12 M-7; 155mm: 95 M-109A2; 203mm: 40 M-110A2.
MRL: 122mm: BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm, 107mm, 120mm.
SSM: Hafi-I possibly in service.
ATGW: Cobra, 224 TOW (incl 24 on M-901 SP), Ch Red Arrow reported.
RL: 89mm: M-20 3.5-in.
RCL: 75mm: Type-52; 106mm: M-40A.
AD GUNS: 14.5mm; 35mm; 37mm: Ch Type-55/-65; 40mm: Ml; 57mm: S-60, Ch Type-59.
SAM: 100 Stinger, 144 RBS-70, Anza reported.
AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT:
   LIAISON: 1 Cessna 421, 2 Commander 690, 80 Mashshaq, 3 Queen Air, 1 U-8F.
   OBSERVATION: 35 O-1E, 50 Mashshaq.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 20 AH-1S (TOW).
   TRANSPORT: 7 Bell 205, 10 -206B, 16 Mi-8, 6 SA/IAR-315B, 23 SA/IAR-316, 35 SA-330, 5 UH-1H.

NAVY: 15,000 (incl NavalAir).
BASE: Karachi (FleetHQ).
SUBMARINES: 6:
   2 Hashmat (Fr Agosta) with 533mm TT (F-17 HWT), Harpoon USGW.
   4 Hangor (Fr Daphne) with 533mm TT(L-5 HWT).
   Plus 3 SX-404 SSI SF insertion craft.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 17.
DESTROYERS: 7:
   1 Babur (UK Devonshire) DDH with 4 Sea King hel (ASW/ASUW), plus 2x2 114 m m guns.
   6 Alamgir (US Gearing) (ASW) with 1x8 ASROC; plus 2x2 127mm guns, 2 with 3x2 Harpoon SSM.
FRIGATES: 10: FFG: 4
   4 Khyber (US Brooke) with SA-316B hel, 1x8 ASROC 2x3 ASTT, plus 1 SM1MR SAM, 1 127mm gun (on 5-yr lease).
FF: 6:
   2 Shamsher (UK Leander) with Alouette hel, 1x3 ASW mor, plus 2 114mm guns.
   4 Badr (US Garcia) with Alouette hel, 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT, plus 2 127mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 29:
MISSILE CRAFT: 8:
   4 Ch Huangfeng with 4 Hai Ying 2 SSM.
   4 Ch Hegu< with 2 HY-2.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 4 Ch Huchuan PHTwith 2 533mm TT.
PATROL 17:
   COASTAL 4 Baluchistan (Ch Hainan) PFC with 4 ASWRL,
   INSHORE: 13: 12 Quetta (Ch Shanghai) PFI (4 with Maritime Safety Agency), 1 Rajshahi PCI.
MINE WARFARE: 3 Mahmood (US-MSC 268) MSC.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 4: 1 Nasr (Ch Fuqing), 1 Dacca AO, 1 survey, 1 ocean tug.

NAVAL AIR: 4 cbt ac, 10 armed hel.
ASW/MR: 1 sqn with 4 Atlantic (operated byAir Force; AM-39 ASM).
ASW/SAR: 2 hel sqn: 1 with 6 Westland Sea King Mk 45 (ASW, with AM-39), 4 SA-316B (ASW)
COMMUNICATIONS: 1 Fokker F-27 ac (Air Force).
ASM:AM-39 Exocet.

AIR FORCE: 25,000; 451 cbt ac,no armed hel.
FGA: 14 sqn:
   1 with 18 Mirage (15 IIIEP (some with AM-39 ASM), 3 IIIDP (trg));
   4 with 58Mirage 5 (54 -5PA/PA2, 4 -5DPA/DPA2);
   9 with 135 Q-5.
FIGHTER: 12 sqn:
   9 with 150 J-6/JJ-6;
   2 with 40 F-16 (28-A, 12-B).
   1 with 20 J-7.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 12 Mirage IIIRP, 1 RT-33A.
TRANSPORT: 2 sqn:
   1 with 12 C-130 (5 -B,7 -E), 1 L-100;
   1 with 3 Falcon 20, 2 F-27-200 (1 with Navy), 2 Beech (1 Travel Air, 1 Baron).
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 2 HH-43B, 4 SA-316.
TRANSPORT HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 4 SA-321.
TRAINING: 12 CJ-6,30 JJ-5, 50 Mashshaq, 6 MiG-15UTI, 1 OT-33A, 53 T-37B/C.
AD: 7 SAM bty:
   6 each with 6 Crotale,
   1 with 6 CSA-1 (SA-2).
AAM:AIM-7 Sparrow, AIM-9 Sidewinder, R-530, R-550 Magic.
ASM:AM-39 Exocet.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL GUARD: 75,000; incl Mujahid Force; Janbaz Force; National Cadet Corps; Women Guards.
FRONTIER CORPS: 65,000, 45 UR-416 APC.
PAKISTAN RANGERS: 15,000;
NORTHERN LIGHT INFANTRY: 7,000 some 6 bn;
COAST GUARD: 2,000.

* Excl Afghan refugees.

   PAPUA NEW GUINEA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 3,200.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY
: 2,900.
   2 inf regt (bn).
   1 engr bn (1 more to form).

NAVY: 200.
BASES: Port Moresby (HQ), Lombrum.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 5:
   4 Tarangau (Aus Pacific Forum 32m) PCI
   1 Aitape (Aus Attack) PCI
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only: 2 Salamaua (Aus Balikpapan) LCT.

AIR FORCE
: 100. 3 cbt ac, no armed hel.
MR: 3 N-22B Searchmaster B.
TRANSPORT: 5 C-47, 1 N-22B Missionmaster.

PARA-MILITARY:
BORDER PATROL POLICE: 4,600.

FOREIGN FORCES
:
AUSTRALIA: 100; trg unit, 1 engr unit, 30 advisers.

   PHILIPPINES
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 112,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: 108,000. Army 80,000, (some 75,000 more have commitments); Navy 12,000; Air 16,000 (to age 49).

ARMY: 68,000.
6 Area Unified Comd (joint service).
   8 inf div (7 with 3, 1 with 2 bde).
1 lt armd bde ('regt').
1 scout ranger regt (5 bn).
3 engr bde; 1 construction bn.
8 arty bn.
1 special servicesbde.
1 Presidential Security Group.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 41 Scorpion.
AIFV: 85 YPR-765 PRI.
APC: 100 M-113, 20 Chaimite, 165 V-150.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 230 M-101, M-102, M-26 and M-56; 155mm: 12 M-114 and M-68.
MORTARS: 81mm: M-29; 107mm: 40 M-30.
RCL: 75mm: M-20; 90mm: M-67; 106mm: M-40A1.

NAVY: 28,000 (incl 10,000 Marines, 2,000 Coast Guard). 6 Naval Districts.
BASES: Sangley Point/Cavite, Zamboanga.
FRIGATES: 3:
   1 Rajah Lakandula (US Savage) with 2x3 ASTT.
   2 Datu Siratuna (US Cannon).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 51:
PATROL OFFSHORE: 8:
   2 Rizal (US Auk)
   5 Miguel Malvar (US PCE-827)
   1 Magat Salamat (US-MSF).
COASTAL 4:
   2 Oriental (USPC-461) PCC.
   2 Camarines Sur (US LSSL-1) PCC.
INSHORE: 39: 4 Kagitingan, 5 Basilan (USPGM-39/71) PCI, about 30<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 18.
   14 Agusan del Sur (US LST-511) LST, capacity 16 tk, 10 with accommodation for 200 tps.
   4 Isabella (US LSM-1) LSM, capacity 50 tps, 4tk.
   Plus some 70 craft; 1 LCT, 60 LCM, 3 LCU, some 6 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 8: 2 AOT (small) 3 repair ships, 2 yachts/SAR craft, 1 tpt.
(Note: The serviceability and operational capability of most forces listed is in considerable doubt.)

NAVAL AVIATION: 5 cbt ac,no armed hel.
MR/SAR: 5 BN-2A Defender, 1 Islander, 12 Bo-105 hel.

MARINES: (10,000):
   4 bde (10 bn).
EQUIPMENT:
APC: 30 LVTP-5, 55 LVTP-7.
ARTY: towed: 105mm: 150 M-101.
MORTARS: 4.2-in. (107mm): M-30.

COAST GUARD: (2,000).
EQUIPMENT: Some 65 patrol craft ind 3 large SAR, 2 lt ac.

AIR FORCE: 16,000; 45 cbt ac,some 71 armed hel.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 18 F-5 (14-A, 4-B).
COIN:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 sqn with 18 T-28D.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 wing with 55 Bell UH-1H/M, 16 AUH-76 (S-76 gunship conversion).
MR: 2 F-27M.
SAR: 4 HU-16 ac, 10 Bo-105Chel.
PRESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT WING:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 F-27, 1 F-28.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 Bell 212, 2 S-70A, 2 SA-330.
TRANSPORT: 7 sqn:
   AIRCRAFT:
   1 with 3 C-130H, 3 L-100-20;
   2 with 3 C-47, 8 F-27;
   2 with 10 BN-2 Islander, 9 N-22B Missionmaster.
   HELICOPTERS: 2 sqnwith 15 Bell 205, 17 UH-1H.
LIAISON: 6 Cessna 180, 2 -210, 1 -310, 5 DHC-2, 15 U-17A/B.
TRAINING: 3 sqn:
   1 with 6 T-33, 3 RT-33.
   1 with 20 T-41D;
   1 with 14 SF-260MP, 9-WP.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder.

PARA-MILITARY:
PHILIPPINE CONSTABULARY (Department of National Defence): ~38,000; 14 Regional Comd, 234 provincial coy;by law part of armed forces.
CITIZEN ARMED FORCE GEOGRAPHICAL UNITS (CAFGU): Militia replaces Civil Home Defence Force: 45,000, 56 bn.
   Part-time units which can be called up for extended periods.

OPPOSITION:
NEW PEOPLE'S ARMY (NPA; Communist): 25,500 (perhaps 16,000 armed).
BANGSA MORO ARMY (armed wing of Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), muslim): ~15,000.
MORO ISLAMIC LIBERATION FRONT (breakaway from MNLF; muslim): 2,900.
MORO ISLAMIC REFORMIST GROUP (breakaway from MNLF): 900.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 17,300: Army: 600. Air 9,200, 1 air div, 48 cbt ac. Navy: 5,500, base at Subie Bay. Marines: 2,000, 1 MEU sometimes deployed.

  SINGAPORE
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 55,500 (34,800 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription; 24-30 months.
RESERVES: Army 170,000; annual trgto age 40 for men, 50 for officers. Navy ~4,500. AirForce ~7,500. People's Defence Force: ~30,000.

ARMY: 45,000 (30,000 conscripts).
1 inf div:
   2 inf bde (each 3 inf bn).
   1 air mobile bde (3 inf bn).
   1 recce, 1 arty, 1 mor, 1 AD arty, 1 engr bn.
1 armd bde (1 tk, 2 APC bn).
1 cdo bn.
1 arty, 1 SP mor bn.
1 target acquisition bn.
1 engr bn.
RESERVES:
   2 div, 1 armd, 6 inf bde HQ; 18 inf, 1cdo, 10 arty, 2 AD arty, 3 engr bn.
   People's Defence Force: some 30,000; orgin 2 comd, 7 bde gp, ~21 bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: ~350AMX-13.
APC: 720 M-113, 30 V-100, 250 V-150/-200 Commando.
TOWED ARTY: 155mm: 38 Soltara M-71, 16 M-114A1 (maybe in store), M-68 (maybe in store), 24 FH88.
MORTARS: 81mm (some SP); 120mm: 50 (some SP in M-113); 160mm: 12 Tampella.
ATGW: 30 Milan.
RL: 89mm: M-20 3.5 in.
RCL: 84mm: Carl Gustav, 106mm: 90 M-40A1 (in store).
AD GUNS: 20mm: 30; 35mm: 34 GDF-002; 40mm: 16 L/70.
SAM: RBS-70 (some SP in V-200).

NAVY: 4,500 (1,800 conscripts).
BASE: Pulau Brani (Singapore).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 27:
CORVETTES: 1 Victory (FRG Lurssen 62m) with 8 Harpoon SSM, 2x3 ASTT.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Sea Wolf (FRG Lurssen-45) PFM with 5 Gabriel-II SSM (2 with 2x2 Harpoon, 2 x Gabriel).
PATROL, INSHORE: 20:
   6 Independence/Sovereignty (33m).
   1 Endeavour (trg), 1Panglima (UKFord) (trg); 12<.
MINE WARFARE: 2:
   2 Jupiter (US Bluebird) MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 5.
   5 Endurance (US LST-511) LST, capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   Plus craft; 8 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 6,000 (3,000 conscripts); 188 cbt ac, some armed hel.
FGA: 4 sqn:
   3 with 67 A-4S/SI, 13 TA-4S/SI.
   1 with 24 Hunter F-74, 4 T-75.
   (4 F-16A, 4 -B due to be operational in 1990.)
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 33 F-5E, 9 F-5F.
RECCE: 4 Hunter FR-74.
AEW: 1 sqn with 4 E-2C.
TRANSPORT:
AIRCRAFT: 2 sqn:
   1 with 4 C-130B (tkr/tpt), 6 C-130H.
   1 with 6 Skyvan 3M (tpt/SAR).
HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn:
   1 with 6 AS-350, 18 UH-1B;
   1 with 4 AB-205, 5 Bell 205, 16 UH-1H (some armed);
   1 with 22 AS-332M (incl 3 SAR).
TRAINING: 3 sqn:
   2 with 30 SIAIS-211;
   1 with 26 SF-260 (14 -MS, 12-WS).
AD: 4 bn: 3 SAM, 1 arty:
   1 with 28 Bloodhound 2;
   1 with 10 Rapier (with Blindfire);
   1 with 6 Improved HAWK.
   1 with 35mm Oerlikon (towed) guns.
AIRFIELD DEFENCE: 1 field defence sqn (reservists).
AAM: AIM-9 J/P Sidewinder.

FORCES ABROAD:
BRUNEI: (500); trg school, incl heldet (with 5 UH-1).
TAIWAN: trg camp.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE/MARINE POLICE: 11,600; incl some 750 Gurkhas, 10 PCI ( plus boats.
CIVIL DEFENCE FORCE: ~100,000 (incl regulars, conscripts, volunteers, ~34,000 former army reservists). 1 construction bde (2,500).

FOREIGN FORCES:
NEW ZEALAND: 20: spt unit.

   SRI LANKA
   []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES: some 47,000 incl recalled reservists.
ACTIVE: 22,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: some 25,000; obligation: 7 years post-Regular service.

ARMY: 40,000, incl recalled reservists (being re-oig).
2 div HQ.
   5 'Task Forces' (inf bde: with 5 regular, 6 reserve bn).
   2 recce regt (bn) (1 reserve).
   2 fd arty (incl 1 reserve), 1 AD arty regt.
   1 fd engr, 1 engr plant regt.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 18 Saladin, 15 Ferret, 12 Daimler Dingo.
APC: 10 BTR-152, 144 other (incl Buffel, Saracen).
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: 16 Yug M-48; 85mm: 30 Ch Type-56; 88mm: 25 pdr. 105mm; 122mm; both reported.
MORTARS: 107mm: 12 4.2-in.; 120mm: reported.
RCL: 82mm: M-60; 106mm: M-40.
AD GUNS: 40mm: 24 L-60; 94mm: 24 3.7-in.

NAVY: 5,500.
BASES: Trincomalee (HQ), Karainagar, Colombo, Tangalla, Kalpitiya.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 36:
PATROL, COASTAL 2 Jayesagara PCC.
PATROL, INSHORE: 34: 6 Sooraya (Ch Shanghai II) PFI<. 12 Is Dvora PFI<. 16 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 2 LCM
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 3: 3 Abheetha, spt/cmd.

AIR FORCE: 3,700 incl active Reservists; 9 cbt ac, 15 armed hel.
COIN: 9 SF-260TP.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 11 Bell 212, 4 -412.
MR: 1 sqn with 3 Cessna 337, 3 Dove, 1 Heron ac; 2 SA-365 hel.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 2 BAe 748, 1 Cessna 421C, 1 Super King Air, 10 Ch Y-12.
HELICOPTERS: 12 Bell 206.
TRAINING: incl 6 Cessna 150/152, 5 Chipmunk.
RESERVES: Air Force Regt, 3 sqn; Airfield Construction Regt, 1 sqn.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE FORCE: 23,500 (increase to 28,000 planned) incl Special Task Force: 2,000-man anti-guerrilla unit.
NATIONAL AUXILIARY VOLUNTEERFORCE: 5,000 (to be 10,000).
HOME GUARD: 18,000 (to be disbanded).

OPPOSITION:
LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM(LITE): Leaden Velupillai Pirabakaran: ~2,000.
EELAM PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY LIBERATION FRONT (EPRLF): ~1,000: Indian backed Tamil group.
JANATHA VIMUKTHI PERAMUNA (JVP): People's Liberation Front: ~1,200: Maoist.

FOREIGN FORCES:
INDIA: (IPKF) some 47,000. Army: 45,000, 4 inf div. Plus naval and air force elm. Central Reserve Police Force: 1,500.

* Incl extra allocation of Rs 2.5 bn to meet internal security expenditure.

   TAIWAN
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 405,500.
Terms of service: 2 years.
RESERVES: 1,657,500. Army: 1,500,000 have some Reserve obligation to age 30. Navy 32,500, Marines 35,000, Air 90,000.

ARMY: 270,000.
3 Army, 6 Corps, 1 SF HQ.
   12 hy inf div,
   96 lt inf div,
   2 mech inf div,
   1 AB bde.
   4 tk gp,
   22 fd arty bn,
   5 SAM bn: 2 with Nike Hercules, 3 with HAWK.
   6 avn sqn.
RESERVES: 9 inf div.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 309 M-48A5.
LIGHT TANKS: 275 M-24 (90mm gun), 675 M-41/Type 64.
RECCE: M-8.
AIFV: 225 M-113 with 20/30mm cannon.
APC: 40 M-2 half-track, 650 M-113, 300 V-150 Commando.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 650 M-101 (T-64); 155mm: M-44, 90 M-59, 250 M-114 (T-65); 203mm: 70 M-115.
SP ARTY: 105mm: 100 M-108; 155mm: 45 T-69, 110 M-109A1; 203mm: 60 M-110.
MRL: 117mm: KF VI; 126mm: KFIII/IV towed and SP.
MORTARS: 81mm: M-29 (some SP); 107mm.
SSM: Hsiung Feng (Gabriel-type) coastal defence.
ATGW: Kun Wu (TOW-type), TOW (some SP).
RCL: 90mm: M-67; 106mm: 500 M-40/Type 51.
ATK GUNS: 76mm: 150 M-18 SP.
AD GUNS: 35mm; 40mm: 400 (incl M-42 SP, Bofors).
SAM: 36 Nike Hercules, 54 HAWK, some Chaparral; Tien Kung (Sky Bow)-l/-2.
AVIATION:
   AIRCRAFT: 20 O-1.
   HELICOPTERS: 118 UH-1H.

DEPLOYMENT:
QUEMOY: 55,000,
MATSU: 18,000.

NAVY
: 35,500.
   3 Naval Districts.
BASES: Tsoying (HQ), Makung (Pescadores), Keelung.
SUBMARINES: 4:
   2 Hai Lung (Nl mod Zwaardvis) with 533mm TT.
   2 Hai Shih (US Guppy II) with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 36:
DESTROYERS: 26:
   14 Chao Yang (US Gearing) (ASW); 13 with 1 Hughes MD-500 hel, 8 with 1x8 ASROC, all with 2x3 ASTT;
   plus 1 or 2x2 127mm guns, 5 or 3 Hsiung Feng-II (HF-2) (Is Gabriet) SSM.
   8 Po Yang (US Sumnef) with 2 or 3x2 127mm guns; plus 2x3 ASTT; 3 with 3 or 4 HF-2 SSM.
   4 Kun Yang (US Fletcher) with 3 or 4 127mm guns; plus 2x3 ASTT with 5 HF-2 SSM.
FRIGATES: 10:
   9 Tien Shan (US Lawrence/Crosley), 8 with 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x127mm guns.
   1 Tai Yuan (US Rudderow) with 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 127mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 67:
MISSILE CRAFT: 52:
   2 Lung Chiang PFM with 2 HF-2 SSM
   50 Hai Ou (mod Is Dvora)( with 2 HF-2 SSM
PATROL, OFFSHORE: 3 Ping Jin (US Auk MSF) with 3 ASTT.
   INSHORE: About 12 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 8:
   8 Yung Chou (US Adjutant) MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 27
   1 Kao Hsiung (US LST 511) amph comd.
   1 Cheng Hai (US Cabildo) LSD, capacity about 18 tk, 200+ tps.
   21 Chung Hai (US LST-511) LST, capacity 16 tk, 200 tps.
   4 Mei Lo (US LSM-1) LSM, capacity about 4 tk.
   Plus about 280 craft; 20 LCU, some 260 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 13: 4 spt tankers, 2 repair/salvage, 6 tugs, 1 survey/research.

NAVAL AIR: 32 cbt ac; 12 armed hel.
MR: 1 sqn with 32 S-2 (25 -E, 7 -F).
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 12 Hughes 500MD ASW Defender.

MARINES: 30,000.
   2 div, spt elm.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: LVT-4/-5.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm, 155mm.
RCL: 106mm.

AIR FORCE: 70,000; 469 cbt ac, no armed hel. 5 cbt wings.
FGA/FIGHTER: 14 sqn with 25 F-5A, 8 -B, 220 -E, 55 -F, 128 F-104, 33 TF-104G, 50 F-104G.
RECCE: 1 sqn with 3 RF-104G.
SAR: 1 sqn with 5 HU-16B ac, 12 S-70,12 UH-1H hel.
TRANSPORT: 8 sqn:
AIRCRAFT: 2 with 24 Douglas (20 C-47, 2 C-54, 1 C-118B, 1 DC-6B);
   3 with 45 Fairchild (35 C-119G, 10 C-123B/K);
   1 with 12 C-130H.
   1 with 12 Beech 1900.
   1 VIP with 5 Boeing (1 720B, 4 727-100).
HELICOPTERS: 5 CH-34, 1 S-62A (VIP), 14 S-70.
TRAINING: incl 60 AT-3, PL-IB, T-28A, 30 T-33A, 42 T-34C, 40 T-Ch-1 ac; 10 Bell 47G, 6 Hughes 500 hel.
AAM: AIM-4D Falcon, AIM-7F Sparrow, AIM-9J/P Sidewinder, Shafrir.
ASM: AGM-12 Bullpup, AGM-65A Maverick.

PARA-MILITARY:
SECURITY GROUPS (Ministry of Defence): 25,000: incl National Police Administration. Bureau of Investigation. Military Police HQ.
CUSTOMS SERVICE (Ministry of Finance): 4 PCO, 5 PCC, 5 P a ; most armed.

FOREIGN FORCES:
SINGAPORE: trg camp.

   THAILAND
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 283,000.
Terms of service: 2 years.
RESERVES: 500,000.

ARMY: 190,000 (80,000 conscripts).
4 Regional Army HQ, 2 Corps HQ.
   2 cav (lt armd) div (2 cav, 1 arty regt).
   1 meen inf div.
   6 inf div (incl Royal Guard, 5 with 1 tk bn) (2 to be mech, 1 to be It).
   2 SF div.
   1 arty div, 1 AD arty div (6 AD arty bn).
   19 engrbn.
   1 indep cav regt.
   8 indep inf bn.
   4 recce coy.
   Armd air cav regt with 3 airmobile coy.
   Some hel fit.
RESERVES: 4 inf div HQ.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 60+ Ch Type-69, 64 M-48A5.
LIGHT TANKS: 134 Scorpion, 200 M-41 (most in store), 20 M-24 (in store), some 9 Stingray.
APC: 340 M-113, M-3A1/M-16 half-track, 150 V-150 Commando, 20 Saracen, ~300 Ch Type-85 (YW-531H), 105 Ch Type-63.
TOWED ARTY: some 374. 105mm: 200 M-101/-101 mod, 12 M-102, some M-618A2 (local manufacture); 130mm: 18 Ch Type-59;
   155mm: 50 M-114, 62 M-198, 32 M-71.
MRL: 130mm: Ch Type-82 reported.
MORTARS: 81mm, 107mm.
ATGW: TOW, 300 Dragon.
RL: M-72 LAW.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 75mm: M-20; 106mm: 150 M-40.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 40 M-163 Vulcan, 24 M-167 Vulcan; 37mm: some 30 Type-74; 40mm: 80 M-1/M-42 SP; 104 L/70; 57mm: 24.
SAM:Redeye, some Aspide.
AVIATION:
   TRANSPORT: 1 Beech 99, 4 C-47, 10 Cessna 208, 1 QueenAir, 1 Short 330, 1 Super King Air.
   LIAISON: 62 O-1A, 17 -E, 6 T-41A, 13 U-17A.
   HELICOPTERS: 10 Bell 206, 15 -212, 6 -214, 3 OH-58A.
   TRAINING: 36 Hughes 300C, 12 OH-13, 14 TH-55.

NAVY: 50,000 (some conscripts) incl naval air and marines.
BASES: Bangkok, (HQ) Sattahip, Songkla, Phan Nga, Nakhon Phanom (HQ Mekong River Operating Unit).
FRIGATES: 5:
   1 Makut Rajakumarn with 2x3 ASTT (Sting Ray LWT); plus 2 114mm guns.
   2 Tapi (US PF-103) with 2x3 ASTT (Mk46 LWT).
   2 Tachin ( U S Tacoma)(Vtg) w i t h 2x3 A S T T .
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 52:
CORVETTES: 2:
   2 Ratanakosin with 2x3 ASTT (Sting Ray LWT); plus 2x4 Harpoon SSM.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6:
   3 Ratcharit (It Breda 50m) with 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM.
   3 Prabparapak (FRG Lurssen 45m) with 5 Gabriel SSM.
PATROL 44:
   COASTAL 14: 3 Chon Buri PFC, 6 Sattahip, 5 Sarasin (US PC-461) PCC.
   INSHORE: 30: 10 T-11 (US PGM-71), about 20 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 7:
   2 Bang Rochan (FRG Lurssen T-48) MCC.
   4 Ladya (US Bluebird MSC) MSC.
   1 Thalang MCM spt
AMPHIBIOUS: 10:
   2 Sichang (Fr PS-700) LST, capacity 14 tk, 300 tps.
   5 Angthong (US LST-511) LST, capacity 16 tk, 200 tps (1 trg).
   3 Kut (US LSM-1) LSM, capacity about 4 tk.
   Plus 39 craft; 10 LCU, 29 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 5: 1 small tanker, 2 survey, 2 trg.

NAVAL AIR: (900); 27 cbt ac; 8 armed hel.
MR/ASW: 1 sqn with 3 F-27MPA, 5 N-24A Searchmaster L, 9 S-2F.
MR/SAR: 1 sqn with 2 CL-215.
MR/ATTACK: 10 Cessna T-337.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 4 Bell 212, 5 -214, 4 UH-1H.
ASM: AGM-84 Harpoon (for F-27MPA).

MARINES: (20,000).
   6 inf regt, 1 arty regt (3 fd, 1 AA bn);
   1 amph assault bn; recce bn.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: 33 LVTP-7.
TOWED ARTY: 155mm: 18 GC-45.
ATGW: TOW, Dragon.

AIR FORCE: 43,000; 145 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 1 sqn with 9 F-5A, 4 -B.
   6 F-16A, 4 -B delivered; 8 more due by 1991.
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 33 F-5E, 3 -F.
COIN: 6 sqn:
   2 with 26 OV-10C;
   2 with 26 AU-23A;
   1 with 15 A-37B;
   1 with 14 N-22B Missionmaster.
ELINT: 1 sqn with 3 IAI-201.
RECCE: 3 RF-5A, 3 RT-33A.
SURVEY: 1 Commander 690, 2 King Air 90, 3 Learjet 35A, 2 Merlin IVA.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn:
   1 with 3 C-130H, 3 C-130H-30, 3 DC-8-62F.
   1 with 12 C-123 (4 -B, 8-K), 6 BAe-748.
   1 with 10 C-47.
VIP: Royal flight: 2 Boeing 737-200, 1 Merlin IV, 1 King Air 200 ac; 2 Bell 412 hel.
TRAINING: 24 CT-4,16 Fantrainer V-600,12 SF-260 MS, 18 -MT, 53 T-33A, 13 T-37B, 6 -C, 11 T-41.
LIAISON: 3 Commander, 2 King Air -90, 30 O-1, 3 U-10B.
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn:
   1 with 18 S-58T.
   1 with 22 UH-1H.
AAM:AIM-9B/J Sidewinder.
AD: 4 bn; Blowpipe SAM. 1 AA arty bty: 2 Skyguard radar, each with 4 fire units of 2x30mm Mauser guns.

PARA-MILITARY:
THAHAN PHRAN ('Hunter Soldiers'): 18,500 volunteer irregular force; 27 regt of some 200 coy.
NATIONAL SECURITY VOLUNTEER CORPS: 43,000.
MARINE POLICE: 1,700; 2 PFC, 1 PFI, some 30 PCI<
POLICE AVIATION: 500; 1 C-47 (tpt), 5 Short (3 Skyvan, 1 Sherpa, 1 330-UTT), 4 PC-6, 3 AU-23, 3 DHC-4, 1 Do-28, 2 Cessna 310, 1 Airtourer, 1 CT-4 ac;
   44 Bell (3 212, 14 206, 27 205A), 1 S-62, 6 HH-12, 5 KH-4 hel.
BORDER PATROL POLICE: 28,000.
PROVINCIAL POLICE: ~50,000 incl Special Action Force (~500).

OPPOSITION:
COMMUNIST PARTY OF MALAYA (CPM): some 850.
COMMUNIST PARTY OF THAILAND (CPT): ~200.
THAI PEOPLE'S REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT (TPRM); also known as Pak (or Phak) Mai (New Party) New Communist Paity/Sayam Mai (New
Siam): 1,500 claimed; active guerrillas ~100. Vietnam/Laos-backed Communists.
ISLAMIC: Patani United Liberation Organization; Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN) (National Revolution Party): together 8 400.

   VIETNAM
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 1,249,000 (often referred to as 'Main Force').
Terms of service: 3 years, specialists 4 years, some ethnic minorities 2 years.
RESERVES: Strategic Rear Force' some 2,500,000 manpower potential see also Para-Military Forces.

ARMY: 1,100,000.
14 Corps HQ.
   65 inf div (2 trg, perhaps 28 cadre)t
   10 armd bde.
   15 indep inf regt.
   Special Operations Force incl AB bde, demolition engr (org in regt of 5 bn).
   some 10 fd arty bde.
   8 engr div.
10-16 economic construction div; 20 indep engr bde.ї
EQUIPMENTS
MBT: 1,600 T-34/-54/-55, 350 Ch Type-59.
LIGHT TANKS: PT-76, Ch Type-62/63.
RECCE: 80 BRDM-1/-2.
AIFV: 120 BMP.
APC: 1,500 BTR-40/-50/-60/-152, Ch Type-63, Ch Type-531, M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 100mm: incl M-1944, T-12; 105mm: M-101/-102; 122mm: incl M-1938, D-30, 130mm: 200 M-1946; 152mm: 250 D-20; 155mm: M-114.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 90 mod M-114.
ASSAULT GUNS: 100mm: SU-100; 105mm: ISU-122.
MRL: 107mm: Type 63; 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14-16.
MORTARS: 81mm, 82mm, 120mm, 160mm.
ATGW:AT-3 Sagger.
RCL: 57mm: Ch Type-36; 75mm: Ch Type-52, Ch Type-57; 82mm: B-10; 88mm: Ch Type-51; 90mm; 107mm: B-11.
AD GUNS: 8,000: 14.5mm; 23mm: incl ZSU-23-4 SP; 30mm; 37mm; 57mm; 85mm; 100mm.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 37,000 (incl 27,000 Naval Infantry).
   Four Naval Zones.
BASES: Vietnam: Cam Ranh Bay, Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ha Tou, Ho Chi Minh City.
   Abroad: Kampuchea: (Fifth Naval Zone): Kompong Som, Ream.
FRIGATES: 7:
   1 Phan Ngu Lao (US Barnegat) (ASUW), with 2 SS-N-2 Styx SSM, 1 127mm gun.
   5 Sov Petya II with 4 ASW RL, 3 533mm TT.
   1 Tran Khanh Du (US Savage) with 2x3 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 62:
MISSILE CRAFT: 8 Sov Osa with 4 SS-N-2 SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 21:
   5 Sov Turya PHT with 4 533mm TT.
   16 Sov Shershen PFT with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 33:
   OFFSHORE: 2 US Admirable MSF
   INSHORE: 31: 6 Sov So-1, 10 US PGM-59/71, 15<.
MINE WARFARE: 5: 2 Yurka MSC, 1 Sonya MSC, 2 Yevgenya MHI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 7.
   3 US LST-511 LST, capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   3 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 180 tps, 6 tk.
   1 US LSM-1 LSM, capacity about 50 tps, 4 tk.
   Plus about 24 craft; 12 LCM, 12 LCU
(Note: Information on serviceability, indeed continued existence, of naval units listed is extremely scarce.)

NAVAL INFANTRY: (27,000) (amph, cdo).

AIR FORCE
: 12,000; 394 cbt ac, 47 armed hel (plus many in store).//
   4 Air Div.
FGA: 5 regt
   2 with 70 Ch J-5;
   1 with 36 MiG-23BN;
   1 with 30 Su-7B;
   1 with 40 Su-20.
FIGHTER: 6 regt with 206 MiG-21bis/PF.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 30 Mi-24.
MR: 12 Be-12.
ASW HEL: 17 Ka-25.
SURVEY: 2 An-30.
TRANSPORT: 3 regt: some 135 ac incl 12 An-2, 9 An-24, 50 An-26, 2 Boeing 707, 10 C-130A/B, 6H-14, 2 Il-18, 20 Li-2, 8 Tu-134, 11 Yak-40.
HELICOPTERS: 1 div (3 regt) with 200 hel incl 30 Mi-4, 20 Mi-6, 36 Mi-8.
TRAINING: 3 regt with 53 ac incl L-29, L-39, MiG-15UTI, MiG-21U, Yak-11, Yak-18.
AAM: AA-2 Atoll.

AIR DEFENCE FORCE: 100,000.
14 AD div:
SAM: some 66 sites with SA-2/-3;
4 AD arty bde: 37mm, 57mm, 85mm, 100mm, 130mm; plus People's Regional Force: ~1,000 units.
6 radar bde: 100 sites.

FORCES ABROAD:
CAMBODIA: 60-65,000, withdrawal continues.
LAOS: 10-15,000.

PARA-MILITARY:
PEOPLE'S REGIONAL FORCE: 500,000. Org at and op within provincial level, some div but mainly regt and coy.
   Although full-time also engage in economic production. Acts as reserve for Main Force
LOCAL FORCES: Some 2,500,000. Incl People's Self Defence Force (urban units), People's Militia (northern rural units),
   Armed Youth Assault Force (southern rural units), Centralized Militia (mainly Montagnards in Chinese border region).
   Comprise: static and mobile cbt units, log spt and village protection pi. Some arty, mor and AD guns. Acts as reserve for People's Regional Force.
'TACTICAL REAR FORCE': Some 500,000 manpower potential mainly ex full-time servicemen. Acts as reserve for Local Forces.

OPPOSITION: ~25,000 incl:
UNITED FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF THE OPPRESSED RACES (FULRO) ~2,500; montagnards; Cambodian border.
NATIONAL SALVATION MOVEMENT.
ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM (remnants; Hoa Had).

* Incl some $2.3 bn owed to CMEA.
t Extensive Sov mil aid makes est of def bdgt impossible. Sov economic and mil aid est at over $1.0 bn per annum for 1986 and 1987.
% Inf div strengths vary from 5,000 to 12,500.
ї Men beyond normal mil age; unit strength about 4,000 each, fully armed, with mil and economic role.
// Much US, some Soviet eqpt probably inoperable.


Caribbean and Latin America


   General
   Debt, drugs and the traumas oftransition to democratic rule continued to underlie the principal threats to security and domestic order in Latin America. While regional and domestic peace processes were pursued throughout the year, the levels ofguerrilla insurgency remained unacceptably high in many countries.
   Progress towards resolution of the war in Nicaragua continued with the five Central American governments (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala) agreeing in February 1989 to a plan to demobilize the Contras (now largely neutralized for lack of US military aid) in return for assurances by the Sandinista government that fair national elections would take place by February 1990. The following month the five states approved a plan to create a UN Peacekeeping Force to ensure that guerrillas would not launch crossborder raids, but by mid-July 1989 UN officials still considered that the establishment of such a force was a distant prospect.
   Outside of Nicaragua, the most serious threats to domestic order in Central America were in El Salvador. President Alfredo Cristiani, who came to power with the landslide victory of his far right ARENA party in the March 1989 elections, announced in his inaugural address on 1 June his desire for a 'permanent dialogue' with leftist guerrillas of the Farabundo Marti Front for National Liberation (FMLN). The insurgency and counter-attacks have continued, with neither side accepting the other's peace proposals.
   In South America, both Peru and Colombia remained beset by violence. Throughout the year in Peru the Sendero Luminoso ('Shining Path') guerrilla group demonstrated their capacity to cut essential supplies of both food and electricity to the capital, Lima, just as the group extended their sphere of influence from Ayacucho in the south to Cajamarca in the north. In Colombia violence became more widespread despite a number ofgovernment peace programmes. President Virgilio Barco was able to meet some members ofthe Ml 9 movement in April, but the activities of other guerrilla groups not willing to join peace talks have served to further disrupt Colombia's economy, thus adding to the problems of internal order caused by the still powerful drug barons.
   There were some signs of encouragement internationally when President Menem of Argentina, who before his election appeared to take a belligerent stand on the Falkland Islands, offered, after his assumption of power, to hold 'a civilized dialogue' with the UK, in which both sides would reserve their respective positions on sovereignty. In this context, Menem held out the possibility ofannouncing a formal end to hostilities. At the other end ofthe continent, however, the US dispute with President Noriega intensified; following attacks on US personnel in Panama the US was obliged to send reinforcements to the Canal Zone.
   Military Developments
   There have been virtually no developments of note in the ground forces of the region in the last 12 months; however, a few new naval units have been brought into service. Some new aircraft have also been delivered, but changes to Air Force listings principally reflect new information and reassessment. The more significant developments are listed below.
   The Chilean Navy has taken delivery of two Sa'ar missile craft transferred from the Israeli Navy, and the Air Force, having cancelled an order for F-5 FGA aircraft, was unable to obtain Israeli Kfir FGA as the US-made engine may not be resold to Chile. The Argentine Navy has added a fourth FRG-designed MEKO 140 frigate built locally. The US Congress has authorized the sale of spare parts to Argentina; this will allow the repair and refurbishment of M-113 APC and UH-1 helicopters. Development of the Condor II 800-km range SSM continues, reportedly in conjunction with Egypt.
   Brazil has commissioned the first of four locally built Inhauma-class frigates which are armed with torpedoes and Exocet SSM and embark a Lynx helicopter. The naval Lynx, shown as utility helicopters last year, are now known to be armed with Mark 46 torpedoes. The Navy, which has a long-term project to develop a nuclear-powered submarine, commissioned a small nuclear reactor as a test-bed. However, the Brazilian programme for conventional submarine construction is going very slowly and no SSN can be in service before the year 2000. The Air Force's Mirage III have been up-dated with new electronics and a further six aircraft have been brought into service. The Brazilian Army has procured a further 80 locally manufactured M-41 light tanks. Development of the 300-km range Avibras SS-300 SSM continues. A reappraisal of Cuban Army organization shows that there are nine rather than three mechanized infantry divisions
   Defence Spending
   The last five years have witnessed the progressive transfer of political power from military juntas to more democratically elected governments. While one of the main aims of such governments has been to reduce the influence and role of their armed forces and the usually high level of defence expenditure, this has not been possible in every case. Overall, the worsening economic predicament of many of the countries of the region presents governments with a dilemma. Defence spending must be cut if the essential reduction in public sector expenditure is to be achieved. However, internal security capabilities must be maintained and, in many cases, the military need to be compensated not only for reduced budgets but also for their loss of influence and political power.
   In Argentina after years of profligate allocations under military rule, defence expenditure was roughly halved in 1986. Since then the military have complained continuously of their reduced budgets (which led to declining privileges, living standards and their public esteem), as well as to vilification for their abuse of human rights. After a series of small-scale rebellions, resolved by secret deals, the government made concessions in all these areas: the armed forces received four salary increases in the second half of 1988, and there was some resurgence of military influence in both internal and external affairs. In addition to a defence budget allocation estimated at between $USl-2 bn for the current fiscal year, a $US4 bn modernization programme for the armed forces was announced in January 1989 by the Alfonsin regime. There must be serious doubts, however, as to the capacity of the economy to bear such costs, particularly at a time when the new government is attempting to introduce a stringent economic regime.
   In Brazil the continuing influence of the armed forces has been reflected in the modernization plan for the 1990s. Defence allocations have continued to grow, though recent high inflation and a faltering economy seem to have slowed down the programme. The Brazilian military have been helped by a powerful arms-production industry, until recently a vibrant exporter able to compete in world markets.
   Colombia faces two serious internal threats, from the Coordinadora Nacional Guerrillera movements and from the well-organized and often well-armed drug war-lords. It is not surprising therefore that defence allocations are officially said to have increased by 37.8% in real terms between 1988 and 1989. In Nicaragua the complete failure of the economy has coincided with the collapse of the Contra campaign thus allowing the Sandinista regime to reduce military spending.

Карибский бассейн и Латинская Америка


   Основное
   Задолженность, наркотики и травмы, связанные с переходом к демократическому правлению, по-прежнему лежат в основе основных угроз безопасности и внутреннему порядку в Латинской Америке. Несмотря на то, что региональные и внутренние мирные процессы продолжались в течение всего года, уровень повстанческого движения во многих странах оставался неприемлемо высоким.
   Прогресс в урегулировании войны в Никарагуа продолжался, когда пять Центральноамериканских правительств (Никарагуа, Сальвадор, Гондурас, Коста-Рика и Гватемала) согласились в феврале 1989 года на план демобилизации Контрас (в настоящее время в основном нейтрализованных из-за отсутствия американской военной помощи) в обмен на заверения Сандинистского правительства в том, что справедливые национальные выборы состоятся к февралю 1990 года. В следующем месяце пять государств одобрили план создания миротворческих сил ООН, чтобы гарантировать, что партизаны не начнут трансграничные рейды, но к середине июля 1989 года должностные лица ООН все еще считали, что создание таких сил является отдаленной перспективой.
   За пределами Никарагуа наиболее серьезные угрозы внутреннему порядку в Центральной Америке были в Сальвадоре. Президент Альфредо Криштиани, пришедший к власти с убедительной победой своей крайне правой партии "Арена" на выборах в марте 1989 года, заявил в своей инаугурационной речи 1 июня о своем стремлении к "постоянному диалогу" с левыми партизанами Фронта национального освобождения Фарабундо Марти (ФНООН). Мятежи и контратаки продолжаются, и ни одна из сторон не принимает мирных предложений другой стороны.
   В Южной Америке как Перу, так и Колумбия по-прежнему страдают от насилия. В течение всего года в Перу партизанская группа "Сендеро Луминосо" ("Сияющий Путь") демонстрировала свою способность сократить основные поставки продовольствия и электроэнергии в столицу Лиму, а также расширить сферу своего влияния от Аякучо на юге до Кахамарки на севере. В Колумбии насилие получило более широкое распространение, несмотря на ряд правительственных мирных программ. Президент Вирджилио Барко смог встретиться с некоторыми членами движения Ml 9 в апреле, но деятельность других партизанских групп, не желающих присоединиться к мирным переговорам, еще больше подорвала экономику Колумбии, тем самым усугубив проблемы внутреннего порядка, вызванные все еще могущественными наркобаронами.
   На международном уровне появились некоторые признаки поощрения, когда президент Менем из Аргентины, который до своего избрания, как представляется, занял воинственную позицию на Фолклендских островах, предложил после его прихода к власти провести "цивилизованный диалог" с Соединенным Королевством, в котором обе стороны сохранят свои соответствующие позиции по вопросу о суверенитете. В этом контексте Менем высказался за возможность официального прекращения боевых действий. На другом конце континента, однако, спор США с президентом Норьегой усилился; после нападений на американский персонал в Панаме США были вынуждены направить подкрепление в зону канала.
   Военные события
   За последние 12 месяцев в сухопутных войсках региона практически не произошло заметных изменений, однако на вооружение было введено несколько новых военно-морских подразделений. Были также поставлены некоторые новые самолеты, но изменения в перечнях ВВС в основном отражают новую информацию и переоценку. Более важные события перечислены ниже.
   Чилийский военно-морской флот принял поставку двух ракетных кораблей Sa'ar, переданных израильским военно-морским силам, а ВВС, отменив заказ на самолеты F-5, не смогли получить израильский ИБ Kfir, поскольку двигатель американского производства не может быть перепродан Чили. ВМС Аргентины добавили четвертый фрегат проекта ФРГ MEKO140, построенный на местном уровне. Конгресс США санкционировал продажу Аргентине запасных частей, что позволит провести ремонт и модернизацию БТР М-113 и вертолетов UH-1. Разработка ракет Condor II дальностью 800 км продолжается, как сообщается, совместно с Египтом.
   Бразилия ввела в эксплуатацию первый из четырех фрегатов класса Inhauma местного производства, которые вооружены торпедами и ПКР Exocet, а также вертолетом Lynx. Морские Lynx, показанные как служебные вертолеты в прошлом году, теперь, как известно, вооружены торпедами Mark 46. Военно-морской флот, имеющий долгосрочный проект по созданию атомной подводной лодки, ввел в эксплуатацию малый ядерный реактор в качестве испытательного стенда. Однако бразильская программа строительства обычных подводных лодок идет очень медленно, и ни одна ПЛА не может быть принят на вооружение до 2000 года. Мираж III ВВС были обновлены с новой электроникой и еще шесть самолетов были введены в эксплуатацию. Бразильская армия закупила еще 80 легких танков М-41 местного производства. Продолжается разработка БР 300-километровой дальности Avibras SS-300 SSM. Переоценка организации кубинской армии показывает, что существует девять, а не три мотопехотных дивизии
   Расходы на Оборону
   Последние пять лет были свидетелями постепенной передачи политической власти от военных хунт к более демократически избранным правительствам. Хотя одной из главных целей таких правительств было уменьшение влияния и роли их вооруженных сил и обычно высокого уровня расходов на оборону, это было возможно не во всех случаях. В целом ухудшение экономического положения многих стран региона ставит правительства перед дилеммой. Для достижения существенного сокращения расходов государственного сектора необходимо сократить расходы на оборону. Однако необходимо сохранить потенциал внутренней безопасности, и во многих случаях военным необходимо компенсировать не только сокращение бюджетов, но и потерю ими влияния и политической власти.
   В Аргентине после многих лет расточительных ассигнований в условиях военного правления расходы на оборону в 1986 году сократились примерно вдвое. С тех пор военные постоянно жалуются на сокращение своих бюджетов (что привело к снижению привилегий, уровня жизни и общественного уважения), а также к поношению за нарушение прав человека. После ряда мелких мятежей, разрешенных тайными сделками, правительство пошло на уступки во всех этих областях: вооруженные силы получили четыре повышения окладов во второй половине 1988 года, и произошло некоторое возрождение военного влияния как во внутренних, так и во внешних делах. В дополнение к ассигнованиям из оборонного бюджета в размере от 2 млрд. долл.США на текущий финансовый год, в январе 1989 года режим Альфонсина объявил о программе модернизации вооруженных сил на сумму 4 млрд. долл. Однако должны быть серьезные сомнения в способности экономики нести такие расходы, особенно в то время, когда новое правительство пытается ввести строгий экономический режим.
   В Бразилии сохраняющееся влияние вооруженных сил нашло отражение в плане модернизации на 90-е годы. Ассигнования на оборону продолжали расти, хотя недавняя высокая инфляция и неустойчивая экономика, как представляется, замедлили осуществление программы. Бразильским военным помогает мощная оружейная промышленность, до недавнего времени энергичный экспортер, способный конкурировать на мировых рынках.
   Колумбия сталкивается с двумя серьезными внутренними угрозами: со стороны национальных партизанских движений "Координадора" и хорошо организованных и зачастую хорошо вооруженных наркобаронов. Поэтому неудивительно, что ассигнования на оборону, как официально утверждается, увеличились на 37,8% в реальном выражении в период с 1988 по 1989 год. В Никарагуа полный крах экономики совпал с крахом кампании "контрас", что позволило Сандинистскому режиму сократить военные расходы.
   ARGENTINA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 95,000 (c 39,000 conscripts).
Terms of Service: Army, Air Force 1 year, Navy 14 months; some conscripts may serve less.
RESERVES: 377,000: Army 250,000 (National Guard 200,000; Territorial Guard 50,000); Navy 77,000; Air 50,000.

ARMY: 55,000 (~30,000 conscripts).
HQ: 4 army corps, 5 Military Regions.
(Many units cadre status only.)
   2 armd bde (each 2 armd cav, 1 tk regt, 1 arty bn).
   2 mech inf bde (each 3 regt of 1 bn, plus armd cav sqn, arty bn, engr coy).
   2 mtn inf bde (each 3 inf, 1 arty bn, 1 engr coy, 1 recce det).
   1 jungle bde (4 lt inf, 1 arty (how) bn).
   1 mixed inf bde (1 inf, 1 jungle, 1 mtn regt).
Army Tps:
   Presidential Guard: 1 mech inf regt, 1 mech cav bn (ceremonial).
   1 AB bde (3 AB regt, 1 arty gp, 1 trg regt).
   1 indep mech inf bde (3 regt).
   1 AD arty, 2 engr, 1 avn bn.
   1 SF coy.
   Corps Tps; each corps 1 arty, 1 AD arty, 1 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 235: 10 M-4 Sherman, 225 TAM (125 in store).
LIGHT TANKS: 60 AMX-13.
RECCE: 50 AML-90.
AIFV: 380: 180 AMX-VCI, some 200 TAM VCTP.
APC: 415: 140 M-3 half-track, 200 M-113, 70 MOWAG Grenadier (mod Roland), 5 BDX.
TOWED ARTY: 278: 105mm: 100 incl M-101 and M-56; 155mm: 60 M-114, 68 CITEFA Models 77/-81, 50 M-59.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 24 Mk F3.
MRL: 105mm: SALM-Pampera; 127mm: SAPBA-1.
MORTARS: 81mm: 200; 120mm: 120 (some SP in VCTM AIFV).
ATGW: SS-11/-12, Cobra (Mamba), Mathogo.
RL: 89mm: M-65.
RCL: 75mm: M-20; 90mm: M-67; 105mm: M-968;
ATKGUNS: 105mm: 140 Kuerassier SP.
AD GUNS: 20mm: Rh 202 twin HSS-669; 30mm: HS-83/4; 35mm: K-63; 40mm: L/60, L/70; 90mm: some M-117.
SAM: Tigercat, Blowpipe, Roland, SAM-7.
AVIATION:
   AIRCRAFT: 9 Cessna (2 -182, 5 -207, 2 Citation), 2 Commander (1 -560,1 -680), 2 DHC-6-300, 1 KingAir, 3 Merlin TttA, 1 Merlin TV, 1 Sabreliner.
   HELICOPTERS: 6 A-109, ~15 AS-332B (24 ordered, being delivered), 5 SA-315, 1 SA-330, 7 UH- 1H, 4 UH-12E.

NAVY: 25,000 incl naval air force and marines (incl 4,000 conscripts).
3 Naval Areas: Centre; from River Plate to 42*45' S: South; from 42*45' S to Cape Horn; and Antarctica.
BASES: Buenos Aires, Puerto Belgrano (HQ Centre), Mar del Plata (submarine base), Ushuaia (HQ South), Puerto Deseado.
SUBMARINES: 4:
   2 Santa Cruz (FRG TR-1700) with 533mm TT (SST-4 HWT).
   2 Salta (FRG T-209/1200) with 533mm TT (SST-4 HWT) (1 in major refit).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 14:
CARRIER: 1 Veinticinco de Mayo CVS (UK Colossus): (in major refit) capacity 18 ac and hel, complement: ac: 4 Super Etendard, 3 S-2; hel: 4 S-61D.
DESTROYERS: 6:
   2 Hercules (UK Type 42) with 1x2 Sea Dart SAM; plus 1 Alouette III hel (ASW), 2x3 ASTT, 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM, 1 114mm gun.
   4 Almirante Brown (FRG MEKO-360) ASW with 2 SA-316 hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 8 MM-40 Exocet SSM, 1 127mm gun.
FRIGATES: 7:
   4 Espora (FRG MEKO-140) with 2x3 ASTT, hel. deck; plus 8 MM-40 Exocet.
   3 Drummond (Fr A-69) with 2x3 ASTT; plus 4 MM-38 Exocet, 1 100mm gun.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 13:
TORPEDO CRAFT: 2 Intrepida (FRG Lurssen-45) PFT with 2 533mm TT (SST-4 HWT)
PATROL CRAFT: 11: OFFSHORE: 6:
   1 Teniente Olivien (ex-US Oilfield tug).
   2 Irigoyen (US Cherokee AT).
   2 King (trg) with 3 105mm guns.
   1 Somellera (US Sotoyomo AT).
   INSHORE; 5 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 6:
   4 Neuquen (UK Ton) MSC.
   2 Chaco (UK Ton) MHC.
AMPHIBIOUS: 1 Cabo San Antonio LST (hel deck), capacity 600 tps, 18 tk.
   Plus 14 craft; 6 LCM, 8 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 9: 3 tpt, 1 ocean tug, 1 icebreaker, 2 trg, 2 survey/research.

COAST DEFENCE: some 10 arty bty: 87mm: 12 M-1898; 155mm: 16 M-3.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: 2,000, 47 cbt ac, 15 armed hel.
ATTACK: 1 sqn with 5 A-4Q, 14 Super Etendard.
MR/ASW: 2 sqn: 1 with 6 S-2E; 1 with 4 L-188E.
HELICOPTERS: 2 sqn: 1 ASW/TPT with 4 S-61D (ASW) and 3 tpt hel (I S-61D, 2 ASH-3D); 1 spt with 4 SA-319B (with SS-11), 4 SA-316B.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 3 F-28-3000, 3 L-188, 4 Queen Air 80, 7 Super King Air, 3 US-2A.
SURVEY: 1 Queen Air B-80 (photo), 4 PC-6B (Antarctic fit).
TRAINING: 2 sqn: 11 EMB-326 Xavante, 6 MB-326GB, 5 MB-339A, 11 T-34C.
ASM: Exocet AM-39E/H, ASM-2 Martin Pescador (Kingfisher), SS-11, AS-12, AGM-12 Bullpup.

MARINES: 5,000.
Fleet Forces: 2: each 2 bn, 1 amph recce gp, 1 fd arty bn, 1 hy mor, 1 ATK, 1 engr coy.
Amph spt force: 1 marine inf bn.
1 AD arty regt.
1 indep inf bn.
6 indep inf (security) coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 12 Panhard ERC-90 Lynx.
APC: 15 LVT-3/-4, 19 LVTP-7, 15 LARC-5, 6 MOWAG Roland, 24 Panhard VCR/TT.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 40 M-56.
MORTARS: 81mm; 120mm.
ATGW: 20 Bantam, Cobra (Mamba).
RCL: 75mm, 90mm, 105mm: M-1968.
AD GUNS: 20mm, 30mm, 35mm: K-63.
SAM: 7 Tigercat, Blowpipe.

AIR FORCE
: 15,000 (5,000 conscripts); 200 cbt ac, 20 armed hel (more could be armed).
   10 air bde;
   10 AD arty bty;
   SF (AB) coy.
Air Operations Command (10 bde):
BOMBERS: 1 sqn with 5 Canberra B-62, 2 T-64.
FGA/FIGHTER: 4 sqn:
   2 (1 OCU) with 21 Mirage IIIC (18 -CJ, 3 -BJ), 13 Mirage IIIE (11 -EA, 2 -DA);
   2 with 9 Mirage 5P, 23 Dagger (Nesher; 20 -A, 3 -B).
FGA: 3 sqn with 26 A-4P.
COIN: 3 sqn:
   2 ac with 67 IA-58A, 24 MS-760;
   1 hel with 12 Hughes 500M (armed), 8 UH-1 (armed: 3 -D, 5 -H), 7 Bell 212, 4 SA-315.
MR: 1 Boeing 707.
SURVEY: 3 Learjet 35A.
TANKER: 2 KC-130H.
TRANSPORT: 5 sqn with:
   AIRCRAFT: 3 Boeing 707, 4 C-47, 2 C-130E, 4 C-130H, 6 DHC-6, 12 F-27, 7 F-28, 3 IA-50, 2 Merlin IVA. Antarctic spt unit with 1 DHC-6, 1 LC-47.
   HELICOPTERS: 2 CH-47C, 2 S-58T, 2 S-61 (1 -R, 1 -NR).
CALIBRATION: 1 sqn with 2 Boeing 707, 1 IA-50, 2 Learjet 35.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 1 Sabreliner, 35 Cessna 182, 1 Cessna 320, 14 Commander, 3 PA-28, 3 PA-34.
AIR TRAINING COMMAND: 29 EMB-312, 18 IA-63, 10 MS-760, 45 T-34C ac. 4 Hughes 500 D hel.
AAM: AIM-9B Sidewinder, R-530, R-550, Shafrir.
ASM: ASM-2 Martm Pescador.

FORCES ABROAD:
ANGOLA (UNAVM): observers.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
GENDARMERIE (Ministry of Defence): 18,000.
EQUIPMENT: Shorland recce, 40 M-113; ac: 3 Piper, 2 Cessna, 4PC-6; hel: 1 Hughes 500D, 3 SA-315, 6 Bo-105.
PREFECTURA NAVAL (Coast guard): (9,000);
EQUIPMENT: 6 PCO, 4 PQ, 19<; 3 Short Skyvan 3M-200 ac; 2 AS-332,1 SA-330,6 Hughes 500M hel.

   BAHAMAS
    []

TOTAL SECURITY FORCES
ACTIVE: 2,750: Police (2,000); Defence Force (750).
Terms of Service: voluntary.

NAVY (750).
(ROYAL BAHAMIAN DEFENCE FORCE)
BASE: Coral Harbour, New Providence Island.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 11:
INSHORE: 3 Yellow Elder PFI, 1 Marlin, 1 PCI<.
AIRCRAFT: 3 Commander 500.

* Incl Police allocation

   BELIZE
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 700.
Terms of Service: voluntary.
RESERVES (militia): ~350.

ARMY: 650.
   1 inf bn (4 Active, 3 Reserve coy).
EQUIPMENT:
MORTARS: 81mm: 6.
MARITIME WING: 50.
PATROL BOATS: 2 Dangriga PCI<.
AIR WING: 15. 1 cbt ac, no armed hel.
MR/TRANSPORT: 2 BN-2B Defender (1 armed), 1 Do-27A.

FOREIGN FORCES:
UNITED KINGDOM: 1,500. Army: some 1,250; 1 inf bn + spt elm (incl Rapier). RAF: 300; 1 FGA fit.

*Plus UK military assistance, value n.k.

   BOLIVIA
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 28,000 (some 19,000 conscripts).
Terms of Service: 12 months, selective.

ARMY: 20,000 (some 15,000 conscripts).
HQ: 6 Military Regions.
Army HQ direct control:
   2 armd bn.
   1 mech cav regt.
   1 Presidential Guard inf regt.
10 'div'; org, composition varies; comprise:
   8 cav gp (5 horsed, 2 mot, 1 aslt); 1 mot inf regt with 2 bn.
   22 inf bn (incl 5 inf aslt bn); 1 arty 'regt' (bn) 5 arty gp (coy); 1 AB 'regt' (bn). 6 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 36 Steyr SK 105.
RECCE: 24 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 113: 50 M-113, 15 V-100 Commando, 24 MO WAG Roland, 24 EE-11 Urutu.
TOWED ARTY: 22: 75mm: 6 M-116 pack, ~10 Bofors M-1935; 105mm: 6 M-101.
MORTARS: 81mm: 200 M-29; 107mm: M-30.
RCL: 90mm; 106mm: M-40A1.
AVIATION: 4 Cessna 206, 1 King Air B90, 1 Super King Air 200 (VIP).

NAVY: 4,000 (incl 1,000 naval inf and marines) (perhaps 1,800 conscripts).
5 Naval Districts; covering Lake Titicaca and the rivers; each 1 Flotilla.
BASES: Riberalta (HQ), Tiquina (HQ), Puerto Busch, Puerto Guayaramerin (HQ), Puerto Villaroel, Trinidad (HQ), Puerto Suarez (HQ).
RIVER PATROL CRAFT: some 10<.
SUPPORT: 1 Libertador Bolivar ocean tpt (uses Arg/Uruguay ports)

NAVAL AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT: 1 Cessna 402.

MARINES: 1 bn (coy+ in each District).
NAVAL INF: 1 bn plus 5 coy.

AIR FORCE: 4,000; 69 cbt ac, 10 armed hel.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 14 AT-33N, 4 F-86F (ftr/trg).
COIN: 4 AT-6G, 12 PC-7.
SPECIAL OPS: 1 sqn with 10 Hughes 500M.
SAR: 1 hel sqn with 4 HB-315B, 1 SA-315B.
TRANSPORT: 4 sqn:
   1 VIP tpt with 1 L-188 Electra, 1 Sabreliner, 3 Super King Air, 3 Cessna (1 402, 1 404, 1 421).
   2 tpt with 2 C-130, 7 C-47, 4 IAI 201, 6 F27-400.
   1 photo-survey with 2 Learjet 35A, 1 Cessna 402.
LIAISON:
   AIRCRAFT: 21 Cessna, (1 -152, 2 -185, 14 -206, 1 -210, 2 -402, 1 -404).
   HELICOPTERS: 6 UH-1H.
TRAINING: 3 Cessna 152, 23 PC-7, 6 SF-260 CB, 18 T-23, 12 T-33A, 3 T-41D.
1 air-base defence regt (Oerlikon twin 20mm, some truck-mounted guns).

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL POLICE: some 15,000.
NARCOTICS POLICE: some 6,000.

   BRAZIL
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 324,000 (145,200 conscripts).
Terms of Service: 12 months (can be extended by 6 months).
RESERVES: Trained first-line 1,115,000; 400,000 subject to immediate recall. Second-line (limited trg) 225,000.

ARMY: 223,000 (to be 296,000); (143,000 conscripts).
HQ: 7 Military Comd, 12 Military Region; 8 div (3 with Region HQ).
   1 armd cav bde (2 mech, 1 armd, 1 arty bn).
   3 armd inf bde (each 2 inf, 1 armd, 1 arty bn).
   4 mech cav bde, (each 3 inf, 1 arty bn).
   12 motor inf bde (26 bn).
   2 'jungle' bde (7 bn).
   1 frontier bde (6 bn).
   1 AB bde (3AB, 1 SFbn).
   2 coast and AD arty bde.
   3 cav guard regt.
   28 arty gp (4 SP, 6 med, 18 fd).
   2 engr gp each 4 bn; 10 bn (incl 2 railway) (to be increased to 34 bn).
   Avn: forming, to comprise 14 units, perhaps 250 hel.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: some 630, some 140 M-3, some 80 X-1A, 30 X-1A2 (M-3 mod); 380 M-41C.
RECCE: 160 EE-9 Cascavel, 30 M-8.
APC: 770: 150 EE-11 Urutu, 20 M-59, ~600 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 570: 105mm: 420 M-101/-102, Model 56 pack; 155mm: 150 M-114.
SP ARTY: 105mm: 6 M-7/-108.
COAST ARTY: some 240 57mm, 75mm, 120mm, 150mm, 152mm, 305mm.
MRL: 108mm: SS-06; 180mm: SS-40; 300mm: SS-60 incl SP.
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: 120mm.
ATGW: 300 Cobra.
RL: 60mm.
RCL: 57mm: 240 M-18A1; 75mm: 20; 105mm; 106mm: M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 12.7mm: M-55 quad; 35mm: 30; 40mm: 60; 57mm: some 180.
SAM: 4 Roland II, BOFI AD system (40mm L/70 gun with RBS-70 SAM) reported.
AVIATION: Helicopter wing forming. 36 SA-365 and 16 HB-350 to be delivered, commencing 1989.

NAVY: 50,300 (2,200 conscripts) incl naval air and marines.
6 Oceanic Naval Districts plus 1 Riverine; 1 Comd.
BASES: OCEAN: Rio de Janeiro (HQ I Naval District), Salvador (HQ II District), Natal (HQ III District), Bel6m (HQ IV District),
   Rio Grande (do sul) (HQ V District) Ladario (HQ VI District).
   RIVERINE: Manaus, Corumba.
SUBMARINES: 7:
   1 Tupi (FRG T-209/1400) with 533mm TT (UK Tigerfish HWT).
   3 Humaita (UK Oberon) with 533mm TT (Tigerfish HWT).3 Goias/Bahia (US Guppy III/II) with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 17:
CARRIER: 1 Minas Gerais (UK Colossus) CVS (ASW), capacity 20 ac: typically 7-8 S-2E ASW ac, 8 ASH-3H hel.
DESTROYERS: 9:
   2 Mardlio Dias (US Gearing) ASW with 1 Wasp hel (Mk46 LWT), 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x2 127mm guns.
   5 Mato Grosso (US Sumner) ASW, 4 with 1 Wasp hel, all with 2x3 ASTT; plus 3x2 127mm guns.
   2 Piaui (US Fletcher) with 5 127mm guns; plus 2x3 ASTT, 2 with 5 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 7:
   4 Niteroi ASW; with 1 Lynx hel, 2x3 ASTT, Ikara SUGW, 1x2 ASW mor, plus 2 x MM-38 Exocet SSM, 1 114mm gun.
   2 Niteroi GP; weapons as ASW, except 4 MM-38 Exocet, 2 114mm guns, no Ikara.
   1 Inhauma, with 1 Lynx hel, 2x3 ASTT, plus 4 MM-40 Exocet, 1 114mm gun.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 24:
   9 Imperial Marinheiro PCO.
   6 Pirat'mi (US PGM) PCI, 3 Aspirante Nascimento PO (trg).
   6 Riverine patrol.
MINE WARFARE: 6:
   6 Aratu (FRG Schiitze) MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2:
   1 Duque de Caxais (US de Soto County), capacity 600 tps, 18 tk.
   1 D'Avila (US LST-511), capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   Plus 36 craft; 3 LCU, 3 LCM, 30 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 17: 1 Marajo AOR, 1 repair ship, 4 tpt, 5 survey/oceanography, 1 mod Niteroi FF (trg), 5 ocean tugs.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (700); 36 armed hel.
ASW: 1 hel sqn with 10 ASH-3H.
ATTACK: 1 sqn with 8 Lynx HAS 21, 1 with 8 AS-350 (armed), 7 Wasp HAS-1, 3 HB-315.
UTILITY: 1 sqn with 3 AS-332.
TRAINING: 1 hel sqn with 10 TH-57.

MARINES: (15,000).
Fleet Force:
   1 amph div (1 comd, 3 inf, 1 special ops bn), 1 arty bn (2 fd, 1 AD bty).
Reinforcement Comd: 5 bn incl 1 engr.
   Internal Security Force: 6 regional, 1 special ops gp.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 6 EE-9 Mk IV Cascavel.
APC: 16 M-113, 6 EE-11 Urutu, 12 LVTP-7A1.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 8 M-102; 155mm: 8 M-114.
MRL: 108mm: SS-06.
RL: 89mm: 3.5-in. M-20.
RCL: 106mm: M-40.
AD GUNS: 40mm: 8 M-1 towed.

AIR FORCE: 50,700; 287 cbt ac, 8 armed hel.
AD COMMAND: 1 Gp (20 cbt ac):
FIGHTER: 2 sqn with 15 F-103E (Mirage IIIEBR), 5 F-103D (Mirage IIIDBR). Ac being modernized.
TACTICAL COMMAND: 10 Gp (116 cbt ac).FGA: 3 sqn with 26 F-5E, 4 F-5B.
AMX being delivered, from 1989.
COIN: 3 sqn with 48 AT-26.
COIN/TRG: 30 EMB-312.
RECCE: 2 sqn with 8 RC-95, 12 RT-26, 3 Learjet 35.
LIAISON/OBSERVATION: 6 sqn:
1 ac with 8 T-27; 5 hel with 5 SA-330, 30 UH-1H, 3 OH-13.
All sqn have some EMB-810 for liaison.
MARITIME COMMAND: 4 Gp (22 cbt ac).
ASW (afloat): 1 sqn with 12 S-2E.
MR/SAR: 4 sqn with:
AIRCRAFT: 14 EMB-110B, 10 EMB-111;
HELICOPTERS: 8 UH-1D armed.
TRANSPORT COMMAND: 6 Gp (6 sqn), 7 regional indep sqn:
HEAVY 2 sqn:
   1 with 14 C-130; (9-E, 5-H);
   1 with 2 KC-130H, 4 KC-137 tkr/tpt.
MED/LT: 2 sqn:
   1 with 12 C-91;
   1 with 23 C-95A/B.
TACTICAL 1 sqn with 20 C-115.
VIP: 1 sqn with 1 VC-91, 10 VC/VU-93, 2 VC-96, 5 VC-97, 5 VU-9, ac; 3 VH-4 hel.
REGIONAL: 7 sqn with 7 C-115, 85 C-95A/B, 6 EC-9 (VU-9).
HELICOPTERS: 10 AS-332, 6 SA-330, 38 UH-1 (8 -D, 30 -H).
LIAISON: 50 C-42, 30 L42.
TRAINING COMMAND:
AIRCRAFT: 79 T-27 Tucano, 50 AT-26, 70 EMB-110.
HELICOPTERS: 25 OH-13, 4 OH-6A.
CALIBRATION: 1 unit with 2 C-95, 1 EC-93, 4 EC-95, 1 U-93.
AAM: AIM-9 Sidewinder, R-530, MAA-1 Piranha.

FORCES ABROAD:
ANGOLA (UNAVM): Observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
PUBLIC SECURITY FORCES (R): some 243,000 in state military police org (State Militias) under Army control and considered an Army Reserve.

* A new currency unit was introduced in January 1989 at a rate of 1 New Cruzado = 1,000 cruzados and was at parity to the $US when introduced.

   CHILE
    []
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 101,000 (33,000 conscripts).
Terms of Service: 2 years all services.
RESERVES: 100,000 active; all able-bodied males have a Reserve obligation to age 45.

ARMY: 57,000 (30,000 conscripts).
6 div:
   1 with 3 mot inf, 1 armd cav, 1 arty, 1 engr regt;
   1 with 2 mot inf, 5 mtn, 1 armd cav, 1 arty, 1 engr regt;
   1 with 2 inf, 3 mtn, 2 armd cav, 1 arty, 1 engr regt;
   1 with 1 inf, 2 mtn, 2 armd cav, 1 arty, 1 engr regt;
   1 with 2 inf, 2 armd cav, 1 arty, 1 engr regt, 1 cdo bn.
   1 with 2 inf, 1 mtn, 2 armd cav, 1 arty, 1 engr regt
I bde with 1 mtn, 1 inf, 1 arty regt, 1 recce sqn.
Army tps: 1 avn, 1 engr regt.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 171: 150 M-4A3/M-51, 21 AMX-30.
LIGHT TANKS: 157: 50 M-24, 60 M-41, 47 AMX-13.
RECCE 30 EE-9 Cascavel.
AIFV: 20 Piranha with 90mm gun.
APC: 330: 100 M-113, 200 Cardoen/MOWAG Piranha, 30 EE-11 Urutu.
TOWED ARTY: 108: 105mm: 72 M-101, 36 Model 56;
SP ARTY: 155mm: 12 Mk F3.
MORTARS: 81mm: M-1; 120mm (incl 50 SP).
ATGW: Milan/Mamba.
RL: 89mm: 3.5-in. M-20.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 106mm: M-40A1.
SAM: Blowpipe.
AIRCRAFT:
   TRANSPORT: 6 C-212, 4 PA-31.
   TRAINING: 16 Cessna R-172.
HELICOPTERS: 2 AB-206, 2 AS-332, 11 SA-315, 11 SA-330.

NAVY: 29,000 (3,000 conscripts), incl naval air, marines and Coast Guard.
DEPLOYMENT AND BASES:
3 main commands: Fleet (includes CC, DD and FF), Submarine Flotilla, Transport. Remaining forces allocated to 3 Naval Zones:
   1st Naval Zone (north of 35'S approx). Valparaiso (HQ), Iquique.
   2nd Naval Zone (35* S - 43* S approx). Talcahuano, (HQ), Puerto Montt.
   3rd Naval Zone (43* S to C. Horn), Punta Arenas, (HQ), Puerto Williams.
SUBMARINES: 4:
   2 O'Brien (UK Oberon) with 533mmTT (FRG HWT).
   2 Thompson (FRG T-209/1300) with 533mm TT (HWT).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 11:
CRUISER: I O'Higgins (US Brooklyn) with 5x3 152mm guns , 4x2 127mm guns , 1 Bell hel .
DESTROYERS: 8:
   3 Capitan Prat (UK Norfolk) DDG with 1x2 Seaslug-2 SAM, 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM, 1x2 114mm guns, 1 SA-319 hel.
   1 Blanco Encalada (UK Norfolk) DDH with 4 MM-38, 1x2 114 mm guns, up to 4 med hel.
   2 Almirante Riveros (ASUW) with 4 MM-38 Exocet SSM, 4 102mm guns; plus 2x3 ASTT (Mk 44 LWT), 2x3 ASW mor.
   2 Ministro Zenteno (US Sumner) (ASW) with 1 SA-319 hel, 2x3 ASTT, 3x2 127mm guns.
FRIGATES: 2 Condell (mod UK Leander) with 1 SA-319 hel, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2 x MM-38 Exocet, 1x2 114mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 11:
MISSILE CRAFT: 4:
   2 Casma (Is Reshef) PFM with 4 Gabriel SSM.
   2 Iquique (Is Sa'ar) PFM with 4 Gabriel SSM.
TORPEDO CRAFT: 4 Guacolda (FRG, Lurssen 36m) with 4 533mm TT.
PATROL 3:
   2 PCO (ex US tugs).
   1 PCC (ex-US PC-1638).
AMPHIBIOUS: 3:
   3 Maipo (Fr BATRAL) LSM, capacity 140 tps, 7 tk.
   Plus craft; 2 LCT.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 6: 1 Almirante Jorge Montt (UK 'Tide') AO, 1 Araucano AO, 1 submarine spt, 2 tpt, 1 survey.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (500); 6 cbt ac, no armed hel.
   4 sqn. Bases at Vina del Mar (2nd Naval Zone), Puerto Williams (3rd Naval Zone).
MR: 1 sqn with 6 EMB-111N, 3 Falcon 200.
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 3 C-212A, 3 EMB-110N, 2 IAI-1124, 1 PA-31.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 8 SA-319, 3 SH-57.
TRAINING: 1 sqn with 10 Pilatus PC-7.

MARINES: (5,200).
   4 gp: each 1 inf bn (+), 1 cdo coy, 1 fd arty, 1 AD arty bty.
   1 amph bn.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: MOWAG Roland, 30 LVTP-5.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 16 155mm: 35 M-114.
COAST GUNS: 155mm: 16 GPFM-3.
MORTARS: 60mm: 50; 81mm: 50.
SAM:Blowpipe.

COAST GUARD: (1,600)
PATROL CRAFT: 13: 2 PCC (Buoy Tenders), 11 PCI<.
HELICOPTER: 1 Bell 206B.

AIR FORCE: 15,000; 112 cbt ac, no armed hel.
   5 Air Bde: 4 wings.
FGA: 2 sqn:
   1 with 38 Hunter (20 F-71, 11 FGA-9, 4 FR-71, 3 T-72);
   1 with 16 F-5 (13 -E, 3 -F; serviceability low).
COIN: 2 sqn with 27 A-37B (C-101 Halcdn (A-36) to replace, ~16 delivered).
FIGHTER/RECCE: 1 sqn with 15 Mirage 50 (8 -FCH, 6 -CH, 1 -DCH trg).
RECCE: 2 photo units with 2 Canberra PR-9,1 King Air A-100, 2 Learjet 35 -A.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with:
   AIRCRAFT: 3 Boeing (1 727, 2 707), 2 C-130H, 3 Beech 99 (ELINT, tpt, trg), 16 DHC-6 (5 -100, 11-300).
   HELICOPTER: 2 SA-315B.
LIAISON HELICOPTERS: 6 Bo-105CB, 4 UH-1H.
TRAINING: 1 wing, 3 flying schools:
   AIRCRAFT: 16 PA-28, 60 T-35A/B, 16 T-36, 30 T-37B/C, 8 T-41D.
   HELICOPTERS: 6 UH-1H.
AAM:AIM-9BSidewinder,Shafrir.
ASM:AS-11/-12.
AD: 1 regt (5 gp) with:
   GUNS: 20mm: S-639/-665, GAI-CO1 twin; 35mm: 36, K-63 twin;
   SAM: Blowpipe, 12 Cactus (Crotale).

PARA-MILITARY:
CARABINEROS: 27,000. HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 206, 10 Bo-105.

OPPOSITION:
FRENTE PATRIOTICO MANUEL RODRIGUEZ (FPMR): ~1,000; leftist.
MOVEMENT OF THE REVOLUTIONARY LEFT: some 500.

* Excl 9.5% of proceeds from copper exports paid to the Armed Forces est at over $200 m in 1988. Incl Paramilitary Police budget.

   COLOMBIA
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 130,400 (some 40,400 conscripts).
Terms of Service: 1-2 years, varies (all services).
RESERVES: 116,900: Army 100,000; Navy 15,000; Air 1,900.

ARMY: 111,400 (38,000 conscripts).
4 div HQ.
14 inf bde (Regional):
   8 with 3 inf, 1 arty bn, 1 engr gp, 1 mech or horsed cav gp;
   6 with 2 inf bn only.
Army Tps:
   1 trg bde.
   1 Presidential Guard bn (mech).
   1 mech gp.
   1 AB, 1 cdo, 1 ranger, 1 AD arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 12 M-3A1.
RECCE: 20 M-8, 120 EE-9 Cascavel;
APC: 171: 50 M-113, 76 EE-11 Urutu, 45 M-3A2 half-track.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 50 M-101;
MORTARS: 81mm: 125 M-1; 107mm: 148 M-2; 120mm: 120 Brandt.
ATGW: TOW.
RCL: 75mm: M-20; 106mm: M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 37mm: 30; 40mm: 30 M-1A1.

NAVY: 12,000 (incl 6,000 marines) (some 500 conscripts).
BASES: OCEAN: Cartagena, Buenaventura. RIVER: Puerto Legufzamo, Puerto Orocue, Puerto Carreno, Leticia.
SUBMARINES: 2:
   2 Pijao (FRG T-209/1200) with 533mm TT (FRG HWT).
   Plus 2 Intrepido (It SK-506) SSI (SF delivery).
FRIGATES: 4 Almirante Padilla with 1 x Bo-105 hel (ASW), 2x3 ASTT; plus 8 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 15:
PATROL:
   INSHORE: 2 Quito Sueno (US Asheville) PFI.
   RIVER: 3 Arauca, 10<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 5: 2 tpt, 2 research. 1 trg.

MARINES: (6,000); 5 bn, 2 bn naval police.
No hy eqpt (to get EE-9 Cascavel recce, EE-11 Urutu APC).

NAVAL AIR:
HELICOPTERS: 4 Bo-105.

AIR FORCE: 7,000 (some 1,900 conscripts); 54 cbt ac, 46 armed hel.
COMBAT AIR COMMAND 1:
FGA: 2 sqn:
   1 with 16 Mirage 5 (12 -COA, 2 -COD trg, 2 -COR recce);
   1 with 6 Kfir (4 -C2, 2 -TC2).
COMBAT AIR COMMAND 2:
COIN: 1 sqn with 1 AC-47, 10 AT-33A.
COMBAT AIR COMMAND 3:
COIN: 21 A/OA-37B ac; 24 UH-1 (6 -B, 18 -H) hel.
TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT COMMAND:
COIN: 1 sqn with 12 Hughes 500M, 10 Hughes 500D hel.
RECCE: 1 sqn with:
AIRCRAFT: 3 RT-33A;
HELICOPTERS: 7 Hughes 300C, 6 Hughes 500MG Scout.
MILITARY AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND:
AIRCRAFT: 1 sqn with 1 BAe 748, 1 Boeing 707, 8 C-47, 4 C-54, 1 C-130E, 2 C-130H-30, 2 Cessna 310, 1 Cessna 340,4 Cessna 404,
   1 Commander 560A, 4 DC-6, 10 DHC-2, 2 F-28, 2 IAI-201, 2 PA-31, 1 PA-32, 1 PA-34, 1 PA-44, 6 PC-6B, 4 Queen Air.
HELICOPTERS: 10 Bell 206, 3 Bell 212, 2 Bell 412, 8 UH-60.
TRAINING COMMAND:
AIRCRAFT: 20 T-34A/B, 30 T-41D.
HELICOPTERS: 2 Hughes 500E, 8 OH-13, 6 TH-55.
AAM: R-530.

FORCES ABROAD:
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): 500.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL POLICE FORCE: 80,000; 15 ac, 17 hel. (On order Bell hel: 2 212,2 412.)
COAST GUARD: 1,500
PATROL CRAFT: 3 inshore boats.

OPPOSITION:
COORDINADORA SIMON BOLIVAR GUERRILLERA (CGSB): loose coalition of guerrilla gp incl: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC):
   some 5,000 active, pro-Soviet;
People's Liberation Army (EPL): 800;
Ejercito de Liberaci6n National (ELN): ~2,000,
pro-Cuban; Movement of April 19 (Ml9): ~400.

* Excl some $30 m extra for 1988 for procurement.

   COSTA RICA
   []

TOTAL SECURITY FORCES (Para-Military):
ACTIVE: 7,700.

CIVIL GUARD: 4,500.
   2 Border Sy Comd (North, South)
   Presidential Guard: 1 bn, 7 coy.
EQUIPMENT:
RL: 90mm.
MARINE: Inshore Patrol Craft: 5: 1 Isla del Coco (US Swift 32m) PH. 4 PFI<.
AIRCRAFT: 2 Cessna 206, 3 O-2 (surveillance), 1 PA-23, 1 PA-32, 1 PA-34.
HELICOPTERS: 1 FH-1100 (VIP), 2 Hughes 500E.

RURAL GUARD: (Ministry of Government and Police): 3,200; small arms only.

* No armed forces. Figures are for Sy and Police.

  CUBA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 180,500 incl ~15,000 Ready Reserves, (79,500 conscripts).
Terms of service: 3 years.
RESERVES: 130,000. Army: 110,000 Ready Reserves (serve 45 days per year) to fill out Active and Reserve units; Navy: 8,000; Air 12,000.
   See also Para-Military.

ARMY: 145,000 (incl ~15,000 Ready Reservists). (~60,000 conscripts)
HQ: 4 Regional Command; 3 Army, 1 Isle of Youth.
   4 corps.
   3 armd div (1 Cat A, 2 Cat Q.
   9 mech inf div, (3 mech inf, 1 armd, 1 arty, 1 AD arty regt) (Cat B).
   13 inf div (3 inf, 1 arty, 1 AD arty regt) (5 Cat B, 8 Cat C).
   8 indep inf regt (Cat B/C).
   AD: AD arty regt and SAM bde (Cat varies: SAM ~Cat A, AD arty B or C).
   SF (~2,500): 2 bn (Cat A).
   1 AB aslt bde (Cat A).
Forces combat readiness system is similar to that of the USSR: Cat A div fully manned by active tps; Cat B: partial manning augmented by reservists on mob;
   Cat C: Active cadre, full manning by reservists on mob. Time required to complete manning unknown. Possible Cat status listed above.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 1,100: 800 T-54/-55 (some 150 in store or static coast defence), 300 T-62.
LIGHT TANKS: 60 PT-76.
RECCE: 100 BRDM-1/-2.
AIFV: 50 BMP.
APC: 500 BTR-40/-60/-152.
TOWED ARTY: 76mm: M-1942; 122mm: M-1931/37 (A-19), D-74; 130mm: M-46; 152mm: M-1937 (ML-20), D-20, D-1.
MRL: 122mm: BM-21; 140mm: BM-14; 240mm: BM-24.
MORTARS: 82mm: M-41/-43; 120mm: M-38/-43.
STATIC DEFENCE ARTY: some 15 JS-2 (122mm) hy tk, T-34 (85mm), SU-100 (100mm) SP guns reported; all in fixed emplacements.
SSM: 65 FROG-4/-7.
ATGW: AT-1 Snapper, AT-3 Sagger.
ATK GUNS: 85mm: D-44; 100mm: SU-100 SP.
AD GUNS: 1,600 incl 23mm: ZU-23, ZSU-23-4 SP; 30mm: M-53 (twin)/BTR-60P SP; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60 towed, ZSU-57-2 SP;
   85mm: KS-12; 100mm: KS-19.
SAM: 12 SA-6, SA-7/-9/-13/-14.

NAVY: 13,500 (8,500 conscripts).
   3 Naval Districts, 4 Operational Flotillas, (SS, PFM, PFT and ASW).
BASES: Cienfuegos, Cabanas, Havana, Mariel, Punta Movida, Nicaro.
SUBMARINES: 3 Sov Foxtrot with 533 and 406mm TT.
FRIGATES: 3 Mariel (Sov Koni) with 2 ASW RL.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 58:
MISSILE CRAFT: 18:
   18 Sov Osa-I/-II with 4 SS-N-2 Styx SSM.
PATROL 40 inshore: 9 Sov Turya PHI, 3 Stenka, 4 SO-1 PFI, 24 PCI<.
MINE WARFARE: 14:
   4 Sov Sonya MSC
   10 Sov Yevgenya MSI.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2 Sov Polnocny LSM, capacity 6 tk, 200 tps.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 4: 1 AO, 1 AGI, 1 ocean tug, 1 trg.

NAVAL INFANTRY: 550+.
1 amph aslt bn.

COASTAL DEFENCE:
ARTY: 122mm: M-1931/37; 152mm: M-1937; 130mm: M-46.
SSM: 2 SS-C-3 systems.

AIR FORCE: 22,000+, incl AD (11,000 conscripts); 206 cbt ac, 41 armed hel.
FGA: 5 sqn:
   3 with 36 MiG-23BN;
   2 with 24 MiG-17F.
FIGHTER: 8 sqn:
   2 with 30 MiG-21F;
   2 with 30 MiG-21PFM;
   2 with 20 MiG-21PFMA;
   1 with 17 MiG-21bis;
   1 with 15 MiG-23 Flogger E.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 16 Mi-17, 20 Mi-25.
ASW: 5 Mi-14 hel.
TRANSPORT: 4 sqn: 30 An-2, 3 An-24, 22 An-26, 2 An-32, 20 Il-14, 4 Yak-40, 2 Il-76 (Air Force ac in civilian markings).
HELICOPTERS: 2 Mi-2, 30 Mi-4, 36 Mi-8.
TRAINING: 15 MiG-15, 15 MiG-15UTI, 10 MiG-21U, 4 MiG-23U, 20 Z-326.
AAM: AA-1 Alkali, AA-2 Atoll, AA-8 Aphid.
AD: 200+ SAM launchers: SA-2, SA-3, SA-6, SA-9, S-13.
Civil Airline: 10 Il-62, 7 Tu-154 used as troop tpt.

FORCES ABROAD:
ANGOLA: 40,000 (cbt units (incl 1 div, several regt) and advisers, plus some 8,000 civilian advisers). To be progressively withdrawn by 1 July 1991.
CONGO: 500,
ETHIOPIA: 2,800,
MOZAMBIQUE: 600,
S. YEMEN: 500,
NICARAGUA: some 1,200 military/security advisers; 2,000-3,000 civilians.

PARA-MILITARY:
YOUTH LABOUR ARMY: 100,000:
CIVIL DEFENCE FORCE: 50,000:
TERRITORIAL MILITIA (R): 1,300,000.
STATE SECURITY (Ministry of Interior): 15,000.
FRONTIER GUARDS (Ministry of Interior): 4,000, 4 Inshore Patrol Craft<.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: 435: 1 reinforced marine coy at Guantanamo Bay.
USSR: 7,700: 1 motor rifle bde (2,800); SIGINT personnel (2,100); mil advisers (2,800).

* Gross Social Product: excludes the so-called 'non-productive service sectors of the economy, such as education and housing which are included in GDP.
t Excl debt to socialist countries. Cumulative debt to CMEA E $35-40 bn. In 1987 Castro unsuccessfully called on the USSR to forgo some $8 bn of its debt.
% Level of military assistance unknown. In 1986 and 1987 the level of economic assistance from the USSR dropped dramatically to $4-5 bn.

   DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 20,800.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 13,000.
   5 Defence Zones.
   4 inf bde (with 17 bn).
   1 armd, 1 Presidential Guard, 1 arty, 1 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 2 AMX-13(75mm), 12 M-41A1 (76mm).
RECCE: 20 AML
APC: 8 V-150 Commando, 20 M-16 half-track.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 22 M-101.
MORTARS: 81mm: M-1; 120mm: 24 ECIA.
RCL: 106mm.

NAVY
: 4,000, incl naval inf.
BASES: Santo Domingo (HQ), Las Calderas.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 12:
OFFSHORE: 1 Mella (Can River) (comd/trg)
INSHORE: 11: 1 Betelgeuse (US PGM-71), 10<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 1 LCU.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS
: 5: 3 ex US ocean tugs (possibly used as PCO), 2 AOT (small - 1,400 tonnes).

AIR FORCE: 3,800; 12 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 8 A-37B.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 3 C-47, 1 Commander 680, 1 MU-2, 1 Rallye Commodore.
LIAISON: 1 Cessna 210, 5 O-2A, 2 PA-31, 3 Queen Air 80.
HELICOPTERS: 8 Bell 205, 1 Hughes 500D, 2 SA-318C, 1 SA-365 (VIP).
TRAINING: 2 AT-6, 2 T-28D, 6 T-34B, 3 T-41D.
AB: 1 AB sqn.
AD: 1 bn with 4 20mm guns.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL POLICE: 15,000 incl 'special ops unit': 1,000.

  ECUADOR
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 42,000.
Terms of service: conscription 1 year, selective.
RESERVES: 100,000; ages 18-55.

ARMY: 35,000.
4 Military zones.
   1 armd bde
   5 inf bde (14 bn)
   2 jungle bde
Army tps:
   1 SF (AB) bde (2 gp).
   1 Presidential Guard sqn.
   1 AD arty gp.
   1 avn gp.
   3 engr bn
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 45 M-3, 104 AMX-13.
RECCE: 35 AML-60/-90, 10 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 20 M-113, 60 AMX-VCI, 20 EE-11 Urutu.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: Model 56 pack, 50 M-101; 155mm: 10 M-198.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 10 Mk F3.
MORTARS: 500: 81mm: M-29; 107mm: 4.2-in M-30; 160mm: 12.
RCL: 400: 90mm: M-67; 106mm: M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 20 M-1935; 35mm: 30 GDF-002 twin; 40mm: 30 M-1A1
SAM: 150 Blowpipe.
AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT:
   SURVEY: 1 Cessna 206, 2 Queen Air, 1 Leaijet 24D.
   LIAISON: 1 Cessna 172, 1 Cessna 182, 2 Cessna 185, 1 DHC-5, 4IAI-201, 3 PC-6.
HELICOPTERS:
   SURVEY: 1 SA-315B, 1 SA-316B.
   TRANSPORT/LIAISON: 10 AS-332, 5 SA-315B, 5 SA-330, 14 SA-342.

NAVY: 4,000, incl some 1,000 marines.
BASES: Guayaquil, Jaramijo, Galapagos Islands.
SUBMARINES: 2 Shyri (FRG T-209/1300) with 533mm TT (FRG SUT HAVT).
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 2:
DESTROYER: 1 Presidente Eloy Alfaro (US Gearing) ASW with 2x3 ASTT, hel deck; plus 2x2 127mm gun .
FRIGATE: 1 Moran Valverde (US Lawrence) with hel deck; plus 1 127mm gun.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 18:
CORVETTES: 6 Esmeraldas with 2x3 ASTT, hel deck; plus 6 MM-40 Exocet SSM.
MISSILE CRAFT: 6:
   3 Quito (FRG Lurssen-45) with 4 x MM-38 Exocet.
   3 Manta (FRG Lurssen-36) with 4 Gabriel-II SSM.
PATROL 6 inshore<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 2:
   1 Hualcopo (US LST- 511) LST, capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   1 Tarqui (US LSM-1) LSM, capacity 50 tps, 4 tk.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 5. 1 survey, 1 water carrier, 2 tugs, 1 trg.

NAVAL AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT: 1 Cessna 320, 3 Cessna 337, 1 Citation I, 3 T-34C.
HELICOPTERS: 1 Alouette III.
(Note: DD, FF and corvettes have hel deck but no hangar or maint facilities.)

MARINES: (1,000): 3 bn: 2 on garrison duties, 1 cdo (no hy weapons/veh).

AIR FORCE: 3,000; 82 cbt ac, no armed hel.
OPERATIONS COMMAND: l wing, 5 sqn:
FGA: 2 sqn:
   1 with 10 Jaguar S, 2 -B;
   1 with 10 Kfir C-2, 1 TC-2.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 15 Mirage F-1JE, 1 F-1JB.
COIN: 1 sqn with 7 A-37B.
COIN/TRAINING: 1 sqn with 12 Strikemaster Mk 89.
MILITARY AIR TRANSPORT GROUP:
2 civil/military airlines:
TAME: 4 Boeing 727, 2 BAe-748, 1 C-130H, 2 DC-6B, 2 DHC-5, 3 DHC-6, 1 L-188.
ECUAT0RIANA: 8 Boeing (3-720,5-707), 1 DC-10-30,
LIAISON/SAR hel fit: 2 AS-332, 1 Bell 212, 6 SA-316B, 1 SA-330, 2 UH-1B, 24 UH-1H.
TRAINING: incl 24 AT-33, 20 T-34C, 6 T-41.
AAM: R-550 Magic, Super 530, Shafrir.
1 AB sqn.
(In store: 3 Canberra B-6 bbr.)

PARA-MILITARY:
COAST GUARD 200: 6 PCI<.

   EL SALVADOR
   []


TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 56,000 (incl 12,500 civil defence force).
Terms of service: selective conscription, 2 years: all services.
RESERVES: ex-soldiers registered.
ARMY: 40,000 (some conscripts).
6 Military Zones (14 Departments).
   6 inf bde (32 inf bn).
   1 arty bde (4 bn).
   1 mech cav regt (2 bn).
   1 engr bn.
   5 rapid action bn (1,100-1,400 men).
   1 AB bn (under Air Force comd).
   1 AD arty bn (under Air Force comd).
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 5 M-3A1 (in store).
RECCE: 12 AML-90.
APC: 66 M-37B1 (mod), 20 M-113, 10 UR-416.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 54 M-102.
MORTARS: 81mm: 300 M-29; 120mm: 60 UB-M52.
RL: LAW.
RCL: 90mm: 400 M-67.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 24 Yug M-55,4 SP.

NAVY: 1,300.
BASE: Acajutla.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 6:
PATROL INSHORE: 3 GC-6 Camcraft, 3 PCI< plus boats.
AMPHIBIOUS: Craft only, 3 LCM.

AIR FORCE: 2,200 (incl AD); 32 cbt ac, 19 armed hel.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 8 Ouragan (grounded).
COIN:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 sqn with 9 A-37B, 5 AC-47,12 O-2A.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 7 Hughes (armed: 3 -500, 4 -500M), 12 UH-1M (armed), 43 UH-1H (tpt).
TRANSPORT: 1 gp: 6 C-47, 1 C-123K, 1 DC-6B, 4 IAI-201, 9 Rallye.
LIAISON: 6 Cessna 180, 1 Cessna 182, 1 Cessna 185 ac, 3 SA-315, 1 SA-316 hel.
TRAINING: 6 CM-170 (COIN/trg), 6 T-41.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL GUARD: 4,200.
NATIONAL POLICE: 6,000.
TREASURY POLICE: 2,400.
DEFENCA CIVIL (territorial civil defence force): 12,500 armed.

OPPOSITION:
FARABUNDO MARTI NATIONAL LIBERATION
FRONT (FMLN): 6-7,000 combatants, coalition of 5 groups: People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Popular Liberation Forces (FPL).
   Armed Forces of National Resistance (FARN or RN). Revolutionary Party of Central American Workers (PRTQ. Armed Forces of Liberation (FAL).

  GUATEMALA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:*
ACTIVE: 42,200.
Terms of service: Conscription; selective, 30 months.
RESERVES: Army 35,000 (trained), Navy (some), Air 200.

ARMY: 40,000.*
HQ: 22 Military Zones.
   4 inf bde (each 3 inf bn, 1 recce sqn, 1 arty gp).
   Strategic Reserve bde (2 bn).
   1 armd coy.
   25 indep inf bn.
   2 AB bn.
   2 AD arty.
   1 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 10 M-41A3.
RECCE: 10M-8, 10 RBY-1; (cbt status uncertain)
APC: 10 M-113, 7 V-100 Commando, 18 Armadillo.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 10 M-116; 105mm: 4 M-101, 8 M-102, 48 M-56.
MORTARS: 81mm: M-1; 107mm: 12 M-30; 120mm: 12 ECIA.
RL: 89mm: 3.5-in. M-20.
RCL: 106mm.
AD GUNS: 20mm: GAI-DO1;

NAVY: 1,200 incl 700 marines (6 coy)*
BASES: Santo Tomas de Castillas (Atlantic), Puerto Quetzal, Puerto San Jose (Pacific).
PATROL CRAFT, INSHORE 9:
   1 Kukulkan (US Broadsword 32m) PFT, 8<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 1 LCM<.

AIR FORCE: 1,000* 17 cbt ac, 10 armed hel.
Serviceability of ac is perhaps less than 50%.
COIN: 1 sqn with 8 Cessna A-37B, 6 PC-7.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 4 Bell 212, 6 Bell 412.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 9 C-47, 3 F-27, 7 IAI-201, 1 Super King Air (VIP).
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 4 Cessna 170, 8 Cessna 172, 3 Cessna 180, 1 Cessna 182, 1 Cessna 185, 3 Cessna 206.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 5 Bell 206, 7 UH-1D/-H, 3 S-76.
TRAINING: 3 CM-170 (wpn trg), 4 PC-7, 2 T-33.
TACTICAL SECURITY GROUP: 3 coy; 4 M-3A1 White scout cars.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL POLICE: 10,700.
TREASURY POLICE: 2,100.
TERRITORIAL MILITIA (R) (CVDC): ~600,000, some 15,000 lightly armed.

OPPOSITION:
UNIDAD REVOLUCIONARIA NACIONAL
GUATEMALTECA (URNG): some 1,000-1,500; coalition of 4 groups: Ejeicito Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP).
   Partido Guatemalteco del Trabajo (PGT). Fuerzas Armadas Rebeldes (FAR). Organizaci6n del Pueblo en Annas (ORPA).

* National Armed Forces are combined; the Army provides log spt to the Navy and Air Force.

   GUYANA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (Combined Guyana Defence Force):
ACTIVE: 5,450.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: some 2,000 People's Militia. (see Para-Military).

ARMY: 5,000.
   2 inf, 1 guard, 1 SF, 1 spt wpn, 1 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 4 Shorland.
TOWED ARTY: 130mm: 6 M-46.
MORTARS: 81mm: 12 L16A1; 82mm: 18 M-43; 120mm: 18 M-43.
SAM: SA-7.

NAVY: 150,
BASES: Georgetown, New Amsterdam.
PATROL CRAFT: 6: 1 Peccari (UK Vosper 31m) Pa , 5 PFI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only, 1 LCU.

AIR FORCE. 300; No cbt ac, no armed hel.
TRANSPORT:
AIRCRAFT: 6 BN-2A, 2 Skyvan 2, 1 Super King Air B-200 (VIP).
HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 206, 1 Bell 212, 1 BeU 412, 1 Mi-8.

PARA-MILITARY:
GUYANA PEOPLE'S MILITIA (GPM): some 2,000.
GUYANA NATIONAL SERVICE (GNS): 1,500.

  HAITI
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 7,400.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 7,000 (has police/gendarmerie, fire-fighting,immigration, etc, roles).
   Presidential Guard (6 inf, 1 airport security coy; armd and arty elm).
   9 military departments (27 coy).
EQUIPMENT:*
LIGHT TANKS: 6 M-5A1.
APC: 5 M-2, 6 V-150 Commando.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 4; 105mm: 6.
MORTARS: 60mm: 36 M-2; 81mm: M-1.
ATK GUNS: 37mm: 10 M-3; 57mm: 10 M-1.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 106mm: M-40 Al.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 6 TCM-20, 4 other, 40mm: 6; 57mm: 4.

NAVY: 250 (Coast guard).
BASE: Port au Prince
PATROL CRAFT: 3: PCI<.

AIR FORCE
: 150; 7 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 7 O-2.
COIN/TRAINING: 4 S-211 (for disposal).
TRANSPORT: 1 Baron, 1 BN-2, 1 C-46, 3 C-47, 1 Cessna 402, 3 DHC-2, 1 DHC-6.
HELICOPTERS: 1 Hughes 300 (liaison).
TRAINING: 3 Cessna 150, 1 Cessna 172, 1 Bonanza, 4 SF-260TP, 1 Twin-Bonanza.

* Public debt only.
t Most eqpt is inoperable.


  HONDURAS
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 19,200; (13,200 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription, 24 months.
RESERVES: 50,000.

ARMY: 15,400 (11,000 conscripts).
10 Military Zones:
   4 inf bde (11 inf, 3 arty bn; 1 armd cav regt).
   1 arty bde (regt).
   1 indep armd cav regt.
   2 indep inf, 1 SF, 1 engr, 1 AD arty bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 12 Scorpion, 3 Scimitar.
RECCE: 72 Saladin, 10 RBY Mk 1.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 24 M-101/-102; 155mm: 4 M-198.
MORTARS: 400 60mm, 81mm; 120mm: 60; 160mm: 30 Soltam.
RL: 84mm: 120 Carl Gustav.
RCL: 57mm: M-18; 106mm: 80 M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 80: 20mm: incl M-55.

NAVY: 1,200 incl 600 marines (900 conscripts).
BASES: Puerto Cortes, Amapala.
PATROL CRAFT: 11:
INSHORE: 11: 3 Guaymuras (US Swiftships 31m) PFI, 2 Copan (US Lantana 32m) PFI<, 6 other PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 1 Punta Caxinas LCT.

AIR FORCE: some 2,100 (800 conscripts); 49 cbt ac, no armed hel.
FGA: 2 sqn:
   1 with 13 A-37B;
   1 with 12 F-5 (10 -E, 2 -F).
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 8 Super Mystere B2 (to be replaced).
TRANSPORT: 9 C-47, 1 C-123, 2 C-130A, 4 Commander, 2 DHC-5, 1 L-188, 2 IAI-201, 1 IAI-1123, 1 IAI-1124 ac; 1 S-76 hel (VIP).
LIAISON: 1 sqn with 1 Baron, 3 Cessna 172, 2 Cessna 180, 2 Cessna 185, 1 PA-24, 1 PA-31.
HELICOPTERS: 1 Bell 47, 10 Bell 412, 4 Hughes 500, 5TH-55, 8 UH-1B, 11 UH-1H.
TRAINING: 2 T-33, 4 C-101BB, 12 EMB-312, 5 T-41A.

PARA-MILITARY:
PUBLIC SECURITY FORCES (FUSEP) (national police): 4,500.

FOREIGN FORCES:
US: Army: 1,500.

* Excl internal security costs.

  JAMAICA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES (all services form combined Jamaica Defence Force):
ACTIVE: some 2,800.
Terms of service: voluntary.
RESERVES: some 870: Army 800; Coast guard: 50; Air wing: 20.

ARMY: 2,500.
   2 inf bn.
   1 spt bn.
APC: 20 V-150 Commando.
MORTARS: 81mm: 12 L16A1.
RESERVES: 800: 1 inf bn.

COAST GUARD: 200.
BASE: Port Royal
PATROL CRAFT: 5 Inshore: 1 Fort Charles PFI (US 34m), 4 PFI<.

AIR WING: 150; No cbt ac, no armed hel.
AIRCRAFT: 2 BN-2, 1 Cessna 210, 1 Cessna 337, 1 King Air.
HELICOPTERS: 4 Bell 205, 4 Bell 206, 3 Bell 212.

   MEXICO
    []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: 261,500.
ACTIVE: 141,500 (60,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: voluntary; 1 yr conscription by lottery.
RESERVES: 300,000.

ARMY: 105,500 regular (incl ~60,000 conscripts).
36 Zonal Garrisons: incl 24 mot cav, 3 arty regt, 70 inf bn.
   1 mech inf bde (Presidential Guard) (3 bn).
   2 inf bde (each 3 inf bn, 1 armd recce sqn, 1 arty bn).
   1 AB bde (2 bn, 1 trg bn) (forms part of Air Force).
   3 armd regt.
   AD, engr and spt units.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS: 45 M-3/M-5.
RECCE: 15 M-8, 15 MAC-1, 80 Panhard ERC-90F Lynx, 40 Panhard M-11 VBL, 39 DN-3/-5 Caballo.
APC: 40 HWK-11, 30 M-3 halftrack.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 18 M-116 pack; 105mm: 70 M-2A1, M-3.
SP ARTY: 75mm: 5 M-8.
MORTARS: 1,500 50mm, 60mm, 81mm; 120mm: 60.
ATGW: Milan (incl 8 Panhard M-11 VBL).
RCL: 106mm: M-40A1.
ATK GUNS: 37mm: 30 M-3.
AD GUNS: 40 12.7mm.

NAVY: 28,000, incl naval air force and marines.
2 Areas: Gulf; 5 Zones (6 Subordinate Sectors). Pacific: 11 Zones (5 Sectors).
BASES: Gulf: Vera Cruz (HQ), Tampico, Chetumal, Ciudad del Carmen, Yukalpetdn.
   Pacific: Acapulco (HQ), Ensenada, La Paz, Puerto Cortes, Guaymas, Mazatlan, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Puerto Madero, Ldzaro Caidenas, Puerto Vallarta.
DESTROYERS: 3:
   2 Quetzalcoatl (US Gearing) ASW with 1x8 ASROC, 2x3 ASTT; plus 2x2 127mm guns, hel deck.
   1 Cuitlahoac (US Fletcher) with 5 533mm TT, 5 127mm guns.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 94:
PATROL, OFFSHORE: 44:
   1 Uxmal (imp Uribe) with Bo-105 hel.
   6 Cadete Virgilio Uribe (Sp 'Halcori) with Bo-105 hel.
   1 Comodoro Manuel Azueta (US Edsall) (trg).
   4 Zacatecas (US Lawrence/Crosley) with 1 127mm gun.
   1 Durango (trg) with 1 102mm gun.
   18 Leandro Valle (US Auk MSF).
   1 Guanajuato with 1 102mm gun.
   12 D-01 (US Admirable MSF).
PATROL, INSHORE: 30: 30 Quintana Roo (UK Azteca) PCI.
PATROL, RIVER: 20<.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 13: 1 PCI spt, 2 log spt, 6 ocean tugs, 4 survey.

COASTAL DEFENCE:
GUNS: 75mm: M-1902/-1906, 120mm: L/27 (probably de-activated).

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (500), 11 cbt ac, no armed hel.
MR: 1 sqn with 10 C-212, 11 HU-16 Albatross (SAR).
TRANSPORT: 1 C-212, 3 Cessna 310, 1 DHC-5, 1 DHC-6, 4 FH-227, 1 King Air 90, 1 Learjet 24.
LIAISON: 3 Cessna 150, 2 Cessna 180, 2 Cessna 337, 2 Cessna 402.
HELICOPTERS: 3 Bell 47, 12 Bo-105 (8 afloat), 4 SA-319B.

MARINES: (8,000).
   1 bde (2 bn).
   1 Presidential Guard bn.
   15 gp.
   32 security coy.

AIR FORCE: 8,000 (incl 2,000 AB bde); 113 cbt ac, 23 armed hel.
FIGHTER: 1 sqn with 9 F-5E, 2 F-5F.
COIN: 9 sqn:
   6 with 70 PC-7;
   1 with 12AT-33;
   1 with 10 IAI-201;
   1 hel with 5 Bell 205, 5 Bell 206, 5 Bell 212, 8 SA-316.
RECCE: 1 photo sqn with 10 Commander 500S.
TRANSPORT: 5 sqn with 1 C-46, 12 C-47, 4 C-54, 2 C-118, 9 C-130A, 6 Commander (5 -500, 1 -680), 3 DC-7B, 2 DHC-5, I Gulfstream II, 3 Skyvan.
PRESIDENTIAL TRANSPORT:
   AIRCRAFT: 7 Boeing 727, 2 Boeing 737, 1 Electra, 1 FH-227, 1 Jetstar, 1 Metro, 1 Merlin, 6 T-39.
   HELICOPTERS: 1 A-109, 2 AS-332, 4 Bell 206, 1 Bell 212, 2SA-330.
LIAISON: 1 Cessna 310, 2 King Air (1 -90, 1 -200), 1 PA-23, 2 PA-32, 1 Queen Air 80.
TRAINING: 41 Bonanza, 20 CAP-10B, 20 Musketeer, 10 PC-7.

PARA-MILITARY:
RURAL DEFENCE MILITIA (R): 120,000.

  NICARAGUA*
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 80,000 incl active duty reserves and militia (e 30,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: conscription, males 17-26, 2 years' service plus commitment to age 45.
RESERVES: All males 18-40 required to register. Army/militia 134,000 (32,000 active duty); Navy 2,500; Air none.

ARMY: 73,500: 41,500 Active (30,000 conscripts), 32,000 recalled Reserves and militia.
7 Military Regions.
   2 armd bde, each 2 tk, 2 mech inf bn.
   2 mot inf bde, each 3 motor inf, 1 tk bn.
   2 frontier bde.
   1 arty bde (4 gp: 1 MRL, 3 152mm how).
   8 regional arty gp.
   20 inf bn.
   4 engr bn.
RESERVES: Army: 76,000 (active duty 18,000); 27 bde (125 bn).
Militia: 58,000 (active duty 14,000); 10 bde (43 bn), 62 indep bn, 49 territorial coy.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: some 130 T-54/-55.
LIGHT TANKS: 22 PT-76.
RECCE: 72 BRDM-2.
APC: 24 BTR-60, 90 BTR-152.
TOWED ARTY: 122mm: 36 D-30; 152mm: 60 D-20.
MRL: 122mm: 36 BM-21.
MORTARS: 82mm: 625; 120mm: 42.
ATGW: AT-3 Sagger (12 on BRDM-2).
ATK GUNS: 57mm: 345 ZIS-2; 76mm: 84 Z1S-3; 100mm: 24 M-1944 (BS-3).
SAM: 500+ SA-7/-14/-16.

NAVY: 3,500 (some conscripts).
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 18:
PATROL, INSHORE: 18: 8 Sov Zhuk PFI, 6 North Korea Sin Hung PFI<, 4 PCI<.
MINE COUNTERMEASURES: 8: 4 Sov Yevgenya, 4 K-8 MSI<.

AIR FORCE: 3,000; 16 cbt ac, 10 armed hel.
COIN: 1 sqn with 6 Cessna 337, 6 L-39Z, 4 SF-260 WL.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 10 Mi-25.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 6 An-26, 2 C-212.
HELICOPTERS: 1 sqn with 35 Mi-8/-17.
LIAISON: ac: 8 An-2, 1 Twin Bonanza, 2 Commander;.plus 7 Cessna 180, 3 Cessna 185, 3 DHC-3 (serviceability doubtful).
   hel: 4 Mi-2, 2 SA-316; plus 1 OH-6A (serviceability doubtful).
TRAINING: 17 L-39C.
ASM: AT-2 Swatter ATGW.
AD GUNS: 700+ reported: 14.5mm: ZPU-1/-2/-4; 23mm: ZU-23; 37mm: M-1939; 57mm: S-60; 100mm: KS-19.

PARA-MILITARY:
MINISTRY OF INTERIOR TROOPS (Tropas Pablo Ubeda): some 2,000. 1 SF bde.

OPPOSITION:
NICARAGUAN RESISTANCE ARMY (NRN): Main contra military gp, up to 12,000 active fighters, US-backed, mainly in north, some based in Honduras.
   Separate wings in south and on Atlantic coast.
SOUTHERN OPPOSITION BLOC (BOS): MISURASATA (Miskito, Sumo, Rama and Sandinista Unity) up to 3,000 not all active.

FOREIGN FORCES:
CUBA: some 1,200 mil/sy advisers.
USSR: some 100 advisers.

* Highest est of economic aid and FMA from COMECON put at $600 m and $500 m respectively in 1987.
t A currency adjustment was introduced in 1989 at a rate of 1 New c6rdoba - 1,000 cdrdobas. All data is expressed in the new currency.


  PANAMA
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 4,400.
Terms of service: voluntary (conscription authorized).

ARMY: 3,500.
   2 bn, 8 inf, 1 SF, 2 public order, 1 engr coy, 1 cav tp.
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 29: 16 V-150, 13 V-300 Commando.
MORTARS: 60mm, 81mm, 160mm.
RL: 89mm: 3.5-in M-20.

NAVY: 400.
BASES: Balboa (HQ), Colon.
PATROL CRAFT: INSHORE: 6: 2 Panquiaco (UK Vosper 31.5m), 4<.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 4 LCM.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 1 tpt (ex US LSM).

AIR FORCE: 500. 4 cbt ac, no armed hel.
MR: 4 C-212 (armed).
TRANSPORT: 2 BN-2A, 1 CN-235, 1 Commander, 2 DHC-6, 1 Learjet 35, 1 U-21F.
LIAISON: 1 Bonanza, 1 Cessna U206, 2 PA-31, 1 PA-32, 3U-17.
HELICOPTERS: 1 AS-332 (SAR/VIP), 6 Bell 205, 6 UH-1H, 4 UH-1N.
TRAINING: 10 T-35, 1 T-41.

FORCES ABROAD:
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 19 observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
POLICE AND NATIONAL GUARD: 11,000.

FOREIGN FORCES
:
US: some 10,700. Army: 6,800; 1 inf bde and spt elm. Navy: 500. Marines: 600. Air Force; 2,800; 1 air div. Plus temporary reinforcements.

  PARAGUAY
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 16,000 (9,800 conscripts).
Terms of service: 18 months; Navy 2 years.
RESERVES: some 45,000.

ARMY: 12,500 (8,600 conscripts).
HQ: 3 corps.
   1 with 1 cav div (2 horsed cav, 1 armd cav, 1 mech cav regt), 2 inf div (2 inf regt, 4 frontier bn).
   1 with 2 inf div (1 inf regt, 3 frontier bn), 2 cav div.
   1 with 3 inf div (3 inf regt).
1 indep inf div.
1 AB bn (part of Air Force).
Cbt spt comd incl 4 arty, 6 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 3 M-4A3.
LIGHT TANKS: 18 M-3A1.
RECCE: 12 M-8, M-3 halftrack, 20 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 10 EE-11 Urutu.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 25 Model 1927/1934; 105mm: 48 M-101; 152mm: 6 Mk V 6-in (anti-ship).
MORTARS: 81mm; 107mm: 4.2-in.
RCL: 75mm: M-20.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 10; 40mm: 10 M-1A1.
AVIATION: 3 UH-1B, 2 UH-12 hel.

NAVY: 2,500 (1,000 conscripts) (incl Marines, Harbour and River Guard).
BASES: Asunci6n (Puerto Sajonia), Bahfa Negra, Puerto Presidente Stroessner.
PATROL AND RIVERINE COMBATANTS: 6:
COASTAL: 5
   1 Paraguay with 4 120mm guns.
   3 Nanawa (Arg Bouchard MSO)
   1 Itaipu (riverine).
INSHORE: 1 Cabral (built 1908).
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 3: 2 tpt, 1 Boqueron spt (ex-US LSM with hel deck, carries UH 12 hel).

MARINES: 500 (200 conscripts).
   1 marine bn.
   1 cdo bn.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (50). 2 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 2 AT-6G.
TRANSPORT: 1 C-47.
HELICOPTERS: 2 HB-350, 1 Bell 47G.

AIR FORCE: 1,000 (700 conscripts); 23 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COMPOSITE SQN:.
COIN: 6 AT-6, 9 EMB-326.
LIAISON: 3 Cessna 185, 6 -206, 1 -337, 1 -402.
HELICOPTER: 1 Bell 47G.
TRANSPORT: 1 sqn with 7 C-47, 1 C-131, 4 C-212, 3 DC-6B, 1 PBY-5A.
TRAINING: 6 EMB-312, 8 T-23, 5 T-25, 7 T-41.

PARA-MILITARY:
SPECIAL POLICE SERVICE: 8,000.

  PERU
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 120,000 (79,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 2 years, selective.
RESERVES: 188,000 (Army only).

ARMY: 80,000 (60,000 conscripts).
5 Military Regions:
Army Troops:
   1 AB 'div' (bde: 3 cdo, 1 para bn, 1 arty gp).
   1 Presidential Escort regt.
   1 AD arty gp.
Regional Troops:
   2 armd div (bde, each 2 tk, 1 armd inf bn, 1 arty gp, 1 engr bn).
   1 armd gp (3 indep armd cav, 1 fd arty, 1 AD arty, 1 engr bn).
   1 cav div (3 mech regt, 1 arty gp).
   8 inf div (bde, each 3 inf bn, 1 arty gp).
   1 jungle div.
   1 SF gp.
   2 med arty gp; 2 fd arty gp.
   2 AD arty gp.
   1 indep inf bn.
   1 indep engr bn.
   3 hel sqn.
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 350 T-54/-55 (cbt status uncertain).
LIGHT TANKS: 110 AMX-13.
RECCE: 60 M-8/-20, 20 Fiat 6616, 15 BRDM-2.
APC: 300 M-113, 225 UR-416.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 50 Model 56 pack, 130 M-101; 122mm: 30 D-30; 130mm: 30 M-46; 155mm: 36 M-114.
SP ARTY: 155mm: 12 M-109A2, 12 Mk F3.
MRL: 122mm: 14 BM-21.
MORTARS: 81mm: incl some SP; 107mm: incl some SP; 120mm: 300 Brandt, ECIA.
RCL: 105mm; 106mm: M40A1.
AD GUNS: 23mm: 35 ZSU-23-4 SP; 40mm: 40 towed.
SAM: 12 SA-3, SA-7.
AVIATION:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 Cessna 182, 2 -U206, 1 -337, 1 Queen Air 65, 3 U-10, 3 U-17.
   HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 47G, 2 Mi-6, 34 Mi-8, 6 SA-315, 1 SA-318.

NAVY: 25,000 (12,000 conscripts) incl naval air, marines.
3 Naval Force Areas: Pacific, Lake Titicaca, Amazon River.
BASES: ocean: Callao, San Lorenzo Island, Paita, Talara. lake: Puno. river: Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado.
SUBMARINES: 11:
   6 Casma (FRG T-209/1200) with 533mm TT (It A184HWT).
   1 Pedrera (US Guppy I) with 533mm TT (Mk 37 HWT).
   4 Abtao (US Mackerel) with 533mm TT.
PRINCIPAL SURFACE COMBATANTS: 14:
CRUISERS: 2:
   1 Almirante Grau CC (Nl De Ruytef) with 4x2 152mm guns, 8 Otomat SSM.
   1 Aguirre CCH (Nl De 7 Provincien) with 4 SH-3D Sea King hel (ASW/ASUW) (Mk46 LWT/AM-39 Exocet), 4 152mm guns.
DESTROYERS: 8:
   2 Palacios (UK Daring) with 4x2 MM-38 Exocet, 3x2 114mm guns, hel deck.
   6 Bolognesi (Nl Friesland) with 4 120mm guns, 2x4 ASW RL.
FRIGATES: 4 Carvajal (mod It Lupo) with 1 AB-212 hel (ASW/OTHT), 2x3 ASTT; plus 8 Otomat SSM, 2x20 105mm MRL, 1 127mm gun.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 6:
MISSILE CRAFT: 6 Velarde PFM (Fr PR-72 64m) with 4 MM-38 Exocet.
AMPHIBIOUS: 4 Paita (US Terrebonne Parish) LST, capacity 300 tps, 16 tk.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 9: 2 AO, 3 AOT, 2 tpt, 1 survey, 1 ocean tug.
RIVER AND LAKE FLOTILLAS: 10: 4 gunboats, 6 patrol <.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: 8 cbt ac, 12 armed hel.
ASW/MR: 4 sqn with:
AIRCRAFT: 4 S-2E, 4 S-2G, 3 Super King Air B 200T.
HELICOPTERS: 6 SH-3D, 6 AB-212 ASW.
TRANSPORT: 5 C-47, 4 Super King Air B 200CT (tpt, recce).
LIAISON: 4 Bell 206B, 6 UH-1D hel.
TRAINING: 5 T-34C, Cessna 150.
ASM: 40 Exocet AM-39 (on SH-3 hel).

MARINES: (2,500).
   1 Marine bde (2 bn, 1 recce, 1 cdo coy).
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: V-100.
APC: 40 V-200 Chaimite, 20 BMR-600.
RCL: 106mm.
RL: 84mm.
MORTARS: ~18 120mm.
AD GUNS: twin 20mm SP.

COAST DEFENCE: 3 bty with 18 155mm how (may have been deactivated).

AIR FORCE: 15,000 (7,000 conscripts); 119 cbt ac, 24 armed hel.
BOMBERS: 1 Gp (2 sqn) with 21 Canberra (3 B-72, 4 B(I)-8, 4 B-56, 8 B(I)-58, 2 T-54).
FGA: 2 Gp: 6 sqn:
   3 with 41 Su-22 (incl 4 Su-22U);
   3 with 29 Cessna A-37B.
FIGHTER: 3 sqn:
   1 with 12 Mirage 2000 (10 -P, 2 -DP);
   2 with 16 Mirage 5 (14 -5P, 2 -5DP).
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 1 hel sqn with ~24 Mi-24 (probably Army-assigned).
RECCE: 1 photo-survey unit with 4 Learjet (2 36A, 2 25B).
TANKER: 1 Boeing 707-323C.
TRANSPORT: 3 Gp (7 sqn):
   AIRCRAFT: 15 An-32, 4 C-130A, 6 C-130D, 5 L-100-20, 2 DC-8-62F, 13 DHC-5, 8 DHC-6, 1 FH-227, 9 PC-6.
   PRESIDENTIAL FLT: 1 F-28, 1 Falcon 20 ac.
   HELICOPTERS: 3 sqn with 8 Bell 206, 11 -212, 5 -214, 3 -412, 10 BO-105C, 5 Mi-6, 6 Mi-8, 5 SA-316.
LIAISON: 2 Beech 99, 3 Cessna 185, 1 -320, 15 Queen Air 80, 3 King Air 90, 1 PA-31T.
LIAISON HELICOPTERS: 9 UH-1D.
TRAINING: 2 Cessna 150, 20 EMB-312, 13 MB-339A, 14 T-37B/C, 35 T-41AAD.
TRAINING HELICOPTERS: 12 Bell 47G.
ASM: AS-30.

FORCES ABROAD:
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): observers.
NAMIBIA (UNTAG): 20 observers.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL POLICE: 70,000 (amalgamation of Guardia Civil, Republican Guard and Policia Investigacionara Peruana); MOWAG Roland APC.
COAST GUARD: 600; 6 Coastal Patrol Craft, 5 inshore, some 10 riverine<.
RONDAS CAMPESINAS (self-defence force or People's Militia): no details.

OPPOSITION:
SENDERO LUMINOSO (Shining Path): some 4-5,000; rural gp maoist.
MOVIMIENTO REVOLUCIONARIO TUPAC AMARU (MRTA): 500; mainly urban gp.

   SURINAME
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services form part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 3,000.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 2,700.
   1 inf bn (4 inf coy).
   1 Military Police 'bde' (bn).
EQUIPMENT:
RECCE: 6 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 9 YP-408, 15 EE-11 Urutu.
MORTARS: 81mm: 6.
RCL: 57mm.

NAVY: 250.
BASE: Paramaribo.
PATROL CRAFT: 6 inshore: 3S-401 (Nl32m),3<.
AIRCRAFT: 1 Cessna 401.

AIR FORCE: ~100; 5 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 3 BN-2 Defender, 2 PC-7.
LIAISON: 1 Cessna U206.
HELICOPTERS: 1 Bell 205, 2 SA-316.

PARA-MILITARY:
NATIONAL MILITIA: 900.

OPPOSITION:
SURINAMESE LIBERATION ARMY or 'Jungle Commando': 200-300; small arms only.

   TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES: (all services are part of the Army):
ACTIVE: 2,650.
Terms of service: voluntary.

ARMY: 2,000.
   1 inf bn.
   1 reserve bn (3 coy).
   1 spt bn.
EQUIPMENT:
MORTARS: 60mm: ~40; 81mm: 6 L16A1.
RL: 82mm: 13 B-300.

COAST GUARD: 600.
BASE: Staubles Bay.
PATROL CRAFT: Inshore: 10:
   2 Barracuda PFI (Sw Karlskrona 40m).
   2 Chaguaramas PCI (UK Vosper 31.5m), 6<.
AIR WING: 50.

PARA-MILITARY
:
POLICE: 4,000.
MARINE WING: 2 PFI<, boats.
MINISTRY OF NATIONAL SECURITY; 1 SA-341, 2 S-76 (SAR) hel.

  URUGUAY
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 24,400.
Terms of service: voluntary; 1-2 years, extendable.

ARMY: 17,200.
4 Military Regions.
   1 indep inf bde.
   1 engr bde.
   15inf bn.
   10 cav bn (4 horsed, 3 mech, 2 mot, 1 armd).
   6 arty bn.
   6 engr bn.
EQUIPMENT:
LIGHT TANKS, 17 M-24, 28 M-3A1, 22 M-41A1.
RECCE: 20 FN-4-RM-62, 18 EE-3 Jararaca, 15 EE-9 Cascavel.
APC: 15 M-113, 50 Condor.
TOWED ARTY: 75mm: 12 Bofors M-1902; 105mm: 25 M-101A1; 155mm: 5 M-114A1.
MORTARS: 81mm: 40 M-1; 107mm: 5 4.2in.
ATGW: 10 Milan.
RCL: 57mm: 30 M-18. 106mm: 10 M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 20mm: 6 M-167 Vulcan; 40mm: 2 L/60.

NAVY: 4,500 incl naval air, naval infantry.
BASE: Montevideo.
FRIGATES: 2
   1 General Artigas (Fr Cdt. Riviere) with 2x3 ASTT, 1x2 ASW mor, 2 100mm guns.
   1 18 de Julio (US Dealey) with 2x3 ASTT.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 8:
OFFSHORE: 2:
   1 Uruguay (US Cannon DE) PCO.
   1 Campbell (US Auk MSF) PCO.
INSHORE: 6: 3 75 de Noviembre PFI (Fr Vigilante 42m), 1 Salto PCI. 2 PFI<.
MINE WARFARE: 1 Rio Negro (ex US) MSC.
AMPHIBIOUS: craft only; 2 LCM, 3 LCVP.
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 3: 1 tanker (VLCC, civilian charter), 1 tpt, 1 trg.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (400); 6 cbt ac, no armed hel.
ASW: 1 fit with 3 S-2A, 3 -G.
MR: 1 Super King Air 200T.
TRAINING: 2 T-28, 4 T-34B, 2 T-34C, 2 TC-45.
HELICOPTERS: 1 Bell 47, 1 -222, 2 SH-34.

NAVAL INFANTRY: (500); 1 bn.

AIR FORCE
: 3,000; 24 cbt ac, no armed hel.
COIN: 2 sqn:
   1 with 8 A-37B, 3 AT-33.
   1 with 6 IA-58B;
SURVEY: 1 Commander 680, 1 EMB-110B1.
SAR: 1 sqn with:
   AIRCRAFT: 1 C-212.
   HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 212, 2 UH-1B, 4 UH-1H.
TRANSPORT: 3 sqn with 4 C-212 (tpt/SAR), 4 EMB-I IOC, 2 F-27, 2 FH-227.
LIAISON: 1 Cessna 182, 1 -310, 2 PA-18, 1 PA-23, 5 Queen Air 80.
TRAINING: 7 AT-6A, 24 T-34A/B, 6 T-41D.

FORCES ABROAD:
EGYPT (Sinai MFO): 70.
IRAN/IRAQ (UNIIMOG): Observers

PARA-MILITARY:
METROPOLITAN GUARD: 650.
REPUBLICAN GUARD: 500.
COAST GUARD: 1,500; 6 patrol craft<.

  VENEZUELA
   []
   []

TOTAL ARMED FORCES:
ACTIVE: 70,500 incl National Guard (~18,000 conscripts).
Terms of service: 2 years (Navy 2 1/2 years) selective, varies by region for all services.

ARMY: 34,000 (incl conscripts).
1 cav div with:
   2 mech cav bde (1 armd, 3 mech cav, 1 fd arty bn).
   1 armd bde (2 armd, 1 armd inf, 1 SP ATK bn, 1 arty gp, 1 AD bn).
4 regional inf div (incl 1 'Jungle') comprising:
   7 inf bde (1 armd, 11 inf, 5 jungle bn, 5 arty, 1 AD, 5 engr bn).
1 ranger bde (6 ranger bn).
1 AB regt (2 AB bn, 1 cdo unit).
Army tps:
   Presidential Guard Regt (3 bn).
   1 avn regt.
   1 engr regt (2 construction bn).
   1 Military Police regt (2 bn).
EQUIPMENT:
MBT: 81 AMX-30.
LIGHT TANKS: 35 M-18, 36 AMX-13.
RECCE: 10 AML-245, 12 M-8, 60 M-706E1.
APC: 25 AMX-VCI, 70 V-100, 50 V-150, 20 Dragoon (some with 90mm gun), 46 M-113.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 70: 40 Model 56, 30 M-101; 155mm: 20 M-114;
SP ARTY: 155mm: 10 M-109, 20 Mk F3.
MRL: 160mm: 25 LAR SP.
MORTARS: 81mm: 100; 120mm: 85 Brandt.
ATGW: SS-11,AS-11.
RCL: 106mm: M-40A1.
AD GUNS: 110: 20mm: AML S-530 twin SP; 40mm: Bofors L/70 towed, Breda towed, M-42A1 twin SP.
SAM: 4 Roland.
AVIATION:
AIRCRAFT: 1 BN-2, 3 Cessna 172, 3 -182, 6 -U206, 2 G-222, 1 King Air, 1 Queen Air 80, 1 Super King Air 200.
HELICOPTERS:
   ATTACK: 6 A-109 (ATK);
   TRANSPORT: 4 AS-61R, 3 Bell 205, 6 UH-1H.
   LIAISON: 2 Bell 47G, 2 -206.

NAVY: 10,000 incl naval air, marines and coast guard (~4,000 conscripts).
5 Commands; Fleet, Marines, Naval Avn, Coastguard, Fluvial (River Forces).
5 Fleet sqn: submarine, frigate, patrol, amph, service.
BASES: Caracas (HQ), Puerto Cabello (submarine, frigate, amph and service sqn), Punto Fijo (patrol sqn).
   Minor bases: Puerto de Hierro, Puerto La Cruz, Giiiria, El Amparo (HQ Arauca River). Ciudad Bolivar (HQ Orinoco R).
SUBMARINES: 3:
   2 Sabalo (FRG T-209/1300) with 533mm TT (SST-4 HWT).
   1 Picua (US Guppy III) (trg) with 533mm TT.
FRIGATES: 6 Mariscal Sucre (It Lupo) with 1 AB-212 hel (ASW/OTHT), 2x3 ASTT (A-244S LWT); plus 8 Otomat SSM, 1 127mm gun, 2x20 105mm MLR.
PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: 13:
MISSILE CRAFT: 3 Constitucidn PFM (UK Vosper 37m), with 2 Otomat.
PATROL, INSHORE: 3 Constitucidn PFI (may receive Harpoon SSM).
RIVERINE: 7 PCI<.
AMPHIBIOUS: 5:
   4 Capana LST, capacity 200 tps, 12 tk.
   1 Amazones (US-1152) LST, capacity 200 tps, 16 tk.
   Plus craft; 2 LCU (river comd).
SUPPORT AND MISCELLANEOUS: 5: 1 log spt, 2 tpt, 1 survey, 1 trg.

NAVAL AIR FORCE: (2,000); 4 cbt ac, 6 armed hel.
ASW: 1 hel sqn (afloat) with 6 AB-212ASW. (8 S-2E ac in store).
MR: 1 sqn with 4 C-212.
TRANSPORT: 1 BAe-748, 2 C-212, 1 DHC-7.
LIAISON: 3 Cessna 310, 1 -402, 1 King Air 90, 1 MU-2, 1 Super King Air 200.
HELICOPTERS: 2 Bell 47J.

MARINES: (4,000+).
   4 inf bn.
   1 arty bn (3 fd, 1 AD bty).
   1 amph veh bn.
   1 river patrol, 1 engr, 2 para/cdo unit.
EQUIPMENT:
APC: 11 LVTP-7 (to be mod to -7A1), 30 EE-11 Urutu, 10 Fuchs/Transportpanzer 1.
TOWED ARTY: 105mm: 18.
AD GUNS: 40mm: 6 M-42 twin SP.

COAST GUARD: (~750).
BASE: La Guaira; operates under Naval Command and Control, but organizationally separate.
PATROL COMBATANTS: 4:
PATROL, OFFSHORE: 4:
   2 Almirante Clemente (It FF type),
   2 Larrazabal (US ocean tugs) (plus boats).

AIR FORCE: 6,500 (some conscripts); 147 cbt ac, 26 armed hel.
BOMBER: 1 Air Group with 18 Canberra B-82, B(I)-82, B(I)-88, T-84
FIGHTER/FGA: 3 Air Gp:
   1 with 12 F-5 (10 -A, 2 -B), 19 T-2D;
   1 with 21 Mirage (18 IIIEV, 2 -5V, 1 -5DV);
   1 with 24 F-16 (18 -A, 6 -B).
COIN: 1 Air Gp with 12 EMB-312, 14 OV-10E.
ATTACK HELICOPTERS: 1 Air Gp with 10 SA-316, 12 UH-1D, 4 UH-1H.
RECCE: 3 Canberra PR-83.
TRANSPORT: 5 C-47, 7 C-123, 6 C-130H, 6 G-222.
TRANSPORT HELICOPTERS: 16 Bell 206, 2 -412, 5 HB-350B, 2 UH-1N.
PRESIDENTIAL FLT: AIRCRAFT: 1 Boeing 737, 3 Falcon 20, 1 Gulfstream II, 1 -III, 1 Learjet 24D.
LIAISON: 2 Cessna 180, 9 -182, 1 Citation I, 1 -II, 2 Queen Air 65, 4 Queen Air 80, 5 Super King Air 200.
TRAINING: 1 AirGp: 18 EMB-312, 12 Jet Provost T-52, 23 T-34.
AAM: R-530 Magic, AIM-9P Sidewinder.

NATIONAL GUARD: Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperacidn: 20,000 (internal security, customs).
EQUIPMENT: 25 UR-416 AIFV, 15 Shorland AVC, 120 60mm mor, 50 81mm mor, PCI
Ac: 1 Baron, 1 BN-2A, 1 Cessna U206, 2 -337, 1 -402C, 4 IAI-201, 1 King Air 90, 1 King Air 200C, 2 Queen Air 80; Hel: 4 A-109, 15 Bell 206, 2-214ST.
PATROL CRAFT: inshore: 26<; boats.

* A $1.9-bn modernization plan for the armed forces adopted in 1988.

TABLES



- Defence expenditure and manpower
- Nuclear forces
- NATO and Warsaw Pact conventional forces
   ТАБЛИЦЫ И АНАЛИЗ
   - Расходы на оборону и людские ресурсы
   - ядерные силы США
   - Обычные силы НАТО и Варшавского договора

Defence Expenditure: NATO, Japan, Sweden

   These charts are expressed in local currency, based on 1985 prices and using a 1985 deflator. The NATO definition of defence expenditure is used, except in the cases of Sweden and Japan. The figure above each column shows the percentage increase, or decrease, from the previous year. The right-hand index shows changes measured against a base of 100 in 1985 (the scale of this index varies for each country). The 1989 columns show defence budgets according to national defence definition and so are not directly comparable with previous years' expenditures.
   Расходы на оборону: НАТО, Японии, Швеции
   Эти графики выражены в местной валюте, на основе цен 1985 года и с использованием дефлятора 1985 года. Используется определение расходов НАТО на оборону, за исключением Швеции и Японии. На рисунке над каждым столбцом показано процентное увеличение или уменьшение по сравнению с предыдущим годом. Правый индекс показывает изменения, измеренные по отношению к базе 100 в 1985 году (масштаб этого индекса варьируется для каждой страны). Колонки 1989 года показывают оборонные бюджеты в соответствии с определением национальной обороны и поэтому не сопоставимы напрямую с расходами предыдущих лет.
    []
    []
  
    []
    []
    []
    []

a In this edition total defence expenditures and per capita defence expenditures are given in 1985 prices and in 1985 dollars. Where possible exchange rates have been taken from the IMF, otherwise posted average annual exchange rates have been calculated. The consumer price indices have been taken from the IMF where possible, or, where necessary, constructed from known inflation rates.
b Some military expenditures include internal security expenditures; in other cases these and research costs are born by other ministries' budgets.
c Calculation based on local currency. This series is designed to show national trends only. International trends may be invalidated by differences in the scope of the government sector and in budgetary definitions. Where possible, total government outlays (including development or capital expenditure) have been used.
d Based on local currency. See country entries. For most countries, GDP figures are used. For wp countries, GNP figures are derived from NMP. In some cases commercial bank estimates have been used.
e Normally, only men within 5 years of their active service period are included, unless a country entry specifies a different parameter. Home Guard manpower has not been included.
f Part-time and reserve para-military forces are not included.
g The difficulty in calculating suitable exchange rates makes conversion to dollars and international comparison imprecise and unreliable. It is important to refer to individual country entries and to the local-currency figures for defence expenditures and the size of the economy. Bulgaria's defence expenditures, never published, have been estimated.
h See country entry.
i Defence expenditures are based on NATO definition.
j Excl aid to West Berlin (DM 16.3 bn in 1987, DM 16.7 bn in 1988).
k Central government spending is the total of Federal Government budget, plus state and regional government budgets. Gross Material Product is used instead of GDP.

a В настоящем издании общие расходы на оборону и расходы на оборону на душу населения приводятся в ценах 1985 года и в долларах 1985 года. Там, где возможные обменные курсы были взяты у МВФ, в противном случае рассчитывались среднегодовые обменные курсы. Индексы потребительских цен были взяты из МВФ, где это возможно, или, где это необходимо, построены на основе известных темпов инфляции.
b Некоторые военные расходы включают расходы на внутреннюю безопасность; в других случаях эти расходы и расходы на исследования покрываются за счет бюджетов других министерств.
c. Расчет в местной валюте. Эта серия предназначена для показа только национальных тенденций. Международные тенденции могут быть сведены на нет различиями в сфере государственного сектора и в бюджетных определениях. Там, где это возможно, использовались общие государственные расходы (включая развитие или капитальные затраты).
d На основе местной валюты. См. раздел записи страны. Для большинства стран используются показатели ВВП. Для стран ОВД показатели ВНП получены на основе НМП. В некоторых случаях использовались оценки коммерческих банков.
e Как правило, в перечень включаются только мужчины в течение 5 лет с момента начала их активной службы, если только в справке страны не указывается другой параметр. Силы ополчения не были включены.
f Неполного рабочего дня и резервные полувоенные силы не включены.
g Сложность расчета подходящих обменных курсов делает пересчет в доллары и международное сравнение неточными и ненадежными. Важно учитывать данные по отдельным странам и данные в местной валюте по оборонным расходам и размеру экономики. Расходы Болгарии на оборону, которые никогда не публиковались, оценочные.
h См. справку страну.
i Расходы на оборону основаны на определении НАТО.
j Без учета помощи Западному Берлину (16,3 млрд. немецких марок в 1987 году, 16,7 млрд. немецких марок в 1988 году).
k расходы центрального правительства-это общая сумма федерального бюджета, а также бюджетов штатов и регионов. Вместо ВВП используется валовой материальный продукт.


The Strategic Nuclear Balance


   A. Current US Strategic Forces under SALT and START Counting Rules
    []
a The figures in this column are derived primarily from SALT II Treaty, Article IV, Paragraph 10, First Agreed Statement and Common Understanding.
For Soviet missiles deployed since the signing of the Treaty, warheads are assigned as follows: SS-24, ten; SS-25, one; SS-N- 20, nine; SS-N-23, ten.
The number of gravity bombs and SRAM was not limited in SALT, so the IISS best estimate is used. The number of ALCM assigned to each heavy bomber is 20 (SALT II Treaty, Article IV, Paragraph 14, Second Agreed Statement).
b In this column the figures for ballistic missile warheads are taken from the December 1987 Washington Communique. ALCM numbers reflect the latest US negotiating position of attributing 10 ALCM to each ALCM-carrier. The Soviet position is to attribute to each the maximum number of ALCM with which it could be equipped, but recent figures have not been publicly released. The numbers in parentheses are IISS estimates of maximum loading capability for each bomber typ
c Although the B-1B is capable of carrying 8 ALCM internally and 12 externally, the US Air Force plans initially to deploy the B-1B as a penetrator. Similarly, the Soviet Blackjack is capable of carrying up to 12ALCMinternally (and perhaps more externally), but it will probably be equipped as a penetrator at first. With limited information available on Blackjack's gravity bomb load and ALCM configuration, this year's figures treat the B-1B and Blackjack on an equivalent basis.

a Цифры в этой колонке получены главным образом из пункта 10 статьи IV договора по ОСВ II, первого согласованного заявления и общего понимания.
Для советских ракет, развернутых с момента подписания договора, боеголовки распределяются следующим образом: SS-24, десять; SS-25, один; SS-N - 20, девять; SS-N-23, десять.
Количество гравитационных бомб и SRAM не ограничивалось ОСВ, поэтому используется наилучшая оценка IISS. Количество КРВБ, присвоенный каждому тяжелому бомбардировщику, составляет 20 (договор по ОСВ II, статья IV, пункт 14, второе согласованное заявление).
b В этой колонке данные о боеголовках баллистических ракет взяты из Вашингтонского коммюнике от декабря 1987 года. Числа обычные отражают последние переговорная позиция США приписывая 10 обычные для каждого носителя КРВБ. Советская позиция заключается в том, чтобы приписать каждому максимальное количество КРВБ, которыми он мог бы быть оснащен, но последние цифры не были обнародованы. Цифры в скобках являются оценками IISS максимальной грузоподъемности для каждого типа бомбардировщика
c Хотя B-1B способен нести 8 ALCM внутри и 12 снаружи, ВВС США планируют первоначально развернуть B-1B в качестве прорывателя. Точно так же Советский Blackjack способен нести до 12 КРВБ внутри (и, возможно, более внешне), но он, вероятно, будет оснащен в качестве прорывателя в первую очередь. С ограниченной информацией, доступной о нагрузке и конфигурации гравитационной бомбы Blackjack, цифры этого года рассматривают B-1B и Blackjack на эквивалентной основе.

US-USSR Strategic Nuclear Developments

   Changing the Counting Rules
   The arms-control counting rules for strategic nuclear weapons remain in transition. Tables A and B reflect current inventories as described by both SALT and START counting rules. The essay in The Military Balance 1988-1989 (pp. 230-32) discusses each approach. The change from SALT to START affects the numbers of accountable warheads, rather than launchers, and is especially pronounced in three areas: SLBM (Poseidon C-3, Trident D-5, SS-N-20, SS-N-23), gravity bombs and ALCM. START counting rules reduce the accountable warhead totals for the current inventories of both sides; most significantly for the United States. Adopting these rules would artificially magnify the cuts of a START agreement.
   The START Negotiations
   Negotiations resumed in June 1989, after a pause during which the Bush Administration conducted a review of the US position. The review emphasized the need to stress crisis stability and ICBM survivability in START, rather than reductions for their own sake. Modifications in the current US negotiating position were considered, including: banning MIRV-equipped mobile ICBM but permitting single-warhead mobiles; raising the ceiling on strategic nuclear delivery vehicles above the agreed limit of 1,600; banning all SS-18s; and reverting to SALT counting rules for ballistic missile warheads. None of these changes was adopted by the United States before the June session, although they may re-emerge as the negotiations progress. Instead, President Bush chose to pre-empt a difficult Senate ratification debate by proposing that appropriate verification measures should be tested before final agreement on a treaty. The Soviet Union has agreed to this proposal in principle, although it has increased the number of items to be verified.
   In the negotiations themselves, difficulties lie ahead over the basic principles of at least four major issues: linkage between an ABM Treaty non-withdrawal period and START; SLCM limits and SLCM verification; the US proposal to ban all mobile ICBM; and ALCM counting rules. Scope for progress is apparent on only the last two, with the introduction of new ideas for mobile ICBM verification and signs that the Joint Chiefs of Staff favour modifying the US position on ALCM counting rules.
   Consequences of Ongoing Modernization
   Both super-powers are continuing to replace ageing nuclear systems with modern weapons that could create problems for both strategic stability and the START negotiations. In the 1990s, both super-powers could deploy highly accurate SLBM with hard-target kill capability. Silo-based ICBM and bomber forces on both sides would become more vulnerable to a short-warning attack, and the deployment of mobile missiles would become more important for strategic security. Only the Soviet Union has deployed mobile ICBM (SS-24, SS-25) at this stage, and the number of warheads on these missiles has more than doubled in the past year (from 200 to 465); Soviet opposition to a ban on mobile ICBM could stiffen as a result. In April the Bush Administration announced its intention to seek Congressional support for two mobile missiles (MX in rail garrison mode and Midgetman), but approval remains far from certain. Without a viable US mobile ICBM, Congressional consent for a START treaty appears unlikely.
   Meanwhile, the United States continues to convert penetrating bombers to ALCM carriers, with 36 B-52H being retrofitted during the past year. Adopting the ALCM counting rules proposed by the USSR would require the US to cut about 1,100 more ALCM from the force structure than would adoption of US counting rules; the new ALCM deployments might thus harden the US position on ALCM counting rules.
   Finally, the emergence of Brilliant Pebbles SDI technology may hold out some prospect of the earlier deployment of a lower-cost and more survivable SDI system. This could further complicate the already difficult negotiations on the ABM Treaty non-withdrawal period.
   Outlook
   Given existing negotiating problems, the prospect for new US positions that could modify the previously agreed START framework, the impact of force modernization programmes, and the higher priority now being given to conventional force reductions in Europe, it is quite conceivable that it may take several more years of negotiations to complete a START Treaty.

Стратегические ядерные разработки США и СССР


   Изменение правил подсчета
   Правила учета контроля над вооружениями в отношении стратегических ядерных вооружений остаются переходными. Таблицы A и B отражают текущие запасы, как описано в правилах учета соли и начала учета. В эссе "военный баланс 1988-1989" (стр. 230-32) обсуждается каждый подход. Изменение от ОСВ к СНВ влияет на количество подотчетных боеголовок, а не пусковых установок, и особенно выражено в трех областях: БРПЛ (Poseidon C-3, Trident D-5, SS-N-20, SS-N-23), гравитационные бомбы и КРВБ. Правила начала подсчета уменьшают подотчетные суммы боеголовок для текущих запасов обеих сторон; наиболее существенно для Соединенных Штатов. Принятие этих правил искусственно увеличило бы сокращение соглашения по СНВ.
   Начало переговоров
   Переговоры возобновились в июне 1989 года, после паузы, во время которой администрация Буша провела обзор позиции США. В обзоре подчеркивалась необходимость акцентировать внимание на кризисной стабильности и живучести МБР в СНВ, а не на сокращениях ради них самих. Были рассмотрены изменения в нынешней переговорной позиции США, в том числе: запрет мобильной МБР, оснащенной ГЧИН, но разрешающей мобильные ракеты с одной боеголовкой; повышение потолка на стратегических ядерных средствах доставки выше согласованного предела 1600; запрет всех SS-18; и возврат к правилам подсчета ОСВ для боеголовок баллистических ракет. Ни одно из этих изменений не было принято Соединенными Штатами до июньской сессии, хотя они могут вновь появиться по мере продвижения переговоров. Вместо этого президент Буш предпочел предвосхитить трудные дебаты по ратификации в Сенате, предложив, чтобы соответствующие меры проверки были проверены до окончательного соглашения по договору. Советский Союз в принципе согласился с этим предложением, хотя и увеличил число пунктов, подлежащих проверке.
   В самих переговорах предстоит преодолеть трудности по основным принципам, по крайней мере, четырех основных вопросов: связь между периодом отказа от договора по ПРО и СНВ; пределы КРМБ и проверка КРМБ; предложение США запретить все мобильные МБР; и правила подсчета КРВБ. Возможности для прогресса очевидны только по последним двум, с введением новых идей для мобильной проверки МБР и признаков того, что Объединенный комитет начальников штабов выступает за изменение позиции США по правилам подсчета КРВБ.
   Последствия проводимой модернизации
   Обе сверхдержавы продолжают заменять стареющие ядерные системы современным оружием, что может создать проблемы как для стратегической стабильности, так и для переговоров по СНВ. В 1990-х годах обе сверхдержавы могли развернуть высокоточные БРПЛ с возможностью поражения защищенных целей. Базирующиеся в шахтах МБР и бомбардировщики с обеих сторон станут более уязвимыми для нападения с коротким предупреждением, а развертывание мобильных ракет станет более важным для стратегической безопасности. Только Советский Союз развернул мобильные МБР (SS-24, SS-25) на данном этапе, а количество боеголовок на этих ракетах за последний год более чем удвоилось (с 200 до 465); в результате советская оппозиция запрету на мобильные МБР может ужесточиться. В апреле администрация Буша объявила о намерении добиваться поддержки Конгресса двух мобильных ракет (MX железнодорожных и Midgetman), но одобрение остается далеко не определенным. Без жизнеспособной мобильной МБР США согласие Конгресса на договор о СНВ представляется маловероятным.
   Между тем, Соединенные Штаты продолжают конвертировать проникающие бомбардировщики В носители КРВБ, причем 36 B-52H были модернизированы в течение прошлого года. Принятие правил подсчета КРВБ, предложенных СССР, потребовало бы от США сократить на около 1100 больше КРВБ из структуры сил, чем принятие правил подсчета США; новые развертывания КРВБ могли бы таким образом укрепить позицию США по правилам подсчета КРВБ.
   Наконец, появление технологии Brilliant Pebbles SDI может иметь некоторую перспективу более раннего развертывания более дешевой и более жизнеспособной системы СОИ. Это может еще больше осложнить и без того непростые переговоры о сроке выхода из Договора по ПРО.
   Прогноз
   Учитывая существующие переговорные проблемы, перспективу новых позиций США, которые могли бы изменить ранее согласованные рамки СНВ, влияние программ модернизации вооруженных сил и более высокий приоритет, который сейчас уделяется сокращению обычных вооруженных сил в Европе, вполне возможно, что для завершения договора СНВ может потребоваться еще несколько лет переговоров.
  
  NATO/WARSAW PACT NUCLEAR DELIVERY MEANS
  (Other than US/Soviet Strategic Weapons: see p. 212)
   []
   []
a For system performance details, see Table 1.
b Territories of Be, FRG, Lux, Nl, Ch, GDR, Po.
c To be eliminated under terms of INF Treaty.
d May no longer be nuclear-capable.
e US warheads to be withdrawn.
f For breakdowns of the relevant NATO and WF holdings, see Table 1.
g Aggregates of all theoretically nuclear-capable weapons.
h Excl long-range strategic; land-based naval bombers are listed with maritime ac.
i 400 US SLBM warheads also assigned to SACTUR.
j Numbers mounting relevant nuclear systems.
k Excl patrol combatants fitted with anti-ship msls as unlikely to carry nuclear warheads.
l Excl torpedo craft as unlikely to carry nuclear warheads.
m Excl all helicopters.

a Дополнительная информация о системах, см. таблицу 1.
b Территории Бельгии, ФРГ, Люксембурга, Нидерландов, Чехословакии, ГДР, Польши.
c Подлежит ликвидации в соответствии с положениями Договора о РСМД.
d Может больше не обладать ядерным потенциалом.
e Американские боеголовки подлежат выводу.
f Разбивку соответствующих холдингов НАТО и ВФ см. В Таблице 1.
g Совокупность всех теоретически ядерных вооружений.
h Исключая дальние стратегические; морские бомбардировщики наземного базирования, которые перечислены в морских самолетах.
i 400 американских БРПЛ также назначенных для SACTUR.
j Количество развернутых соответствующих ядерных систем.
k Исключая патрульные комбатанты, оснащенные противокорабельными ракетами, которые вряд ли будут нести ядерные боеголовки.
l Исключая торпедные катера, как вряд ли несущие ядерные боеголовки.
m Исключая все вертолеты.

   NUCLEAR-CAPABLE DELIVERY VEHICLES: NATO, WARSAW PACT AND CHINA
Many delivery systems are dual-capable; we show the total number in service, even though a high proportion may not be assigned a nuclear role. Maximum aircraft loadings aregiven, though often fewer stores may becarried. Some loadings differ from those under SALT/START counting rules.
   ЯДЕРНЫЕ СРЕДСТВА ДОСТАВКИ: НАТО, ВАРШАВСКИЙ ДОГОВОР И КИТАЙ
   Многие системы доставки обладают двойной способностью; мы показываем общее число находящихся в эксплуатации, даже если высокой доле не может быть отведена ядерная роль. Максимальные нагрузки самолетов даются, хотя часто меньше запасов могут снести. Некоторые нагрузки отличаются от тех, которые предусмотрены правилами подсчета ОСВ/СНВ.
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SOURCES: include Cochrane, Arkin and Hoenig, Nuclear Weapons Databook, vol. I (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger 1984); Cochrane, Arkin, Norris and Hoenig, Nuclear Weapons Databook, vol.II (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1987); Hansen, US Nuclear Weapons, The Secret History (New York: Orion, 1988); Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (various issues).
a Ranges and aircraft radii of action in km; for nautical miles, multiply by 0.54. A missile's range may be reduced byupto 25% if max payload is carried. Radii of action for ac are in normal configuration, a toptimum altitude, with a standard warload, without in-flight refuelling. When two values are given the first refers to a low-low-low mission profile and the second to a high-low-high profile.
b Throw-weight is the weight of post-boost vehicle (warhead(s), guidance systems, penetration aids and decoys). Weights are the max for the weapon system in question and are not necessarily for the range cited.
c CEP (circular error probable) - the radius of a circle around a target within which there is a 50% probability that a weapon aimed at that target will fall.
d Yields vary greatly; figures given are estimated maxima. KT range - under 1 MT;MT range - over 1MT. Yield, shown as 1-10 KT means the yield is between these limits; if shown as 1-10 KT(s) it means that yields between these limits can beselected. Yields shown as 1 or 10 KT mean that either yield can be selected.
e Weapons to be eliminated under the terms of the INF Treaty.
f Numbers cited are totals of theoretically nuclear-capable pieces. Not allwill be certified for nuclear use, and in practice relatively few are likely to be inanuclear role at any one time. All artillery pieces listed are dual-capable.
g Congressional limit of 925 on W-79 arid W-82 production.
h Dual-capable. AU aircraft types in this table are dual-capable.
i External loads are additional to internal loads.
j All bombs have five option fusing: freefall airburst or surface burst, parachute retarded airburst or surface burst, and retarded delayed surface burst (except B-57, which has no freefall/retarded surface burst, and B-53, which has no freefall surface burst).
k Except for French and UK national weapons, nuclear warheads held in US custody.
l No nuclear warheads held on Canadian, Danish or Norwegian territory.
m Variable range, capable of striking IRBM/INF targets.
n Some SSGN/SSG can carry either SS-N-12 Sandbox or SS-N-3 Shaddock.
o Nuclear warheads in Soviet custody

а Дальности и радиусы действия самолетов в км; для морских миль умножить на 0,54. Дальность полета ракеты может быть уменьшена на 25% при максимальной полезной нагрузке. Радиусы действия для самолетов в нормальной конфигурации, на максимальной высоте, со стандартной боевой нагрузкой, без дозаправки в полете. Когда заданы два значения, первое относится к профилю миссии с низким-низким-низким, а второе - с высоким-низким-высоким профилем.
b Забрасываемая масса - это масса транспортного средства после разгона (боеголовки, системы наведения, средства проникновения и ловушки). Веса являются максимальными для рассматриваемой системы оружия и не обязательно для указанной дальности.
c CEP (circular error probable) -КВО, радиус окружности вокруг точки прицеливания, в пределах которого существует 50% вероятность того, что оружие, нацеленное на эту цель, упадет.
d Мощность сильно различается; приведенные цифры являются оценочными максимумами. Диапазон КТ-до 1 МТ; диапазон МТ - свыше 1 Мт. Показанное как 1-10 КТ означает, что мощность в этих пределах; если, как показано 1-10 КТ(с) это означает, что мощность в этих пределах может быть выбран. Мощности, показанные как 1 или 10 кт, означают, что любая мощность может быть выбрана.
e Оружие, подлежащее ликвидации в соответствии с положениями Договора о РСМД.
f Приведенные числа являются суммами теоретически ядерных элементов. Не все будут сертифицированы для ядерного использования, и на практике относительно немногие из них, вероятно, будут иметь ядерную роль. Все перечисленные артиллерийские орудия имеют двойное назначение.
g Предел Конгресса 925 на производстве W-79 arid W-82.
h Двойного назначения. Типы самолетов AU в этой таблице являются двухкомпонентными.
i Внешние нагрузки являются дополнительными к внутренним нагрузкам.
j Все бомбы есть пять варианта взрывов: в свободное падении воздушный или поверхностный, на парашюте воздушный или поверхностный, и с задержкой взрыва (за исключением B-57, которая имеет свободное падение/задержку, и Б-53, который не имеет свободного падения).
k За исключением национального оружия Франции и Великобритании, ядерные боеголовки содержатся под стражей в США.
l Никаких ядерных боеголовок на территории Канады, Дании или Норвегии.
m Переменный диапазон, способный поражать цели IRBM/INF.
n Некоторые ПЛАРК/ПЛРК могут нести либо SS-N-12 Sandbox kb,j SS-N-3 Shaddock.
o Ядерные боеголовки под Советским контролем.


NATO and Warsaw Pact Conventional Forces


   Introduction
   The past year has seen three developments which, respectively, impact significantly on perceptions of the state of the East-West conventional balance and on its actual and impending reality. These developments are: the formal publication of data on conventional forces in Europe by both NATO and the Warsaw Pact, the announcement and inception of unilateral force reductions and some force restructuring by the Soviet Union and its East European allies, and the opening of the Vienna negotiations on conventional armed forces in Europe (CFE). This essay reviews each of these by way of introduction to the IISS aggregation of the conventional force strengths of the two sides.
   Data
   GENERAL
   NATO's November 1988 publication of force comparison data, 'Conventional Forces in Europe: The Facts' was the first of its kind since 1984. The Warsaw Pact (WP) compilation on the 'Correlation of Forces in Europe', published at the end of January 1989, was its first ever such essay in military glasnost and, as such, a highly significant and very welcome breakthrough. Not surprisingly, there were significant differences between the data produced by the two sides, and between both sides' figures and those of the IISS. It is not the intention to discuss the detail of these differences here, but rather to analyse the underlying problems they illustrate.
   Some of the differences merely concern the overall scope of the assessments and the categories of equipment addressed, where there were mismatches. Some doubtless reflect the fact that, quite apart from security considerations which will have inhibited both NATOand the WP, the compilers of such comparisons can only draw on the information they possess. Theoretically, this should have provided them with firm information about 'own troops', less certain intelligence estimates - and in some cases gaps in relevant information - about the other side. The IISS faces similar problems in its compilation and aggregation (and, moreover, has no 'own troops'). It would, however, be intellectually dishonest to attempt to withhold or modify the known figures of one side in order to 'compensate' for unknowns on the other, in the hope of thus creating a more realistic picture of the balance. The IISS eschews this, although this raises problems discussed further below, principally in the context of reserve equipment stocks. It is less easy to be entirely confident that elements of creative accounting, or at least ambiguity, have not affected the official publications - indeed it is difficult to understand some of the figures adduced without suspecting such practices. To a very large degree, however, the differences clearly reflect differing counting rules and conventions. These will need to be resolved for CFE purposes; thereafter all analyses jnay be able to draw on a uniform data base. However, since the existing differences usefully illustrate the critical nature of counting rules, they are examined in some detail below.
   First, however, three other points warrant comment, if only to explain the IISS approach. Essays in earlier issues of The Military Balance (notably pp. 223-5 of the 1986-1987 edition, pp. 226-31 of the 1987-1988 edition, and pp. 233-6 of the 1988-1989 edition) have made clear IISS reservations about force comparisons based on 'bean counts' except in the context of quantitative arms control, where equipment (and possibly manpower) 'beans' represent a measurable currency on which to base bargains. Our aggregates are therefore compiled with this in view. The geographical boundaries of the CFE region and the categories of equipment do not, however, always square with the form and detail in which the IISS possesses data. While the IISS is striving to acquire the necessary fine-grained information, it has remained necessary in some cases to estimate a breakdown of aggregated data (notably in the cases of the USSR and Turkey) to match the limited geographical area covered by the Atlanticto-the-Urals (ATTU) zone. Similarly, specific total holdings of some weapon types for some countries have had to be estimated on the basis of organizational and reserve stock norms. FOT this reason, aggregated data in Table A will not always be readily reconcilable with the sum of the country holdings listed in the earlier part of the book. Compilers of the NATO and WP data publications have assuredly faced similar problems.
   Secondly, there are undeniably important differences in status between equipment (and personnel) in active units, in units which can only be activated after mobilization and reinforcement (e.g., US POMCUS stocks, and Warsaw Pact Category C and mobilization divisions), and in maintenance and battle-attrition replacement stocks. The differences between the first two categories relate, however, only to time; they are very important in respect of the threat of surprise attack, but their relevance diminishes with warning and preparation time. The third category is critical to sustainability and very relevant in the context of some analyses which seek to adjust apparent force balances by applying differential factors for equipment serviceability. The two official publications take very different lines on this question. The NATO document lists, by country, equipment in fully or partially manned units (thereby including low-category Warsaw Pact divisions but excluding US POMCUS stocks from this count). In footnotes to its count it also aggregates NATO equipment held 'in storage' (including POMCUS) but does not quantify parallel wp 'in storage' holdings, merely stating that in all cases these are estimated to exceed NATO holdings. The WP document attempts no such discrimination, providing only total holdings per country. The IISS, for the present, similarly provides only aggregated data, but hopes progressively to be able to distinguish between the three categories. IISS aggregates also include training and operational conversion unit equipment where this is known to be combat-capable; this most notably affects combat aircraft totals. We judge that it would be manifestly absurd to disregard the ready reinforcement potential of such equipment and the trained manpower represented by associated instructors (and others filling peacetime posts which lapse on transition to war). We are, however, very conscious that our data on WPequipment reserves and training holdings is limited, and some Pact totals may therefore be understated. The conventional wisdom is that the WP is very slow to discard or scrap old equipment, and 'elephant's graveyard' equipment parks are known to exist.
   Third, in the arms-control context, it is necessary to distinguish between indigenous and stationed forces. Both alliance documents do this to varying extents; previous IISS force comparison tables have not done so (although country entries showed them, and the insert map in The Military Balance 1988-1989 aggregated them for key equipments). Table A now shows the relevant breakdown for all force components covered.
   DETAIL
   Manpower. Despite initial NATO reluctance, manpower is now an agreed part of the CFE negotiations. It is, however the least meaningful (or verifiable) measure of combat capability, and one that poses special problems. The NATO document includes aggregated active ground-force strength figures, seemingly including WP ancillaries such as railway and construction troops (who, General Yazov has recently asserted, do not undergo even basic military training). The WP document also includes active air force, air defence force, naval and civil (territorial) defence force strengths, all carefully itemized. Neither includes strengths of mobilizable reserves, highly relevant to combat ratios after build-up and to sustainability. The IISS will continue to present active and reserve ground force strengths and to exclude (but note the existence of) potentially usable ancillary ground forces. Neither NATO, WP nor IISS tables include para-military manpower, although this is often substantial, heavily armed and well- trained and could clearly fulfil wartime rear-area and line-of-communication security tasks, releasing army manpower for combat zone roles.
   Divisions. Because of wide differences in strengths and armaments (see p. 5) divisions (or division equivalents, calculated on the assumption that three all-arms brigades or four regiments equate to a division) are a particularly meaningless unit of account except as an indication of the availability of potentially quasiautonomous formations. The NATO document counts them (arguably inflating the Pact figures by including artillery divisions and brigades). The WP document does not. We have, for the present, retained them - not least as illustrating the differences between peacetime and war-mobilized potential - but stress that raw numbers of divisions are not comparable.
   Tanks. Tank counts well illustrate the problems of definition despite, at least prima facie, being relatively simple to identify. NATO's figures take a 90mm or larger-calibre gun as the yardstick, thereby omitting T-34 tanks. The WP definition is unclear. It certainly includes light tanks and possibly some armoured reconnaissance vehicles mounting guns; it also appears, in its figures for NATO, to include tank museums, target hulks on ranges, scrapyard detritus and (e.g., in crediting Portugal with 470 tanks) a degree of imagination which might suggest that the West has overrated the capabilities of the KGB and GRU. The IISS continues to count all tanks with 85mm or larger guns.
   Other Armoured Vehicles. NATO presented separate counts for what it termed armoured infantry fighting vehicles (AIFV - which at the time it defined as cannon-armed and incorporating infantry firing ports) and 'other armoured vehicles' (a miscellany of light tanks, AIFV lacking infantry firing ports (e.g., the UK Warrior), armoured personnel carriers (APC), command and support vehicles). The WP amalgamated IFV, APC and scout vehicles in a single count. The CFE negotiations currently seek to limit 'armoured troop carriers' (ATC), a combination of APC and AIFV (with a sub-limit on the latter), and NATO now accepts that the AIFVcategory should include cannon-armed infantry vehicles, whether or not they have firing ports. We agree this definition and list а1FV and APC numbers which, in combination, equate to the CFE ATC category.
   Artillery and Mortars. Any aggregation of artillery, multiple rocket launchers (MRL) and mortars is inevitably somewhat simplistic, imputing equal value to weapons with substantially differing weight and nature of munitions (the true artillery weapon), range, rate of fire, etc. It also poses questions about weapons with actual or potential dual roles for direct-fire anti-tank (ATK) use and indirect-fire artillery bombardment. The NATO document aggregates all indirect-fire weapons with calibres of 100mm or greater. The wp takes guns and MRL of 75mm calibre and above, including weapons viewed in the West as primarily anti-tank, thereby inflating Pact figures. But it also includes mortars down to 50mm, which are extremely short-range and in some cases have no HE capability, thereby inflating NATO figures. Any counting criteria must to some extent be arbitrary. In the arms-control context large numbers of small-calibre weapons present obvious verification difficulties. The IISS judges 105mm to be a sensible minimum calibre above which to count for artillery, MRL and mortars, and the figures in Table A reflect this criterion.
   ATK Weapons. Anti-tank weapons present four major difficulties. First, the question, already alluded to, of attributing guns (which may be of up to 100mm calibre) between the ATK and artillery roles. Secondly, the existence of a wide range of smaller anti-tank rocket launchers. Thirdly, the proliferation of anti-tank guided weapons (ATGW), including their fitment on some armoured fighting vehicles (AFV) in a secondary role, where they will on occasion have ATK utility (notably in a meeting engagement) but will not normally be available for deployment to formal integrated ATK defences. And, finally, the deployment of ATGW on helicopters, in some cases as a (near) permanent fit, in others as an optional configuration. The NATO approach has been to aggregate all ground, vehicle-borne and helicopter-mounted ATGW, ATK guns and recoilless' rifles, while noting the proportion of AFV and helicopters for which this is a secondary function (some 13% in the NATO case, but 52% for the Warsaw Pact). The wp includes ATK guns in its artillery count, disregards rocket launchers, leaves helicopter-borne systems to a general 'catch-all' combat helicopter category (discussed below) and confines its 'anti-tank guided missile systems' count to vehicle-mounted weapons at regimental level and above, together with portable systems in battalions. The IISS continues to confine its figures to ground-launched ATGW and those fitted on vehicles with a primary ATK role.
   Air Defence. Air defence (AD) weaponry comprises anti-aircraft cannon artillery (with calibres ranging from as little as 23mm to 100mm or even 130mm) and both fixed and mobile surface-to-air-missiles (SAM) with very different capabilities and (generally) far greater slant ranges. Their role varies between protection of the homeland and defence of the field army. Their contribution to offensive 'invasion capability' is important but, arguably, only secondary. The WP document ignores them. The NATO document aggregates both cannon and SAM and both homeland and field army defence weapons; the calibre criterion used for AA artillery appears to be set very low, there by catching larger numbers of Pact weapons than may be genuinely significant in combat. In Table A, the IISS lists SAM and AD artillery separately, counting both homeland defence and field army assets in both cases but excluding shoulder-launched SAM (Blowpipe, Stinger, Mistral, SA-7/-14/-15) which are widely proliferating (although including pedestal mounted variants, where these exist) and counting AD guns only of 20mm calibre and above.
   Combat Helicopters. Helicopters increasingly fill a range of combat, combat-support, transport and logistic functions; some on a dedicated basis, others reconfiguring between roles. Discrimination in terms of their importance to combat capability and relevance to arms-control is therefore difficult. The NATO document aggregates armed, ATK and assault/transport helicopters (consciously double-counting with its explicit ATK weapon category). The WP counting rules add in many other helicopter functions - scout/ reconnaissance, electronic warfare (EW) and even utility - and, moreover, include naval helicopters. The IISS remains of the view that in the land/air context the combat helicopter count should be confined to those equipped and roled primarily to deliver ordnance over the battlefield, and that naval helicopters are best aggregated under a discrete maritime category. (The combat helicopter definition used by NATO in its July 1989 CFE proposal broadly follows the land/air aspect of this approach.)
   Combat Aircraft. Both official documents list the aircraft types they aggregate under this category, but their numbers differ considerably. Contributory factors are the wp inclusion of NATO carrier-based aviation (which NATO excludes) and the exclusion of Backfire (which NATO figures include) - but these factors alone do not wholly account for the differences. Pact figures are also broken down between parent services (air forces, air defence forces and navies) and to some extent between roles (albeit some attribution of roles to NATO multi-role aircraft is, to say the least, debatable). NATO figures attempt no such breakdown, and, while the totals listed include reconnaissance and electronic warfare aircraft, they explicitly exclude stored and combat-capable training aircraft, though numbers of these are given in notes. (NATO's subsequent CFE proposal, however, revises its combat aircraft definition to comprise all permanently land-based fixed-wing or swing-wing aircraft designed or converted to deliver ordnance and any variants of such aircraft, regardless of their roles.)
   The IISS continues to define combat aircraft as those normally equipped to deliver ordnance and, as stated earlier, includes relevant training, OCU and stored aircraft in the count. It accepts the relevance of naval aviation based on carriers within combat radius of European land targets, but - given that carrier-based aircraft represent, in every respect, a floating population -judges it most appropriate to list these under an explicit maritime heading. For the benefit of analysts we continue to disaggregate land combat aircraft into sub-strategic bomber, ground attack and air defence roles, in the case of multi-role aircraft discriminating on the basis of parent unit role and aircrew training.
   It is, however, important to stress two points. First, although up-to-date role training is an important determinant, the boundary between fighter ground attack and air defence/fighters is extremely porous. Multi-role aircraft can to some extent switch missions, notwithstanding their parent unit's primary role. Thus too much weight should not be attached to the attribution to roles at Table A, although it usefully illustrates the apparent respective priorities of the two sides. Secondly, it would be a misconception to regard the air defence/fighter category as essentially defensive - not solely because of the scope for re-roling but because effective counter-air operations are essential to securing air superiority. Moreover, such operations will not solely be confined to friendly airspace. Hence if combat aircraft are to be subject to arms-control regulation, this should not be confined to ground attack aircraft alone.
   Naval Forces. The NATO document, due no doubt to the exclusion of naval forces from the CFE mandate, makes no reference to them other than to include land-based naval aviation in its combat aircraft count. The WP- which has been at pains to assert that NATO's naval superiority counterbalances its own (welcome) admission of substantial ground-force advantages to the extent of providing 'rough parity' - lists submarines (omitting SSBN and SSB) and large surface ships, which it categorizes as of 1,200-tonne displacement or greater. Within the larger surface ship category, it identifies numbers in some key categories (aircraft carriers, cruise-missile-equipped vessels and amphibious ships). What is interesting and revealing here is the effect of the 1,200-tonne criterion. There is of course, no magic displacement criterion. In its own count the IISS has used a yardstick of 1,000 tonnes, which, if nothing else, is manifestly a round number. The effect of moving the goal-posts by 200 tonnes is, however, substantial. The relevant figures for the number of Warsaw Pact 'larger surface ships' in European/ Atlantic waters is 246 of 1,000 tonnes or greater and 147 at 1,200 tonnes or more; the equivalent figures for NATO ships are 438 and 406 respectively. The point here is not to argue that WP counting-rules and conventions are self-serving (or noticeably more so than NATO's) but to illustrate the difference a relatively small change in an arbitrarily determined yardstick can make. Table A continues to apply the IISS 1,000-tonne criterion and to break down vessels by types. As indicated earlier, it also continues to address naval fixedand rotary-wing aviation under this 'maritime' heading, distinguishing between roles in the same manner as for land-based combat aircraft (but with the same provisos).
   Other Categories. Each of the official documents introduces one category of equipment not addressed in Table A. In the WP case this is 'tactical missile systems', which we do not consider strictly a part of conventional forces and therefore tabulate separately at pp. 214-15. NATO lists armoured vehicle launched bridges, reporting a Pact holding in active units of 2,550 against NATO's aggregate of 454. The IISS recognizes the importance of these equipments as part of an offensive or counter-offensive capability but as yet lacks sufficient data on which to base an independent aggregate figure. We have, however, no reason to doubt the NATO count.
   Unilateral Reductions
   Starting with President Gorbachev's UN speech of 7 December 1988, Warsaw Pact countries have announced a series of sizeable unilateral troop reductions and withdrawals to be effected by 1991, together with some substantial restructuring of remaining forces in the forward area. Subsequent announcements by officials have elaborated on the details and the timetable, although some differing statements have left the precise number of men and equipment involved a little obscure. The reductions have already started, and the reorganization of remaining forces into a structure described by the WP as being 'clearly defensive' is reportedly under way. In the case of Soviet forces, it has been stated that this restructuring will involve the removal of one tank regiment (94 tanks) from each tank and motor rifle division, but the addition of further anti-tank, air defence and mine-laying assets. Non-Soviet Warsaw Pact forces organized on Soviet lines may be expected to follow a similar pattern.
   The reductions - principally involving the withdrawal of six Soviet tank divisions (including two from the Western Group of Forces, formerly called the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which some reports suggest were earmarked for Operational Manoeuvre Group (OMG) roles), the removal of substantial additional numbers of tanks from remaining tank and motor rifle divisions in Central Europe, reductions in artillery, assault crossing and assault landing troops and equipment, together with some 13% (using WP figures) of forward-deployed Soviet combat aircraft - clearly address key areas of NATO concern over Warsaw Pact capabilities for short-notice attack and large-scale offensive action. Once complete, and with the announced plans for the destruction or conversion to civilian use of a significant proportion of the relevant equipment having been effected, the military picture in Europe will be substantially altered - particularly in Central Europe, where, for example, there will be approximate parity in tank numbers between NATO and the Warsaw Pact (albeit at differing levels of manning and readiness). Such a situation will make the short-warning or 'surprise attack' scenario (already highly improbable) barely plausible. Longer-warning scenarios will be less affected but the necessary preparation time for the Warsaw Pact will be increased, which should in turn enhance NATO warning and - provided warning is heeded - preparation times. And the Pact's ability to achieve and sustain desired levels of force superiority will be diminished.
   Of course, little of this has yet happened, but, barring unforeseen reactions in Eastern Europe or the Soviet Union, we see no reason to doubt the sincerity of a programme which derives at least as much from pressing domestic imperatives in the East (which will not go away) as from a revised view of East-West relations (which exists, but could change). It would, nevertheless, be even more encouraging to see clear evidence, currently lacking, that Soviet weapon production rates were declining in proportion to the planned reductions. The programme has, however, implications for The Military Balance and for its uses. The Military Balance has always been a snapshot of military organizations and strengths, hoping to be accurate as at its cut-off date for information but recognizing that the picture will change over the year up to the next issue. Hitherto this has not led to serious inaccuracies; the pace of military change has generally been gradual. The picture for Warsaw Pact force levels, organization, equipment holdings and deployment now looks set to move too rapidly for The Military Balance figures necessarily to be able to hold good for a full twelve months. Analysts and other users may need to seek periodic updates on the state of play with unilateral changes.
   Whatever the reorganizations, however, readers will need to be cautious before accepting that any measures can create forces which are unambiguously defensive in nature and structurally incapable of offensive action. This is not to belittle Eastern plans or to undervalue the significance of their announced intentions. But even reorganized Warsaw Pact divisions, with much reduced tank strengths, will remain highly potent formations, and capability for offensive action will remain, as ever, predominantly a matter of relative strengths and capabilities.
   The Vienna CFE Negotiations
   Beyond the unilateral Warsaw Pact reductions - and encouraged by them - negotiations on conventional force reductions in Europe have begun in propitious circumstances and with a rapid convergence of the negotiating objectives and positions of the two sides. While difficulties remain (not least the questions of counting rules and definitions, discussed earlier, and of verification) and while unforeseen obstructions may (and probably will) yet appear, the remaining differences appear capable of being bridged by skilful negotiation - though this may take more time than optimists currently envisage. But the essential ingredient, political will, is manifestly present on both sides.
   Success in the CFE negotiations will of course, pose a new challenge to The Military Balance's snapshot of the force array in Europe as reductions, redeployments and reorganization are effected. But this problem is not yet with us - and would be a small price for analysts to pay for a properly constructed bargain which satisfies the CFE mandate of establishing 'a secure and stable balance of conventional forces at lower levels' and eliminates any 'capability for launching surprise attack and for initiating large-scale offensive action'.
   The state of the CFE negotiations does, however, impinge on The Military Balance in one respect. Our primary aim in providing aggregate totals of conventional force elements in Table A is explicitly for use in the arms-control context (and even in that connection we are, as already indicated, uneasy about any rigid categorization of aircraft). We have grave reservations about the figures being put to other uses. With this in mind, and anticipating an approach which would seek to differentiate between parts of the ATTU zone and apply appropriate sub-limits to each, we last year provided figures for three geographical divisions of Europe (the NATO Guidelines Area (NGA), comprising the territories of the FRG, the Benelux countries, the GDR, Poland and Czechoslovakia; the 'Jaruzelski' area, which adds Denmark and Hungary to the NGA; and the complete ATTU zone) as well as global totals. At this stage of the negotiations, however, the sub regions remain still to be agreed, with NATO proposing three sub-divisions within the ATTU zone and the Warsaw Pact three other (different) ones. It would be impracticable - and potentially highly confusing - to attempt to lay out figures for all these potential alternatives. We have therefore repeated our practice of 1988-1989.
   The Balance
   Recent editions of The Military Balance have made clear why the IISS feels unable to offer any overall judgments on the state of the NATO/wp conventional balance. No new analytical tools or methods have emerged to alter that situation. Nor have the changes over the past year altered our long-standing view that the force relationship is such that 'general military aggression in Europe would be a high-risk option with unpredictable consequences, particularly so long as the risk of nuclear escalation exists'. Equally, for the present it remains true that, to Western eyes, Soviet conventional forces in the ATTU zone, and particularly in the forward area, exceed realistic Eastern defence needs and, by virtue of their organization and deployment, justify continued Western concern.
   But the situation is already in the process of significant change. Eastern force reductions have begun and, together with reorganization plans and reported changes in doctrine and training patterns (though the latter are difficult to discern with absolute assurance), do now support Soviet claims of new thinking. Even the unilateral reductions will, once complete, virtually eliminate the surprise attack threat which has so long concerned NATO planners. Success in the CFE negotiations appears achievable on terms which would revolutionize the East-West security relationship. It is at last becoming possible to look forward to the prospect of a situation of much diminished concern as to the state of the balance, the meaning of the figures or the prospects for and potential outcome of general military aggression in Europe.
   The Tables
   That Utopia is, however, not yet here. Table A presents aggregated data on NATO and Warsaw Pact conventional forces and equipment, as at 1 June 1989, compiled on the basis of the counting rules and the unavoidable elements of estimation and extrapolation discussed earlier in this essay. Tables B and C seek to continue our practice of putting some flesh on the bare bones of these data by, respectively, setting out the key characteristics of the artillery weapons of both sides and of the world's principal navies. Other relevant insights are provided by the table and note on demographic trends in both East and West on pp. 238-9, and the essay on reserve forces on pp. 240-46.

Обычные силы НАТО и Варшавского Договора


   Введение
   В прошедшем году произошли три события, которые, соответственно, существенно повлияли на восприятие состояния обычного баланса Восток-Запад и на его фактическую и предстоящую реальность. К таким событиям относятся: официальная публикация данных об обычных вооруженных силах в Европе как НАТО, так и Варшавским договором, объявление и начало одностороннего сокращения сил и некоторая реструктуризация сил Советским Союзом и его восточноевропейскими союзниками и открытие венских переговоров по обычным вооруженным силам в Европе (ДОВСЕ). В этом эссе рассматривается каждый из них в качестве введения в совокупность обычных сил обеих сторон.
   Данные
   ОСНОВНЫЕ
   Публикация НАТО в ноябре 1988 года данных сравнения сил "Обычные силы в Европе: факты" стала первой в своем роде с 1984 года. Сборник Варшавского договора (ВП) по "Соотношению сил в Европе", опубликованный в конце января 1989 года, стал его первым подобным эссе в области военной гласности и, как таковой, весьма значительным и очень долгожданным прорывом. Неудивительно, что существуют значительные различия между данными, полученными обеими сторонами, а также между цифрами обеих сторон и данными IISS. Мы не намерены подробно обсуждать здесь эти различия, а скорее анализировать основные проблемы, которые они иллюстрируют.
   Некоторые из этих различий касаются лишь общей сферы охвата оценок и категорий рассматриваемого имущества, в которых имеются несоответствия. Некоторые из них, несомненно, отражают тот факт, что, помимо соображений безопасности, которые будут сдерживать как НАТО, так и ОВД, составители таких сопоставлений могут опираться только на имеющуюся у них информацию. Теоретически это должно было дать им твердую информацию о "собственных войсках", менее определенные оценки разведки - и в некоторых случаях пробелы в соответствующей информации - о другой стороне. IISS сталкивается с аналогичными проблемами при компиляции и агрегировании (и, кроме того, не имеет "собственных войск"). Было бы, однако, интеллектуально нечестно пытаться утаить или изменить известные цифры одной стороны, чтобы "компенсировать" неизвестные с другой стороны, в надежде таким образом создать более реалистичную картину баланса. IISS этого избегает, хотя в связи с этим возникают проблемы, обсуждаемые ниже, главным образом в контексте запасов резервного оборудования. Менее легко быть полностью уверенным в том, что элементы творческого учета или, по крайней мере, двусмысленность не повлияли на официальные публикации - действительно, трудно понять некоторые приведенные цифры, не подозревая о такой практике. Однако в очень большой степени различия четко отражают различия в правилах и условностях подсчета. Их необходимо будет решить для целей ДОВСЕ; после этого все анализы можно будет проводить на основе единой базы данных. Однако, поскольку существующие различия с пользой иллюстрируют критический характер правил подсчета, они более подробно рассматриваются ниже.
   Во-первых, однако, три других момента заслуживают комментария, хотя бы для того, чтобы объяснить подход IISS. Эссе в более ранних выпусках "военного баланса" (в частности, стр. 223-5 издания 1986-1987 годов, стр. 226-31 издания 1987-1988 годов и стр. 233-6 издания 1988-1989 годов) ясно дали понять оговорки МИС в отношении сравнений сил на основе "подсчетов бобов", за исключением контекста количественного контроля над вооружениями, где оборудование (и, возможно, живая сила) "бобы" представляют собой измеримую валюту, на которой основываются сделки. Поэтому наши сведения компилируются с учетом этого. Однако географические границы региона ДОВСЕ и категории оборудования не всегда совпадают с формой и подробностями, которыми располагает IISS. Хотя IISS стремится получить необходимую мелкозернистую информацию, в некоторых случаях по-прежнему необходимо оценивать разбивку агрегированных данных (особенно в случае СССР и Турции) с учетом ограниченного географического района, охватываемого зоной Атлантико-Уральского региона (ATTU). Аналогичным образом, конкретные общие запасы некоторых видов оружия для некоторых стран должны оцениваться на основе организационных и резервных норм запасов. По этой причине агрегированные данные, приведенные в таблице а, не всегда легко сопоставимы с суммой фондов стран, перечисленных в предыдущей части книги. Составители публикаций НАТО и ОВД, несомненно, сталкивались с аналогичными проблемами.
   Во-вторых, существуют неоспоримо важные различия в статусе техники (и персонала) в действующих частях, которые могут быть задействованы только после мобилизации и подкрепления (например, запасы POMCUS США и категории С Варшавского договора и мобилизационные дивизии), а также в запасах технического обслуживания и замены в бою. Различия между первыми двумя категориями касаются, однако, только времени; они очень важны в отношении угрозы внезапного нападения, но их актуальность уменьшается с предупреждением и временем подготовки. Третья категория имеет решающее значение для устойчивости и весьма актуальна в контексте некоторых анализов, направленных на корректировку кажущихся силовых балансов путем применения различных коэффициентов для обеспечения работоспособности оборудования. Два официальных издания занимают совершенно разные позиции по этому вопросу. Документ НАТО перечисляет, по странам, оборудование в полностью или частично укомплектованных подразделениях (таким образом, включая подразделения Варшавского договора низкой категории, но исключая запасы POMCUS США из этого подсчета). В сносках к своему подсчету он также агрегирует оборудование НАТО, находящееся "на хранении" (включая POMCUS), но не количественно оценивает параллельные запасы wp "на хранении", просто указывая, что во всех случаях они, по оценкам, превышают запасы НАТО. В документе ОВД не делается попыток такой дискриминации, предусматриваются только общие запасы по странам. В настоящее время IISS также предоставляет только агрегированные данные, но надеется, что постепенно удастся провести различие между этими тремя категориями. Агрегаты IISS также включают учебное и оперативное оборудование конверсионных подразделений, где это, как известно, является боеспособным; это особенно сказывается на итогах боевых самолетов. Мы считаем, что было бы явным абсурдом пренебрегать готовым потенциалом подкрепления такой техники и подготовленной живой силы, представленной ассоциированными инструкторами (и другими, занимающими должности в мирное время, которые истекают при переходе к войне). Однако мы прекрасно понимаем, что наши данные о запасах оборудования и учебных запасах ограничены, и поэтому некоторые итоги пакта могут быть занижены. Общепринятое мнение заключается в том, что ОВД очень медленно выбрасывает или утилизирует старое оборудование, и, как известно, существуют парки оборудования "кладбище слонов".
   В-третьих, в контексте контроля над вооружениями необходимо проводить различие между местными и дислоцированными силами. Оба документа Североатлантического союза делают это в различной степени; предыдущие сравнительные таблицы сил IISS не делали этого (хотя записи стран показывали их, а карта вставки в военный баланс 1988-1989 годов агрегировала их для ключевых оборудований). В таблице а теперь показана соответствующая разбивка по всем охватываемым компонентам силы.
   ДЕТАЛИ
   Кадры. Несмотря на первоначальное нежелание НАТО, живая сила теперь является согласованной частью переговоров ДОВСЕ. Однако это наименее значимая (или поддающаяся проверке) мера боеспособности, которая создает особые проблемы. Документ НАТО включает сводные данные о численности действующих сухопутных войск, включая, по-видимому, вспомогательные войска, такие как железнодорожные и строительные войска (которые, как недавно заявил генерал Язов, не проходят даже базовой военной подготовки). Документ ОВД также включает в себя действующие силы Военно-воздушных сил, сил противовоздушной обороны, военно-морских сил и сил гражданской (территориальной) обороны. Ни один из них не включает в себя силы мобилизуемых резервов, которые имеют большое значение для боевых коэффициентов после наращивания и для устойчивости. IISS будет продолжать представлять активные и резервные силы Сухопутных войск и исключать (но принимать во внимание существование) потенциально применимые вспомогательные сухопутные силы. Ни в таблицах НАТО, ОВД, ни в таблицах IISS не указаны полувоенные людские ресурсы, хотя они часто являются существенными, хорошо вооруженными и хорошо подготовленными и могут четко выполнять задачи по обеспечению безопасности в тылу и на линии связи в военное время, высвобождая армейские людские ресурсы для выполнения функций в зоне боевых действий.
   Дивизии. Из-за больших различий в силе и вооружении (см. 5) дивизии (или эквиваленты дивизий, рассчитанные исходя из предположения, что три общевойсковые бригады или четыре полка приравниваются к дивизии) являются особо бессмысленной единицей учета, за исключением указания на наличие потенциально квазиавтономных формирований. Документ НАТО подсчитывает их (возможно, раздувая цифры пакта, включая артиллерийские дивизии и бригады). В документе ОВД этого нет. Мы пока сохранили их - не в последнюю очередь в качестве иллюстрации различий между потенциалом мирного времени и мобилизованным войной, - но подчеркиваем, что общее число дивизий несопоставимо.
   Танки. Подсчеты танков хорошо иллюстрируют проблемы определения, несмотря на то, что, по крайней мере, на первый взгляд, относительно просто идентифицировать. Цифры НАТО берут за мерило 90-мм или более крупнокалиберную пушку, тем самым опуская танки Т-34. Определение ОВД непонятно. Они, безусловно, включает в себя легкие танки и, возможно, некоторые бронированные разведывательные машины, имеющие пушки; в своих цифрах для НАТО, они также включает в себя танковые музеи, корпуса-мишени на полигонах, мусор на свалках и (например, при кредитовании Португалии 470 танками) степень воображения, которая может предположить, что Запад переоценил возможности КГБ и ГРУ. IISS продолжает считать все танки с 85-мм или более крупными орудиями.
   Другая Бронетехника. НАТО представила отдельный рассчет на то, что она назвала бронированных боевых машин пехоты (AIFV, в состав которого они определили в качестве пушечного вооружения и включения портов отстрела пехоты) и других бронированных транспортных средств (части из легких танков, БМП с пистолетными портами (например, британский Warrior), бронетранспортеры (БТР), средствами командования и поддержки). ОВД объединили БМП, БТР и разведывательные машины в единое целое. Переговоры ДОВСЕ в настоящее время направлены на ограничение "бронетранспортеров" (ATC), комбинации БТР и БМП (с суб-лимитом на последние), и НАТО теперь признает, что категория БМП должна включать пехотные машины с пушками, независимо от того, имеют ли они огневые порты. Мы согласны с этим определением и перечнем номеров БМП и БТР, которые в сочетании приравниваются к категории ATC ДОВСЕ.
   Артиллерия и минометы. Любая совокупность артиллерии, реактивных систем залпового огня (РСЗО) и минометов неизбежно несколько упрощается, вменяя равную ценность оружию с существенно различающимися весом и характером боеприпасов (истинное артиллерийское оружие), дальностью, скорострельностью и т.д. Он также ставит вопросы об оружии с фактической или потенциальной двойной ролью для прямого огня противотанкового (ATK) использования и артиллерийского обстрела непрямого огня. Документ НАТО объединяет все виды оружия непрямого огня калибром 100 мм и более. ОВД берет пушки и РСЗО калибра 75 мм и выше, включая оружие, рассматриваемое на Западе в первую очередь как противотанковое, тем самым раздувая цифры пакта. Но они также включает в себя минометы до 50 мм, которые являются чрезвычайно малой дальностью и в некоторых случаях не имеют фугасных возможностей, тем самым раздувая цифры НАТО. Любые критерии подсчета должны быть в какой-то степени произвольными. В контексте контроля над вооружениями большое число малокалиберных вооружений представляет собой очевидные трудности с проверкой. IISS считает 105 мм разумным минимальным калибром, выше которого следует учитывать артиллерию, РСЗО и минометы, и цифры в таблице а отражают этот критерий.
   Противотанковое ружие. Противотанковое оружие представляет четыре основные трудности. Во-первых, уже упоминавшийся вопрос об отнесении орудий (которые могут иметь калибр до 100 мм) между ПТА и артиллерией. Во-вторых, наличие широкого спектра более мелких противотанковых ракетных установок. В-третьих, распространение противотанковых управляемых вооружений (ПТРК), включая их установку на некоторых боевых бронированных машинах (ББМ) во второстепенной роли, где они будут иногда иметь полезность для ПТРК (особенно в ходе встречных боев), но обычно не будут доступны для развертывания в официальных интегрированных силах ПТО. И, наконец, развертывание ПТРК на вертолетах, в одних случаях в качестве (ближней) постоянной подвески, в других - в качестве дополнительных. Подход НАТО заключался в объединении всех наземных, транспортных и вертолетных ПТРК, орудий ПТА и безоткатных орудий, отмечая при этом долю ББМ и вертолетов, для которых это является второстепенной функцией (около 13% в случае НАТО, но 52% для Варшавского договора). ОВД включает орудия ПТА в свой артиллерийский счет, игнорирует ракетные пусковые установки, оставляет вертолетные системы в общую категорию "всеохватывающих" боевых вертолетов (обсуждается ниже) и ограничивает свой счет "противотанковых управляемых ракетных систем" транспортным оружием на уровне полка и выше вместе с переносными системами в батальонах. IISS продолжает ограничивать свои показатели наземными ПТРК и ПТРК, установленными на транспортных средствах с основной ролью ПТРК.
   Противовоздушная оборона. Вооружение противовоздушной обороны (ПВО) включает зенитно-пушечную артиллерию (калибры которой варьируются от 23 мм до 100 мм или даже 130 мм) и как стационарные, так и мобильные ракеты класса "земля-воздух" (ЗРК) с очень разными возможностями и (как правило) гораздо большими наклонными дальностями. Их роль варьируется между защитой страны и обороны полевой армии. Их вклад в наступательный "потенциал вторжения" важен, но, возможно, лишь вторичен. Документ ОВД игнорирует их. Документ НАТО объединяет как пушечное, так и ракетное оружие обороны страны и полевой армии; критерий калибра, используемый для зенитной артиллерии по-видимому, установлен очень низким, тем самым включая большее количество оружия ОВД, чем может быть действительно значительным в бою. В таблице A IISS отдельно перечисляет ЗРК и зенитную артиллерию, считая как средства национальной обороны, так и средства полевой армии в обоих случаях, но исключая ПЗРК (Blowpipe, Stinger, Mistral, SA-7/-14/-15), которые широко распространяются (хотя и включают в себя пьедестальные варианты, где они существуют) и подсчитывают пушки только калибра 20 мм и выше.
   Боевые вертолеты. Вертолеты все чаще выполняют целый ряд боевых, вспомогательных, транспортных и логистических функций; некоторые на специальной основе, другие перенастраиваются между ролями. Поэтому дискриминация с точки зрения их важности для боеспособности и актуальности для контроля над вооружениями затруднена. Документ НАТО объединяет вооруженные, противотанковые и штурмовые/транспортные вертолеты (сознательно двойной подсчет с его явной категорией оружия ПТО). Правила подсчета ОВД добавляют многие другие функции вертолета - разведку, радиоэлектронную войну (РЭБ) и даже общее назначение - и, кроме того, включают военно-морские вертолеты. IISS по-прежнему придерживается мнения о том, что в наземном/воздушном контексте количество боевых вертолетов должно ограничиваться теми, которые оснащены и используются главным образом для доставки боеприпасов над полем боя, и что военно-морские вертолеты лучше всего агрегировать в рамках отдельной морской категории. (Определение боевого вертолета, используемое НАТО в ее предложении по ДОВСЕ в июле 1989 года, в целом соответствует наземному/воздушному аспекту этого подхода.)
   Боевые самолеты. В обоих официальных документах перечислены типы самолетов, которые они объединяют под этой категорией, но их номера значительно отличаются. Факторами, способствующими этому, являются включение в ОВД палубной авиации НАТО (что исключает НАТО) и исключение Backfire (что включают в себя данные НАТО), но эти факторы сами по себе не полностью объясняют различия. Показатели ОВД также распределены между основными службами (военно-воздушные силы, силы противовоздушной обороны и военно-морские силы) и в некоторой степени между ролями (хотя некоторое приписывание ролей многоцелевым самолетам НАТО, мягко говоря, спорно). Данные НАТО не дают такой разбивки, и, хотя в перечне указаны разведывательные самолеты и самолеты радиоэлектронной борьбы, они явно исключают хранимые и учебно-боевые самолеты, хотя их номера приведены в примечаниях. (Однако в последующем предложении ДОВСЕ НАТО пересматривает свое определение боевых самолетов, с тем чтобы оно включало все самолеты наземного базирования, предназначенные или переоборудованные для доставки боеприпасов, и любые варианты таких самолетов, независимо от их роли.)
   IISS продолжает определять боевые самолеты как те, которые обычно оснащены для доставки боеприпасов, и, как указывалось ранее, включает в счет соответствующие учебные, учебно-боевые и хранимые самолеты. Он признает актуальность морской авиации, базирующейся на авианосцах в пределах боевого радиуса европейских наземных целей, но-учитывая, что авианосцы представляют собой во всех отношениях плавучую популяцию - считает наиболее целесообразным перечислить их под четким морским заголовком. В интересах аналитиков мы продолжаем разбивать наземные боевые самолеты на подстратегические бомбардировщики, штурмовики и противовоздушную оборону, в случае многоцелевых самолетов, различающихся на основе роли родного подразделения и подготовки летного состава.
   Однако важно подчеркнуть два момента. Во-первых, хотя современная ролевая подготовка является важным определяющим фактором, граница между наземной атакой истребителей и противовоздушной обороной/истребителями чрезвычайно пористая. Многоцелевые самолеты могут в некоторой степени переключать миссии, несмотря на основную роль их родного подразделения. Таким образом, не следует придавать слишком большого значения распределению ролей в таблице а, хотя оно с пользой иллюстрирует очевидные соответствующие приоритеты обеих сторон. Во - вторых, было бы неправильным рассматривать категорию "противовоздушная оборона/истребители" как по существу оборонительную - не только из-за возможностей для перераспределения, но и потому, что эффективные контрнаступательные операции имеют важное значение для обеспечения превосходства в воздухе. Кроме того, такие операции не будут ограничиваться исключительно дружественным воздушным пространством. Поэтому, если боевые самолеты подлежат регулированию в области контроля над вооружениями, это не должно ограничиваться только штурмовиками.
   Морские Силы. В документе НАТО, несомненно в связи с исключением военно-морских сил из мандата ДОВСЕ, не содержится никаких ссылок на них, кроме включения морской авиации наземного базирования в число ее боевых самолетов. ОВД, которые изо всех сил пытается утверждать, что военно-морское превосходство НАТО уравновешивает ее собственное (приветствуемое) признание существенных преимуществ сухопутных сил в степени обеспечения "грубого паритета", перечисляет подводные лодки (исключая ПЛАРБ и ПЛРБ) и большие надводные корабли, которые они классифицируют как имеющие водоизмещение 1200 тонн или больше. В рамках более крупной категории надводных кораблей они определяют численность в некоторых ключевых категориях (авианосцы, суда, оснащенные крылатыми ракетами, и суда-амфибии). Интересно и показательно здесь влияние критерия 1200 тонн. Нет, конечно, никакого магического критерия смещения. В своем собственном подсчете IISS использовала критерий 1000 тонн, который, по крайней мере, является явно круглым числом. Однако эффект от перемещения стоек ворот на 200 тонн является существенным. Соответствующие цифры для числа "больших надводных кораблей" Варшавского договора в Европейских/Атлантических водах составляют 246 из 1000 тонн или более и 147 из 1200 тонн или более; эквивалентные цифры для кораблей НАТО составляют 438 и 406 соответственно. Дело здесь не в том, чтобы утверждать, что правила подсчета ОВД и Конвенции являются корыстными (или заметно более корыстными, чем у НАТО), но чтобы проиллюстрировать разницу, как относительно небольшое изменение произвольно определенного критерия может сделать. В таблице а по-прежнему применяется критерий IISS в 1000 тонн и производится разбивка судов по типам. Как указывалось ранее, он также продолжает рассматривать военно-морскую крылатую и винтокрылую авиацию в рамках этой "морской" рубрики, проводя различие между ролями таким же образом, как и для боевых самолетов наземного базирования (но с теми же оговорками).
   Остальные категории. Каждый из официальных документов вводит одну категорию оборудования, не рассматриваемую в таблице A. В случае ОВД это "тактические ракетные системы", которые мы не рассматриваем строго как часть обычных вооруженных сил и поэтому отдельно приводим в таблице на стр. 214-15. НАТО перечисляет бронированные мостоукладчики, сообщая о Пакте, в активных подразделениях 2550 против общего количества НАТО 454. IISS признает важность этого оборудования как части наступательного или контрнаступательного потенциала, но пока не располагает достаточными данными, на которых можно было бы основывать независимую совокупную цифру. У нас, однако, нет оснований сомневаться в графе НАТО.
   Одностороннее сокращение
   Начиная с речи президента Горбачева в ООН от 7 декабря 1988 года, страны Варшавского договора объявили о серии значительных односторонних сокращений и выводе войск, которые должны быть осуществлены к 1991 году, наряду с некоторой существенной реструктуризацией остающихся сил в передовом районе. В последующих объявлениях официальных лиц подробно излагались детали и график, хотя некоторые различные заявления оставляли неясным точное число задействованных людей и техники. Сокращения уже начались, и, как сообщается, идет реорганизация остающихся сил в структуру, которую WP охарактеризовала как "явно оборонительную". В случае с советскими войсками было заявлено, что эта реструктуризация будет включать в себя удаление одного танкового полка (94 танка) из каждой танковой и мотострелковой дивизии, но добавление дополнительных средств противотанковой, противовоздушной обороны и разминирования. Можно ожидать, что несоветские силы Варшавского договора, организованные на советских принципах, будут следовать аналогичной схеме.
   Сокращения - главным образом, связанные с выводом шести советских танковых дивизий (в том числе двух из Западной Группы Войск, ранее называвшейся Группой Советских Войск в Германии, которые, по некоторым сообщениям, были предназначены для оперативной маневренной группы (OMГ)), удалением значительного дополнительного количества танков из оставшихся танковых и мотострелковых дивизий в Центральной Европе, сокращением артиллерии, штурмовых мостоукладчиков и десантных войск и техники, а также около 13% (используя цифры ОВД) советских боевых самолетов передового базирования - четко показывают ключевые области, вызывающие озабоченность НАТО в связи с возможностями Варшавского договора для нападения в короткие сроки и крупномасштабных наступательных действий. После завершения и с объявленными планами уничтожения или преобразования в гражданское использование значительной части соответствующего оборудования, военная картина в Европе будет существенно изменена - особенно в Центральной Европе, где, например, будет наблюдаться приблизительный паритет в количестве танков между НАТО и Варшавским договором (хотя и на разных уровнях укомплектованности и готовности). Такая ситуация сделает сценарий короткого предупреждения или "внезапной атаки" (и без того крайне маловероятный) едва ли правдоподобным. Более долгосрочные сценарии предупреждения будут затронуты меньше, но необходимое время подготовки Варшавского договора будет увеличено, что, в свою очередь, должно усилить предупреждение НАТО и - при условии, что предупреждение будет учтено - время подготовки. И способность пакта достигать и поддерживать желаемые уровни превосходства сил будет уменьшена.
   Конечно, мало что из этого еще произошло, но, за исключением непредвиденных реакций в Восточной Европе или Советском Союзе, мы не видим оснований сомневаться в искренности программы, которая исходит, по крайней мере, столько же из насущных внутренних императивов на Востоке (которые не исчезнут), сколько из пересмотренного взгляда на отношения Восток-Запад (который существует, но может измениться). Тем не менее было бы еще более отрадно видеть, что в настоящее время отсутствуют четкие доказательства того, что темпы производства советского оружия снижаются пропорционально запланированным сокращениям. Однако эта программа имеет последствия для военного баланса и его использования. Военный баланс всегда был моментальным снимком военных организаций и сил сторон, надеясь быть точным, как на дату его отсечения для информации, но признавая, что картина изменится в течение года до следующего выпуска. До сих пор это не приводило к серьезным неточностям; темпы военных изменений, как правило, были постепенными. Картина численности Сил Варшавского договора, их организации, запасов оборудования и развертывания в настоящее время, похоже, будет меняться слишком быстро, чтобы цифры военного баланса могли сохраниться в течение полных двенадцати месяцев. Аналитикам и другим пользователям, возможно, потребуется периодически получать обновленную информацию о состоянии дел с односторонними изменениями.
   Однако какими бы ни были реорганизации, читателям следует быть осторожными, прежде чем согласиться с тем, что любые меры могут создать силы, которые однозначно носят оборонительный характер и структурно неспособны к наступательным действиям. Это делается не для того, чтобы умалить восточные планы или недооценить значение объявленных ими намерений. Но даже реорганизованные дивизии Варшавского договора, с сильно уменьшенными танковыми силами, останутся очень мощными формированиями, и способность к наступательным действиям останется, как всегда, в основном вопросом относительных сил и возможностей.
   Венские переговоры по ДОВСЕ
   Помимо односторонних сокращений в рамках Варшавского договора - и поощряемых ими - переговоры о сокращении обычных вооруженных сил в Европе начались в благоприятных условиях и при быстром сближении переговорных целей и позиций обеих сторон. В то время как трудности остаются (не в последнюю очередь вопросы правил и определений подсчета, обсуждавшиеся ранее, и проверки) и в то время как непредвиденные препятствия могут (и, вероятно, будут) все же появляться, оставшиеся различия кажутся способными быть преодоленными умелыми переговорами - хотя это может занять больше времени, чем оптимисты в настоящее время предполагают. Но важнейший компонент-политическая воля-явно присутствует с обеих сторон.
   Успех переговоров по ДОВСЕ, безусловно, создаст новую проблему для моментального снимка военного баланса сил в Европе по мере сокращения, перераспределения и реорганизации. Но эта проблема еще не с нами - и была бы небольшой ценой для аналитиков, чтобы заплатить за правильно построенную сделку, которая удовлетворяет мандату ДОВСЕ по установлению "безопасного и стабильного баланса обычных сил на более низких уровнях" и исключает любую "возможность для начала внезапного нападения и для начала крупномасштабных наступательных действий".
   Однако состояние переговоров по ДОВСЕ в одном отношении нарушает военный баланс. Наша главная цель в представлении совокупных итогов элементов обычных вооруженных сил в таблице а конкретно предназначена для использования в контексте контроля над вооружениями (и даже в этой связи мы, как уже указывалось, обеспокоены любой жесткой категоризацией самолетов). У нас есть серьезные оговорки в отношении того, что эти цифры используются в других целях. С учетом этого и в предвидении подхода, который будет направлен на проведение различий между частями зоны ATTU и применение соответствующих подограничений к каждой из них, мы в прошлом году представили данные по трем географическим подразделениям Европы (зона центральной Еврпы НАТО (NGA), включающая территории ФРГ, стран Бенилюкса, ГДР, Польши и Чехословакии; зона Ярузельского, которая добавляет Данию и Венгрию к NGA; и полная зона ATTU), а также глобальные итоги. Однако на данном этапе переговоров еще предстоит согласовать субрегионы, при этом НАТО предлагает три подразделения в зоне ATTU и три других (разных) подразделения Варшавского договора. Было бы нецелесообразно - и потенциально очень запутанно - пытаться представить цифры для всех этих потенциальных альтернатив. Поэтому мы повторили нашу практику в 1988-1989.
   Баланс
   Недавние издания "Военного баланса" ясно показали, почему IISS не может предложить каких-либо общих суждений о состоянии обычного баланса НАТО/ОВД. Никаких новых аналитических инструментов и методов для изменения этого положения. Изменения, происшедшие за последний год, также не изменили нашего давнего мнения о том, что соотношение сил таково, что "общая военная агрессия в Европе была бы вариантом высокого риска с непредсказуемыми последствиями, особенно до тех пор, пока существует риск ядерной эскалации". Точно так же в настоящее время верно и то, что в глазах Запада советские обычные силы в зоне АТО, и особенно в передовом районе, превышают реальные потребности Восточной обороны и в силу своей организации и развертывания оправдывают сохраняющуюся озабоченность Запада.
   Но ситуация уже находится в процессе значительных изменений. Начались сокращения сил на востоке, и вместе с планами реорганизации и сообщениями об изменениях в доктрине и моделях подготовки (хотя последние трудно распознать с абсолютной уверенностью) теперь поддерживают советские претензии на новое мышление. Даже односторонние сокращения, как только они будут завершены, фактически устранят угрозу внезапного нападения, которая так долго беспокоила планировщиков НАТО. Успех переговоров по ДОВСЕ представляется достижимым на условиях, которые коренным образом изменят отношения в области безопасности между Востоком и Западом. Наконец-то становится возможным надеяться на то, что ситуация, вызывающая гораздо меньшую озабоченность в отношении состояния равновесия, значения цифр или перспектив и потенциальных результатов общей военной агрессии в Европе, изменится.
   Таблица
   Однако, утопия есть, но не здесь. В таблице а представлены агрегированные данные об обычных силах и оборудовании НАТО и Варшавского Договора по состоянию на 1 июня 1989 года, составленные на основе правил подсчета и неизбежных элементов оценки и экстраполяции, обсуждавшихся ранее в настоящем эссе. Таблицы В и с направлены на продолжение нашей практики наложения плоти на голые кости этих данных путем, соответственно, изложения ключевых характеристик артиллерийских орудий обеих сторон и главных флотов мира. Другие важные выводы содержатся в таблице и Записке о демографических тенденциях как на Востоке, так и на Западе на стр. 238-9, а также в эссе о резервных силах на стр. 240-46.
   Table A: Conventional Force Data: NATO and Warsaw Pact
This Table presents aggregated data for a large number of national forces, divided on the basis of their geographical deployment. Its compilation has required some extrapolation (generally from estimated Tables of Organization and Equipment (TO &E)) and estimation (generally to break out gross holdings between geographical areas on a proportionate basis) to augment the information shown in individual country entries. It therefore embodies some data in which the IISS has a lesser degree of confidence. Totals in parentheses are numbers of stationed forces (i.e. those outside national borders) in Europe.
   Таблица А: Данные по обычным силам: НАТО и Варшавский договор
  В этой таблице представлены агрегированные данные по большому числу национальных сил, разделенные на основе их географического размещения. Его составление потребовало некоторой экстраполяции (как правило, из оценочных таблиц организации и оборудования (TO &E)) и оценки (как правило, для разбивки валовых запасов между географическими районами на пропорциональной основе) для дополнения информации, представленной в отдельных странах. Поэтому в нем содержатся некоторые данные, в которых IISS имеет меньшую степень достоверности. Итоговые значения в скобках-это число дислоцированных сил (т. е. за пределами национальных границ) в Европе.
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a The territories of Be, FRG, Lux, Nl, GDR, Po and Cz.
b NATO Guidelines Area plus territory of Dk and Hu.
c Fr and Sp forces are not part of NATO's integrated mil comd, but are incl in relevant totals. A proportion of Turkish forces have been excluded from the Atlantic-to-Urals count, as forces in the south-east of Turkey facing Syria, Iraq and Iran are not being counted in CFE.
d Ground Forces exclude para-military forces, such as border guards and sy tps, though these incl formations of up to div size, hold hy eqpt and would probably fulfil some rear area sy functions in war. Marines and Naval Inf have been incl, but tps manning AD units, when these are part of an Air Force or a separate service, are not. Where elms of forces are organized on a joint-service basis (e.g., Canadian Medical Services, French Service de SantИ, Soviet MOD staff and units) a proportion of these have been added to ground-force totals. WP figures could also be increased by including a proportion of railroad and contraction troops, but these have not been included.
e Normally only men within 5 years of their active service period are incl, unless a country entry specifies a different parameter. Home Guard manpower has not been incl.
f Div are not a standard formation between armies; manpower and eqpt totals vary considerably (see Table on p. 5). For the purposes of this table we have counted div equivalents as being either three manoeuvre bde (normally of three bn plus some spt units) or four regt (normally groups of bn of inf or armd only).
g Incl all Sov and wp Category A and B div and NATO formations manned at over 50% of war establishment.
h Comprises only forces mob within the relevant geographical area. North American-based US and Can forces earmarked for reinforcement of Europe are shown under the 'Global' heading.
i Totals incl all known stocks of materiel whether manned by active or reserve forces, held as maint reserves, or in POMCUS. It should be noted that information on WP reserve holdings is much more limited than for NATO and the relevant figures much lower. This may be at least in part accounted for by the WP op practice of replacing spent div by follow-on echelons rather than topping them up from reserve stocks.
j AIFV comprise all armd wheeled or tracked inf fighting veh armed with a cannon of not less than 20mm calibre.
k Incl arty MRL and mor of not less than 105mm calibre; excl ATK guns.
l The figures shown are est aggregates of all dismounted ATGW and those veh-mounted wpn with a primary ATK role. Totals exclude ATGW on AIFV (e.g. M-2/-3 Bradley, BMP, BMD) or fired by MBT main armament (e.g. T-80) and do not, therefore, represent total available ATGW for either side.
m SAM launchers exclude shoulder-launched wpn (e.g., Javelin, Blowpipe, Stinger, SA-7/-14/-16). Air Force and separate AD force SAM and AD guns are incl.
n Comprises all hel whose primary function is CAS or ATK.
o Totals incl ocu and trg ac of the same type as those in frontline sqn.
p Long-range strategic bombers have been excluded. Only Mirage IVP, FB-111A, Tu-16, Tu-26 and Tu-22 are included.
q Comprises all aircraft whose prime role is to attack ground targets, incl dual-capable bomber/ground attack, FGA, CAS, radar-suppression, COIN.
r Multi-role ac are incl as ground-attack ac unless specified in the national entry as belonging to an AD unit or having AD as their prime role.
s Excludes SSB, SSBN and 'other role' submarines.
t Only amph ships (i.e. over both 1,000 tonnes full-load displacement and 60 metres overall length) are incl.

a Территории Бельгии, ФРГ, Люксембурга, Нидерландов, ГДР, Польши и Чехословакии.
b Зона руководящих принципов НАТО плюс территория Дании и Венгрии.
c Силы Франции и Испании не являются частью интегрированного военного командования НАТО, но включены в соответствующие итоги. Часть турецких сил была исключена из счета Атлантика-Урала, поскольку силы на юго-востоке Турции, стоящие перед Сирией, Ираком и Ираном, не учитываются в ДОВСЕ.
d Сухопутные войска исключают полувоенные силы, такие как пограничники и транспортые, хотя они включены в формирования размером до дивизии имеют тяжелое вооружение и, вероятно, выполняли бы некоторые тыловые функции в войне. Морские пехотинцы и военно-морская пехота были включены, но войска ПВО, когда они являются частью ВВС или отдельной службы, нет. В тех случаях, когда силы организованы на основе совместной службы (например, канадские медицинские службы, французская служба de SantИ, советский персонал и подразделения МО), доля этих сил была добавлена к общей сумме сухопутных сил. Цифры ОВД можно было бы также увеличить, включив в них долю железнодорожных и контрактных войск, но они не были включены.
e Обычно включаются только мужчины в течение 5 лет их активного периода службы, если только в справке страны не указан другой параметр. Силы ополчения не были включены.
f Дивизии не являются стандартным формированием между армиями; общая численность живой силы и вооружений значительно различаются (см. таблицу на стр. 5). Для целей этой таблицы мы подсчитали эквиваленты дивизий как три бригады (обычно три бн плюс некоторые единицы поддержки) или четыре полка (обычно группы бн только пехоты или танков).
g Включая все советские и ОВД категории A и B дивизии и формирования НАТО, укомплектованные более чем на 50% военного штата.
h Включает в себя только силы в пределах соответствующего географического района. Североамериканские силы США и Канады, предназначенные для подкрепления Европы, показаны под "глобальным" заголовком.
i Включает все известные запасы материальных средств, укомплектованные активными или резервными силами, удерживаемые в качестве основных резервов или в POMCUS. Следует отметить, что информация о резервных запасах ОВД гораздо более ограничена, чем по НАТО, а соответствующие цифры значительно ниже. Это может быть, по крайней мере частично, объяснено практикой ОВД по замене отработанных дивизий последующими эшелонами, а не пополнением их из резервных запасов.
j БМП включают в себя все колесные или гусеничные бронированные транспортеры, вооруженные пушкой калибра не менее 20 мм.
k Включая РСЗО и минометы калибра не менее 105 мм; кроме орудий АТК.
l Показанны все переносные ПТРК и тех самоходные установки с основной ролью ПТО. Итоговые данные исключают ПТРК на БМП (например, М-2/-3 Bradley, БМП, БМД) или выпущенные основным вооружением ОБТ (например, Т-80) и, следовательно, не представляют собой общий объем имеющихся ПТРК для любой из сторон. пусковые установки
m ЗРК исключая ПЗРК с плеча (например, Javelin, Blowpipe, Stinger, SA-7/-14/-16). ВВС и отдельные силы ПВО с ЗРК и ЗА включены
n Включает все вертолеты, основной функцией которых является огневая поддержка или противотанковые.
o Итого, включая учебно-боевые того же типа, что и во фронтовых эскадрильях.
p Дальние стратегические бомбардировщики были исключены. Только Mirage IVP, FB-111A, Ту-16, Ту-26 и Ту-22 включены.
q Включает в себя все самолеты, основная роль которых заключается в атаке наземных целей, в том числе двойного назначения бомбардировщики/штурмовики, штурмаовики, радиолокационного подавления, противоповстанческие.
r Многоцелевые самолеты включаются как для наземных ударов, если только в национальной записи не указано, что они принадлежат к ПВО или имеют ПВО в качестве своей главной роли.
s Исключены субмарины ПЛРБ, ПЛАРБ и "другой роли".
t Включаются только десантные суда (т. е. водоизмещением более 1000 тонн и общей длиной 60 метров).

   Table B: NATO and Warsaw Pact Artillery, Multiple Rocket Launchers and Mortars: Key Characteristics
This table does not aim to compare the capabilities of individual artillery pieces but is included to allow readers to estimate, in conjunction with the entries in country sections, the scale and capability of artillery which could be brought to support the ground forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. However, artillery is purely the delivery means, whilst ammunition is the true weapon. Logistic support is therefore critical.
Notes:
1. CALIBRE: This is given in millimetres (mm). Only weapons with calibre of 105mm or above are included.
2. TYPE: The abbreviations used to show the type of weapon are:
AB - airborne; HOW - howitzer, MOR - mortar, MRL - multiple rocket launcher, SP - self-propelled.
3. MOBILITY: weapons are shown as either towed or SP. The latter are either wheeled, in which case we show the number of driven wheels, or tracked. Mobility is highly important when counter-bombardment fire can be expected within 5-7 minutes.
4. PROTECTION: The abbreviations used are: AC for armoured chassis only (where the gun and, when firing, crew are not protected); T for turret-mounted gun, where protection equates more to that of an APC than a tank. Protection can also be derived from dispersion, which can be more easily achieved with the availability of automatic-data-processing-assisted fire control and autonomous navigation systems.
5. MAXIMUM RANGE: This is given in metres and is the range achieved by the furthest-reaching projectile for that equipment, often an RAP. It should be noted that RAP are only used when essential, as they are far more expensive than normal HE rounds.
6. RATES OF FIRE: Two examples are given, in rounds per minute: one for sustained rates, which can be maintained for considerable periods of time, and one for maximum or burst rates, which can only be sustained for short periods at intervals. For MRL we have shown the number of tubes mounted and the time taken to reload after a complete salvo has been fired; this data is marked with an asterisk.
7. AMMUNITION NATURES: The abbreviations used are: NUC- nuclear, HE- high-explosive; RAP- rocket-assisted projectile; FRAG - fragmentation; AP GREN - anti-personnel grenade (submunition); APMINE - anti-personnel mine (sub-munition); ATK MINE " anti-tank mine (sub-munition); ERBS - extended-range bomblet shell; CW - chemical warfare agent; HEAT= high-explosive anti-tank; HESH- high-explosive squash-head; SMK- smoke; ILL - illuminating; MKR - marker; ICM - improved conventional munition.
8. AMMUNITION HOLDINGS: We give ammunition holdings purely on the SP chassis or the towing vehicle. Where dedicated ammunition vehicles are provided for each gun, the relevant holding is shown in brackets. Holdings are often reinforced by 'dumping' particularly in defence and when a high rate of expenditure can accurately be anticipated.
9. EXTRAS: Here we include relatively unique characteristics, such as permanently fitted flotation equipment (flot), amphibious capability (amph), parachute dropping capability (para), automatic and hydraulic loading systems (auto and hydraulic) and nuclear and chemical warfare protection (NBC).

   Таблица B: артиллерия реактивные системы залпового огня и минометы НАТО и ОВД: ключевые характеристики
   Эта таблица не имеет целью сравнить возможности отдельных артиллерийских орудий, но включена, чтобы позволить читателям оценить, в сочетании с записями в разделах страны, масштабы и возможности артиллерии, которые могут быть привлечены для поддержки сухопутных сил НАТО и Варшавского договора. Однако артиллерия является исключительно средством доставки, в то время как боеприпасы являются истинным оружием. Поэтому материально-техническая поддержка имеет решающее значение.
Примечания:
1. Калибр: указывается в миллиметрах (мм). Только оружие с калибром 105 мм или выше включены.
2. Тип: сокращения, используемые для отображения типа оружия:
АВ - воздушно-десантная; HOW - гаубица, MOR - миномет, MRL - реактивная система залпового огня, SP - самоходная.
3. Мобильность: оружие показано как буксируемое или самоходное. Последние либо колесные, в этом случае мы показываем количество ведомых колес, либо гусеничные. Мобильность - это очень важно, когда встречный огонь можно ожидать в течение 5-7 минут.
4. Защита: используются следующие сокращения: AC - для бронированного шасси (где пушка и, при стрельбе, экипаж не защищены); T - для пушки, установленной на башне, где защита больше соответствует защите БТР, чем танка. Защита может также быть получена из рассеивания, которое может быть более легко достигнуто с наличием автоматического управления огнем с помощью обработки данных и автономных навигационных систем.
5. Максимальная дальность: она указывается в метрах и представляет собой дальность, достигнутую наиболее дальним снарядом для этого оборудования, часто реактивным. Следует отметить, что реактивный используются только тогда, когда это необходимо, так как они намного дороже, чем обычные снаряды.
6. Приведены два примера скорострельности, в патронах в минуту: один для устойчивых скорострельностей, которые могут поддерживаться в течение значительных периодов времени, и один для максимальных или разрывных скорострельностей, которые могут поддерживаться только в течение коротких периодов с интервалами. Для РСЗО показано количество направляющих, установленных и время, необходимое, чтобы перезагрузить после полного залпа; эти данные, отмеченные звездочкой.
7. Боеприпасы типы: сокращения, используемые являются: NUC - ядерный, HE - осколочно-фугасный; RAP - активно-реактивный снаряд; FRAG - rfcctnysq; GREN - противопехотная граната (суббоеприпас); APMINE - противопехотная мина (суббоеприпас); АТК MINE противотанковая мина (суббоеприпас); ERBS - расширенный диапазон бомбой оболочки; CW - химический; HEAT - осколочно-фугасные противотанковые; HESH - фугасный; SMK - дымовой; ILL - осветительный; MKR - маркер; ICM - усовершенствованный обычный боеприпас.
8. Запасы боеприпасов: мы даем запасы боеприпасов исключительно на самоходном шасси или буксировочной машине. В тех случаях, когда для каждого орудия предусмотрены специальные транспортные средства с боеприпасами, соответствующая фиксация показана в скобках. Холдинги часто укрепляются за счет "демпинга", особенно в области обороны, и когда можно точно предвидеть высокий уровень расходов.
9. Дополнительно: здесь мы включаем относительно уникальные характеристики, такие как постоянно установленное флотационное оборудование (flot), амфибийная способность (amph), парашютная способность (para), автоматические и гидравлические системы загрузки (auto и hydraulic) и защита от ядерной и химической войны (NBC).
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   Table: C. Major Fleet Capabilities
Notes:
1. The aim of this table is to present the vital statistics of the major Navies of the world in a form which makes it possible to gain a view, not only of their absolute capabilities but also of their shape and posture and of the fundamental strategic thinking that has gone into their constitution. Strategic Naval Forces data are omitted from all but the three manpower columns.
2. MANPOWER: We include all active-service Naval and Naval Aviation personnel and exclude Marines, Naval Infantry, Coastal Defence and other similar organizations. The totals have been amplified to give first, the percentage of personnel serving afloat (to provide a measure of teeth-to-tail ratio) and, second, the percentage of conscripts (to provide a very general measure of likely training states).
3. COMBAT TONNAGE: This column lists the aggregate tonnage of ocean-capable vessels - assessed as all tactical submarines and surface combatants above 1,000 tonnes full load/dived displacement. The entry in this column determines the country's position in the table.
4. ORGANIC AIRCRAFT: Two columns, one for fixed-wing and one for rotary-wing, list the aircraft which can be embarked in the fleet at full strength - that is, with all air-capable ships at their full normal aircraft complement More maybe embarked in an emergency, but maintenance, armament and fuel facilities will be overstretched in consequence. The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of additional aircraft of specific seagoing types held super num ary to the afloat complement.
5. AMPHIBIOUS LIFT: This is presented in terms of the military force that listed specialist amphibious shipping can deliver, in numbers of men, MBT equivalents (at 50 tonnes or 30m2 per MBT) and transport helicopters, for which there are operating facilities. There is no correlation between the figures given and the numbers of Marines or Naval Infantry or their allocated equipment listed in the country entries.
6. AFLOAT SUPPORT RATIO: Here we provide a measure of the sustainability of the nation's surface forces in a prolonged conflict remote from their national bases. The ratio shown is that of front-line, underway-replenishment-capable support ships to the total number of Principal Surface Combatants listed. In general a figure of 0.20 or better (ie one support ship to 5 PSC) indicates a good level of sustainability; 0.10 or less, poor.
7. LAND-BASED AIRCRAFT: In this category we include all permanently land-based maritime aircraft of all roles: MR, ASW, ASUW and SAR, divided again into FW and hel. No distinction is made between naval attack aircraft (such as the FRG naval Tornados) an a patrol aircraft (such as Atlantique and Nimrod). No distinction is made between maritime aircraft operated by the listed nation's Air Force and Navy.
8. PATROL AND COASTAL COMBATANTS: This column lists all patrol and coastal combatants under Naval command in peacetime. Numbers will usually be augmented by Coastguard and equivalent vessels and other unarmed patrol craft requisitioned from civil resources in the mobilization process.
9. MINE WARFARE FORCES: This column lists all permanent mine warfare units maintained in operational condition in peacetime. MCM vessels allocated to reserve units as training craft are included.
   Таблица: C. Основные Возможности Флота
Примечания:
1. Цель этой таблицы состоит в том, чтобы представить жизненную статистику основных флотов мира в такой форме, которая позволяет получить представление не только об их абсолютных возможностях, но и об их форме и положении, а также о фундаментальном стратегическом мышлении, которое вошло в их конституцию. Данные стратегических военно-морских сил опущены из всех, кроме трех колонок живой силы.
2. Людские ресурсы: мы включаем весь военно-морской и военно-морской авиационный персонал и исключаем морскую пехоту, береговую оборону и другие подобные организации. Итоговые данные были увеличены, чтобы дать, во-первых, процент персонала, служащего на плаву (чтобы обеспечить меру отношения зубов к хвосту) и, во-вторых, процент призывников (чтобы обеспечить очень общую меру вероятных учебных состояний).
3. Боевой тоннаж: в этой колонке перечисляется совокупный тоннаж океанских судов, оцениваемый как все тактические подводные лодки и надводные боевые корабли водоизмещением свыше 1000 тонн с полной нагрузкой/погружением. Запись в этом столбце определяет позицию страны в таблице.
4. Органическая авиация: две колонки, одна для самолетов и одна для вертолетов, перечисляют ЛА, которые могут быть погружены в флот в полном составе-то есть, со всеми воздушными способными судами в их полном нормальном дополнении самолета больше, возможно, погрузились в чрезвычайной ситуации, но техническое обслуживание, вооружение и топливные средства будут перегружены в последствии. Цифры в круглых скобках указывают количество дополнительных воздушных судов конкретных типов, удерживаемых на плаву.
5. Десантная вместимость: представлено с точки зрения военных сил, которые перечисленные десантные суда могут вместить в количестве людей эквиваленты МБТ (по 50 тонн или 30 м2 на МБТ) и транспортных вертолеты, для которых есть действующие объекты. Нет никакой корреляции между приведенными цифрами и численностью морской пехоты или морской пехоты или их выделенным оборудованием, перечисленным в страновых позициях.
6. Коэффициент поддержки на плаву: здесь мы предоставляем меру устойчивости наземных сил страны в длительном конфликте, удаленном от их национальных баз. Показанное соотношение - это отношение кораблей поддержки, способных осуществлять пополнение, к общему числу перечисленных основных надводных комбатантов. В целом показатель 0,20 или выше (т. е. один корабль поддержки на 5 PSC) указывает на хороший уровень устойчивости; 0,10 или меньше, плохой.
7. Наземная авиация: в эту категорию мы включаем все постоянно наземные морские самолеты всех ролей: МП, ПЛО, ПКР и спасательные, снова разделенные на самолеты и вертолеты. Не проводится никакого различия между военно-морскими штурмовиками (такими как морской Tornados ФРГ) и патрульными самолетами (такими как Atlantique и Nimrod). Не проводится никакого различия между морскими воздушными судами, эксплуатируемыми военно-воздушными силами и военно-морским флотом страны, включенной в перечень.
8. Патрульные и прибрежные комбатанты: в этой колонке перечислены все патрульные и прибрежные комбатанты, находящиеся под командованием Военно-Морского Флота в мирное время. Численность обычно увеличивается за счет судов Береговой охраны и аналогичных судов и других невооруженных патрульных судов, реквизированных из гражданских ресурсов в процессе мобилизации.
9. Силы противоминной войны: в этой колонке перечислены все постоянные подразделения противоминной войны, которые поддерживаются в рабочем состоянии в мирное время. Включены суда MCM, выделенные резервным подразделениям в качестве учебных судов.
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    []

Footnotes
a Numbers serving afloat are derived by totalling the full complements of all combatant vessels - submarines, PSC, patrol and coastal, amphibious and mine warfare. Support ship complements of all types are excluded because these are often wholly or partially civilian-manned. The calculation used does not allow for Naval Aviation personnel permanently based ashore. When their numbers are substantial, the 'percentage afloat* is lower than would otherwise be the case.
b Figures in parentheses indicate length of conscript service in months, where appropriate.
c Indicates that a proportion of the units listed are nuclear-powered.
d Figures given do not include US Marine Corps fixed-wing aircraft. A substantial proportion of their 141 AV-8B v/STOL air craft will normally be embarked in appropriate amphibious ships. Some of the remaining 347 combat aircraft may be allocated to USN carriers.
e Excludes capacity of US Marine Corps prepositioned shipping.
f Carriers indicated do not have catapults and arrester gear and are thus limited to V/STOL aircraft operations.
g The negative figures in parentheses indicate more sea billets for aircraft than current holdings. In most cases procurement of additional aircraft is known to be imminent.
h A proportion (in some cases all) submarines listed are of less than 1,000 tonnes dived displacement and are thus not included in aggregated tonnage.

Сноски
a Численность, обслуживаемая на плаву, определяется путем суммирования полных комплектов всех боевых судов-подводных лодок,патрульных и береговых, десантных и противоминных. Вспомогательные корабли всех типов исключены, поскольку они часто полностью или частично укомплектованы гражданским персоналом. Используемый расчет не позволяет постоянно базироваться на берегу персоналу морской авиации. Когда их число существенно, "процент на плаву" ниже, чем в противном случае.
b Цифры в скобках указывают, где это уместно, продолжительность службы по призыву в месяцах.
c Указывает, что часть перечисленных установок работает на ядерной энергии.
d Приведенные цифры не включают самолеты морской пехоты США. Значительная часть их 141 AV-8B V/STOL, как правило, будет погружена на соответствующие амфибийные суда. Некоторые из оставшихся боевых самолетов, 347 может быть выделено на авианосцы.
e Исключает пропускную способность морской пехоты США.
f Указанные носители не имеют катапульт и аэрофинишеров, таким образом, ограничены полетами самолетов V/STOL.
g Отрицательные цифры в скобках указывают на большее количество морских заготовок для воздушных судов, чем текущие запасы. В большинстве случаев закупки дополнительных воздушных судов, как известно, неизбежны.
h Часть (в некоторых случаях все) из перечисленных подводных лодок имеют водоизмещение менее 1000 тонн и, таким образом, не включены в совокупный тоннаж.


Demographic Trends Facing NATO and the Warsaw Pact


   The declining numbers of young men reaching the age for military service during the next decade foreshadows problems for the NATO countries if armed forces are to continue to be maintained at current strengths. These problems will be particularly acute for the Federal Republic of Germany. The Warsaw Pact countries do not yet face similar quantitative problems, but there are potential difficulties over the demographic make-up of Soviet forces, with the proportion of men of Russian origin falling from 56% in 1979 to under 53% in 1989.
   The table opposite shows the current armed forces annual conscript intake (recruit intake requirement for countries without conscription), length of service obligations for ground force conscripts (the largest manpower component), and the demographic trends to the start of the next century. A comparison of the numbers reaching the age of 18 with those required to meet conscription targets apparently shows there is little problem, but such a comparison makes no allowance for national minimum standards for health or education, nor for the exemption of certain categories.
   If full-time armed forces are to be maintained at current manpower levels, the options open to those countries facing large shortfalls in manpower are:
   - Increasing the length of conscript service. This is obviously an unpopular option, and hence politically undesirable. It is, however, probably the most advantageous from a military point of view, since longer service allows higher training standards to be reached before men are transferred to the reserves. The FRG had already decided on this course, and from 1 June 1989 conscript service was to have been increased from 15 to 18 months; this would have maintained uniformed manpower levels (after a restructuring process which increases the proportion of reserves in active formations) while conscript recruit availability fell by 17%. However, implementation of the decision has now been postponed until 1992.
   - Increasing the number of long-service career servicemen. Countries without conscription can only recruit the same numbers from a reduced manpower pool by increasing the attractions of service life. Countries primarily relying on conscription may ease their manpower problems if they can increase the regular component. The penalty is increased costs for salaries, pensions and 'quality of life' enhancements. Increased manpower expenditure will be difficult to reconcile with generally static or decreasing defence budgets and spiralling equipment procurement costs.
   - Lowering medical standards. Naturally men in combat units must be fully fit, but there are many relatively undemanding tasks in the rear areas which can well be performed by the less physically able.
   - Use of mercenaries. British armed forces embody some 9,700 personnel enlisted outside the UK, predominantly in the Brigade of Gurkhas. The French Foreign Legion is some 8,500 strong. The United States still incorporates South Korean soldiers in the units stationed in the ROK. It is, however, highly doubtful whether there is scope, or political acceptability, for wider use of non indigenous forces by NATO nations - notwithstanding periodic suggestions that the FRG should recruit from among its (principally Turkish) gastarbeiter. In any event, the concept poses organizational problems - whether to integrate such mercenaries as individuals in the employing nation's own units or to raise units and/or formations exclusively manned (though not necessarily officered) by mercenaries. Either course has implications for force cohesion and effectiveness. The use of mercenaries also generally carries administrative and logistic problems.
   - Tightening the rules governing exemption. The problem of exemptions is currently most acute for the FRG, where some 20%of those fit for conscription claim exemption each year. A significant proportion of exemptions arise on grounds of conscientious objection, a phenomenon now also generating dissent in Poland, the GDR and Hungary. Tightening the rules would have both positive and negative political implications: it can be portrayed as introducing a fairer application of the national service burden, but it will inevitably provoke strident protests from those denied exemption as a consequence. The negative political effects are likely to be the more pronounced.
   - Linking national service to further education. In the US, a proposal is being laid before Congress under which further education grants of $20,000 would be provided in exchange for two years in the combat branches of the military at reduced rates of pay. The measure has been proposed primarily for financial reasons, but it has been estimated that some 200,000 young people might volunteer each year. The concept could be adopted by other countries and has the advantage that only those fit for higher education, and hence of good intellectual quality, would be eligible.
   - Increasing the use of women. Most armed forces already employ volunteer servicewomen in many fields short of combat duty, and there is scope for the increased use of women here. In some countries there is growing pressure to drop all or many of the restrictions placed on the employment of women in combat units, and, for example, women now serve on naval fighting ships in Canada, the Netherlands and Norway, while Denmark has gone so far as to introduce full equality of opportunity for women throughout the armed forces. In some other countries however, extension beyond the support role (principally medical) would not be politically sustainable. No European country currently conscripts women for military service. This would clearly be one possible solution to manpower shortfalls, but it is doubtful whether any nation would ever require conscript service-women to engage in combat.
   None of the foregoing options (nor any combination of them) appears likely fully to solve the manpower problems likely to face the NATO nations during the coming decade, should negotiated arms control fail to produce substantial force reductions. The most likely course is an increased reliance on reserves, both to 'flesh out' undermanned active units and as reserve units/ formations per se. The current status of reserves and reservists is discussed in the next essay.

Демографические тенденции НАТО и Варшавского договора


   Сокращение числа молодых людей, достигших возраста военной службы в течение следующего десятилетия, предвещает проблемы для стран НАТО, если вооруженные силы будут продолжать оставаться на нынешнем уровне. Эти проблемы будут особенно острыми для Федеративной Республики Германии. Страны Варшавского договора пока не сталкиваются с аналогичными количественными проблемами, но существуют потенциальные трудности с демографическим составом советских войск: доля мужчин российского происхождения сократилась с 56% в 1979 году до менее 53% в 1989 году.
   Таблица напротив показывает текущий ежегодный набор призывников в Вооруженные силы (требование приема на военную службу для стран без призыва), продолжительность обязательств по службе для призывников наземных сил (самый большой компонент рабочей силы) и демографические тенденции к началу следующего века. Сопоставление числа лиц, достигших 18-летнего возраста, с числом, необходимым для достижения целевых показателей призыва на военную службу, по-видимому, свидетельствует о том, что здесь нет особых проблем, однако такое сопоставление не учитывает национальных минимальных стандартов в области здравоохранения или образования, а также освобождения некоторых категорий.
   Для того чтобы сохранить численность Вооруженных сил на постоянной основе на нынешнем уровне, перед странами, испытывающими серьезную нехватку людских ресурсов, открываются следующие возможности::
   - Увеличение стажа срочной службы. Это явно непопулярный вариант, а значит, политически нежелательный. Однако это, вероятно, наиболее выгодно с военной точки зрения, поскольку более длительная служба позволяет достичь более высоких стандартов подготовки до того, как люди будут переведены в резервы. ФРГ уже определилась с этим курсом, и с 1 июня 1989 года срочная служба должна была быть увеличена с 15 до 18 месяцев; это позволило бы сохранить численность личного состава в форме (после процесса реструктуризации, который увеличивает долю резервов в действующих формированиях), в то время как доступность призывников упала на 17%. Однако осуществление этого решения было отложено до 1992 года.
   - Увеличение количества кадровых военнослужащих с выслугой лет. Страны без призыва на военную службу могут набирать такое же количество людей только из сокращенного кадрового резерва, увеличивая привлекательность срока службы. Страны, в первую очередь полагающиеся на призыв, могут облегчить свои кадровые проблемы, если они смогут увеличить регулярный компонент. Штраф - это увеличение расходов на зарплаты, пенсии и повышение "качества жизни". Увеличение расходов на живую силу будет трудно увязать с общим статичным или сокращающимся оборонным бюджетом и растущими расходами на закупку оборудования.
   - Снижение медицинских стандартов. Естественно, люди в боевых частях должны быть полностью готовы, но есть много относительно нетребовательных задач в тылу, которые вполне могут быть выполнены менее физически способными.
   - Использование наемников. Британские вооруженные силы насчитывают около 9700 военнослужащих, завербованных за пределами Великобритании, преимущественно в бригаде Гурков. Французский Иностранный легион насчитывает около 8500 человек. Соединенные Штаты по-прежнему включают южнокорейских солдат в подразделения, дислоцированные в РК. Однако весьма сомнительно, есть ли возможности или политическая приемлемость для более широкого использования некоренных сил странами НАТО - несмотря на периодические предложения о том, что ФРГ должна вербовать из числа своих (главным образом турецких) гастарбайтеров. В любом случае эта концепция создает организационные проблемы - будь то интеграция таких наемников как отдельных лиц в собственные подразделения страны-работодателя или создание подразделений и/или формирований, укомплектованных исключительно наемниками (хотя и не обязательно с офицерским составом). Любой из этих курсов имеет последствия для сплоченности и эффективности сил. Использование наемников также, как правило, сопряжено с административными и материально-техническими проблемами.
   - Ужесточение правил, регулирующих. Проблема изъятий в настоящее время наиболее остро стоит перед ФРГ, где ежегодно около 20% призывников требуют освобождения от призыва. Значительная часть изъятий связана с отказом от военной службы по соображениям совести, что в настоящее время также порождает Инакомыслие в Польше, ГДР и Венгрии. Ужесточение правил будет иметь как положительные, так и отрицательные политические последствия: его можно представить как введение более справедливого применения бремени Национальной службы, но это неизбежно вызовет резкие протесты со стороны тех, кому отказано в освобождении. Негативные политические последствия, вероятно, будут более выраженными.
   - Увязка Национальной службы с дальнейшим образованием. В США на рассмотрение Конгресса выносится предложение, согласно которому дополнительные образовательные гранты в размере 20 000 долларов будут предоставляться в обмен на два года в боевых подразделениях Вооруженных сил по сниженным ставкам оплаты труда. Эта мера была предложена главным образом по финансовым соображениям, однако, по оценкам, около 200 000 молодых людей могли бы ежегодно становиться добровольцами. Эта концепция может быть принята другими странами и имеет то преимущество, что только те, кто подходит для получения высшего образования и, следовательно, хорошего интеллектуального качества, будут иметь право.
   - Расширение использования женщин. Большинство вооруженных сил уже используют женщин-добровольцев во многих областях, не связанных с боевым дежурством, и здесь есть возможности для более широкого использования женщин. В некоторых странах усиливается давление с целью отмены всех или многих ограничений на трудоустройство женщин в боевых частях, и, например, в настоящее время женщины служат на военных кораблях в Канаде, Нидерландах и Норвегии, в то время как Дания дошла до того, что ввела полное равенство возможностей для женщин во всех вооруженных силах. В некоторых других странах, однако, выход за рамки вспомогательной роли (главным образом Медицинской) не будет политически устойчивым. Ни в одной европейской стране в настоящее время женщины не призываются на военную службу. Очевидно, что это было бы одним из возможных решений проблемы нехватки рабочей силы, но сомнительно, чтобы какая-либо страна когда-либо потребовала бы от женщин-призывников участвовать в боевых действиях.
   Ни один из вышеперечисленных вариантов (и ни одна их комбинация), по-видимому, не решит в полной мере кадровые проблемы, с которыми могут столкнуться страны НАТО в течение предстоящего десятилетия, если переговоры по контролю над вооружениями не приведут к существенному сокращению сил. Наиболее вероятным курсом является увеличение зависимости от резервов, как для "пополнения" недоукомплектованных активных подразделений, так и в качестве резервных подразделений/ формирований как таковых. Текущее состояние резервов и резервистов обсуждается в следующем очерке.
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a For Canada, UK and US the average annual recruit intake requirement is given.
b Ground Forces length of service. In some countries Naval (particularly sea-going) and Air Force conscripts serve longer.
a Для Канады, Великобритании и США приводится среднегодовая потребность в приеме на работу.
b стаж службы в Сухопутных войсках. В некоторых странах призывники Военно-морских (особенно морских) и Военно-Воздушных сил служат дольше.

Reserve Forces and Reservists: NATO and the Warsaw Pact

   Introduction
   On mobilization for war, NATO and Warsaw Pact countries rely - albeit to varying degrees - on calling up reservists to bring peacetime units up to war establishment, to man reserve formations and units to complete their order of battle, and to provide a pool of battle casualty replacements. Even in peacetime, some use reservists on short periods of recall to flesh out active units to operable strength levels. This reliance on reservists is likely to increase, so far as many NATO countries are concerned for resource reasons - both demographic (see pp. 238-9) and financial (reserve units are significantly less expensive to maintain than active forces). Successful arms control is also likely to enhance the importance of reserve forces. This essay examines the factors affecting the combat efficiency of reservists and reserve units and describes the main methods employed to maintain reserve forces and individual reservists ready for war.
   As a yardstick for comparison it is worth describing the system in Israel, a state which depends on reservists and reserve formations for at least 75% of its wartime strength and which has established a well-tried mobilization process, tested at the start of three wars and on innumerable 'stand-tos' in response to perceived threats and practice alarms. Israeli conscripts serve for three years (with a fourth year for officers); thereafter they are posted to a front-line reserve formation and normally serve there in the same platoon or tank crew for at least 15 years before moving to a second-line unit. Israeli women serve for two years as conscripts and then as reservists until their 24th birthday or marriage, whichever comes first. In most years each individual carries out at least four weeks reserve duty, ideally split between two weeks field training at unit or formation level and two weeks, often more, on border, internal security or guard duty. Reserve formations are equipped on the same scale and usually with identical weapons and equipment as the standing army units in which their soldiers carried out their conscript service. With this level of training and equipment Israeli reserve forces have made an indispensable contribution to Israel's battlefield success.
   There are two main systems of manning reserves: one, as in the UK and US for example, relies on volunteers (often without previous military experience) to man reserve units, coupled with a reserve liability for ex-servicemen; the second, practised by most European continental countries, relies entirely on both ex-regular servicemen and ex-conscripts to provide the required manpower. The two approaches are not, of course, mutually exclusive but can operate in parallel. Employment patterns also vary: all countries use reservists to bring active-duty units up to war strength and to provide pools of" manpower to replace battle casualties. In some forces, the FRG for example, units and sub-units of reservists complete formation and unit wartime orders of battle; in others, such as the US, France and the Netherlands, there are divisions and brigades formed entirely of reservists (other than for permanent staff and training cadres); in yet others, principally the Warsaw Pact (WP) armies, a proportion of units and formations are manned in peacetime at substantially below operational levels and 'fleshed out' by reservists on mobilization.
   In general, states with the smallest armed forces rely most heavily on reserve forces, which are accordingly more closely integrated with active forces and tend to carry out more training and to serve for longer periods than in other, stronger, forces. Such states normally operate a 'total defence' concept and do not distinguish between active forces and reserves, considering all men to be members of the armed forces belonging to either standing or mobilized forces. In these countries a number of military support tasks (transport, medical and logistic support) devolve onto the civil sector on mobilization.
   The preponderance of reservists serve in the ground forces and in the support elements of air forces (including ground and air defence) and shore establishments of navies. Few NATO or WP reservists fly or sail; such reservists as do will be discussed separately.
   Combat Capability
   The combat capability of reserves depends on three elements: the individual competence of reservists, the standard of collective training of units or formations, and the availability and effectiveness of the weapons with which they are equipped. Their utility is, of course, also dependent on the existence of a sound (and preferably adequately practised) system for their timely mobilization, shake-down training where necessary, movement to the operational area and integration into the active forces.
   The combat capability of individual reservists depends on two factors: the length of their fulltime military service and the frequency, length and effectiveness of training whilst a reservist. It is true to say that, in general, volunteer reservists (without previous military experience) require, and usually undertake, far more training than ex-servicemen with a reservist liability. So far as the latter are concerned, a British Army study concludes that, for ex-servicemen with at least three full years full-time service, loss of skills necessitates refresher training within at most three years of discharge and at regular intervals thereafter. Ex-conscript servicemen with lesser periods of full-time service would almost certainly require longer and more frequent periods of continuation training. So far as volunteers without former full-time service are concerned, with the possible exception of specialist professions such as the medical services, lack of military experience coupled with problems of continuity and turnover require training to be repeated frequently to achieve a unit norm. It has been assessed that, for example, a reserve company commander aged 34, who joined at the age of 20 and served dutifully since, could only have gained time experience at all levels of commands. Table 1 shows the length of conscript service and reservist liability of NATO countries.
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   The combat capability of a reserve unit or formation depends on the capability of the individual reservists in the unit, the amount of collective training carried out and the extent to which the unit or formation embodies an active force cadre (particularly of leaders - both officers and NCOS - and key specialists). While volunteer reserve units generally carry out both unit and formation collective training at regular, if infrequent, intervals, units composed entirely of reservists, or of a combination of conscripts and reservists (in the Warsaw Pact style), tend to train far less frequently, normally only at formation level, and then only when that formation is mobilized to take part in higher-level training (when the training value for individuals is normally very limited). In these circumstances reservists may typically be recalled for training only once in a three- to five-year period; on mobilization such units will need several weeks intensive training before they can be considered combat-ready. It must also be questionable whether conscripts who serve in undermanned units/formations ever receive the same training experience as their contemporaries in fully manned units.
   The quality and modernity of equipment is the final element in judging the combat capability of reserve units. More often than not, reserve unit equipment is a generation behind that of active units and is therefore unlikely to be of the same type as that on which most recently demobilized reservists have been trained. Reserve forces equipped with different weapons systems from active forces will be less compatible with them, particularly in respect of communications and logistics. Some forces attempt to equip their reserves on the same scale as their active forces, and, while this may be achieved in respect of major weapons such as tanks, artillery, APC, etc., these units often lack key ancillary items of equipment, such as manpack radio, night-vision aids, etc. In this respect it has been estimated that completion of the equipment of the US Army National Guard alone would cost $8.6 bn for provision of items which would still be outstanding at end 1992, taking into account equipment currently on order. If this is the case, the situation must be considerably worse in forces financially less well catered for.
   NATO Ground Forces Reserves
   A number of schemes have been developed for the efficient employment of reservists in war, and these are described in general terms below. Some countries employ more than one of these schemes. Luxembourg has neither conscription nor reserve forces and so is not considered further, nor is Iceland, which has no military forces.
   The Voluntary System
   The United States, United Kingdom and Canada, which do not have conscription, all maintain volunteer reserve forces (in addition to a reserve liability for regular servicemen).
   THE UNITED STATES. In the US there are two forms of reserve force: the all-volunteer National Guard (Army and Air Force only) and the Reserves. In peacetime the National Guard has a dual loyalty both to its parent state, by which it can be called out to cope with emergencies or civil disturbances, and to the Federal Government, which is responsible for its wartime role, equipment and training. The Reserves are subordinate to the Department of Defense alone and so are, to some extent, more readily available to support the active forces in situations less than war (aerial refuelling for the Libyan air raid, transport operations to Grenada, Marine evacuation from Beirut are recent examples), and their training overseas cannot be inhibited by individual States' policies. The Reserves comprise both volunteers and former active-duty servicemen (all whojoin the US forces must complete a total of six years with either active forces or Ready Reserves).
   The organization of the reserve forces, whether National Guard or Reserves of all services, follows the same pattern. There are three major categories: the Ready Reserve, the Standby Reserve and the Retired Reserve:
   The Ready Reserve has two categories, the Selected Reserve and the Individual Reserve.
   - The Selected Reserve provides all organized reserve formations and units and the majority of trained individuals to augment and reinforce the active forces in emergency. Selected Reserve personnel are required to carry out 48 days of drills spread over the year, plus a twoweek period of training.
   - Individual Ready Reserve personnel have the same recall liability but a reduced, or no, training commitment.
   Ready Reserve units also include Active Guard and Reserve members who have agreed tojoin for full-time duty for the purpose of administering and training their units, as well as Military Technicians, who are civilian Federal employees who maintain and administer the units of which they are also Guard or Reserve members. The President can, without a prior declaration of war, order not more than 200,000 of the Ready Reserve to active duty, in the first instance for 90 days. The Ready Reserve (for all services) numbers some 1,655,900, compared with Active Component strength of 2,124,900. The Army and Marine Corps together field 21 Active divisions, as against 11 National Guard and Reserve divisions.
   The Standby Reserve is a pool of trained individuals (former active-force servicemen who did not complete 20 years service and former Reserve members) who could be mobilized if necessary. It has no training commitment and can only be ordered to active duty in time of war or emergency declared by Congress.
   The Retired Reserve comprises all active force retirees (with 20 years service in any service) and also Reserve officers who receive retired pay. It constitutes a source of trained individuals who would normally be used to augment support and training facilities. They may be ordered to active duty at any time in the interest of national defence.
   Training and readiness are two high-priority requirements of all reserve forces. In respect of training the US scores well; training commitments are adhered to, and time devoted to training often well exceeds the minimum required. Individual training is taken seriously and, for those without active duty experience, includes a 12-week full-time basic training period. Officer Candidate School lasts 9 weeks, and specialists are expected to attend courses to qualify for appointments. A large number of units train overseas each year, often in the theatre to which they might be deployed. The quality of training and motivation can be judged by retention rates which, in 1987, were 83.5% for the ARNG. In the ARNG some 22 units are earmarked to deploy overseas within 24 hours, but larger formations will take longer; 4 divisions are to be ready to deploy in 30-60 days with a further 5 within 90 days.
   THE UNITED KINGDOM. The UK has a dual, volunteer and post-active-service, system for providing reserves for all three services. Reserve units are manned by volunteers, while former regular servicemen who have a reserve commitment are used to bring both active and reserve units up to war strength and to provide replacements for battle casualties.
   Volunteers train regularly, the minimum annual commitment for the Territorial Army (TA) being 22 days of training drills and a twoweek training camp, often held overseas. The TA provides units of all arms and services for the reinforcement of NATO and for Home Defence. The Royal Naval Reserve is mainly used to man mine counter-measure vessels, augment shore based staffs and communications units and set up the Naval Control of Shipping Organization to manage convoys. The Royal Auxiliary Air Force and RAAF Regiment only provide units for airfield ground and air defence. A major problem is the rate of turnover, as high as 30% a year in some units, which makes unit and sub-unit training difficult; a recent report considered that the TA (and presumably its naval and air force counterparts) would not be ready for their operational tasks without a limited period of work-up training.
   There are a number of different categories of ex-active-service reservist with varying call-out liabilities; the most important category is the Regular Reserve Section A, in which non commissioned soldiers with less than six years active service serve for the balance of seven years with the reserve, and those with between six and twelve years active service for the balance of twelve years. Certain categories of reservist now. report for one day a year for checking and limited familiarization training, and a scheme for reservists to carry out one week's refresher training in the third year of their reserve service has been introduced, but attendance is voluntary. All these reservists have had a minimum of three years active service and so will have been more fully trained than their continental counterparts, who carry out much shorter periods of conscription. However, they do not carry out any regular form of training, may not rejoin their original unit and are purely a large pool of individuals. In the context of a NATO war, British reserves, including the TA, can be recalled to service by administrative order - a Queen's Order - which does not require the prior approval of Parliament.
   CANADA. Canada also has both volunteer and ex-active-service reserves, known as the Primary Reserve and Supplementary Reserve respectively, and organized very much on the British model. Canada plans to expand its reserve forces substantially over the next 15 years, but today primary reserve units are well below war strength and are normally composed of unit HQ, HQ elements and one sub-unit. The reserve force expansion programme will only double the number of sub-units, and Primary Reserve units will continue to rely heavily on supplementary reservists to reach war establishment and will require extensive training before becoming combat-ready. A further element of the Canadian Primary Reserve is The Canadian Rangers comprised of Inuit and others living in the North West Territories, the Yukon, Quebec province, Newfoundland and Labrador, who form a recce and observation force on the northern approaches to the country.
   The Post-Conscript Service System
   RESERVE FORMATIONS BASED ON TRAINING SCHOOLS. Both France and Italy have reserve formations - France has two light armoured divisions and Italy an armoured, a mechanized and a mountain brigade - mobilized from the training staffs and demonstration units of the main combat arms schools and brought up to war strength with reservists and stockpiled equipment. This option has obvious penalties in regard to the possibility of carrying on training during the transition to war and hostilities, which could have serious implications in a long war. However, in operational terms, such formations with a strong active-force element, particularly in Headquarters, will be more effective than their all-reserve counterparts. At least some WP mobilization formations, notably in the GDR, are established on a similar basis.
   MIXED ACTIVE AND RESERVE FORMATIONS. This pattern is favoured by the FRG where active armoured and armoured infantry battalions in peacetime hold and maintain an additional company's-worth of equipment. These equipment-holding companies, when manned on mobilization by reservists, are regrouped to form a fourth battalion in each brigade. In the ''Heeresstruktur 2000' restructuring plan, caused by the downward demographic trend, a number of brigades will be reorganized to consist of only two active battalions and two equipment-holding battalions (brigades with covering-force-type roles will, however, retain a higher proportion of active units). The existing training cycle is for reserve units to be mobilized for two weeks training every four to five years; after restructuring, training will be increased to 12 days every second year. Other nations utilize this course in other ways: the UK reinforces active divisions with reserve units and, in one case, forms a division from an active brigade and two reserve brigades; the US reinforces some active divisions with 'round-out' brigades from the Army Reserve and Army National Guard.
   HOME/TERRITORIAL DEFENCE UNITS. Most, but not all, units earmarked for home defence are manned by reservists. Most NATOmembers have home defence units which can vary in capability from fully mobile brigades, sometimes with armour and artillery, down to Home Guard detachments with very localized responsibilities. In general, home defence units carry out much less (if any) training than reserve units earmarked to reinforce or support active forces. Table 2 summarizes NATO home defence forces.
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   RECALLING RESERVISTS TO THEIR ORIGINAL ACTIVE UNIT. A number of armies keep time expired conscripts on the mobilization books of the units in which they carried out their conscript service. The French Army does so for four months, the Italian for two years. This system has the great merit of ensuring that the most up-to date reservists are recalled and that they return to units which they know and in which they are known. The Greek Army also practices this method in conjunction with a unit classification system similar to that used by the Warsaw Pact, with Class A units being 85% or more manned and considered combat-ready, and with Class B and C units at 60%and 20% manning with a commitment to be ready within 24 and 48 hours respectively. This system has been further refined by the Netherlands with 'Rechtstreeks Instromend Mobilisabel' (RIM). The RIM system is based on forming companies (tank, infantry, artillery) as new intakes of conscripts are called up and keeping them as entities, with the same men, throughout basic training which lasts four months, conscript service with active units (a further 10-12 months) and 18 months with a RIM reserve unit. Active units usually consist of two combat-ready companies, the third consisting of recruits under training; this last would be replaced in emergency by the most recent company to have completed its active service (which is described as being on 'short leave'). After four months of being ready for immediate recall that company joins a reserve battalion composed of companies released earlier from the same active unit. The system maintains sub-unit continuity for nearly three years. At the end of their RIM service, conscripts have a reserve liability to the age of 35 (officers to 45) and on mobilization would join units enrolled for home defence. It is claimed that RIM units can be ready to move within 24 hours and would need no further training. Dutch mobilization is practised annually, with battalions called out on a random basis.
   TOTAL DEFENCE CONCEPT. In this concept both civil and military authorities co-operate closely, with the civil sector being responsible for aspects, such as medical support and transport, which are military responsibilities in other countries. The concept is followed by Norway and, to a lesser extent, Denmark, as well as by neutral states such as Switzerland and Sweden. In general this concept allows for a period of full-time compulsory military service much shorter than usual but a far longer and more committed period of reserve duty. But the term 'reserves' is shunned in countries following the total defence concept, those not in the active forces being referred to as mobilizable forces. 'Mobilizable' service normally concludes with duty in home guard territorial defence units. In peacetime Norwegian Armed Forces number some 34,000 regulars and conscripts, but within 72 hours mobilization would expand this force to around 320,000. The Norwegian Army maintains only one fully manned brigade in peacetime but can field a further 1